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Sample records for non-resonant microwave absorption

  1. Microwave non-resonant absorption in fine cobalt ferrite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata-Zamora, M.E.; Montiel, H.; Alvarez, G.; Saniger, J.M.; Zamorano, R.; Valenzuela, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite particles of average crystallite size of 11 nm were obtained by a sol-gel process at 400 deg. C . The powders were annealed at temperatures of 500, 600, 700 and 800 deg. C in air. Derivative microwave power absorption (dP/dH) measurements were carried out as a function of magnetic field (H DC ) at X band (9.4 GHz), in the field range -80-796 kA/m for all annealed temperatures. In order to compare the response of saturation magnetization measurements with high frequency measurements, we calculated the areas inside both the magnetization (A M ) and the absorption hysteresis loops (A LFS ). The dependence of these areas as a function of crystallite size is remarkably similar in both experiments

  2. Anomalous non-resonant microwave absorption in SmFeAs(O,F) polycrystalline sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onyancha, R.B., E-mail: 08muma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa); Shimoyama, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Singh, S.J. [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, IFW-Dresden, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hayashi, K.; Ogino, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Srinivasu, V.V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1710 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) line shape in evolved with microwave power. • Observed a cross over from ‘normal’ absorption to ‘anomalous’ absorption as a function of microwave power. • The anomalous absorption has been explained in the context of non-hysteretic Josephson junction. - Abstract: Here we present the non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) studies on SmFeAsO{sub 0.88}F{sub 0.12} polycrystalline sample measured at 6.06 K with the magnetic field swept from −250 G to +250 G at a frequency of 9.45 GHz. It was observed that the (NRMA) line shape evolves as a function of microwave power. Again, the signal intensity increases from 22.83 µW to 0.710 mW where it reaches a maximum and quite remarkably it changed from ‘normal’ absorption to ‘anomalous’ absorption at 2.247 mW, then the intensity decreases with further increase of microwave power. The crossover from ‘normal’ to ‘anomalous’ NRMA absorption and its dependence on microwave power is a new phenomenon in iron pnictides superconductors and we have attributed this anomaly to come from non-hysteretic Josephson junction.

  3. Second and third peaks in the non-resonant microwave absorption spectra of superconducting Bi2212 crystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, V V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-resonant microwave absorption (NMA) measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature with systematic microwave power variation showed a two-peak structure in the Bi-2212 textured crystals, similar to that observed in the Bi-2212 single crystals...

  4. Signature of ferro–paraelectric transition in biferroic LuCrO3 from electron paramagnetic resonance and non-resonant microwave absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, G.; Montiel, H.; Durán, A.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Zamorano, R.

    2014-01-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study in the polycrystalline biferroic LuCrO 3 is carried out at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in the 295–510 K temperature range. For all the temperatures, the EPR spectra show a single broad line attributable to Cr 3+ (S = 3/2) ions. The onset of a ferro–paraelectric transition has been determined from the temperature dependence of the parameters deduced from EPR spectra: the peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔH pp ), the g-factor and the integral intensity (I EPR ). Magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS) and low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) are used to give further information on this material, where these techniques give also evidence of the ferro–paraelectric transition; indicating a behavior in agreement with a diffuse phase transition. - Highlights: • LuCrO 3 powders are obtained via auto-ignition synthesis. • EPR is employed to study the onset of the ferro–paraelectric transition. • MAMMAS and LFMA techniques are used to give further information on this material

  5. Determination of microstructure of high-temperature superconductors by non-resonant microwave-absorption. Final report; Bestimmung der Mikrostruktur von Hochtemperatur-Supraleitern durch nicht-resonante Mikrowellenabsorption. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinse, K.P.

    1993-04-01

    Non-resonant microwave absorption has been proven as a highly sensitive method to screen for supraconductivity. Furthermore, in special cases the microstructure of the superconducting material, which is connected by Josephson junctions, can be determined. In single crystals the pinning potential can be measured and it has been demonstrated for the 123 material, that the critical current density is limited by the existence of non-superconducting layers. Decoration of superconducting thin films with stable paramagnetic molecules was utilized to measure the typical length scale of field inhomogenities at the surfaces. These inhomogenities are probably generated by growth inhomogenities characteristic for epitactic thin films. Their influence dominates the field variance expected for an ideal typ II superconductor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nicht-resonante Mikrowellenabsorption ist ein hochempfindliches Verfahren, um Supraleitung nachzuweisen. Ueber diesen Nachweis hinaus kann in Einzelfaellen die Topologie von supraleitenden Bereichen, die durch Josephsonkontakte getrennt sind, bestimmt werden. In einkristallinem Material ist dann die Bestimmung des Pinningpotentials moeglich und fuer 123-Material konnte gezeigt werden, dass die kritische Stromdichte durch die Existenz nicht-supraleitender Bereiche begrenzt wird. An supraleitenden duennen Filmen ist es durch die Methode der Oberflaechendekoration mit paramagnetischen Spins gelungen, die typische Laengenscala von Feldinhomogenitaeten zu messen, die durch das ``Insel``-Wachstum epitaktischer Filme verursacht wird. (orig.)

  6. Magnetization dynamics in La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial films probed with resonant and non-resonant microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porwal, Rajni; Pant, R. P.; Budhani, R. C., E-mail: rcb@iitk.ac.in [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2015-01-07

    Temperature (T) dependent microwave absorption measurements are performed on La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO) epitaxial thin films of thickness 100 and 200 nm in an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer operating in X-band. The resonant absorption peak is monitored for out-of-plane (H{sup ⊥}) and in-plane (H{sup ∥}) dc magnetic field (H) as the system goes through magnetic ordering. These data suggest a resilient transformation to the ferromagnetic (FM) phase in the vicinity of the Curie temperature (T{sub C}), indicative of a phase separation, which is dominant in the thinner film. The saturation magnetization is calculated from SQUID magnetometry on the same film. A pronounced zero-field absorption is seen in H{sup ∥} geometry displaying anomalous growth in 100 nm film at T < T{sub C}. This feature is correlated with the magneto-conductivity of the manganite which is colossal in the vicinity of T{sub C} in the well-ordered film of thickness 200 nm. Signature of standing spin wave modes is seen in H{sup ⊥} measurements which are analyzed to calculate the spin wave stiffness constant D(T) in the limit of zero temperature. The same is also inferred from the decay of equilibrium magnetization in the framework of Bloch law. These studies reveal that a bulk like LCMO is obtained in the fully relaxed thicker films.

  7. Non-resonant microwave absorption studies of superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PACS Nos 74.60Ec; 74.60Ge; 74.60Jg; 74.60Ad; 74.90+n. The discovery [1] of superconductivity in the 'off the shelf' intermetallic compound MgB2 has given rise to a flurry of ... have been the subject of some controversy. For example, the observation [2] of boron isotope effect implies MgB2 to be a phonon mediated BCS ...

  8. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  9. Microwave Absorption by Used Moulding and Core Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents measurement results of standing wave ratio to be used as an efficiency indicator of microwave absorption by used moulding and core sands chosen for the microwave utilization process. The absorption measurements were made using a prototype stand of microwave slot line. Examined were five used moulding and core sands. It was demonstrated that the microwave absorption measurements can make grounds for actual microwave utilization of moulding and core sands.

  10. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  11. Microwave absorption in the singlet paramagnet HoVO4 in high pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiran, M.; Klingeler, R.; Kazei, Z.A.; Snegirev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave absorption of the rare-earth (RE) oxide compound HoVO 4 (tetragonal-zircon structure) is investigated in pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T in the low-temperature range. For a magnetic field along the tetragonal crystal axis a few resonance absorption lines are observed at the wavelengths 871, 406 and 305 μm corresponding to electron transitions from the ground and low-lying energy levels of the Ho 3+ ion. In addition, broad non-resonance absorption is observed at 871 and 406 μm in fields up to 15 T. The positions and intensities of the observed resonance lines are described quite well within the crystal field formalism with the known crystal field parameters. The effects of the small orthorhombic component of the crystal field, magnetic field misorientation out the symmetry axis and various pair interactions on the absorption spectra in HoVO 4 are analyzed and discussed

  12. Microwave absorption behavior in Cr2O3 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, H.; Alvarez, G.; Conde-Gallardo, A.; Zamorano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have investigated the microwave power absorption in Cr 2 O 3 nanopowders. • EMR spectra show the contributions of the core and the surface of the nanoparticles. • MAMMAS detected an antiferro-paramagnetic transition due to core of the nanoparticles. • LFMA signal is associated with the ferromagnetic order on the surface of the nanoparticles. - Abstract: We have investigated the microwave power absorption at X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) in Cr 2 O 3 nanopowders, for the 294–400 K temperature range. For all temperatures, two different kinds of microwave absorptions are observed: the electron magnetic resonance (EMR) at high magnetic field and the low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) around zero field. EMR spectrum can be separated in two contributions associated with two different resonant absorption modes, where this result is interpreted as the combination of two different magnetic phases; corresponding to the core (mode A) and the surface (mode B) of the Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles. Also, we have detected the onset of the antiferro-paramagnetic transition in resonant mode A, which is characteristic of Cr 2 O 3 samples; being confirmed the magnetic transition by means of the magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS). Additionally, the temperature behaviors of the resonant mode B and the LFMA signal are associated with a ferromagnetic state on the surface of the Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles

  13. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Ouattara, Lassana; Ingrosso, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for characterizing microwave absorption properties of gold nanoparticle doped polymers. The method is based on on-wafer measurements at the frequencies from 0.5GHz to 20GHz. The on-wafer measurement method makes it possible to characterize electromagnetic (EM) property...... of small volume samples. The epoxy based SU8 polymer and SU8 doped with gold nanoparticles are chosen as the samples under test. Two types of microwave test devices are designed for exciting the samples through electrical coupling and magnetic coupling, respectively. Measurement results demonstrate...... that the nanocomposites absorb a certain amount of microwave energy due to gold nanoparticles. Higher nanoparticle concentration results in more significant absorption effect....

  15. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band (9–. 10 GHz) spectrometer. Both polycrystalline pellet and single-grain MgB2, having nearly the same Tc (∼ 39 K) and same size (3×2×1 mm3), were used in the present investigations. Low field modulated microwave absorption signals ...

  16. Broadening microwave absorption via a multi-domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengwang; Che, Renchao; Wei, Yong; Liu, Yupu; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Dahyan, Daifallah Al.; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2017-04-01

    Materials with a high saturation magnetization have gained increasing attention in the field of microwave absorption; therefore, the magnetization value depends on the magnetic configuration inside them. However, the broad-band absorption in the range of microwave frequency (2-18 GHz) is a great challenge. Herein, the three-dimensional (3D) Fe/C hollow microspheres are constructed by iron nanocrystals permeating inside carbon matrix with a saturation magnetization of 340 emu/g, which is 1.55 times as that of bulk Fe, unexpectedly. Electron tomography, electron holography, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy imaging provide the powerful testimony about Fe/C interpenetration and multi-domain state constructed by vortex and stripe domains. Benefiting from the unique chemical and magnetic microstructures, the microwave minimum absorption is as strong as -55 dB and the bandwidth (spans 12.5 GHz ranging from 5.5 to 18 GHz. Morphology and distribution of magnetic nano-domains can be facilely regulated by a controllable reduction sintering under H2/Ar gas and an optimized temperature over 450-850 °C. The findings might shed new light on the synthesis strategies of the materials with the broad-band frequency and understanding the association between multi-domain coupling and microwave absorption performance.

  17. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. ... Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India; Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India ...

  18. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    materials and carbon fibres have received steadily grow- ing interest as microwave absorbing and shielding materi- als in the high-frequency range owing to their ... CuO/Co/CF composites exhibited strong electromagnetic wave absorption, the strongest reflection loss (RL) of the composites reaches maxima of −29.6 dB at ...

  19. Broadening microwave absorption via a multi-domain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwang Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Materials with a high saturation magnetization have gained increasing attention in the field of microwave absorption; therefore, the magnetization value depends on the magnetic configuration inside them. However, the broad-band absorption in the range of microwave frequency (2-18 GHz is a great challenge. Herein, the three-dimensional (3D Fe/C hollow microspheres are constructed by iron nanocrystals permeating inside carbon matrix with a saturation magnetization of 340 emu/g, which is 1.55 times as that of bulk Fe, unexpectedly. Electron tomography, electron holography, and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy imaging provide the powerful testimony about Fe/C interpenetration and multi-domain state constructed by vortex and stripe domains. Benefiting from the unique chemical and magnetic microstructures, the microwave minimum absorption is as strong as −55 dB and the bandwidth (<−10 dB spans 12.5 GHz ranging from 5.5 to 18 GHz. Morphology and distribution of magnetic nano-domains can be facilely regulated by a controllable reduction sintering under H2/Ar gas and an optimized temperature over 450–850 °C. The findings might shed new light on the synthesis strategies of the materials with the broad-band frequency and understanding the association between multi-domain coupling and microwave absorption performance.

  20. Microwave energy attenuators on the basis of aluminum nitride with high level of microwave energy absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasnyk V. I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of aluminum nitride based composites with addition of silicon carbide and molybdenum having high microwave absorption are presented. The interconnection between high level of absorption and volume electrical resistance was observed: maximum absorption of 6.5±1,0 dB/mm corresponds to the electrical resistance of (4—5·105 Ohm·m. Level of absorption of 3.5±0,5 dB/mm is revealed for the dielectric material with electrical conductivity of 1012 Ohm·m. The patterns detected during the study allow to predict the minimum and maximum levels of absorption of microwave energy in the two-phase composites based on aluminum nitride with molybdenum or silicon carbide, based on the measured volume of electrical resistance.

  1. Microwave absorption of electrons bound to films of helium

    OpenAIRE

    Lehndorff, Beate; Dransfeld, Klauss

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the microwave absorption of a two dimensional electron gas on a film of superfluid helium at temperatures below 1.75 K and at a fixed frequency of 9 GHz. The electrons are attracted to the surface by image forces and in addition by a variable dc-electric field directed normally to the film. Due to the formation of dimples in the helium surface the electrons are also localized in the lateral direction. For the microwave field oriented parallel to the film and for temperatures ...

  2. Dielectric Characteristics and Microwave Absorption of Graphene Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rubrice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many types of materials are elaborated for microwave absorption applications. Carbon-based nanoparticles belong to these types of materials. Among these, graphene presents some distinctive features for electromagnetic radiation absorption and thus microwave isolation applications. In this paper, the dielectric characteristics and microwave absorption properties of epoxy resin loaded with graphene particles are presented from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The influence of various parameters such as particle size (3 µm, 6–8 µm, and 15 µm and weight ratio (from 5% to 25% are presented, studied, and discussed. The sample loaded with the smallest graphene size (3 µm and the highest weight ratio (25% exhibits high loss tangent (tanδ = 0.36 and a middle dielectric constant ε′ = 12–14 in the 8–10 GHz frequency range. As expected, this sample also provides the highest absorption level: from 5 dB/cm at 4 GHz to 16 dB/cm at 18 GHz.

  3. On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    2012-01-01

    In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1–3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20–200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30–40 GHz at frequencies f 0 ≈ 110–180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy Δ r (T) in the temperature range 1.4–2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms ( 4 He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170–200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t r-r ≈ 3.4 × 10 −11 s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f 0 (T) = Δr(T)/2πħ appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of 4 He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to the resonator surface, which explains the experimentally observed

  4. Evaluation of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichrou; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Sunagawa, Takeyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-strand break is important to elucidate the biological effect of ionizing radiations. The conventional methods for DNA-strand break evaluation have been achieved by Agarose gel electrophoresis and others using an electrical property of DNAs. Such kinds of DNA-strand break evaluation systems can estimate DNA-strand break, according to a molecular weight of DNAs. However, the conventional method needs pre-treatment of the sample and a relatively long period for analysis. They do not have enough sensitivity to detect the strand break products in the low-dose region. The sample is water, methanol and plasmid DNA solution. The plasmid DNA pUC118 was multiplied by using Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells. The resonance frequency and Q-value were measured by means of microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy. When a sample is located at a center of the electric field, resonance curve of the frequency that existed as a standing wave is disturbed. As a result, the perturbation effect to perform a resonance with different frequency is adopted. The resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in a concentration of methanol as the model of the biological material, and the Q-value decreased. The absorption peak in microwave power spectrum of the double-strand break plasmid DNA shifted from the non-damaged plasmid DNA. Moreover, the sharpness of absorption peak changed resulting in change in Q-value. We confirmed that a resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in concentration of the plasmid DNA. We developed a new technique for an evaluation of DNA damage. In this paper, we report the evaluation method of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

  5. Evaluation of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichrou; Izumi, Yoshinobu [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Evaluation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-strand break is important to elucidate the biological effect of ionizing radiations. The conventional methods for DNA-strand break evaluation have been achieved by Agarose gel electrophoresis and others using an electrical property of DNAs. Such kinds of DNA-strand break evaluation systems can estimate DNA-strand break, according to a molecular weight of DNAs. However, the conventional method needs pre-treatment of the sample and a relatively long period for analysis. They do not have enough sensitivity to detect the strand break products in the low-dose region. The sample is water, methanol and plasmid DNA solution. The plasmid DNA pUC118 was multiplied by using Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells. The resonance frequency and Q-value were measured by means of microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy. When a sample is located at a center of the electric field, resonance curve of the frequency that existed as a standing wave is disturbed. As a result, the perturbation effect to perform a resonance with different frequency is adopted. The resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in a concentration of methanol as the model of the biological material, and the Q-value decreased. The absorption peak in microwave power spectrum of the double-strand break plasmid DNA shifted from the non-damaged plasmid DNA. Moreover, the sharpness of absorption peak changed resulting in change in Q-value. We confirmed that a resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in concentration of the plasmid DNA. We developed a new technique for an evaluation of DNA damage. In this paper, we report the evaluation method of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  7. Microwave heating behavior and microwave absorption properties of barium titanate at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kashimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the microwave absorption behavior of BaTiO3 particles was investigated over various frequencies and temperatures of 25-1000 ∘C. First, using both the coaxial transmission line method and the cavity perturbation method by a network analyzer, the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity of BaTiO3 ( ε r ′ and ε r ″ , respectively were measured, in order to improve the reliability of the data obtained at 2.45 GHz. The imaginary parts of the relative permittivity as measured by the two methods were explored by their heating behaviors. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the microwave absorption behavior of BaTiO3 particles was investigated for frequencies of 2.0-13.5 GHz and temperatures of 25-1000 ∘C using the coaxial transmission line method.

  8. Microwave absorption properties of graphite flakes-phenolic resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyoti P.; Gogoi, Pragyan J.; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, microwave absorption properties of a conductor back single layer designed on graphite flakes (GF)-novolac phenolic resin (NPR) composites is studied. The complex permittivity of the developed composite enhance for higher GF percentages. The reflection loss(RL) measured using E8362C VNA shows a maximum RL values -25 dB at 9.8 GHz for 7 wt. % composition with -10 dB bandwidth of 0.3 GHz. The developed composites are being light weight and cost effective shows potential to be used as dielectric absorber.

  9. On the low temperature microwave absorption anomaly in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsa, Anita; Quintavalle, Dario; Simon, Ferenc [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Physics; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Condensed Matter Research Group; Forro, Laszlo [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, FBS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    The low temperature microwave absorption anomaly reported by Corzilius et al. [Phys. Rev. B 75, 235416 (2007)] in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is revisited. It was originally reported that the microwave absorption of CVD grown SWCNTs shows an unexpected increase below {proportional_to}20 K (using flow cryostats) which depends on the microwave power. The original observation was made using the microwave cavity perturbation method while sweeping the microwave frequency. We reproduced this effect on arc-discharge based SWCNTs, using static cryogenic conditions with cooled microwave cavities, and employing a stable frequency source locked to the cavity resonance. Our observation shows that the microwave absorption anomaly is robust against the tube type and the experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Wideband and enhanced microwave absorption performance of doped barium ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Pingyuan; Xiong, Kun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ju, Kui [Guizhou Institute of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li, Shengnan [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Xu, Guangliang, E-mail: xuguangliang@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve stronger microwave attenuation and larger bandwidth in electromagnetic absorber, the nickel ions (Ni{sup 2+}) and manganese ions (Mn{sup 2+}) were employed to partially replace the cobalt ions (Co{sup 2+}) in BaCoTiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}, and the doped barium hexaferrite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) powders were synthesized via the sol–gel combustion method. Subsequently, the microwave absorbing composites were prepared by mixing the ferrite powders with the paraffin. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the doped ferrites confirmed the formation of the M-type barium ferrite, and no other types of barium ferrite could be found. Based on the electromagnetic parameters measured by the vector net-analyzer, it was found that the composite (Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) possessed a minimum reflection loss of −52.8 dB at 13.4 GHz with a matching thickness of 1.8 mm and the bandwidth below −15 dB was 5.8 GHz. Moreover, the maximum attenuation of Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could reach −69 dB when its thickness was 1.8 mm, and also the bandwidth less than −20 dB was ranging from 13.2 GHz to 18 GHz. Thus, Ba(MnNi){sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} and Ba(MnNi){sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}TiFe{sub 10}O{sub 19} could be the good microwave absorbers, which have great potentials to be applied in the high frequency fields of the microwave absorbing materials. - Highlights: • The Co was first time substituted by Mn–Ni in ferrites. • The substituted ferrites had good microwave absorption. • The doped ferrites had broad bandwidth and low reflection loss.

  11. Absorption spectra of superconducting qubits driven by bichromatic microwave fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiazheng; Jooya, Hossein Z.; Sun, Guozhu; Fan, Yunyi; Wu, Peiheng; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.; Han, Siyuan

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental observation of two distinct quantum interference patterns in the absorption spectra when a transmon superconducting qubit is subjected to a bichromatic microwave field with the same Rabi frequencies. Within the two-mode Floquet formalism with no dissipation processes, we propose a graph-theoretical representation to model the interaction Hamiltonian for each of these observations. This theoretical framework provides a clear visual representation of various underlying physical processes in a systematic way beyond rotating-wave approximation. The presented approach is valuable to gain insights into the behavior of multichromatic field driven quantum two-level systems, such as two-level atoms and superconducting qubits. Each of the observed interference patterns is represented by appropriate graph products on the proposed color-weighted graphs. The underlying mechanisms and the characteristic features of the observed fine structures are identified by the transitions between the graph vertices, which represent the doubly dressed states of the system. The good agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental data confirms the validity of the theoretical method. Such multiphoton interference may be used in manipulating the quantum states and/or generate nonclassical microwave photons.

  12. On the Earth Microwave Background: Absorption and Scattering by the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation by the atmosphere of the Earth is considered under a steady state scenario. Using this approach, it is demonstrated that the microwave background could not have a cosmological origin. Scientific observations in the microwave region are explained by considering an oceanic source, combined with both Rayleigh and Mie scattering in the atmosphere in the absence of net absorption. Importantly, at high frequencies, Mie scattering occurs primarily with forward propagation. This helps to explain the lack of high frequency microwave background signals when radio antennae are positioned on the Earth’s surface.

  13. Exploratory Studies of Magnetic Resonance Microwave Absorption Imaging for the Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulsen, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory project was to demonstrate the feasibility of MR (magnetic resonance) detection of thermoelastically generated tissue motion resulting from localized absorption of pulsed microwave power...

  14. Enhanced high-frequency microwave absorption of Fe3O4 architectures based on porous nanoflake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical Fe3O4 architectures assembled with porous nanoplates (p-Fe3O4) were synthesized. Due to the strong shape anisotropy of the nanoplates, the p-Fe3O4 exhibits increased microwave resonance towards high frequency range. The improved microwave absorption properties of the p-Fe3O4, including...

  15. Effect of Zn doping on the microwave absorption of BFO multiferroic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, S.; Li, J.; Mei, B.; Su, X. J.; Ying, C. Z.; Li, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    The microwave absorbing materials were firstly used in the Second World War. And the BiFeO3 (BFO) based microwave absorbers have been widely applied into the microwave absorbing area due to its possession of excellent electromagnetic properties. Various methods have been conducted to improve the microwave absorption performance of the BFO based materials. In the work, the sol-gel method were used to prepare the BFO, and the Zn were doped into the BFO to prepare the Bi1-xZnxFeO3 nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and vector network analysis (VNA) were conducted to characterize the microstructure and electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared samples. The results indicate that the Bi1-xZnxFeO3 nanoparticles were successfully gained and the as-prepared samples possess excellent microwave absorption properties.

  16. Study on microwave absorption properties of metal-containing foam glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Kuo, E-mail: chenkuo1999@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Xiuhua; Lv Dongsheng; Yu Fangyun; Yin Zheng' e; Wu Tao [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} We report microwave absorption composites consisting of foam glass, Zn and ZnO. {center_dot} The zinc-containing foam glass can absorb microwaves efficiently in X-band. {center_dot} Zinc to foam glass mass ratio can control microwave absorption properties of sample. - Abstract: Materials with the properties of electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption are attractive topics. In this work, we report that EM wave absorption composites, consisting of foam glass, zinc and zinc oxide, were prepared by sintering mixture of foam glass raw material and zinc powder. Microwave reflection loss of composite was calculated based on the permittivity in the range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. The results show that zinc-containing foam glass absorbs efficiently microwaves. The sample with zinc filler to foam glass mass ratio of 3/18 had a reflection loss below -10 dB in the range of 11.3-12.4 GHz, and the minimum reflectivity was -15.6 dB at both 12.0 and 12.4 GHz. Microwave absorption performances of specimens can be controlled by changing the ratio between zinc powder and foam glass mass. The detailed mechanism of the control was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electrical microscopy (SEM) observations.

  17. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  18. Microwave absorption of NdFe magnetic powders tuned with impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Cheng, Lichun; Lin, Peihao; Pan, Shunkang; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-03-01

    Excellent microwave absorption performance was obtained from NdFe magnetic powders. A suitable oxidation heat treatment temperature can optimize the impedance matching effectively and result in a good absorption performance. By varying the coating thickness, the reflection loss values of oxidized NdFe magnetic powders are less than -10 dB nearly in the whole range of 2-18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss value of the oxidized NdFe magnetic powders at 373 K reaches up to -55.9 dB at 3.6 GHz with a thickness of 3.0 mm. In addition, the microwave absorption peak frequency can also be tuned by the oxidation heat treatment temperature. The obtained results and systematic analysis suggest that NdFe magnetic powders would be attractive candidates for microwave absorbing materials and the oxidation heat treatment could be an effective way to optimize the impedance matching of some ferromagnetic alloy absorption materials.

  19. Non-resonant Nanoscale Extreme Light Confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huber, Dale L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A wide spectrum of photonics activities Sandia is engaged in such as solid state lighting, photovoltaics, infrared imaging and sensing, quantum sources, rely on nanoscale or ultrasubwavelength light-matter interactions (LMI). The fundamental understanding in confining electromagnetic power and enhancing electric fields into ever smaller volumes is key to creating next generation devices for these programs. The prevailing view is that a resonant interaction (e.g. in microcavities or surface-plasmon polaritions) is necessary to achieve the necessary light confinement for absorption or emission enhancement. Here we propose new paradigm that is non-resonant and therefore broadband and can achieve light confinement and field enhancement in extremely small areas [~(λ/500)^2 ]. The proposal is based on a theoretical work[1] performed at Sandia. The paradigm structure consists of a periodic arrangement of connected small and large rectangular slits etched into a metal film named double-groove (DG) structure. The degree of electric field enhancement and power confinement can be controlled by the geometry of the structure. The key operational principle is attributed to quasistatic response of the metal electrons to the incoming electromagnetic field that enables non-resonant broadband behavior. For this exploratory LDRD we have fabricated some test double groove structures to enable verification of quasistatic electronic response in the mid IR through IR optical spectroscopy. We have addressed some processing challenges in DG structure fabrication to enable future design of complex sensor and detector geometries that can utilize its non-resonant field enhancement capabilities.].

  20. Microwave absorption properties and mechanism of cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jin, Hai-Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yu-Jin

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in detail. Dielectric constants and losses of the pure cagelike ZnO nanostructures were measured in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4GHz. The measured results indicate that the cagelike ZnO nanostructures are low-loss material for microwave absorption in X band. However, the cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites exhibit a relatively strong attenuation to microwave in X band. Such strong absorption is related to the unique geometrical morphology of the cagelike ZnO nanostructures in the composites. The microcurrent network can be produced in the cagelike ZnO nanostructures, which contributes to the conductive loss.

  1. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon/polyaniline nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liuding; Wu, Hongjing; Shen, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaoli; Wang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► OMC-Ni/PANI nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The effective absorption bandwidth was 4.7 GHz for OMC-Ni0.15/PANI. ► OMC-Ni/PANI showed excellent microwave absorption with respect to OMC-Ni. ► This effect could be mainly attributed to the improvement of impendence matching. - Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a new scheme to improve microwave absorption property through polyaniline (PANI)-functionalized Ni-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by in situ polymerization method. The polymer-functionalized nanocomposites, embedding polyaniline within ordered mesoporous carbon, exhibit strong and broadband microwave absorption due to its better dielectric loss characteristic. OMC-Ni0.15/PANI exhibits an effective absorption bandwidth (i.e., reflection loss (RL) ≤ −10 dB) of 4.7 GHz and an absorption peak of −51 dB at 9.0 GHz. The absorption peak intensity and position can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the coating.

  2. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of Oriented Carbonyl Iron/Carbon Black Composite Induced by Shear Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Dandan; Zhou, Wancheng; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Oriented carbonyl iron/carbon black (CI/CB) composite with enhanced microwave absorption properties was prepared by shear force which was applied to make the planes of CI parallel to each other. The effects of orientation, CB content and thickness on the microwave absorption properties were investigated. The measurement results showed that higher permeability and modest permittivity of the composite were obtained after CI orientation in a 2-18-GHz frequency range. The complex permittivity of the CI/CB composite increased with increasing CB content, which was mainly attributed to the interfacial polarization at the CI/resin/CB particle interfaces. The calculated microwave absorption properties indicated that the orientation plays an important role in decreasing the absorber thickness and broadening the absorption bandwidth. The oriented CI/CB composite containing 65 wt.% CI and 3.0 wt.% CB showed a wider absorption frequency range of 12.5 GHz from 5.5 GHz to 18 GHz with reflection loss (RL) below -5 dB at a thickness of 0.9 mm. This work offers a promising approach for the fabrication of microwave absorbing materials with thin thickness and an adjustable wider working frequency range.

  3. ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE-ABSORPTION IN BI-2212 HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS WITH THE PARAMAGNETIC MEISSNER EFFECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KATAEV, [No Value; KNAUF, N; BRAUNISCH, W; MULLER, R; BOROWSKI, R; RODEN, B; KHOMSKII, D

    1993-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of an anomaly in low magnetic field microwave absorption in polycrystalline Bi high-temperature superconductors are presented. These results show the presence of the so-called paramagnetic Meissner effect. The data obtained are evidence for the common origin of

  4. Microwave absorption behaviour of MWCNT based nanocomposites in X-band region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Das

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT based nanocomposites were prepared by a two-step process. Firstly, titanium dioxide (TiO2 coated MWCNT was prepared via sol-gel technique. In the second step, the acid modified MWCNTs were dispersed in the thermoplastic polyurethane matrix by solution blending process. Characterizations of the nanocomposites were done by X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Microwave absorption studies of the nanocomposites were carried out in X-band region. The microwave absorption result was discussed with the help of complex permittivity and permeability of the prepared radar absorbing material (RAM. The result showed superior microwave absorption property of the composite containing both TiO2 coated MWCNT and magnetite (Fe3O4. This result is due to the effective absorption of both electrical and magnetic components of the microwave. RAM-MW, RAM-Ti, RAM-Ti@MW and RAMTi@ MW/Fe and showed the maximum reflection loss of –16.03 dB at 10.99 GHz, –8.4 dB at 12.4 GHz, –36.44 dB at 12.05 GHz and –42.53 dB at 10.98 GHz respectively. Incorporation of MWCNT enhanced the thermal stability of the composite which has been confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis.

  5. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    El Kammouni, R.; Vázquez, M.; Lezama, L.; Kurlyandskaya, G.; Kraus, Luděk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 368, Nov (2014), 126-132 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic microwire * ferromagnetic resonance * microwave absorption * biphase magnetic system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  6. Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Cheng, Jianhua; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yupu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2009-10-01

    Ionic liquid was used as microwave absorption medium and applied to the extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of the Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. by microwave-assisted extraction. The extraction time is less than 15 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The constituents of essential oils obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. There is no obvious difference in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods.

  7. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of PPy/Co nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua@163.com [School of Materials Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Gao, Duoduo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cobalt (Co) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of synthesized Co nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was accomplished by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, VSM, and vector network analyzer techniques. XRD analysis revealed that characteristic diffraction peaks of polypyrrole and Co appeared at the same time in nanocomposites. FT-IR analysis indicated a successful conjugation of Co particles with polypyrrole. TEM confirmed the formation of a core-shell structure with a wide particle size distribution. Magnetization measurements showed that polypyrrole coating decreased the saturation magnetization of Co significantly. With the increase of the matching thickness, the absorption peak varied towards low frequency direction. When the matching thickness was 3.0 mm, the value of the maximum reflection loss (RL) was −20.0 dB at 13.8 GHz with the 7.2 GHz bandwidth. - Highlights: • The influence of PPy on the structure of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the magnetic properties of Co is discussed. • The influence of PPy on the absorption property of Co is discussed. • PPy/Co possessed the excellent absorption property.

  8. Dynamics of microwave absorption by a plasma near a linear focal point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kiselevskii, L. I.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-11-01

    The absorption of 2.35-GHz microwave radiation in an Ar plasma in a magnetic field near a focal point at which it is transformed linearly into plasma waves is investigated experimentally in the Granit plasma apparatus (Arkhipenko et al., 1981). Operating parameters include plasma density at the microwave input point 10 to the 12th/cu cm, density at the focal point 7 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm, Ar pressure 16 mtorr, and longitudinal magnetic-field strength 3 kOe. The absorption is found to follow linear theory at microwave power less than 20 mW, remaining concentrated near the focus, while at higher powers the absorption region migrates toward the beam source (by about 1 cm at t = 3 microsec), with simultaneous onset of 2-3-MHz oscillation of the reflected signal (revealing parametric instability at the focus) and further shifting of the absorption region at t greater than 3 microsec (forming a plasma burnthrough channel).

  9. Microwave absorption by a lossy dielectric sphere in a rectangular cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new theory of absorption of microwave power by a lossy dielectric sphere in a resonant rectangular chamber is developed here. In this treatment, resonant modes of the cavity are resolved into traveling plane-wave fields, and Mie's theory of scattering and absorption of a plane electromagnetic wave by a sphere is utilized. The fields in the cavity containing the sphere are found by superposition of results for the individual scattering problem for each traveling plane wave. Absorbed power is then calculated by evaluating the time-averaged Poynting vector and integrating over the surface of the sphere. Applications of microwave power absorption are discussed, with particular emphasis on processing of materials. Numerical studies based on the newly derived formulas are presented. The results exhibit the manner in which microwave absorption is influenced by a number of different experimentally controllable parameters. The examples considered were chosen with a view toward designing experiments and apparatus for containerless processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space.

  10. Microwave absorption by a plasma near a critical density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipenko, V.I.; Budinkov, V.N.; Romanchuk, I.A.; Simonchik, L.V.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental results are reported on the interaction of S-band microwave radiation with a magnetized plasma whose density varies in two dimensions at intermediate frequencies (..omega../sub H/e>..omega..>..sqrt omega../sub H/e..omega../sub H/i). The wave approached the focus (i.e., the point at which the density at the chamber axis was equal to the critical density n/sub c/) from the high-density side. Narrow plasma channels were observed to form near the focus; they continually contracted toward the axis with distance into the low-density region. The region of maximum energy evolution lies a certain distance (1--10 cm) ahead of the focus on the side with n/sub e/>n/sub c/. A small fraction of the wave energy is liberated beyond the focus (n/sub e/

  11. Synthesis, characterization and microwave absorption of carbon-coated Cu nanocapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering Practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, (China); Feng, Chao; Liu, Xianguo; Jin, Chuangui, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-15

    The microstructure and microwave absorption of carbon-coated Cu nanocapsules have been investigated. Carbon-coated Cu nanocapsules have been synthesized by an arc-discharge method. The paraffin-Cu/C nanocapsules composite shows excellent electromagnetic (EM) absorption properties. An optimal reflection loss (RL) value of –40.0 dB is reached at 10.52 GHz for a layer 1.9 mm thickness. RL exceeding –20 dB can be realized in any interval within the 1-18 GHz range by choosing an appropriate thickness of the absorbent layer between 1.1 and 10.0 mm. Theoretical simulation for the microwave absorption using the transmission line theory agrees reasonably well with the experimental results. The EM-wave absorption properties of nanocapsules materials are illustrated by means of an absorption-tube-map. The carbon-coated Cu nano capsule is an attractive candidate for EM-wave absorption, which significantly enriches the family of EM-wave nano absorbents. (author)

  12. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of PPy/Co nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Gao, Duoduo

    2014-11-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cobalt (Co) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in-situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of synthesized Co nanoparticles. Characterization of the product was accomplished by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, VSM, and vector network analyzer techniques. XRD analysis revealed that characteristic diffraction peaks of polypyrrole and Co appeared at the same time in nanocomposites. FT-IR analysis indicated a successful conjugation of Co particles with polypyrrole. TEM confirmed the formation of a core-shell structure with a wide particle size distribution. Magnetization measurements showed that polypyrrole coating decreased the saturation magnetization of Co significantly. With the increase of the matching thickness, the absorption peak varied towards low frequency direction. When the matching thickness was 3.0 mm, the value of the maximum reflection loss (RL) was -20.0 dB at 13.8 GHz with the 7.2 GHz bandwidth.

  13. Easily Dispersible NiFe2O4/RGO Composite for Microwave Absorption Properties in the X-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateer, Buhe; Zhang, Jianjao; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhang, Xiaochen; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Haiqun

    2018-01-01

    Composites with good dispersion and excellent microwave absorption properties have important applications. Therefore, an easily dispersible NiFe2O4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite has been prepared conveniently through a simple hydrothermal method. Highly crystalline, small size (about 7 nm) monodispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are evenly distributed on the surface of RGO. The microwave absorbability revealed that the NiFe2O4/RGO composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption properties in the X-band (8-12 GHz), and the minimum reflection loss of the NiFe2O4/RGO composite is -27.7 dB at 9.2 GHz. The NiFe2O4/RGO composite has good dispersibility in nonpolar solvent, which facilitates the preparation of stable commercial microwave absorbing coatings. It can be a promising candidate for lightweight microwave absorption materials in many application fields.

  14. Microwave absorption properties of helical carbon nanofibers-coated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs coated-carbon fibers (CFs were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. TEM and Raman spectroscopy characterizations indicate that the graphitic layers of the HCNFs changed from disorder to order after high temperature annealing. The electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption properties were measured at 2–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss is 32 dB at 9 GHz and the widest bandwidth under −10 dB is 9.8 GHz from 8.2 to 18 GHz for the unannealed HCNFs coated-CFs composite with 2.5 mm in thickness, suggesting that HCNFs coated-CFs should have potential applications in high performance microwave absorption materials.

  15. Waxberry-like carbon@polyaniline microspheres with high-performance microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lujun; Zhu, Yaofeng; Fu, Yaqin

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanorod arrays were facilely grown on the surface of carbon microspheres via a simple dilute polymerization. The as-synthesized carbon@polyaniline nanorod arrays microspheres (C@PANI) show specific waxberry-like shape, and exhibit superior microwave absorption capacities compared with pure PANI and carbon microsphere. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of C@PANI microspheres reaches -59.6 dB at 15.5 GHz with a thin thickness of 2.2 mm and the effective bandwidth (reflection loss values of less than -10 dB) is as wide as 5.4 GHz (from 12.6 to 18 GHz). The in-depth analyses of the geometrical shape and composition relationship demonstrate that the enhanced microwave absorption properties of C@PANI microspheres was mainly correlate with the unique PANI nanorod arrays and synergistic effect.

  16. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of La-Nd-Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Ziqiang [School of Material Science and Engineering & Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Pan, Shunkang, E-mail: skpan88@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering & Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Xiong, Jilei [Chinalco Guangxi Non Ferrous Jinyuan Rare Earth CO., LTD, Hezhou 542603 (China); Cheng, Lichun; Yao, Qingrong [School of Material Science and Engineering & Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Materials and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lin, Peihao [School of Material Science and Engineering & Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Through arc smelting and high energy ball milling method to synthesized the powders of La{sub x}Nd{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 17} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6). By x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle analyzer (LPS) to study the structural, morphology, particle size distribution of the powders, respectively. The electromagnetic parameters and saturation magnetization of the powers were measured by a vector network analyzer (VNA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The saturation magnetization decreases with the La increasing. The minimum absorption peak frequency shifts towards a lower frequency region with an increase of La concentration. The microwave absorbing properties of the composite with different ratios of La{sub 0.2}Nd{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 17}/Ni were studied. The microwave absorbing peaks of the composite shift to higher frequencies, and the microwave absorbing properties improved with the Ni content increase to 20%. The minimum reflection loss is −32.5 dB at 9.8 GHz and the bandwidth less than −10 dB (Microwave absorption rate 90%) reaches 3 GHz with a thickness of 1.8 mm.

  17. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of α-Fe2O3-Filled Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuding Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel kind of α-Fe2O3-filled ordered mesoporous carbon nanorods has been synthesized by a facial hydrothermal method. Compared with dendritic α-Fe2O3 micropines, both a broader effective absorption range—from 10.5 GHz to 16.5 GHz with reflection loss (RL less than −10 dB—and a thinner matching thickness of 2.0 mm have been achieved in the frequency range 2–18 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption properties evaluated by the RL are attributed to the enhanced dielectric loss resulting from the intrinsic physical properties and special structures.

  18. Enhanced microwave absorption in ZnO/carbonyl iron nano-composites by coating dielectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chang; Fang Qingqing; Yan Fangliang; Wang Weina; Wu Keyue; Liu Yanmei; Lv Qingrong; Zhang Hanming; Zhang Qiping; Li Jinguang; Ding Qiongqiong

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composite nanoparticles fabricated by high energy ball milling were studied at 0–20 GHz. Experiments showed that ZnO as a kind of dielectric material coating carbonyl iron particles made the bandwidth of reflection loss (RL)<−5 dB expanding to the low frequency, and enhanced absorption effect obviously. For a 3 mm thickness absorber of ZnO/carbonyl iron after 30 h milling, the values of RL<−5 dB and RL<−8 dB were obtained in the frequency range from 7.0 GHz to 17.8 GHz and from 9.8 dB to 14.9 dB, respectively, and its strongest RL peak was −29.34 dB at 13.59 GHz. The magnetic loss of carbonyl iron particles and the dielectric loss of ZnO particles were the main mechanisms of microwave absorption for the composites. - Highlights: ► We fabricated zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composites by high energy ball milling. ► ZnO dielectric property increased absorption effect and absorption bandwidth. ► Absorbing frequence of composites is expanding to low frequency direction. ► The craft of high energy ball milling is easy to realize commerce production.

  19. Thermal frequency shift and tunable microwave absorption in BiFeO3 family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Fang, Xiaoyong; Cao, Maosheng

    2016-04-01

    Tunable frequency is highly sought-after task of researcher, because of the potential for applications in selecting frequency, absorber, imaging and biomedical diagnosis. Here, we report the original observation of thermal frequency shift of dielectric relaxation in La/Nd doped BiFeO3 (BFO) in X-band from 300 to 673 K. It exhibits an unexpected result: the relaxation shifts to lower frequency with increasing temperature. The relaxation maximally shifts about a quarter of X-band. The nonlinear term of lattice vibration plays an important role in the frequency shift. The frequency shift leads to tuning microwave absorption, which almost covers the whole X-band by changing temperature. Meanwhile, the great increase of dielectric loss of La/Nd doped BFO due to thermal excited electron hopping enhances microwave absorption above ~460 and ~480 K, respectively. The microwave absorption of La/Nd doped BFO surpasses -20 dB at 673 K, and the minimum reflection loss of La doped BFO reaches -39 dB. These results open a new pathway to develop BFO-based materials in electromagnetic functional materials and devices for tunable frequency, stealth and thermal imaging at long wavelength.

  20. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of graphite nanoflakes by coating hexagonal boron nitride nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-05-31

    We report herein the synthesis of a novel hexagonal boron nitride nanocrystal/graphite nanoflake (h-BNNC/GNF) composite through a wet-chemistry coating of graphite nanoflakes and subsequent in-situ thermal treatment process. The characterization results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate that h-BNNCs with diameter of tens of nanometers are highly crystallized and anchored on the surfaces of graphite nanoflakes without obvious aggregation. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value of the h-BNNC/GNF based absorbers could reach −32.38dB (>99.99% attenuation) with the absorber thickness of 2.0mm. This result is superior to the other graphite based and some dielectric loss microwave absorption materials recently reported. Moreover, the frequency range where the RL is less than −10dB is 3.49-17.28GHz with the corresponding thickness of 5.0 to 1.5mm. This reveals a better electromagnetic microwave absorption performance of h-BNNC/GNFs from the X-band to the Ku-band. The remarkable enhancement of the electromagnetic microwave absorption properties of h-BNNC/GNFs can be assigned to the increase of multiple scattering, interface polarization as well as the improvement of the electromagnetic impedance matching of graphite nanoflakes after being coated with h-BNNCs.

  1. Preparation and investigation of structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium doped barium hexaferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the structure, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium (Ce doped barium hexaferrite with general formulae BaCexFe12-xO19 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 have been investigated. These samples have been prepared by sol- gel method. Influence of replacing Fe+3 ion by rare- earth Ce+3 ion on the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been investigated by X- ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and vector network analyzer (VNA. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples are of single phase with space group p63/mmc. The magnetic properties of samples indicated that with the Ce doping the saturation magnetization show no regular behavior. Moreover, coercivity (Hc first decreased and reached to the minimum value for x=0.1 sample and then increased with Ce content increasing. Also, measurement of electromagnetic wave absorption in X and Ku frequency bands indicated that the maximum of reflection loss obtained for x=0.15 sample. Moreover, result indicated that absorption peak shifted toward a lower frequency when thickness was increased.

  2. Water-based metamaterial absorbers for optical transparency and broadband microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yongqiang; Shen, Yang; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiafu; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    Naturally occurring water is a promising candidate for achieving broadband absorption. In this work, by virtue of the optically transparent character of the water, the water-based metamaterial absorbers (MAs) are proposed to achieve the broadband absorption at microwave frequencies and optical transparence simultaneously. For this purpose, the transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) are chosen as the constitutive materials. The water is encapsulated between the ITO backed plate and PMMA, serving as the microwave loss as well as optically transparent material. Numerical simulations show that the broadband absorption with the efficiency over 90% in the frequency band of 6.4-30 GHz and highly optical transparency of about 85% in the visible region can be achieved and have been well demonstrated experimentally. Additionally, the proposed water-based MA displays a wide-angle absorption performance for both TE and TM waves and is also robust to the variations of the structure parameters, which is much desired in a practical application.

  3. Shell thickness-dependent microwave absorption of core-shell Fe3O4@C composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunchen; Liu, Wenwen; Qiang, Rong; Wang, Ying; Han, Xijiang; Ma, Jun; Xu, Ping

    2014-08-13

    Core-shell composites, Fe3O4@C, with 500 nm Fe3O4 microspheres as cores have been successfully prepared through in situ polymerization of phenolic resin on the Fe3O4 surface and subsequent high-temperature carbonization. The thickness of carbon shell, from 20 to 70 nm, can be well controlled by modulating the weight ratio of resorcinol and Fe3O4 microspheres. Carbothermic reduction has not been triggered at present conditions, thus the crystalline phase and magnetic property of Fe3O4 micropsheres can be well preserved during the carbonization process. Although carbon shells display amorphous nature, Raman spectra reveal that the presence of Fe3O4 micropsheres can promote their graphitization degree to a certain extent. Coating Fe3O4 microspheres with carbon shells will not only increase the complex permittivity but also improve characteristic impedance, leading to multiple relaxation processes in these composites, thus the microwave absorption properties of these composites are greatly enhanced. Very interestingly, a critical thickness of carbon shells leads to an unusual dielectric behavior of the core-shell structure, which endows these composites with strong reflection loss, especially in the high frequency range. By considering good chemical homogeneity and microwave absorption, we believe the as-fabricated Fe3O4@C composites can be promising candidates as highly effective microwave absorbers.

  4. Microwave absorption properties of Co, Cu, Zn: substituted hexaferrite polychloroprene nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska da Rocha Caffarena

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic behavior and its relationship with microwave absorbing properties have been investigated for doped Z-type barium hexaferrites (Ba3Co1.3Zn0.3Cu0.4Fe 24O41/ polychloroprene (CR nanocomposites. Simultaneous substitutions by Co2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ ions make possible the use of these materials as RAMs, due to the frequency dependence of µr* (permeability, responsible for the location of the hexaferrite natural resonance. The Cu2+ ions distort the crystalline field due to their electronic configuration, and this behavior results in an increase in the saturation magnetization (Ms, which improve the magnetic permeability. Similarly, the superparamagnetic contribution (associated to the nanometric size led to the improvement of the microwave absorption.

  5. Two-dimensional materials and one-dimensional carbon nanotube composites for microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Wang, Bochong; Zhang, Can; Xiang, Jianyong; Wen, Fusheng; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2018-01-01

    In this work, hierarchical architecture MoS2/CNT nanohybrids synthesized by the hydrothermal method, with different CNT proportions are systematically investigated for their microwave absorption. MoS2 nanoflowers are anchored uniformly on the surface of a CNT when the proportion of the MoS2/CNT nanohybrids was 10:2, and the reflection loss can attain ‑20 dB in the range of 3.4–13.9 GHz with multiple thicknesses from 1.5–5.0 mm, while an optimal consequence of ‑46 dB can be reached at 6.6 GHz at 2.9 mm. The excellent performance indicates that the MoS2/CNT = 10:2 nanohybrids have the potential for use as microwave absorbing materials.

  6. Construction of CuS Nanoflakes Vertically Aligned on Magnetically Decorated Graphene and Their Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Panbo; Huang, Ying; Yan, Jing; Yang, Yiwen; Zhao, Yang

    2016-03-02

    Hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced microwave absorption properties have been designed by growing CuS nanoflakes on magnetically decorated graphene, and the effect of special nanostructures on microwave absorption properties has been investigated. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The influence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the morphology of CuS nanoflakes was also investigated. A possible formation process of the nanocomposites and the mechanism of microwave absorption were explained in detail. As an absorber, the nanocomposites with a filler loading of 20 wt % exhibited enhanced microwave absorption properties due to the special nanostructures, extra void space, and synergistic effect. The maximum reflection loss can reach -54.5 dB at 11.4 GHz, and the absorption bandwidths exceeding -10 dB are 4.5 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm, which can be adjusted by the thickness. The results indicate that the hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced microwave absorption properties and lightweight have a promising future in decreasing electromagnetic wave irradiation.

  7. The impact of different multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the X-band microwave absorption of their epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Bien Dong; Nguyen, Bao Quoc; Nguyen, Le-Thu T; Nguyen, Ha Tran; Nguyen, Viet Quoc; Van Le, Thang; Nguyen, Nieu Huu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) characteristics, besides the processing conditions, can change significantly the microwave absorption behavior of CNT/polymer composites. In this study, we investigated the influence of three commercial multi-walled CNT materials with various diameters and length-to-diameter aspect ratios on the X-band microwave absorption of epoxy nanocomposites with CNT contents from 0.125 to 2 wt%, prepared by two dispersion methods, i.e. in solution with surfactant-aiding and via ball-milling. The laser diffraction particle size and TEM analysis showed that both methods produced good dispersions at the microscopic level of CNTs. Both a high aspect ratio resulting in nanotube alignment trend and good infiltration of the matrix in the individual nanotubes, which was indicated by high Brookfield viscosities at low CNT contents of CNT/epoxy dispersions, are important factors to achieve composites with high microwave absorption characteristics. The multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with the largest aspect ratio resulted in composites with the best X-band microwave absorption performance, which is considerably better than that of reported pristine CNT/polymer composites with similar or lower thicknesses and CNT loadings below 4 wt%. A high aspect ratio of CNTs resulting in microscopic alignment trend of nanotubes as well as a good level of micro-scale CNT dispersion resulting from good CNT-matrix interactions are crucial to obtain effective microwave absorption performance. This study demonstrated that effective radar absorbing MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites having small matching thicknesses of 2-3 mm and very low filler contents of 0.25-0.5 wt%, with microwave energy absorption in the X-band region above 90% and maximum absorption peak values above 97%, could be obtained via simple processing methods, which is promising for mass production in industrial applications. Graphical AbstractComparison of the X-band microwave reflection loss of epoxy composites of

  8. Enhanced microwave absorption properties in cobalt–zinc ferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poorbafrani, A., E-mail: a.poorbafrani@gmail.com; Kiani, E.

    2016-10-15

    In an attempt to find a solution to the problem of the traditional spinel ferrite used as the microwave absorber, the Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Paraffin nanocomposites were investigated. Cobalt–zinc ferrite powders, synthesized through PVA sol–gel method, were combined with differing concentrations of Paraffin wax. The nanocomposite samples were characterized employing various experimental techniques including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Alternating Gradient Force Magnetometer (AGFM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The saturation magnetization and coercivity were enhanced utilizing appropriate stoichiometry, coordinate agent, and sintering temperature required for the preparation of cobalt–zinc ferrite. The complex permittivity and permeability spectra, and Reflection Loss (RL) of Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Paraffin nanocomposites were measured in the frequency range of 1–18 GHz. The microwave absorption properties of nanocomposites indicated that the absorbing composite containing 20 wt% of paraffin manifests the strongest microwave attenuation ability. The composite exhibited the reflection loss less than –10 dB in the whole C-band and 30% of the X-band frequencies. - Highlights: • We enhanced the magnetic properties of cobalt–zinc Ferrite nanocomposites. • The samples showed absorption in the whole C-band and 30% of the X-band frequencies. • We tried to solve the problem of the spinel ferrite utilized as efficient absorber. • We enhanced the microwave reflection loss over extended frequency ranges.

  9. Microwave Absorption of Barium Borosilicate, Zinc Borate, Fe-Doped Alumino-Phosphate Glasses and Its Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Mandal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents microwave absorption of raw materials used in barium borosilicate, Fe-doped alumina phosphate and zinc borate glass. Microwave absorption was investigated for the raw materials SiO2, Na2CO3, BaCO3, BPO4, Al(PO33, Mg(PO32, Al(OH3, TiO2. The study shows that SiO2 could be heated directly above 1000 °C within 30 min at 1.5 kW microwave output (MW power and 0.8 kW MW power is necessary to initiate heating (from 260 °C. Microwave heating of material with low dielectric loss has been investigated by increasing MW power. Microwave absorption of above glass systems has also been investigated. Dielectric properties such as loss tangent of glass as a function of temperature are presented. Glass melting under direct microwave heating was demonstrated for the studied glass systems. Temperature-Microwave power-Time (T-P-t profiles for the three glasses indicate maximum MW output power ~1 kW, 0.65 kW and ~1 kW for barium borosilicate, zinc borate glass and alumino-phosphate glass for 60 g glass melting.

  10. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of ZnCo-substituted W-type strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadizadeh, A.R. [Advanced Magnetic Materials Research Center, School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyyed Ebrahimi, S.A., E-mail: saseyyed@ut.ac.ir [Advanced Magnetic Materials Research Center, School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoudpanah, S.M. [School of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Single phase ZnCo-substituted W-type strontium hexaferrite (SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} with x=0–2.0) were prepared by ceramic conventional method. With the Co substitution, the saturation magnetization increases up to a maximum of 72.8 emu/g for SrZnCoFe{sub 16}O{sub 27}, and then decreases, while the coercivity decreases from 1000 Oe for x=0 to 430 Oe for x=1 and then increases up to 700 Oe for x=2. The microwave absorption measurements in the microwave frequency range of 8–12 GHz (X-band) exhibited the maximum absorption of −28 dB at 10.3 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 2.1 GHz for x=1. - Highlights: • Single phase SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} (x=0–2.0) hexaferrites were prepared by ceramic conventional method. • The saturation magnetization increases up to a maximum of 72.8 emu/g for SrZnCoFe{sub 16}O{sub 27}, and then decreases. • The coercivity decreases from 1000 Oe for x=0 to 430 Oe for x=1 and then increases up to 700 Oe for x=2. • SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} hexaferrite exhibited the maximum absorption of −28 dB at 10.3 GHz.

  11. Bandwidth enhancement in microwave absorption of binary nanocomposite ferrites hollow microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuzhan; Shen, Xiangqian; Yang, Xinchun; Meng, Xianfeng; Xiang, Jun; Liu, Ruijiang; Dong, Mingdong

    2013-04-01

    The binary Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12O19 (BSFO)/Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (NZFO) nanocomposite ferrites hollow microfibers with high aspect ratios have been prepared by the gel precursor transformation process. These microfibers possess a high specific surface area about 45.2 m2 g(-1), and a ratio of the hollow diameter to the fiber diameter estimated about 5/7. The binary nanocomposite ferrites are formed after the precursor calcined at 750 degrees C for 3 h. Their minimum reflection loss (RL) is -38.1 dB at 10.4 GHz. The microwave absorption bandwidth with RL value exceeding -20 dB covers the whole X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz). This enhancement in microwave absorption can be attributed to the exchange-coupling interaction, interfacial polarization and small size effect in nanocomposite hollow microfibers.

  12. Synthesis, physical and microwave absorption properties of Barium ferrite - P(VDF-TrFE) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jon; Miren Gutiérrez Muto, Ane; Peña, Alazne; San Sebastián, Maria; Catarina Lopes, Ana; Lezama, Luis; Gil de Muro, Izaskun; Larrañaga, A.; Orue, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present results concerning the synthesis, magnetic, dielectric and microwave absorption properties of BaFe12O19 / P(VDF-TrFE) nanocomposites. First, barium ferrite nanopowders were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method. Structural and morphological properties of the prepared powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing as result a good quality spherical plus platelet-like shaped nanoparticles. Afterwards, composite films with filler nanoparticles of barium ferrite BaFe12O19 (BaFO, nominal 5-20 wt.%) dispersed within P(VDF-TrFE) acting as polymeric matrix have been prepared by solvent evaporation. Magnetic properties were examined by the vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and a direct comparison of results obtained for the composites respect to the pure nanopowder allow us to obtain the true nanofiller content value, different from the initially nominal one. Dielectric properties have been measured up to 2 MHz and show the typical behaviour of Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization. From 10 kHz up, permittivity of the composites remains almost unchanged, with values that show a smooth increase as the %wt. of BaFe12O19 does. Finally, microwave absorption properties were analyzed by using ESR technique operating at X-band. All obtained results are discussed in terms of size and quantity of the composites BaFe12O19 filler nanoparticles.

  13. Microwave absorption properties of NiCoFe2O4-graphite embedded poly(o-phenetidine nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Ohlan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(o-phenetidine nanocomposites (PNG with NiCoFe2O4 and exfoliated graphite have been synthesized via in-situ emulsion polymerization. Systematic investigations reveal that the NiCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (30-40 nm in the poly(o-phenetidine matrix have phenomenal effect in determining the electrical, magnetic, and the microwave absorption properties of the nanocomposites. Shielding effectiveness due to absorption (SEA value of 32 dB (>99.9% has been achieved for PNG composite for its use as broadband microwave absorbing material. The microwave absorption of these composites can be attributed to dielectric loss from graphite and poly(o-phenetidine matrix, and magnetic loss from NiCoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  14. Dependency of magnetic microwave absorption on surface architecture of Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures studied by electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghe; Xu, Xianhui; Xia, Weixing; Che, Renchao; Chen, Chen; Cao, Qi; He, Jingang

    2015-02-07

    To design and fabricate rational surface architecture of individual particles is one of the key factors that affect their magnetic properties and microwave absorption capability, which is still a great challenge. Herein, a series of Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures with different surface morphologies, including flower-, urchin-, ball-, and chain-like morphologies, were obtained using structure-directing templates via a facile one-step solvothermal treatment. The microwave reflection loss (RL) of urchin-like Co20Ni80 hierarchical structures reaches as high as -33.5 dB at 3 GHz, with almost twice the RL intensity of the ball- and chain-like structures, and the absorption bandwidth (structures might become an effective path to achieve high-performance microwave absorption for electromagnetic shielding and stealth camouflage applications.

  15. Temperature dependence of microwave absorption phenomena in single and biphase soft magnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Kammouni, Rhimou, E-mail: elkammounirhimou@gmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lezama, Luis [Depto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Dept. Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kraus, Ludek [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The microwave absorption phenomena of single and biphase magnetic microwires with soft magnetic behavior have been investigated as a function of DC applied magnetic field using two alternative techniques: (i) absorption measurements in the temperature range of 4–300 K using a spectrometer operating at X-band frequency, at 9.5 GHz, and (ii) room-temperature, RT, ferromagnetic resonance measurements in a network analyzer in the frequency range up to 20 GHz. Complementary low-frequency magnetic characterization was performed in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Studies have been performed for 8 μm diameter small-magnetostriction amorphous CoFeSiB single-phase microwire, coated by micrometric Pyrex layer, and after electroplating an external shell, 2 µm or 4 µm thick, of FeNi alloys. For single phase CoFeSiB microwire, a single absorption is observed, whose DC field dependence of resonance frequency at RT fits to a Kittel-law behavior for in-plane magnetized thin film. The temperature dependence behavior shows a monotonic increase in the resonance field, H{sub r}, with temperature. A parallel reduction of the circular anisotropy field, H{sub K}, is deduced from the temperature dependence of hysteresis loops. For biphase, CoFeSiB/FeNi, microwires, the absorption phenomena at RT also follow the Kittel condition. The observed opposite evolution with temperature of resonance field, H{sub r}, in 2 and 4 µm thick FeNi samples is interpreted considering the opposite sign of magnetostriction of the respective FeNi layers. The stress-induced magnetic anisotropy field, H{sub K}, in the FeNi shell is deduced to change sign at around 130 K. - Highlights: • A single absorption phenomenon is observed for single phase CoFeSiB. • The T dependence of the microwave behavior shows a monotonic increase of H{sub r} with T. • The absorption at RT follows the Kittel condition for biphase CoFe/FeNi microwires. • The T dependence of resonant field of CoFe/FeNi is interpreted to be

  16. Enhanced microwave absorption properties of CTAB assisted Pr–Cu substituted nanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Imran, E-mail: Imran.cssp@pu.edu.pk [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Naseem, Shahzad; Riaz, Saira [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan); Hussain, S. Sajjad; Rana, Mazhar [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the rare earth Pr{sup 3+}and divalent Cu{sup 2+} elements substituted Sr{sub 1−x}Pr{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Fe{sub 16−y}Cu{sub y}O{sub 27} (x=0, 0.02, 0.06, 0.1 and y=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) W-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by Sol–Gel method. TGA and DSC analysis of as prepared material was carried out to confirm the temperature at which required phase can be obtained. The XRD patterns exhibit the single phase for all the samples and the lattice parameters were changed with the additives. The absorption bands at wave number 636 and 554 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectrum indicate the stretching vibration of metal–oxygen ions which also ratifies the single phase for the prepared material. Microstructural analysis confirms the agglomeration of nanograins which leads to formation of platelet like structure which cause in the enhancement of the microwave absorption properties of material. The minimum reflection loss of −59.8 dB at 9.34 GHz frequency was observed makes the prepared material good candidate to be used in super high frequency application. The attenuation constant and reflectivity results are also in good agreement with minimum reflection losses results. - Highlights: • A series of W-type hexagonal ferrites were prepared by Sol–Gel method. • The XRD analysis showed that the W-type hexagonal structure. • The c/a ratio of these samples falls in the range of W-type hexagonal ferrites. • The FTIR spectrum also confirms the single W-type hexagonal phase. • The microwave absorption properties enhanced with Pr–Cu substitution.

  17. Facile preparation and enhanced microwave absorption properties of flake carbonyl iron/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dandan, E-mail: mdd4776@126.com; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Flake carbonyl iron/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites were prepared by surface oxidation technique. • Lower permittivity and modest permeability was obtained by the FCI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites. • Enhanced absorption efficiency and broader absorption band were obtained. - Abstract: Flake carbonyl iron/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (FCI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composites with enhanced microwave absorption properties were prepared by a direct and flexible surface oxidation technique. The phase structures, morphology, magnetic properties, frequency-dependent electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the composites were investigated. The measurement results showed that lower permittivity as well as modest permeability was obtained by the FCI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites. The calculated microwave absorption properties indicated that enhanced absorption efficiency and broader absorption band were obtained by the FCI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite comparing with the FCI composite. The absorption frequency range with reflection loss (RL) below −5 dB of FCI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites at reaction time of 90 min at thickness of 1.5 mm is 13.3 GHz from 4.7 to 18 GHz, while the bandwidth of the FCI composite is only 5.9 GHz from 2.6 to 8.5 GHz at the same thickness. Thus, such absorbers could act as effective and wide broadband microwave absorbers in the GHz range.

  18. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of Ce-doped barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, Z.; Kameli, P., E-mail: kameli@cc.iut.ac.ir; Poorbaferani, A.; Ranjbar, M.; Salamati, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ba{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) polycrystalline samples were synthesized by the sol–gel method and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer. All the synthesized samples showed nearly single magnetoplumbite phase and an average particle size of the undoped sample of about 500 nm decreasing with Ce doping content. The magnetization first increased and then decreased with the increase in Ce; on the other hand, coercivity showed no regular behavior with Ce content. Maximum values of magnetization (53 emu/g) and coercivity (5088 Oe) were obtained for x=0.1. Microwave absorption measured within the 2–18 microwave frequency range indicated maximum reflection losses of −16.74 dB at 10.3 GHz and of −20.47 dB at 16.22 GHz for x=0.15 and x=0.2 samples, respectively. The present investigation suggests Ce substituted barium hexaferrite as a promising candidate for microwave absorbing materials. - Highlights: • The Ba{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) polycrystalline samples were synthesized by sol–gel method. • The magnetization increases first and then decreases with increasing Ce content. • The maximum reflection loss of −20.47 dB at frequency 16.22 GHz were obtained for x=0.2 sample.

  19. Microstructures, Magnetic Properties and Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Ti2+ -Mn4+Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Manawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Ti2+-Mn4+substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaFe12-2xTixMnxO19 ferrite, where x varies from 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8.Ti2+-Mn4+ ions were obtained from TiO and MnO2 precursors which were mechanically alloyed together with BaCO3 and Fe2O3 precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns for sintered samples confirmed that the materials are consisted with single phase BHF structure. Unit cell volume and crystallite size was found increase with increasing x. Crystallite size for all samples below 70 nm, but the grain morphology shown that the grains is in range of 200 - 400 nm, which concluded that each grain are polycrystalline. The saturation magnetization is increases up to x = 0.4 and decrease for higher x values, while the coercivity remains decreases monotonically. These results were interpreted in terms of the site preferential occupation of Ti2+ and Mn4+ at low level substitution.These substitution revealed of enhanced reflection loss (RL up to 25 dB forx=0.6.It suggested that the synthesized can be employed as effective microwave absorbers in various devices.

  20. Microwave absorption properties of reduced graphene oxide strontium hexaferrite/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sanghamitra; Ray, J.; Patro, T. U.; Alegaonkar, Prashant; Datar, Suwarna

    2018-03-01

    The key factors to consider when designing microwave absorber materials for eradication of electromagnetic (EM) pollution are absorption of incident EM waves and good impedance matching. By keeping these things in mind, flexible microwave absorber composite films can be fabricated by simple gel casting techniques using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and strontium ferrite (SF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. SF nanoparticles are synthesized by the well known sol-gel method. Subsequently, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and SF nanocomposite (RGOSF) are prepared through a chemical reduction method using hydrazine. The structure, morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite are characterized in detail by various techniques. The SF particles are found to be nearly 500 nm and decorated on RGO sheets as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Fourier transform infrared and and Raman spectroscopy clearly show the presence of SF in the graphene sheet by the lower peak positions. Finally, ternary polymer composites of RGO/SF/PMMA are prepared by an in situ polymerization method. Magnetic and dielectric studies of the composite reveal that the presence of RGO/SF/PMMA lead to polarization effects contributing to dielectric loss. Also, RGO surrounding SF provides a conductive network in the polymer matrix which is in turn responsible for the magnetic loss in the composite. Thus, the permittivity as well as the permeability of the composite can be controlled by an appropriate combination of RGO and SF in PMMA. More than 99% absorption efficiency is achieved by a suitable combination of magneto-dielectric coupling in the X-band frequency range by incorporating 9 wt% of RGO and 1 wt% of SF in the polymer matrix.

  1. Isothermal section at 773 K and microwave absorption properties of Pr-Fe-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shunkang, E-mail: skpan88@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Xiong, Jilei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Yao, Qingrong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Materials and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Rao, Guanghui, E-mail: rgh@guet.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Cheng, Lichun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Materials and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhou, Huaiying [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The isothermal section at 773 K of the phase diagram of Pr-Fe-Ni system was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The isothermal section consists of 11 single phase regions, 19 two-phase regions and 9 three-phase regions. The maximum solid solubilities of Fe in Ni, PrNi{sub 5}, Pr{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}, PrNi{sub 3}, PrNi{sub 2}, Pr{sub 7}Ni{sub 3} and Pr{sub 3}Ni are about 80.0, 18.2, 15.4, 11.8, 1.9, 1.7 and 4.4 at%, respectively. The maximum solid solubilities of Ni in Fe and Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} are about 5.0 and 1.2 at%, respectively. The solid solubility of Fe in PrNi phase is negligible. The influence of Fe substitution on the microwave absorbing properties of the PrNi{sub 5} alloy was investigated. The frequency corresponding to the minimum absorption peak of Pr{sub 16.67}Ni{sub 83.33-x}Fe{sub x} (x = 0.0–17.5) shifts towards higher frequency region upon the Fe substitution. The Pr{sub 16.67}Ni{sub 68.33}Fe{sub 15.0} alloy exhibits the best microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of Pr{sub 16.67}Ni{sub 68.33}Fe{sub 15.0} powder is −35.10 dB at 9.76 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth of reflection loss smaller than −10 dB reaches about 1.60 GHz with the best matching thickness of 1.5 mm. - Highlights: • The phase equilibria of Pr-Fe-Ni system at 773 K were determined experimentally. • The isothermal section consists of 11 single phase regions, 19 two-phase regions and 9 three-phase regions. • The solid solubility of each binary compound was determined experimentally. • The microwave absorbing properties of the PrNi{sub 5}-based Pr-Ni-Fe alloys was investigated.

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles for Cr(IV) ions uptake and microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Peng

    2016-05-12

    Abstract: Colloidal mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles with tunable porosity were realized by a simple and scalable solvothermal route with the aid of AOT as ligands. AOT was used to induce the anisotropic crystal growth of smaller nanocrystals and restrain their tight aggregation so as to form more mesoscale pores. Morphologies and microstructures investigation by SEM and TEM revealed that the bigger nanoparticles were composed of smaller nanocrystals with an average size of 18 nm. A possible formation mechanism was proposed for the mesoporous nanoparticles. Study of nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm revealed that the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of mesoporous nanoparticles is up to 209 m2/g, resulting from the slit-shaped pores created by the aggregation of polyhedral nanocrystals. Magnetic properties study indicated that the as-prepared nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Optimized mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles exhibit a maximum Cr(VI) ion sorption capacity of 12.9 mmol/g, and its absorption behavior followed a Freundlich model. Microwave absorption study indicated that porous nanoparticles own higher permeability values than that of solid nanoparticles, leading to a higher dielectric loss in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles for Cr(IV) ions uptake and microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peng; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Suojiang; Yuan, Pei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-05-01

    Colloidal mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles with tunable porosity were realized by a simple and scalable solvothermal route with the aid of AOT as ligands. AOT was used to induce the anisotropic crystal growth of smaller nanocrystals and restrain their tight aggregation so as to form more mesoscale pores. Morphologies and microstructures investigation by SEM and TEM revealed that the bigger nanoparticles were composed of smaller nanocrystals with an average size of 18 nm. A possible formation mechanism was proposed for the mesoporous nanoparticles. Study of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm revealed that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of mesoporous nanoparticles is up to 209 m2/g, resulting from the slit-shaped pores created by the aggregation of polyhedral nanocrystals. Magnetic properties study indicated that the as-prepared nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Optimized mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles exhibit a maximum Cr(VI) ion sorption capacity of 12.9 mmol/g, and its absorption behavior followed a Freundlich model. Microwave absorption study indicated that porous nanoparticles own higher permeability values than that of solid nanoparticles, leading to a higher dielectric loss in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz.

  4. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  5. Dielectric and Microwave Absorption Properties of TiC-Al2O3/Silica Coatings at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    The dielectric property and microwave attenuation performance of a TiC micropowder-filled Al2O3/silica coating were studied. The permittivity of the coating increases gradually with increasing TiC content, which can be attributed to the enhancement of polarization ability and the increase of coating conductivity. Meanwhile, the high-temperature microwave attenuation property of the 30 wt.% TiC-loaded coating was investigated in the temperature range of 25-250°C. Both the real and imaginary parts of complex permittivity exhibit obvious temperature-dependent behavior and increase with the rise of temperature. In the studied temperature range, this coating exhibits an excellent microwave absorption property. A strong absorption peak with minimum RL of -55.2 dB is obtained at 11.8 GHz when the temperature reaches 150°C. Furthermore, the absorption bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) exhibits a widening tendency with the increase of temperature. As the temperature rises from 25°C to 250°C, the effective bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) expands from 2.2 GHz to 3.2 GHz. These results suggest that the TiC-Al2O3/silica coating could be a desirable candidate for microwave absorbtion in the measured frequency and temperature ranges.

  6. Microwave absorption enhancement and dual-nonlinear magnetic resonance of ultra small nickel with quasi-one-dimensional nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Pan, Ya-Fei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Qu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D)nickel nanostructures were prepared by a facial wet chemical process, and then the nickel chains/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites were fabricated using the hot-molding procedure. Both the complex permittivity and permeability of the Ni/PVDF composites could be artificially adjusted by changing the nickel proportions, which contribute to enhancing the microwave absorption. An excellent reflection loss (RL) of -42.08 dB at 7.4 GHz with a low filler loading(20 wt%)and effective bandwidth (RL microwave absorbers.

  7. Microwave absorption property of the diatomite coated by Fe-CoNiP films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhenqiang; Cai, Jun; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The bio-absorbent coated Fe-CoNiP was fabricated by electroless and CVD. • The EM parameters were enlarged as Fe coated on the diatomite. • The coating CIPs play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • The Fe-CoNiP diatomite had a better absorbing and shielding properties. - Abstract: A bio-absorbent of Fe-CoNiP coated on the diatomite was fabricated by way of electroless plating of CoNiP and subsequent chemical vapor deposition of Fe. The surface morphology and composition of the above-mentioned diatomite particles at different stage were characterized with the scanning electron microscopy and the energy spectrum analysis respectively, and the results showed that the diatomite was successfully coated with CoNoP and Fe (carbony iron). The complex permittivity and permeability of composites filled with the bio-absorbent and paraffin was measured in frequency range of 2–18 GHz, and then the microwave reflection loss (RL) and the shielding effectiveness (SE) were calculated. The results showed that the permittivity and the permeability were both enlarged as Fe films were coated onto the CoNiP-coated diatomite, which was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of carbonyl irons. The composites made with the Fe-CoNiP diatomite had a better absorbing property (minimum RL −11.0 dB) as well as the shielding property (maximum SE 5.6 dB) at thickness 2 mm. It indicated the absorption property was mainly due to the attenuation on the microwave, and the Fe-CoNiP diatomite could be an effective absorbent with low-density.

  8. Surface functionalization of carbonyl iron with aluminum phosphate coating toward enhanced anti-oxidative ability and microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenju; Li, Xuandong; Wang, Ying; Qiang, Rong; Tian, Chunhua; Wang, Na; Han, Xijiang; Du, Yunchen

    2018-01-01

    Fe@AlPO4 core-shell composites with tunable AlPO4 content have been successfully prepared through in situ deposition of AlPO4 on the surface of carbonyl iron. The presence of the AlPO4 layer improves the anti-oxidative ability of the internal carbonyl iron, so that surface oxidation and magnetic degradation in these composites are significantly suppressed when compared with naked carbonyl iron. It is worth noting that the AlPO4 layer can affect the electromagnetic parameters of carbonyl iron, resulting in well-matched characteristic impedance. By optimizing the AlPO4 layer content, the Fe@AlPO4 composite can display excellent reflection loss characteristics, and qualified absorption in a very broad frequency range (2.4-18.0 GHz over -10 dB) can be achieved. The microwave absorption performance of the Fe@AlPO4 composite is indeed superior to pure carbonyl iron as well as many previously reported carbonyl iron-based composites. More importantly, the Fe@AlPO4 composite can maintain good microwave absorption properties after treatment at high temperature for long time periods. These results provide new insight into the fabrication of carbonyl iron-based composites with good microwave absorption and anti-oxidative properties that meet the requirements in practical applications.

  9. Preparation and characterization of novel glass–ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A novel glass–ceramic tile consisting of one glass–ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73–99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass–ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn 2+ 0.17 Fe 3+ 0.83 )[Fe 3+ 1.17 Fe 2+ 0.06 Ni 2+ 0.77 ]O 4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass–ceramic layer at frequency of 2–18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of −17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass–ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption. - Highlights: • Iron ore tailings (IOTs) have been used as one of the main raw materials. • Glass–ceramic tile contains spinel ferrite has been prepared. • The cation distribution of the spinel ferrite has been calculated. • The intrinsic complex permeability and permittivity have been evaluated

  10. Structure and microwave absorption properties of Pr–Fe–Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jilei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Pan, Shunkang, E-mail: skpan88@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Cheng, Lichun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Materials and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Xing [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Hezhou University, Hezhou 542800 (China); Lin, Peihao [School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 17−x}Ni{sub x} (X=0.0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0) alloy powders were obtained by arc smelting and high energy ball milling method. The phase structure, morphology and particle size of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction-based particle size analyzer, respectively. The saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were determined by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA), respectively. The results indicate that the lattice parameter and the saturation magnetization of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 17−x}Ni{sub x} alloys decrease with increasing Ni content. And the minimum absorption peak frequency shifts towards the higher region with increasing Ni content. Compared to the powders without heat treatment, the powders tempered at 100 °C for 2 h have better absorbing properties. The minimum reflectivity peak value of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Ni alloy reaches about −23.6 dB at 2.72 GHz with the matching thickness of 3.5 mm. - Highlights: • The structure, morphology, magnetic properties of Pr–Fe–Ni alloys were studied. • The microwave absorption properties of Pr–Fe–Ni alloys were carefully studied. • The absorbing properties were improved by adjusting component and post heat treatment. • The minimum reflection loss of Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}Ni alloy reaches −23.6 dB at 2.72 GHz with d=3.5 mm.

  11. Development of non-metallic and conformal dual band meta-skin and its absorption study for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Dipangkar; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2017-08-01

    An efficient approach for achieving a dual, conformal and non-metallic metamaterial absorber for microwave applications is proposed in this paper. The unit cell structures are simple circular ring resonators, made up of non-metallic and conducting expanded graphite, fabricated on a linear low density polyethylene substrate. The expanded graphite is synthesized, characterized and processed to be used as a conducting layer. The materials properties of linear low density polyethylene is investigated and found to be a promising candidate for flexible microwave applications. The developed absorber showed more than 90% absorption at 7.72 GHz and 9.92 GHz. Electric and magnetic fields are also simulated at the resonating frequency to understand the absorption mechanism. The proposed expanded graphite based metamaterial absorber possesses the advantages of being ultra-thin, flexible and non-corrosive.

  12. Electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy and microwave absorption properties in Fe50Ni50/Teflon composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe50Ni50 nanoparticle films with the size about 6 nm were deposited by a high energetic cluster deposition source. An electric field of about 0 - 40 kV was applied on the sample platform when the films were prepared. The field assisted deposition technique can dramatically induce in-plane magnetic anisotropy. To probe the microwave absorption properties, the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles were deliberately deposited on the dielectric Teflon sheet. Then the laminated Fe50Ni50/Teflon composites were used to do reflection loss scan. The results prove that the application of electric field is an effective avenue to improve the GHz microwave absorption performance of our magnetic nanoparticles films expressed by the movement of reflection loss peak to high GHz region for the composites.

  13. Absorption and Reflectance Spectra of Microwave Radiation by an Epoxy Resin Composite with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, F. F.; Milchanin, O. V.; Parfimovich, I. D.; Grinchenko, M. V.; Parhomenko, I. N.; Tkachev, A. G.; Bychanok, D. S.

    2017-09-01

    A procedure for dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the two-component polymer SpeciFix-20 (epoxy resin + hardener) using combined hydromechanical and ultrasonic mixing was developed. New composites with carbon nanotubes were produced. Their structures and optical and electrophysical characteristics were studied. The propagation of microwave radiation (26-38 GHz) in experimental composite samples was investigated. It was shown that the strong absorption of the composites appeared only with significant additions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and was caused by the resulting electrical conductivity of the composites. A size effect of the additive on the optical characteristics of the produced composites was established. Equal absorption coefficients for microwave radiation could be achieved by using a smaller amount of carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters and greater specific surface areas in the composite.

  14. PRODUCTION, DIELECTRIC PROPERTY AND MICROWAVE ABSORPTION PROPERTY OF SiC(Fe SOLID SOLUTION POWDER BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOLEI SU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SiC(Fe solid solution powders were synthesized by sol–gel method under different reaction time, using methyltriethoxysilane as the silicon and carbon source and analytic ferric chloride as the dopant, respectively. The synthesized powders have been characterized by XRD, SEM and Raman spectra. Results show that the lattice constant decreases with increasing reaction time. The electric permittivities of SiC samples were determined in the frequency range of 8.2 ~ 12.4 GHz. Results show that the permittivity of SiC decreases with increasing reaction time. The SiC(Fe solid solution powder with reaction time of 4 h with 2 mm thickness exhibit the best microwave absorption property in X-band range (8.2 - 12.4 GHz. The microwave absorption mechanism has been discussed.

  15. Studies on the synthesis and microwave absorption properties of Fe3 O4/polyaniline FGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Wang, Yuan-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    Electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI)-magnetic oxide (Fe3 O4) composites were synthesized by emulsion polymerization in the presence of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as the surfactant and dopant and ammonium persulfate (APS) as the oxidant. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the composite has a magnetic core and an electric shell and the modification has prevented the aggregation of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles effectively. The electromagnetic parameter measurements (ɛ'', ɛ', μ'' and μ') in the range of 2-18 GHz prove that Fe3 O4 in the Fe3 O4/PANI/DBSA is responsible for the electric and ferromagnetic behavior of the composites. As a result, the electromagnetic parameters can be designed by adjusting the content of the Fe3 O4. The microwave absorption of functionally graded material (FGM) was simulated by the computer according to the principle of impedance match and the calculated results agreed quite well with the experimentally measured data (R4 GHz).

  16. Study on preparation and microwave absorption property of the core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqiu; Che, Ruxin; Jiang, Yijun; Yu, Bing

    2013-12-01

    Microwave absorbing material plays a great role in electromagnetic pollution controlling, electromagnetic interference shielding and stealth technology, etc. The core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La were prepared by a solid-state reaction method, which is applied to the electromagnetic wave absorption. The core is magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere, and the shell is the nanosized ferrite doped with La. The thermal decomposition process of the sample was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The morphology and components of the composite materials were investigated by the X-ray diffraction analysis, the microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer analysis indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction happens between ferrite of magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere and nanosized ferrite coating, which caused outstanding magnetic properties. The microwave absorbing property of the sample was measured by reflectivity far field radar cross section of radar microwave absorbing material with vector network analyzer. The results indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction enhanced magnetic loss of composite materials. Therefore, in the frequency of 5 GHz, the reflection coefficient can achieve -24 dB. It is better than single material and is consistent with requirements of the microwave absorbing material at the low-frequency absorption. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for non-Markovian electron dynamics in the microwave absorption of a two-dimensional electron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. Â. I.; Kapustin, A. Â. A.; Dmitriev, I. Â. A.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the absorption of monochromatic microwave radiation in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems for the frequency span from 10 to 380 GHz using a bolometric method. For frequencies above 100 GHz the absorption exhibits an anomalous magnetic field dependence. Minima form at harmonics of the cyclotron resonance frequency. The results contrast previously reported data for other frequency ranges. Quasiclassical memory effects originating from the non-Markovian dynamics of electrons in a disorder potential containing short-range scatterers on top of a smooth potential background favorably account for the observed behavior.

  18. Dependence of microwave absorption properties on ferrite volume fraction in MnZn ferrite/rubber radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Adriana M., E-mail: adrianaamg@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel C., E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Dantas, Christine C., E-mail: christineccd@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We report the analysis of measurements of the complex magnetic permeability ({mu}{sub r}) and dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}) spectra of a rubber radar absorbing material (RAM) with various MnZn ferrite volume fractions. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out in a vector network analyzer. Optimum conditions for the maximum microwave absorption were determined by substituting the complex permeability and permittivity in the impedance matching equation. Both the MnZn ferrite content and the RAM thickness effects on the microwave absorption properties, in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, were evaluated. The results show that the complex permeability and permittivity spectra of the RAM increase directly with the ferrite volume fraction. Reflection loss calculations by the impedance matching degree (reflection coefficient) show the dependence of this parameter on both thickness and composition of RAM. - Highlights: > Permeability and permittivity spectra of a MnZn ferrite RAM (2-18 GHz) are given. > Higher MnZn volume fraction favors increase of RAM/'s permeability and permittivity. > Minimum RL as a function of frequency, thickness and MnZn volume fraction given. > Higher thicknesses imply better absorption; optimum band shifts to lower frequencies. > For higher volume fractions, smaller thickness might offer better absorption (>10 GHz).

  19. On cloud ice induced absorption and polarisation effects in microwave limb sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave limb sounding in the presence of ice clouds was studied by detailed simulations, where clouds and other atmospheric variables varied in three dimensions and the full polarisation state was considered. Scattering particles were assumed to be horizontally aligned oblate spheroids with a size distribution parameterized in terms of temperature and ice water content. A general finding was that particle absorption is significant for limb sounding, which is in contrast to the down-looking case, where it is usually insignificant. Another general finding was that single scattering can be assumed for cloud optical paths below about 0.1, which is thus an important threshold with respect to the complexity and accuracy of retrieval algorithms. The representation of particle sizes during the retrieval is also discussed. Concerning polarisation, specific findings were as follows: Firstly, no significant degree of circular polarisation was found for the considered particle type. Secondly, for the ±45° polarisation components, differences of up to 4 K in brightness temperature were found, but differences were much smaller when single scattering conditions applied. Thirdly, the vertically polarised component has the smallest cloud extinction. An important goal of the study was to derive recommendations for future limb sounding instruments, particularly concerning their polarisation setup. If ice water content is among the retrieval targets (and not just trace gas mixing ratios, then the simulations show that it should be best to observe any of the ±45° and circularly polarised components. These pairs of orthogonal components also make it easier to combine information measured from different positions and with different polarisations.

  20. Structure and microwave absorption properties of (Pr,Dy)Ni{sub 4}Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jilei, E-mail: jileixue@163.com [Chinalco Guangxi Nonferrous Jinyuan Rare Earth Co., LTD, Hezhou 542603 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials & School of Materials and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Pan, Shunkang, E-mail: skpan88@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials & School of Materials and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Qiao, Ziqiang [Chinalco Guangxi Nonferrous Jinyuan Rare Earth Co., LTD, Hezhou 542603 (China); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials & School of Materials and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys were synthesized by arc-smelting and high energy ball milling method. The structure, morphology, particle size and electromagnetic parameters of the powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction-based particle size analyzer and vector network analyzer (VNA), respectively. The results reveal that the Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe compounds are crystallized in PrNi{sub 4}Fe structure. The minimum absorption peak frequency of Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe shifts towards higher frequency region upon the Fe content. The minimum reflection loss of the Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe alloys increases first and then decreases with increasing Dy substitution. The Dy{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 4}Fe alloy possess the best absorbing properties: the minimum reflection loss is −31.65 dB at 15.28 GHz with the best matching thickness d =1.0 mm and the reflection loss with the thickness ranging of 1.0–4.0 mm could reach −10 dB. - Highlights: • The structure and morphology of Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe alloys were studied. • The microwave absorption properties of Dy{sub x}Pr{sub 1−x}Ni{sub 4}Fe alloys were carefully studied. • The minimum reflection loss of Dy{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 4}Fe alloy reaches −31.65 dB at 15.28 GHz with d=1.0 mm.

  1. Terahertz signatures of the exciton formation dynamics in non-resonantly excited semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, M.; Hoyer, W.; Koch, S. W.

    2004-03-01

    A microscopic theory for the induced terahertz (THz) absorption of semiconductors is applied to study the time-dependent system response after non-resonant optical excitation. The formation of excitonic populations from an interacting electron-hole plasma is analyzed and the characteristic THz signatures are computed. Good qualitative agreement with recent experiments is obtained.

  2. Microporous Co@C Nanoparticles Prepared by Dealloying CoAl@C Precursors: Achieving Strong Wideband Microwave Absorption via Controlling Carbon Shell Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Liao, Haoyan; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Liu, Tong

    2017-12-27

    Excellent magnetic features make Co-based materials promising candidates as high-performance microwave absorbers. However, it is still a significant challenge for Co-based absorbers to possess high-intensity and broadband absorption simultaneously, owing to the lack of dielectric loss and impedance matching. Herein, microporous Co@C nanoparticles (NPs) with carbon shell thicknesses ranging from 1.8-4.9 nm have been successfully synthesized by dealloying CoAl@C precursors. All of the samples exhibit high microwave absorption performance. The microporous Co@C sample possessing a carbon shell of 1.8 nm exhibits the highest absorption intensity among these samples with a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -141.1 dB, whose absorption bandwidth for RL ≤ -10 dB is 7.3 GHz. As the thickness of the carbon shell increases, the absorption bandwidth of the NPs becomes wider. For the sample with the carbon shell thickness of 4.9 nm, the absorption bandwidth for RL ≤ -10 dB reaches a record high of 13.2 GHz. The outstanding microwave attenuation properties are attributed to the dielectric loss of the carbon shell, the magnetic loss of the Co core, and the cooperation of the core-shell structure and microporous morphology. The strong wideband microwave absorption of the carbon-coated microporous Co NPs highlights their potential applications in microwave absorbing systems.

  3. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  4. Intense field non-resonant multiphoton absorption of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the results of nonlinear ionization and dissociation of gas-phase diatomic molecules, H 2 , D 2 , O 2 , and Cl 2 , in an intense (10 11-14 W/cm 2 ) laser field. Measurements include energy and angularly resolved vibrational photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as mass spectroscopy. 5 refs., 2 figs

  5. Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yu; Xie, Xiubo; Li, Da [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chou, Wusheng [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from Ni{sub 45}Al{sub 55} master alloy by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction method, and were subsequently dealloyed to produce porous Ni@NiO NPs of 36 nm. The pore size ranges from 0.7 to 1.6 nm, leading to large specific surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g and big pore volume of 0.507 cc/g. The saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) of the microporous Ni@NiO NPs are 11.5 emu/g and 5.2 Oe. They exhibit high microwave absorption performance with a minimum reflection coefficient (RC) of −86.9 dB and an absorption bandwidth of 2.6 GHz (RC≤−10 dB) at thickness of 4.5 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties are attributed to the synergistic effect of the magnetic Ni core and dielectric NiO shell, and the micropore architecture. The NPs with micropore morphology and core/shell structure open a new way to modify the microwave absorption performance. - Graphical abstract: The microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}@Al NPs exhibit high microwave absorption intensity (−86.9 dB) and wide absorption bandwidth (2.6 GHz for RC≤−10 dB). - Highlights: • Microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticals were prepared by chemically dealloying method. • They possessed micropores of 0.7–1.6 nm with a surface area of 69.5 m{sup 2}/g. • They showed high microwave absorption intensity and wide absorption bandwidth. • Microwave absorption mechanism was explained by micropore and core/shell structures.

  6. Microwave absorption properties of a wave-absorbing coating employing carbonyl-iron powder and carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lidong; Duan Yuping; Ma Lixin; Liu Shunhua; Yu Zhen

    2010-01-01

    To prevent serious electromagnetic interference, a single-layer wave-absorbing coating employing complex absorbents composed of carbonyl-iron powder (CIP) and carbon black (CB) with epoxy resin as matrix was prepared. The morphologies of CIP and CB were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The electromagnetic parameters of CIP and CB were measured in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz by transmission/reflection technology, and the electromagnetic loss mechanisms of the two particles were discussed, respectively. The microwave absorption properties of the coatings were investigated by measuring reflection loss (RL) using arch method. The effects of CIP ratio, CB content and thickness on the microwave absorption properties were discussed, respectively. The results showed that the higher thickness, CIP or CB content could make the absorption band shift towards the lower frequency range. Significantly, the wave-absorbing coating could be applied in different frequency ranges according to actual demand by controlling the content of CIP or CB in composites.

  7. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-02-21

    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  8. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  9. Magnetism and Microwave Absorption Properties of Fe3O4 Microflake-Paraffin Composites Without and With Magnetic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Junming; Chen, Yuanwei; Wang, Guowu; Wang, Dian; Wang, Tao; Li, Fashen

    2018-01-01

    We have synthesized thin Fe3O4 microflakes by a simple hydrothermal method and prepared Fe3O4 microflake-paraffin composites without and with magnetic orientation using the method of simple ultrasonic mixing and rotating samples in a magnetic field. X-ray diffractometer, Mössbauer spectrum, scanning electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to characterize the samples. The complex permittivity and permeability of Fe3O4 microflake-paraffin composites without and with magnetic orientation were measured in the frequency range of 0.1-18 GHz by a vector network analyzer using a coaxial method. The reflection loss (RL) was calculated by the measured electromagnetic parameters using transmission line theory. The measurement of electromagnetic parameters shows that magnetic orientation makes the complex permittivity and permeability increase. The calculated RL shows that the Fe3O4 microflake-paraffin composite with magnetic orientation has enhanced microwave absorption properties in the frequency range of 1-3 GHz and the thickness range of 2.9-3.5 mm, indicating that the Fe3O4 microflake-paraffin composite with magnetic orientation is a promising thin microwave absorption material in the L-S band.

  10. Electromagnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of the Flake-Shaped Pr-Ho-Fe Alloys in the C-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jialiang; Pan, Shunkang; Qiao, Ziqiang; Cheng, Lichun; Wang, Zhenzhong; Lin, Peihao; Chang, Junqing

    2018-01-01

    The polycrystalline samples Pr x Ho2- x Fe17 ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by arc melting and high-energy ball milling method. The influences of Pr substitution on phase structure, morphology, saturation magnetization and electromagnetic parameters were investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometry and vector network analyzer, respectively. The results show that the particle size increased and the saturation magnetization decreased with increasing Pr content. The minimum absorption peak frequency shifted towards a lower-frequency region with increasing Pr concentration. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was -41.03 dB at 6.88 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.0 mm. With different thickness of 1.8-2.8 mm, the minimum reflection loss (RL) of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17 powder was less than -20 dB in the whole C-band (4-8 GHz). The microwave-absorbing properties of the composite with different weight ratios of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co were researched. The microwave-absorbing peaks of the composites shifted to a lower frequency with increasing Co content. The minimum RL of Pr0.3Ho1.7Fe17/Co(10%) was -42.51 dB at 4.72 GHz with a coating thickness of 2.6 mm. This suggests that the Pr-Ho-Fe will be a promising microwave absorption material in higher-gigahertz frequency, especially in the C-band.

  11. Effect of thickness on microwave absorptive behavior of La-Na doped Co-Zr barium hexaferrites in 18.0–26.5 GHz band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Amit [D.A.V. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Pubby, Kunal [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the microwave properties of Lanthanum-Sodium doped Cobalt-Zirconium barium hexaferrites, intended as microwave absorbers, are analyzed on Vector Network Analyzer in K-band. The results indicate that the doping has resulted in lowering of real permittivity and enhancement of dielectric losses. Real permeability has shown increase while magnetic losses have shown decrease in value with doping. All these four properties have shown very small variation with frequency in the scanned frequency range which indicates the relaxation type of behavior. Microwave absorption characteristics of these compositions are analyzed with change in sample thickness. The results demonstrate that the matching frequency of the microwave absorber shifts towards lower side of frequency band with increase in thickness. The complete analysis of the prepared microwave absorbers shows a striking achievement with very low reflection loss and wide absorption bandwidth for all the six compositions in 18–26.5 GHz frequency band. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic Characterization of M-hexaferrites in K-band (18–26.5 GHz) • Variation of absorption properties with thickness of sample. • Satisfaction of quarter-wavelength condition for absorption properties • Results of double-layer absorbers (not reports till day by anyone).

  12. Microwave absorption studies of magnetic sublattices in microwave sintered Cr{sup 3+} doped SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveena, K., E-mail: praveenaou@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Sadhana, K., E-mail: sadhana@osmania.ac.in [Department of Physics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Saifabad, Hyderabad 500 004 (India); Liu, Hsiang-Lin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Bououdina, M. [Nanotechnology Centre, College of Science, University of Bahrain (Bahrain); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2017-03-15

    The partial substitution of Fe{sup 3+} by Cr{sup 3+} in strontium hexaferrite has shown to be an effective method to tailor anisotropy for many novel microwave applications. Some basic studies have revealed that this substitution leads to unusual interactions among the magnetic sublattices of the hexaferrite. In order to investigate these interactions, Cr{sup 3+} doped SrCr{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) (m-type) hexaferrites were prepared by microwave-hydrothermal (m-H) method and subsequently sintered at 950 °C/90 min using microwave furnace. The magnetic hysteresis (m-H) loops revealed the ferromagnetic nature of nanoparticles (NPs). The coercive field was increasing from 3291 Oe to 7335 Oe with increasing chromium content. This resulting compacts exhibited high squareness ratio (M{sub r}/M{sub s}–80%). The intrinsic coercivity (H{sub ci}) above 1,20,000 Oe and high values of magnetocrystalline anisotropy revealed that all samples are magnetically hard materials. A material with high loss as well as high dielectric constant may be desired in applications such as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing coatings. The room temperature complex dielectric and magnetic properties (ε′, ε′′, µ′ and µ′′) of Cr{sup 3+} doped SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were measured in X-band region. The frequency dependent dielectric and magnetic losses were increasing to large extent. The reflection coefficient varied from −16 to −33 dB at 10.1 GHz as Cr{sup 3+} concentration increased from x=0.0 to x=0.9. Ferromagnetic resonance spectra (FMR) were measured in the X-band (9.4 GHz), linewidth decreases with chromium concentration from 1368 to 752 Oe from x=0.0 to x=0.9, which is quite low compared to commercial samples. We also have detailed origins of the FMR linewidth broadenings in terms of some important theoretical models. These results show that chromium doped strontium hexaferrites are useful for microwave absorption in the X

  13. Prediction of microwave absorption properties of tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker radar absorbing material without prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jiang-Fan; Song, Zhong-Guo; Xi, Xiao-Li

    2017-07-01

    The radar absorbing material (RAM) containing a tetrapod-needle zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) has been proved to have good efficiency of microwave absorption. However, the available theoretical models, which are intended to predict the microwave absorbing properties of such an interesting composite, still cannot work well without some prior knowledge, like the measured effective electromagnetic parameters of the prepared T-ZnOw composite. Hence, we propose a novel predictive method here to calculate the reflectivity of T-ZnOw RAM without prior knowledge. In this method, the absorbing ability of this kind of material is divided into three main aspects: the unstructured background, the conductive network, and the nanostructured particle. Then, the attenuation properties of these three parts are represented, respectively, by three different approaches: the equivalent spherical particle and the static strong fluctuation theory, the equivalent circuit model obtained from the complex impedance spectra technology, and the combination of four different microscopic electromagnetic responses. The operational calculation scheme can be obtained by integrating these three absorption effects into the existing theoretical attenuation model. The reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of a T-ZnON/SiO2 composite in the range of 8-14 GHz shows that the proposed scheme can predict the microwave absorption properties of the T-ZnOw RAM. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of these three mechanisms indicates that, on the one hand, the background plays a dominant role in determining the real part of the effective permittivity of the T-ZnOw composite while the network and the particle are the decisive factors of its material loss; on the other hand, an zero-phase impedance, i.e., a pure resistance, with appropriate resonance characteristic might be a rational physical description of the attenuation property of the conductive network, but it is difficult to realize

  14. Magnetic-field-dependent microwave absorption in HgSe in weak magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinger, A. I., E-mail: Anatoly.Veinger@mail.ioffe.ru; Tisnek, T. V.; Kochman, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Okulov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The low-temperature magnetoresistive effect in the semiconductor HgSe:Fe in weak magnetic fields at microwave frequencies is examined. The negative and positive components of magnetoabsorption based on the magnetoresistive effect in the degenerate conduction band are analyzed. The special features of experiments carried out in the investigated frequency range are noted. The momentum and electron-energy relaxation times are determined from the experimental field and temperature dependences.

  15. Structural, Magnetic and Microwave Absorption Properties of Hydrothermally Synthesized (Gd, Mn, Co) Substituted Ba-Hexaferrite Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Z.; Arab, A.; Ghanbari, F.

    2018-02-01

    Gd, Mn and Co substituted barium hexagonal ferrite nanoparticles, according to the formula Ba1- x Gd x Fe12-2 y (MnCo) y O19 and the proportion of y = x/2 (and x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1), have been prepared by hydrothermal method. Structural, magnetic and absorption microwave properties of the compositions were evaluated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometry, and vector network analysis. Studying the XRDs data showed the single-phase structure of all samples without any impurities at 900°C calcination temperature. FE-SEM micrographs demonstrated that the morphology of the nanoparticles has planar and nearly hexagonal morphology. The nanoparticles size calculated within the range of 62-85 nm. Study of the room temperature hysteresis loops of calcined samples indicated that maximum magnetizations and coercivities decreased compared to undoped composite with respect to x. The alterations of magnetizations and coercivities are related to the site occupation of substituted ions, change in grain growth inhibition and the effect of spin canting. Moreover, the results of microwave absorption measurements demonstrated that the maximum reflection loss of substituted Ba-hexaferrite equivalent to - 47 dB in sample x = 0.5 with thickness 5.6 mm at a frequency about 17.2 GHz and a bandwidth of 2 GHz greater than - 10 dB. The results showed that Gd has good potential for use as a rare-earth substitution in permanent magnet hexaferrites and these composites can be employed as absorbers in the gigahertz frequency range.

  16. Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated MWCNTs @ C ferrite nanocomposites and their enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaichuang; Gao, Xinbao; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Xuefang

    2018-04-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated MWCNTs @ C ferrite nanocomposites were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and a calcination process. As one kind absorbing material, we researched the electromagnetic absorption properties of the composites that were mixed with a filler loading of 80 wt% paraffin. In addition, we studied the influence of the magnetic nanoparticle content on the absorbing properties. The results showed that the frequency corresponding to the maximum absorptions shifted to lower frequency when the magnetic nanoparticles content increased. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated MWCNTs @ C ferrite nanocomposites with approximately 60% Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed the best electromagnetic absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss was -52.47 dB with a thickness of 2.0 mm at 10.4 GHz.

  17. Microwave absorption of a 2D electron system in spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, B. A.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Engel, L. W.; Lilly, M. P.; Simmons, J. A.; Reno, J. L.

    2010-03-01

    We report on microwave measurements of a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a spatially varying magnetic field, Bz, provided by a ferromagnet in proximity to the sample in a homogenous external field, Bz0. Dy, permalloy, and neodymium iron boron ferromagnets are used in two configurations, rods and plates with holes in them. The radius, rm, of the rods or holes ranges from 0.125 mm to 0.5 mm. The microwave transmission of the 2DES exhibits a resonance which decreases in peak frequency as Bz0 is increased. We observe peak frequencies from ˜ 9.5 GHz to150 MHz for external magnetic fields in a range from .02 Telsa to 1.5 Tesla. We will interpret the data in terms of plasma excitations similar to edge magnetoplasmons [1] but confined along the magnetic field inhomogeneity by the large magnetic field gradients there. The interpretation of the data will utilize profiles of the spatially varying magnetic field obtained by magneto optical imaging using iron garnet indicator films with an in-plane magnetization.

  18. Determination of the dipole moment of OCS with a microwave absorption cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, H.A.; Ruitenberg, G.

    The electric dipole moment of OCS has been measured with a resonance cavity as a Stark absorption cell. The result: μOCS = 0.7149 ± 0.0003. Debye agrees well with the dipole moment data obtained with an electric resonance beam experiment.

  19. Microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorptive behavior of doped W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza, E-mail: gordani@gmail.com; Mohseni, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ali; Hosseini, Sayed Rahman

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • High frequency properties of substituted W-type Sr-hexaferrite. • Saturation magnetization of samples is decreased with increasing of dopants content. • The ferrite sample covers about 6 GHz of bandwidth in K{sub u} band. • The optimum substituted samples can be used as a potential magnetic loss material. • Sample contain x = 0.4 of dopants have shown greater than 90% of reflection loss. - Abstract: Substituted W-type hexaferrite nanoparticles of SrZn{sub 2−x}Co{sub x/2}Ni{sub x/2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction results confirmed that W-type ferrite was identified as the main phase in whole samples in the range of x = 0–0.4. According to magnetic hysteresis loops, with increasing of substituted cations, saturation of magnetization increased and coercivity decreased due to crystalline site occupation of Zn with Ni and Co cations. The microwave reflection loss analysis results in the K{sub u} band (12–18 GHz) show that the highest value of reflection loss of samples was −29.11 dB at frequency of 14.57 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than 6 GHz by choosing reflection loss value of −10 dB as a reference. The results indicate that, the sample with appropriate amount of substituted cations hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  20. Facile fabrication of carbon microspheres decorated with B(OH) 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles: superior microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-06-02

    We demonstrate that novel three-dimensional (3D) B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles decorated carbon microspheres (B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMSs) can be fabricated via a facile thermal treatment process. The carbon microspheres with diameter of 1 to 3 μm and decorated B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of several to tens of nanometers are successfully fabricated. These novel 3D B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMS composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption with tunable strong absorption wavebands in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. They have a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -52.69 dB at a thickness of 3.0 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth for RL less than -10 dB is as large as 5.64 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance arises from the synergy of the impedance matching caused by the B(OH)3 nanoparticles, dielectric loss as well as the enhancement of multiple reflection among 3D α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals. These results provide a new strategy to tune electromagnetic properties and enhance the capacity of high-efficient microwave absorbers.

  1. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Ferrite Multilayer Nanofilms for Microwave Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwoong Heo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple method for fabricating multilayer thin films containing ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles, using layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly. These films have microwave absorbing properties for possible radar absorbing and stealth applications. To demonstrate incorporation of inorganic ferrite nanoparticles into an electrostatic-interaction-based LbL self-assembly, we fabricated two types of films: (1 a blended three-component LbL film consisting of a sequential poly(acrylic acid/oleic acid-ferrite blend layer and a poly(allylamine hydrochloride layer and (2 a tetralayer LbL film consisting of sequential poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride, poly(sodium-4-sulfonate, bPEI-ferrite, and poly(sodium-4-sulfonate layers. We compared surface morphologies, thicknesses, and packing density of the two types of ferrite multilayer film. Ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 were prepared via a coprecipitation method from an aqueous precursor solution. The structure and composition of the ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns of ferrite nanoparticles indicated a cubic spinel structure, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed their composition. Thickness growth and surface morphology were measured using a profilometer, atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope.

  2. Optimization of a microwave-pseudo-digestion procedure by experimental designs for the determination of trace elements in seafood products by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Barrera, P.; Moreda-Piñeiro, A.; Muñiz-Naveiro, O.; Gómez-Fernández, A. M. J.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.

    2000-08-01

    A Plackett-Burman 2 7×3/32 design for seven factors (nitric acid concentration, hydrochloride acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, acid solution volume, particle size, microwave power, and exposure time to microwave energy) was carried out in order to find the significant variables affecting the metals acid leaching after a pseudo-digestion procedure by microwave energy from mussel. Nitric acid concentration, hydrochloride concentration or hydrogen peroxide, and exposure time to microwave energy were the most significant variables, and a 2 3+star central composite design was used for their optimization. Nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations between 4.1 and 5.3 M, and between 2.8 and 3.8 M, respectively, were found as optimum for many elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn) yielding the acid leaching process for times in the 1.2-2.2 min range. However, As was quantitatively leached with hydrochloric acid concentrations between 4.8 and 5.3 M and an exposure time of 2.0 min, while Co and Se were extracted using nitric acid (1.0 and 5.0 M, respectively) and hydrogen peroxide (5.0 M) solution and an exposure time of 2.0 min. Finally, Hg was extracted using a hydrochloric acid/hydrogen peroxide solution at 3.5:2.0 M, and also for an optimum time of microwave radiation of 1.75 min. Trace metals were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor — atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods were finally applied to several reference materials (DORM-1, DOLT-1 and TORT-1), achieving good accuracy.

  3. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao; Zhang Duo

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  4. [Determination of trace elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn from different habitat by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Xue, Yue-Qin; Gui, Ren-Yi; Sun, Su-Qin; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2010-03-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique was proposed to determine the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Al, Se and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The RSD of the method was between 1.23% and 3.32%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 95.8% and 104.20%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of metal elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn. The experimental results also indicated that different areas' Lophantherum gracile brongn had different trace elements content. The content of trace elements K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn beneficial to the human body was rich. The content of the heavy metal trace element Pb in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Hunan province was slightly high. The content of the heavy metal trace element Cu in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Guangdong province and Anhui province is also slightly higher. Beside, the contents of harmful trace heavy metal elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and National Food Sanitation Standard. These determination results provided the scientific data for further discussing the relationship between the content of trace elements in Lophantherum gracile brongn and the medicine efficacy.

  5. Microwave radiation absorption and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in semimetal InAs/GaSb/AlSb composite quantum wells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Veinger, A.I.; Kochman, I.V.; Semenikhin, P.V.; Kalinina, K.V.; Parfeniev, R.V.; Berezovets, V.A.; Safonchik, M.O.; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta; Hulicius, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 046013. ISSN 1934-2608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations * microwave absorption * electron-paramagnetic resonance * composite quantum wells * InAs/GaSb/AlSb * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.325, year: 2016

  6. Microwave absorption properties of FeSi flaky particles prepared via a ball-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yuan, Yong; Jiang, Jian-tang; Gong, Yuan-xun; Zhen, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Flaky FeSi alloy particles with different aspect ratio were produced via ball-milling and a subsequent annealing. The microstructure and the morphology of the particles were examined by XRD and SEM. The dc resistivity, the static magnetization properties and electromagnetic properties were measured. Particles with high aspect ratio were found possess high permittivity and permeability. On the other hand, the variation of grain size and defects density was found influence the permittivity and permeability. High specific area was believed contribute to the intense dielectric loss and the high shape magnetic anisotropy lead to high permeability in the target band. Increased electromagnetic parameters compel the absorption peak's shift to lower frequency. Coating using flaky FeSi particles milled for 12 h as fillers presented a reflection loss of -10 dB at 2 GHz and a matching thickness of 1.88 mm. The flaky FeSi alloy particles prepared through ball-milling and annealing can be promising candidates for EMA application at 1-4 GHz band.

  7. Rapid analysis of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. by improved solvent-free microwave extraction with three types of microwave-absorption medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziming; Wang, Lu; Li, Tiechun; Zhou, Xin; Ding, Lan; Yu, Yong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi

    2006-11-01

    A new method of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials has been studied. By adding a microwave-absorption medium (MAM) to a reactor, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was improved and can be used to extract essential oils from dried plant material without pretreatment. With a microwave irradiation power of 85 W it took only approximately 30 min to extract the essential oils completely. The whole extraction process is simple, rapid, and economical. Three types of MAM, iron carbonyl powder (ICP), graphite powder (GP), and activated carbon powder (ACP), and two types of dried plant material, Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc., were studied. The results were compared with those obtained by use of conventional SFME, microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), and the conclusion drawn was that improved SFME was a feasible means of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials, because there were few differences between the composition of the essential oils extracted by improved SFME and by the other methods.

  8. Enhanced magnetic and microwave absorption properties of FeCo-SiO2 nanogranular film functionalized carbon fibers fabricated with the radio frequency magnetron method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongshan; Yue, Jianling; Tang, Xiu-Zhi; Du, Zuojuan; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2018-01-01

    The combination of carbon materials with magnetic materials to fabricate new composites has attracted widespread attention due to their strong potential applications as microwave absorbing materials. Here, combining the excellent physical properties of carbon fibers (CFs) with the unique magnetic properties of FeCo-SiO2 nanogranular films, we report a new type of nano-micrometer composite, which is fabricated by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at low temperature and high vacuum. The microstructures, phase compositions, mechanical performances, and magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the composites were successfully characterized. After modification with FeCo-SiO2 nanogranular films, the CFs still maintained high strength. The CF/FeCo-SiO2 nanogranular film composites exhibited magnetic properties, where the maximum value of saturation magnetization reached 56 emu/g, and the minimum coercivity reached 95 Oe. In particular, the CF/FeCo-SiO2 nanogranular film composites exhibited strong electromagnetic absorption properties in the range of 2-18 GHz. The absorption bandwidth lower than -10 dB was in the frequency range of 4.08-18 GHz, and the reflection loss reached -43.78 dB at 4.64 GHz with a thickness of 5 mm. The strategy utilized here for the preparation of functionalized CFs paves the way for the development of wave-absorption composites with excellent performances.

  9. Preparation and microwave-infrared absorption of reduced graphene oxide/Cu–Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-yue, Ma; Xiao-xia, Li; Yu-xiang, Guo; Yu-run, Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Cu–Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composite was prepared by solvothermal method, and its properties were characterized by SEM, x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and FTIR. The electromagnetic parameters in 2–18 GHz and mid-infrared (IR) spectral transmittance of the composite were measured, respectively. The results show that Cu0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of tens nanometers adsorb on surface of RGO, and meanwhile, Al2O3 nanoparticles adhere to the surface of Cu0.7Ni0.3Fe2O4 nanoparticles and RGO. The composite has both dielectric and magnetic loss mechanism. Its reflection loss is lower than ‑19 dB in 2–18 GHz, and the maximum of ‑23.2 dB occurs at 15.6 GHz. With the increasing of Al2O3 amount, its reflection loss becomes lower and the maximum moves towards low frequency slightly. Compared with RGO/Cu–Ni ferrite composites, its magnetic loss and reflection loss slightly reduce with the increasing of Al2O3 amount, and the maximum of reflection loss shifts from a low frequency to a high one. However, its broadband IR absorption is significantly enhanced owing to nano-Al2O3. Therefore, RGO/Cu–Ni ferrite/Al2O3 composites can be used as excellent broadband microwave and IR absorbing materials, and maybe have broad application prospect in electromagnetic shielding, IR absorbing and coating materials.

  10. Water-assisted and controllable synthesis of core/shell/shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, and their magnetic and microwave absorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaosi; Yang, Erqi; Cai, Hongbo; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2017-08-29

    By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, core/shell/shell structured Fe/Fe 5 C 2 /carbon nanotube bundles (Fe/Fe 5 C 2 /CNTBs), Fe/Fe 3 C/helical carbon nanotubes (Fe/Fe 3 C/HCNTs) and Fe/Fe 3 C/chain-like carbon nanospheres (Fe/Fe 3 C/CCNSs) with high encapsulation efficiency could be selectively synthesized in large-scale by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Water vapor was proved to play an important role in the growth process. Because of α-Fe nanoparticles tightly wrapped by two layers, the obtained core/shell/shell structured nanohybrids showed high stabilities and good magnetic properties. The minimum reflection loss values of the as-prepared nanohybrids reached approximately -15.0, -46.3 and -37.1 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the as-prepared core/shell/shell structured nanohybrids were considered to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the possible enhanced microwave absorption mechanism of the as-prepared Fe/Fe 3 C/HCNTs and Fe/Fe 3 C/CCNSs were discussed in details. Therefore, we proposed a simple, inexpensive and environment-benign strategy for the synthesis of core/shell/shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, exhibiting a promising prospect as high performance microwave absorbing materials.

  11. Non-resonant magnetic braking on JET and TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Shaing, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    The non-resonant magnetic braking effect induced by a non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation is investigated on JET and TEXTOR. The collisionality dependence of the torque induced by the n = 1, where n is the toroidal mode number, magnetic perturbation generated by the error field correction coil...

  12. Microwave absorption in X and Ku band frequency of cotton fabric coated with Ni-Zn ferrite and carbon formulation in polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.; Abbas, S. M.; Goswami, T. H.; Abhyankar, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    The present study highlights various microwave properties, i.e. reflection, transmission, absorption and reflection loss, of the coated cotton fabric [formulation: Ni-Zn ferrite (Ni 0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) and carbon black (acetylene black) at concentrations of 30, 40, 50, 60 and70 g of ferrite and 5 g carbon in each 100 ml polyurethane] evaluated at 8-18 GHz frequency. The uniform density of filling materials in coated fabrics (dotted marks in SEM micrograph) indicates homogeneous dispersion of conducting fillers in polyurethane and the density of filling material cluster increases with increase in ferrite concentration. SEM images also show uniform coating of conducting fillers/resin system over individual fibers and interweave spaces. The important parameters governing the microwave properties of coated fabrics i.e. permittivity and permeability, S-parameters, reflection loss, etc. were studied in a HVS free space microwave measurement system. The lossy character of coated fabric is found to increase with increase of ferrite content; the ferrite content decreases the impedance and increases the permittivity and permeability values. The 1.6-1.8 mm thick coated fabric sample (40 wt% ferrite, 3 wt% carbon and 57 wt% PU) has shown about 40% absorption, 20% transmission and 40% reflectance in X (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku (12-18 GHz) frequency bands. The reflection loss at 13.5 GHz has shown the highest peak value (22.5 dB) due to coated sample optical thickness equal to λ/4 and more than 7.5 dB in entire Ku band. Owing to its thin and flexible nature, the coated fabric can be used as apparel in protecting human being from hazardous microwaves and also as radar camouflage covering screen in defense.

  13. Enhanced microwave absorption and magnetic phase transitions of nanoparticles of multiferroic LaFeO{sub 3} incorporated in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, A.; Mahapatra, A.S.; Mallick, A.; Chakrabarti, P.K., E-mail: pabitra_c@hotmail.com

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles of LaFeO{sub 3} are successfully incorporated in MWCNTs. • Interestingly, phase transitions of LaFeO{sub 3}-MWCNTs are observed in magnetic data. • Superparamagnetic relaxations of LFO in MWCNTs are found at and above ∼298 K. • Microwave absorption of LFO is highly enhanced in the composite of LFO-MWCNTs. - Abstract: Multiferroic nanoparticles of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) are prepared by a combination of sono-chemical and sol-gel auto combustion method. The as prepared sample is calcined at 500 °C for 5 h to get the desired crystallographic phase. To enhance the microwave absorption, nanoparticles of LFO are incorporated in the matrix of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Crystallographic phases of LFO and LFO-MWCNTs are confirmed by analyzing the X-ray diffractograms (XRD) using Rietveld method. The average size of nanoparticles, crystallographic phase, morphology, and incorporation of LFO nanoparticles in MWCNTs are also obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Micrographs, nanocrystalline fringe pattern and selected area electron diffraction pattern recorded during HRTEM observations confirmed the formation of the desired nanocomposite phase of LFO-MWCNTs. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy of LFO and LFO-MWCNTs are also recorded at room temperature (RT) which confirm the presence of the individual component in the nanocomposite sample. Hysteresis loops at different temperatures from 300 K down to 5 K, zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetizations (M) as a function of temperature (T) of LFO-MWCNTs are recorded in SQUID magnetometer. Analysis of the observed magnetic data of LFO-MWCNTs suggests the presence of superparamagnetism above ∼298 K and a spin-glass like behavior is found below ∼50 K. The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties in X and K{sub u} bands of microwave regions (8–12 GHz and 12–18 GHz) measured by a vector network analyzer (VNA) confirm the significant

  14. Microwave Absorption Properties of Double-Layer RADAR Absorbing Materials Based on Doped Barium Hexaferrite/TiO2/Conducting Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we demonstrate microwave absorption properties of barium hexaferrite, doped barium hexaferrite, titanium dioxide and conducting carbon black based RADAR absorbing material for stealth application. Double-layer absorbers are prepared with a top layer consisting of 30% hexaferrite and 10% titanium dioxide while the bottom layer composed of 30% hexaferrite and 10% conducting carbon black, embedded in chloroprene matrix. The top and bottom layers are prepared as impedance matching layer and conducting layer, respectively, with a total thickness of 2 mm. Microwave absorption properties of all the composites were analyzed in X-band region. Maximum reflection loss of −32 dB at 10.64 GHz was observed for barium hexaferrite based double-layer absorber whereas for doped barium hexaferrite based absorber the reflection loss was found to be −29.56 dB at 11.7 GHz. A consistence reflection loss value (>−24 dB was observed for doped barium hexaferrite based RADAR absorbing materials within the entire bandwidth.

  15. Enhanced microwave absorption property of epoxy nanocomposites based on PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles with three-phase heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingfeng; Cai, Haopeng; Zhang, Bin; Huo, Siqi; Chen, Xi

    2018-02-01

    Novel electromagnetic functionalized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized by coating with Fe3O4 magnetite nanoparticles and conducting polymers polyaniline (PANI) on CNFs through a layer by layer assembly. The Fe3O4@CNFs were first prepared by coating nano-Fe3O4 particles on CNFs via co-precipitation method; Then the PANI was coated on Fe3O4@CNFs using an in situ polymerization process to obtain PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles. The prepared PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs nanoparticles were dispersed in the epoxy matrix to fabricate microwave absorbing nanocomposites. Compared with the Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, the PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites exhibit better microwave absorbing properties. The composite containing 15 wt% of PANI@Fe3O4@CNFs with the thickness of 2 mm showed a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of ‑23.7 dB with an effective absorption bandwidth which is about 3.7 GHz (11.9–15.6 GHz) in the frequency range of 1–18 GHz, indicating that it is an attractive candidate for efficient microwave absorber. A potential absorption mechanism was proposed for enhancement of the impedance-matching condition and electromagnetic wave-attenuation characteristic of materials. Specifically, the impedance-matching condition was improved by the combination of conductive polymers and magnetic nanoparticles with CNFs. The electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic was enhanced by multiple reflections, due to the increased propagation paths.

  16. Barriers to internal rotation from relative intensity measurements as a function of temperature on microwave absorption lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, G.

    A variant is presented of the relative intensity method (RIM) in microwave spectroscopy to determine barriers to internal rotation. In this method torsional energies are determined directly from the slope of the straight line relating the logarithm of the intensity ratio and the reciprocal of the

  17. Improvement in magnetic and microwave absorption properties of nano-Fe3O4@CFs composites using a modified multi-step EPD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh-Alanagh, Farid; Bordbar Khiabani, Aidin; Salimkhani, Hamed

    2017-10-01

    In this research, structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of multifunctional nano-Fe3O4@carbon fibers (CFs) composites in the frequency range of 8.2-18 GHz were investigated. The nano-Fe3O4 particles (30 nm) were successfully prepared using co-precipitation method. These particles were then deposited on CFs using two conventional and modified multi-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) processes to investigate the contributing effects of uniformity of coating on their magnetic and microwave absorption properties. The magnetic properties measurements represented that the coercivity (Hc), saturation magnetization (Ms) and residual magnetization (Mrs) values of the coated CFs using the conventional EPD process were 531.4 Oe, 15.2 emu/g and 5.2 emu/g, respectively, while for the CFs coated with modified EPD process these values were 167.8 Oe, 33.1 emu/g and 1.7 emu/g, respectively. It was found that by employing conventional EPD process, the maximum reflection loss (RL) of -9.87 dB was obtained for the composite containing 20 wt.% nano-Fe3O4@CFs and 80 wt.% epoxy-resin with the thickness of 2 mm, while by using the modified multi-step EPD process, due to enhancement of deposited coating quality, the achieved maximum RL was approximately increased by -0.64 dB and reached to -10.51 dB with an effective absorption bandwidth of about 4 GHz for the similar sample with the same thickness and weight ratio of nano-Fe3O4@CFs composites to epoxy 828.

  18. Non-resonant terahertz field enhancement in periodically arranged nanoslits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    We analyze ultra strong non-resonant field enhancement of THz field in periodic arrays of nanoslits cut in ultrathin metal films. The main feature of our approach is that the slit size and metal film thickness are several orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength λ of the impinging radiation...... by the microscopic Drude-Lorentz model taking into account retardation processes in the metal film and validated by the finite difference frequency domain method. We expect sensor and modulation applications of the predicted giant broadband field enhancement....

  19. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  20. Three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with high Microwave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Dan

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI EMI shielding fabric with a layer by layer structure was designed and prepared to obtain excellent microwave attenuation performance. Firstly, PANI/PI fabric was prepared via in-situ deposition method. Then, the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles functionalized by oleic acid were uniformly dispersed in epoxy resin and coated on the top and bottom of PANI/PI fabric with 0.041 mm total thickness. The investigation of chemical structure and surface morphologies indicated the composite structure of f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric. Various parameters like magnetic property, reflection loss and attenuation constant were used to evaluate its microwave attenuation performance. The results demonstrated that the 30f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric had a highest attenuation effectiveness with the minimum reflection loss value of -42.5 dB (>90% attenuation) at 12.5 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth was 3.4 GHz. The study of attenuation mechanism indicated that the dielectric loss from PANI, the magnetic loss caused by f-NiFe2O4 and the layer by layer structure effectively improved microwave attenuation performance of composite fabric. Furthermore, the favorable flexibility and dimensional stability of this resultant fabric would allow the composite fabric for a long time service under pressure or foldable conditions. In sum, the study clearly indicated that three-phase heterostructures f-NiFe2O4/PANI/PI fabric was a good candidate as electromagnetic shielding materials in many fields.

  1. Multiple magnetic resonance and microwave absorption of metamaterial absorbers composed of double split ring resonators on grounded carbonyl iron composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the triple-band absorption properties of metamaterial absorbers composed of a double split ring resonator (DSRR) on a grounded magnetic substrate of carbonyl iron powders. Computational tools are used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the metamaterial structure. For perpendicular polarization with the electric field perpendicular to the SRR gap, triple-band absorption peaks are predicted in the simulation result of reflection loss. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between the upper DSRR and the lower ground plane is identified at the frequencies of the absorption peaks. The orientation of the two resonators influences the absorption characteristics, especially in the second and third peaks where the coupling between the inner SRR and outer SRR is strong. The current density distribution indicates that the two resonators oriented in the same direction achieve reduced coupling between them, which results in two absorption frequencies close to each other. For parallel polarization with the electric field parallel to the SRR gap, this study predicts dual-band absorption peaks corresponding to the magnetic resonance at the SRR wire.

  2. Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Surface Wave Attenuation Properties of Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 Fibers/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinrui Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers with a diameter of about 270 nm and a length of about 10 μm were synthesized by a microemulsion-mediated solvothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. The Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/reduced graphene oxide (RGO composite was prepared by a facile in-situ chemical reduction method. The crystalline structures and morphologies were investigated based on X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers/RGO composites achieve both a wider and stronger absorption and an adjustable surface wave attenuation compared with Co0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 fibers, indicating the potential for application as advanced microwave absorbers.

  3. 1D Magnetic Materials of Fe3O4 and Fe with High Performance of Microwave Absorption Fabricated by Electrospinning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Li, Wei; Pan, Weiwei; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Li, Fa-shen

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are successfully fabricated by electrospinning method and reduction process. Wiry microstructures were achieved with the phase transformation from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 and Fe by partial and full reduction, while still preserving the wire morphology. The diameters of the Fe3O4 and Fe nanowires are approximately 50–60 nm and 30–40 nm, respectively. The investigation of microwave absorption reveals that the Fe3O4 nanowires exhibit excellent microwave absorbing properties. For paraffin-based composite containing 50% weight concentration of Fe3O4 nanowires, the minimum reflection loss reaches −17.2 dB at 6.2 GHz with the matching thickness of 5.5 mm. Furthermore, the calculation shows that the modulus of the ratio between the complex permittivity and permeability |ε/μ| is far away from unity at the minimum reflection loss point, which is quite different from the traditional opinions. PMID:25510415

  4. Microwave absorption properties of lightweight absorber based on Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres and reduced graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin [School of Material Science And Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wgdfrp@whut.edu.cn [School of Material Science And Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Junpeng; Huo, Siqi [School of Material Science And Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Bin [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Tang, Yushan [School of Material Science And Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a facile method to obtain the lightweight composites consisting of surface modified Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}-coated poly(acrylonitrile) microspheres (PANS@SMF), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and epoxy resin. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). Impedance matching condition and electromagnetic wave attenuation characteristic were used for the reflection loss (RL) performance of the composites. Compared with pure PANS@SMF and RGO composites, the −10 dB absorption bandwidth and the minimum RL of the hybrid composites were enhanced. The bandwidth less than −10 dB was almost 4.5 GHz in the range of 10 GHz to 14.5 GHz, with a matching thickness of 2.5 mm. The density of the hybrid composites was in the range of 0.25–0.34 g/cm{sup 3}. Therefore, the hybrid composite can be considered as a potential lightweight microwave absorber. - Highlights: • PANS@SMF – RGO epoxy composite was fabricated by a facile method. • The absorption bandwidth less than −10 dB can reach up to 4.5 GHz with layer thickness of 2.5 mm. • The density of the composites is in the range of 0.25–0.34 g/cm{sup 3} and can be considered as a lightweight microwave absorber.

  5. Microwave absorption and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer properties of Ni-Ti doped barium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, S. J., E-mail: stephen.harker@defence.gov.au [Russell Offices, Program Office, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (Australia); Stewart, G. A.; Hutchison, W. D. [UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia); Amiet, A. [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Maritime Division (Australia); Tucker, D. [UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    The impact of doping the Fe component of barium hexaferrite with Ni{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5} is investigated using x-ray powder diffraction, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and microwave network analysis. The dopant ions exhibit a preference for the 2b, 4f{sub 2} and 12k-sites and the unit cell volume is observed to decrease. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency is reduced by about 11.5 GHz for each additional dopant ion per formula unit.

  6. Magnetic, dielectric and microwave absorption properties of rare earth doped Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail: stergiou@cperi.certh.gr

    2017-03-15

    In this article we analyze the electromagnetic properties of rare earth substituted Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn cubic ferrites in the microwave band, along with their performance as microwave absorbing materials. Ceramic samples with compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} (R=Y and La, x=0, 0.02), fabricated with the solid state reaction method, were characterized with regard to the complex permeability μ*(f) and permittivity ε*(f) up to 20 GHz. The rare earth substitutions basically affect the microwave μ*(f) spectra and the dynamic magnetization mechanisms of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. Key parameters for this effect are the reduced magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the created crystal inhomogeneities. Moreover, permittivity is increased with the Y and La content, due to the enhancement of the dielectric orientation polarization. Regarding the electromagnetic wave attenuation, the prepared ferrites exhibit narrowband return losses (RL) by virtue of the cancellation of multiple reflections, when their thickness equals an odd multiple of quarter-wavelength. Interestingly, the zero-reflection conditions are satisfied in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance. As the rare earth doping shifts this mechanism to lower frequencies, loss peaks with RL>46 dB occur at 4.1 GHz and 5 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co–Zn spinels, whereas peaks with RL>40 dB appear at 18 GHz and 19 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co spinels, respectively. The presented experimental findings underline the potential of cubic ferrites with high Co concentration in the suppression of electromagnetic reflections well above the 1 GHz region. - Highlights: • Due to cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy drops in Y and La doped samples. • Microwave permeability spectra shift to lower frequencies with rare earth doping. • Permittivity is increased due to crystal modifications

  7. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of rare earth ions (Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) doped strontium ferrite and its nanocomposites with polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua@163.com [School of Materials Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xu, Yang; Mao, Hongkai [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-05-01

    M-type strontium ferrite substituted by RE (RE=Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) were prepared via a sol–gel method. Polypyrrole (PPy)/ferrite nanocomposites (with 20 wt% ferrite) were prepared by in situ polymerization method in the presence of ammonium persulfate. Effect of the substituted RE ions on structure, magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer. All XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. The crystallite size of synthesized particle is within the range of 22.2–38.1 nm. The structural in character of the composites were investigated with FT-IR analysis. It shows that the ferrite successfully packed by PPy. TEM photographs show that the particle size had grown up to 50–100 nm after coating with PPy. In the magnetization for the PPy/SrSm{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} (SrEr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19}) composites, the coercivity (H{sub c}) of the composites both increased compared with the undoped composite while the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) appeared opposite change with different RE ions. Considering the electromagnetic loss and impedance matching comprehensively, the Er-doped ferrite/PPy composite got the better microwave absorption performance with the maximum RL value of −24.01 dB in 13.8 GHz at 3.0 mm. And its width (<−10 dB) has reached 7.2 GHz which has covered the whole Ku band. - Highlights: • The influence of RE ions on the structure of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • The influence of RE ions on the magnetic properties of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • The influence of RE ions on electromagnetic losses of PPy/SrRE{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} is discussed. • PPy/SrEr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}O{sub 19} possessed the excellent absorption property.

  8. Microwave Correlation Measurement Crossed-pair Antennas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We propose here new processes, an add and square correlation radiometer and the non-resonant perturbation, which thoroughly investigated for different muscle phantom materials to define the optimum penetration depth of the electromagnetic field at fixed distance between the antennas. Keywords: Microwave correlation ...

  9. Interchange core/shell assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 for microwave absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell-structured CeO2/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules are prepared by interchange assembly of diluted magnetic semiconductor CeO2 and ferromagnetic ferrite Fe3O4 as the core and the shell, and vice versa, using a facile two-step polar solvothermal method in order to utilize the room-temperature ferromagnetism and abundant O-vacancies in CeO2, the large natural resonance in Fe3O4, and the O-vacancy-enhanced interfacial polarization between CeO2 and Fe3O4 for new generation microwave absorbers. Comparing to Fe3O4/CeO2 nanocapsules, the CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules show an improved real permittivity of 3–10% and an enhanced dielectric resonance of 1.5 times at 15.3 GHz due to the increased O-vacancy concentration in the CeO2 cores of larger grains as well as the O-vacancy-induced enhancement in interfacial polarization between the CeO2 cores and the Fe3O4 shells, respectively. Both nanocapsules exhibit relatively high permeability in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands as a result of the bi-magnetic core/shell combination of CeO2 and Fe3O4. The CeO2/Fe3O4 nanocapsules effectively enhance permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency Ku band with interfacial polarization and natural resonance at ∼15 GHz, thereby improving absorption with a large reflection loss of -28.9 dB at 15.3 GHz. Experimental and theoretical comparisons with CeO2 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles are also made.

  10. Non-resonant energy harvesting via an adaptive bistable potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Narrow bandwidth and easy detuning, inefficiency in broadband and non-stationary excitations, and difficulties in matching a linear harvester’s resonance frequency to low-frequency excitations at small scales, have convinced researchers to investigate nonlinear, and in particular bistable, energy harvesters in recent years. However, bistable harvesters suffer from co-existing low and high energy orbits, and sensitivity to initial conditions, and have recently been proven inefficient when subjected to many real-world random and non-stationary excitations. Here, we propose a novel non-resonant buy-low-sell-high strategy that can significantly improve the harvester’s effectiveness at low frequencies in a much more robust fashion. This strategy could be realized by a passive adaptive bistable system. Simulation results confirm the high effectiveness of the adaptive bistable system following a buy-low-sell-high logic when subjected to harmonic and random non-stationary walking excitations compared to its conventional bistable and linear counterparts. (paper)

  11. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.

    1988-01-01

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs

  12. Determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by using a microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric method after closed-vessel microwave digestion: method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekri, Rachida; Noël, Laurent; Vastel, Christelle; Millour, Sandrine; Kadar, Ali; Guérin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a validation process in compliance with the NFIEN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the determination of the macrominerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by microsampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave digestion. The French Standards Commission (Agence Francaise de Normalisation) standards NF V03-110, NF EN V03-115, and XP T-90-210 were used to evaluate this method. The method was validated in the context of an analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Several performance criteria (linearity, LOQ, specificity, trueness, precision under repeatability conditions, and intermediate precision reproducibility) were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was monitored by several internal quality controls. The LOQ values obtained (25, 5, 8.3, and 8.3 mg/kg for Ca, Mg, Na, and K, respectively) were in compliance with the needs of the TDS. The method provided accurate results as demonstrated by a repeatability CV (CVr) of < 7% and a reproducibility CV (CVR) of < 12% for all the elements. Therefore, the results indicated that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these four elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance.

  13. Selenium analysis by an integrated microwave digestion-needle trap device with hydride sorption on carbon nanotubes and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratta Martínez, Ariel; Vázquez, Sandra; Lara, Rodolfo; Martínez, Luis Dante; Pacheco, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    An integrated microwave assisted digestion (MW-AD) - needle trap device (NTD) for selenium determination in grape pomace samples is presented. The NTD was filled with oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (oxMWCNTS) where Se hydrides were preconcentrated. Determination was carried out by flow injection-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-ETAAS). The variables affecting the system were established by a multivariate design (Plackett Burman), indicating that the following variables significantly affect the system: sample amount, HNO3 digestion solution concentration, NaBH4 volume and elution volume. A Box-Behnken design was implemented to determine the optimized values of these variables. The system improved Se atomization in the graphite furnace, since only trapped hydrides reached the graphite furnace, and the pyrolysis stage was eliminated according to the aqueous matrix of the eluate. Under optimized conditions the system reached a limit of quantification of 0.11 μg kg- 1, a detection limit of 0.032 μg kg- 1, a relative standard deviation of 4% and a preconcentration factor (PF) of 100, reaching a throughput sample of 5 samples per hour. Sample analysis show Se concentrations between 0.34 ± 0.03 μg kg- 1 to 0.48 ± 0.03 μg kg- 1 in grape pomace. This system provides minimal reagents and sample consumption, eliminates discontinuous stages between samples processing reaching a simpler and faster Se analysis.

  14. Fabrication of a Nano-ZnO/Polyethylene/Wood-Fiber Composite with Enhanced Microwave Absorption and Photocatalytic Activity via a Facile Hot-Press Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baokang Dang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A polyethylene/wood-fiber composite loaded with nano-ZnO was prepared by a facile hot-press method and was used for the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds as well as for microwave absorption. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 29 nm and polyethylene (PE powders were dispersed on the wood fibers’ surface through a viscous cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM solution. The reflection loss (RL value of the resulting composite was −21 dB, with a thickness of 3.5 mm in the frequency of 17.17 GHz. The PE/ZnO/wood-fiber (PZW composite exhibited superior photocatalytic activity (84% methyl orange degradation within 300 min under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanoparticels (NPs increased the storage modulus of the PZW composite, and the damping factor was transferred to the higher temperature region. The PZW composite exhibited the maximum flexural strength of 58 MPa and a modulus of elasticity (MOE of 9625 MPa. Meanwhile, it also displayed dimensional stability (thickness swelling value of 9%.

  15. Enhanced and broadband microwave absorption of flake-shaped Fe and FeNi composite with Ba ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wangchang [Research Center of Magnetic and Electronic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310000 (China); Lv, Junjun, E-mail: LyuJunJun@caep.cn [Institute of Chemical Material, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhou, Xiang; Zheng, Jingwu; Ying, Yao; Qiao, Liang; Yu, Jing [Research Center of Magnetic and Electronic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310000 (China); Che, Shenglei, E-mail: cheshenglei@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Magnetic and Electronic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310000 (China)

    2017-03-15

    In order to achieve a broad bandwidth absorber at high frequency, the composites of M-type ferrite BaCo{sub 1.0}Ti{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} (BaM) with flaked carbonyl iron powders (CIP) and flaked Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} were prepared to optimize the surface impedance in broadband frequency, respectively. The diameter of the flaked carbonyl iron powders (CIP) and Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} is in the range of 5–10 µm and 10–20 µm and the thickness of the CIP and Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} is close to 200 nm and 400 nm, respectively. The complex permeability and permittivity show that the addition of BaM obviously reduces the values of real part of permittivity and imaginary part of the permeability which can enhance the matched-wave-impedance. The absorption bands less than −10 dB of CIP-BaM and FeNi-BaM absorber approach to 5.5 GHz (5.7–11.2 GHz) and 7 GHz (11–18 GHz) at 1.5 mm. However, the bands of CIP and FeNi are only 1.9 GHz (4.7–6.6 GHz) and 2.1 GHz (4.0–6.1 GHz). Hence, the electromagnetic match property is greatly improved by BaM ferrites, and this composite shows a broaden absorption band. - Highlights: • In order to achieve a broad bandwidth absorber at high frequency, the composites of M-type ferrite with flaked carbonyl iron powdersand Fe{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} were prepared to optimize the surface impedance. • The complex permeability and permittivity show that the addition of BaM obviously reduces the real part of permittivity and imaginary part of the permeability enhancing the matched-wave-impedance. • The structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are studied in detail. The optimized properties are ascribed to the strength of dipolar polarization and high frequency magnetic resonance.

  16. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption behavior of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using tartaric acid fuel for electromagnetic interference suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Strontium hexaferrites, doped with varying Co-Zr content (x) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion route using tartaric acid as fuel at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Infra-red have been carried out to confirm the phase formation, particle size (average 21.9–36.8 nm) and the bond formation respectively. Magnetic properties are scrutinized using vibrating sample magnetometer. Techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive scattering have been employed to explore the surface morphology, particle size and composition of the nano-powders. Electromagnetic characterization of the prepared ferrites has been done using Vector Network Anlyzer in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The effect of calcination temperature (500–1000 °C) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties has also been studied for x=0.2 and 800 °C has been found to be the most suitable temperature with the best magnetic properties. Increase in doping has resulted in resonance peaks in dielectric and magnetic loss spectra, leading to microwave absorption peaks. Ferrites with x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 have appropriate reflection loss less than −10 dB and bandwidth in Ku-band, hence can be used as effective absorbers in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The governance of impedance matching in deciding the absorption properties has been proved by using input impedance calculations. - Highlights: • Co-Zr doped strontium hexaferrite nanopowders have been prepared by sol-gel route. • 800 °C was most suitable temperaturewith best structural and magnetic properties. • Samples have M-type hexagonal structure with an average particle size of 36.47 nm. • Samples x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 are suitable for suppression of EM waves in Ku-band. • The origin of absorption peaks: impedance matching and losses has been explained.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Ba0.2Sr0.2La0.6MnO3 nanoparticles and investigation of size & shape effect on microwave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the design and characterization of a radar absorbing material (RAM) was investigated at microwave frequency. Ba0.2Sr0.2La0.6MnO3 magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized thru a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the possibility of shape and size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) over the range 15-50 Nm was also explored. Afterward, the effect of shape and size of the synthesized Ba0.2Sr0.2La0.6MnO3 NPs on microwave absorption properties was investigated in KU-band. The crystal structures and morphology of as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed by FESEM, XRD, VSM, FTIR analysis. The RAM samples were prepared by dispersion of magnetic NPs in silicone rubber in an ultrasonic bath. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values NPs were 12.04 dB at 14.82 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 1.22 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained and the maximum reflection loss (RL) values of decrease and shaped NPs were 22.36 dB at 14.78 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2.67 GHz) with RL values <-10 dB are obtained. The results indicated that the particle size and shape play a major role on the absorption properties of the composites in the 12.4-18 GHz frequency range. It is observed that microwave absorption properties increased with the decrease in average particle size of NPs.

  18. Magnetic and microwave absorption properties of BaMg{sub x/2}Mn{sub x/2}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} hexaferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams Alam, Reza [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Mahmood, E-mail: moradi@susc.ac.ir [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanotechnology, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikmanesh, Hossein [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ventura, Joao [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rostami, Mohammad [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71946-84795 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Substituted barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with nominal composition of BaMg{sub x/2}Mn{sub x/2}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} (x=0–0.5) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Then, the structural, magnetic and microwave characteristics of the representative samples were examined by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA). The XRD, along with FTIR evaluations confirmed the successful substitution of Mg, Mn, Co and Ti cations in the barium hexaferrite lattice. The microstructure evaluations also proved that the mean particle size decreases and typical morphologies are gradually varying from almost platelet (x=0) to irregular shapes (x=0.5) with increasing dopant concentration. Hysteresis loops revealed that the saturation magnetization increased up to substitution level of x=0.2, and then decreased abruptly. In addition, the coercivity exhibited a decreasing trend from 3669 Oe to 708 Oe with increasing amount of substitution. Finally, microwave measurement showed that the substituted barium hexaferrite sample with x=0.5 could be used as an efficient microwave absorption material with an appropriate absorption bandwidth of 6 GHz in the 10–16 GHz frequency range. - Highlights: • BaMg{sub x/2}Mn{sub x/2}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 2x}Fe{sub 12−4x}O{sub 19} were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. • The structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties were investigated. • Maximum reflection loss of −16.4 dB with a bandwidth of about 6 GHz can be achieved. • The mean nanoparticles size decreases by increasing substitution (x). • The coercivity decreases from 3669 (x=0 sample) to 708 (x=0.5).

  19. Preparation and characterization of Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} nanoparticles and investigation of size & shape effect on microwave absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peymanfar, Reza; Javanshir, Shahrzad, E-mail: shjavan@iust.ac.ir

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} performed in the presence of PMMA. • Shape and size-controlled synthesis of NPs over the range 15–50 Nm was explored. • Investigation of shape and size effect of NPs on microwave absorption properties. - Abstract: In this paper, the design and characterization of a radar absorbing material (RAM) was investigated at microwave frequency. Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized thru a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the possibility of shape and size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) over the range 15–50 Nm was also explored. Afterward, the effect of shape and size of the synthesized Ba{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.2}La{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} NPs on microwave absorption properties was investigated in KU-band. The crystal structures and morphology of as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed by FESEM, XRD, VSM, FTIR analysis. The RAM samples were prepared by dispersion of magnetic NPs in silicone rubber in an ultrasonic bath. The maximum reflection loss (RL) values NPs were 12.04 dB at 14.82 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 1.22 GHz) with RL values <−10 dB are obtained and the maximum reflection loss (RL) values of decrease and shaped NPs were 22.36 dB at 14.78 GHz and a broad absorption band (over 2.67 GHz) with RL values <−10 dB are obtained. The results indicated that the particle size and shape play a major role on the absorption properties of the composites in the 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. It is observed that microwave absorption properties increased with the decrease in average particle size of NPs.

  20. ESR spectrometer based setup for microwave investigation of high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Aliev, M K; Muminov, A T; Olimov, B A; Usmanov, R R; Kholbaev, I

    2002-01-01

    The experimental setup adjusted for investigation of non-resonant microwave absorption in high-temperature superconductors has been developed on the basis of ESR spectrometer. Having original temperature system-of-art the setup has made it possible to study not only the field spectrum of detected signal partial deriv R/partial deriv H but the temperature spectrum of one. In the region of superconducting transition the setup allows one to measure the temperature derivative partial deriv R/partial deriv T as well. Using the multi-layer magnetic cylindrical shield ensures the conduction for precise measurements in the weak magnetic fields. Acquisition, processing and visual presentation of experimental data are fulfilled by CAMAC on-line IBM PC. (author)

  1. Density functional theory calculations of the non-resonant and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy of carbon fullerenes and nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    The non-resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes is studied with density functional theory in conjunction with short-range corrected functionals. For C60 and C70 the X-ray emission spectra are insensitive to modest structural changes, and absorption onto the fullerene cage has the greatest effect with a broader less structured band observed with the high energy π band reduced in intensity. For carbon nanotubes the X-ray emission spectra are shown to be weakly dependent on the length and chirality of the nanotube. However, some variation with the diameter of the tube is observed in both resonant and non-resonant spectra.

  2. Microwave absorption of electromechanical nanoresonators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivosudský, Ondřej; Cifra, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Jul (2015), s. 57-57 ISSN 0175-7571. [10th European-Biophysical-Societies-Association (EBSA) European Biophysics Congress. 18.07.2015-22.07.2015, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Microtubules * Electrical polarity Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. Exciton spectroscopy using non-resonant X-ray Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yejun

    Core electron excitations in solids have long been of interest in condensed matter physics. The state of the low-energy photoelectron is dominated by many-body effects from screening by valence electrons and interactions with the core-hole. In some insulators, these interactions create a localized state for the photoelectron core-hole pair, namely a core-exciton. In this dissertation, we use q-dependent non-resonant x-ray Raman scattering together with ab initio simulations to extend exciton spectroscopy to probe the angular characteristics of the near-edge exciton. The transferred momentum q acts as an extra parameter and provides new information about the projected density of states which is inaccessible to traditional core-excitation spectroscopies, such as x-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In several cases, we find that the angular characteristics of the exciton are strongly connected with the local atomic structure and symmetry. This is illustrated by a study on hexagonal boron nitride, in which a dominantly Y10-type exciton was identified necessarily due to the reflection symmetry about the basal plane at every boron site. This new understanding of the relationship between the exciton type and local symmetry has helped solve a site-substitution disorder problem in the icosahedral boron carbide B4C system, where a p -type exciton was identified due to dominant boron occupation at the center of a three-atom chain in the unit cell, the only site with the inversion symmetry. This exciton spectroscopy using q-dependent x-ray Raman scattering may have wide applications in the future, such as in geophysical studies in high pressure diamond anvil cells.

  4. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, I.; Gonzalez-Costas, J.M.; Bendicho, C.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO 3 or the mixture HNO 3 /H 2 O 2 and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H 2 O 2 and without heating to dryness; (II) without H 2 O 2 and with heating to dryness; (III) with H 2 O 2 and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H 2 O 2 and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 μg g -1

  5. Exchange coupling and microwave absorption in core/shell-structured hard/soft ferrite-based CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell-structured, hard/soft spinel-ferrite-based CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 (CFO/NFO nanocapsules with an average diameter of 17 nm are synthesized by a facile two-step hydrothermal process using CFO cores of ∼15 nm diameter as the hard magnetic phase and NFO shells of ∼1 nm thickness as the soft magnetic phase. The single-phase-like hysteresis loop with a high remnant-to-saturation magnetization ratio of 0.7, together with a small grain size of ∼16 nm, confirms the existence of exchange-coupling interaction between the CFO cores and the NFO shells. The effect of hard/soft exchange coupling on the microwave absorption properties is studied. Comparing to CFO and NFO nanoparticles, the finite-size NFO shells and the core/shell structure enable a significant reduction in electric resistivity and an enhancement in dipole and interfacial polarizations in the CFO/NFO nanocapsules, resulting in an obvious increase in dielectric permittivity and loss in the whole S–Ku bands of microwaves of 2–18 GHz, respectively. The exchange-coupling interaction empowers a more favorable response of magnetic moment to microwaves, leading to enhanced exchange resonances in magnetic permeability and loss above 10 GHz. As a result, strong absorption, as characterized by a large reflection loss (RL of -20.1 dB at 9.7 GHz for an absorber thickness of 4.5 mm as well as a broad effective absorption bandwidth (for RL<-10 dB of 8.4 GHz (7.8–16.2 GHz at an absorber thickness range of 3.0–4.5 mm, is obtained.

  6. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...

  7. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  8. Determination of dynamic mechanical properties of silica aerogel by resonance and non-resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Z. P.; Sheng, M. P.

    2017-03-01

    Silica aerogel has great potential in aeronautics, building construction, and offshore oil transportation. The dynamic mechanical properties of silica aerogel were measured by the resonance and non-resonance method. The results of the two methods were compared. While the Young’s modulus coincided well, the loss factor had big difference. To explain this phenomenon, the sensitivity of the two methods was analyzed. It shows that the loss factor determination of low-loss materials by the non-resonance method is quite sensitive to the experiment uncertainties. This probably results in the loss factor difference between the two methods.

  9. Entanglement Evolution of Jaynes-Cummings Model in Resonance Case and Non-resonance Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Chen, Xi; Shan, Chuan-Jia

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement evolution of a two-level atom and a quantized single model electromagnetic filed in the resonance and non-resonance cases. The effects of the initial state, detuning degree, photon number on the entanglement are shown in detail. The results show that the atom-cavity entanglement state appears with periodicity. The increasing of the photon number can make the period of quantum entanglement be shorter. In the non-resonant case, if we choose the suitable initial state the entanglement of atom-cavity can be 1.0

  10. Measuring the rate of non-resonant high mass longitudinal gauge boson pairs in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Azuelos, Georges; Myagkov, A

    1999-01-01

    In the absence of a low mass Higgs or new resonances, models for the regularization of vector boson scattering at high energy constrain the production rate of longitudinal vector boson pairs. The possibility to measure the rate of same-sign W production is discussed. Non-resonant scenarios of WZ production, in the Chiral Lagrangian model are also investigated.

  11. The hydrogen atom in crossed static electromagnetic and non-resonant laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgaker, T.; Tomashevsky, I.

    1992-01-01

    The energy splittings and wave function of a hydrogen atom in crossed uniform static electromagnetic and non-resonant monochromatic electric fields of arbitrary mutual orientation are obtained within the ''one-shell'' approximation. The intensities of the Lyman lines are also obtained. A special analytical method is used. Relativistic corrections and spin-orbit interactions are not considered. (orig.)

  12. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  13. Effect of Manganese Addition on the Structure, Magnetic Properties and Microwave Absorption of La0.8Ba0.2MnxFe½(1-x)Ti½(1-x)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, W. A.; Indro, M. N.; Kusumastuti, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    We have carried out modification of La0.8Ba0.2MnxFe½(1-x)Ti½(1-x)O3 (x = 0.1 - 0.8) magnetic materials by wet milling method. Raw materials of La2O3, BaCO3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MnCO3 were mixed according to stoichiometry calculation for each composition. The mixture was milled for 5 hours and then sintered at 1000 °C for 5 hours. The refinement results by X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the increasing Mn composition enhances the mass fraction of La0.8Ba0.2MnxFe½(1-x)Ti½(1-x)O3 phase which has the same structure as LaMnO3. For x = 0.8 a single phase of LaMnO3 was formed. The single phase has a crystal monoclinic crystal structure with space group of I 1 2 / a 1, with lattice parameters given by a = 5.519(5) Å, b = 5.5537(5) Å and c = 7.8176(9) Å, α = γ = 90o and β = 90.345(6)o, V = 239.64(3) Å3, ρ = 6.463 gr.cm-3, wRp = 5.96, and χ2 (chi-squared) = 1.17. The hysteresis curve shows that the sample with composition x = 0.8 produces ferromagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The ferromagnetic properties arise due to the mixed valence of Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions through a double exchange mechanism. The results of the microwave absorption indicated that there was a broadening of absorption peak frequency at 9.9 GHz. The reflection loss (RL) increases with the increasing of LaMnO3 phase. For x = 0.8 we have the best of RL where the microwave absorption was calculated reaching 95% at the highest peak frequency with a thickness of 1.5 mm. Thus we have been successful in creating a single phase of La0.8Ba0.2MnxFe½(1-x)Ti½(1-x)O3 with application as a microwave absorber.

  14. Efficiency of Microwave Heating of Weakly Loaded Polymeric Nanocomposites (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Nanotube‐Based Theranostic Agents for Microwave Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer : Enhanced Dielectric and Heating Response of Tissue...enhanced microwave absorption provides prospective biomedical applications including cancer treatment [3, 4] and also electromagnetic interference

  15. Microwave Powered Gravitationally Independent Medical Grade Water Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative microwave system is proposed for the continuous production of medical grade water. This system will utilize direct absorption of microwave radiation to...

  16. Microwave heating and diagnostic of suprathermal electrons in an overdense stellarator plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stange, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The resonant coupling of microwaves into a magnetically confined plasma is one of the fundamental methods for the heating of such plasmas. Identifying and understanding the processes of the heating of overdense plasmas, in which the wave propagation is generally not possible because the wave frequency is below the plasma frequency, is becoming increasingly important for high density fusion plasmas. This work focuses on the heating of overdense plasmas in the WEGA stellarator. The excitation of electron Bernstein waves, utilizing the OXB-conversion process, provides a mechanism for the wave to reach the otherwise not accessible resonant absorption layer. In WEGA these OXB-heated plasmas exhibit a suprathermal electron component with energies up to 80 keV. The fast electrons are located in the plasma center and have a Maxwellian energy distribution function within the soft X-ray related energy range. The corresponding averaged energy is a few keV. The OXB-discharges are accompanied by a broadband microwave radiation spectrum with radiation temperatures of the order of keV. Its source was identified as a parametric decay of the heating wave and has no connection to the suprathermal electron component. For the detailed investigation of the microwave emission, a quasioptical mirror system, optimized for the OX-conversion, has been installed. Based on the measurement of the broadband microwave stray radiation of the decay process, the OX-conversion efficiency has been determined to 0.56 being in good agreement with full-wave calculations. In plasmas without an electron cyclotron resonance, corresponding to the wave frequency used, non-resonant heating mechanisms have been identified in the overdense plasma regions. Whistler waves or R-like waves are the only propagable wave types within the overdense plasmas. The analysis of the heating efficiency in dependence on the magnetic flux density leads to tunneling as the most probable coupling mechanism. For the determination

  17. Microwave conductivity and spin resonance of Si- nK centers at dislocation dipoles in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchits, A. A.; Shanina, B. D.

    1995-11-01

    Non-resonance microwave absorption (NRMA) due to microwave conductivity (MC) of Czochralski-grown silicon crystal has been studied. The temperature dependence of the MC was measured in the temperature range from 1.7 to 40 K in darkness as well as under the interband light. Exponential growth of the MC in a low temperature range is described within the extended one-dimensional Hubbard model for the case of an arbitrary filled band. The activation energy of electron hopping motion in darkness is found to be similar to that in amorphous silicon (0.4 meV), although, under light its value is significantly larger (12 meV). The logarithmic law is revealed for the MC decay. The value of its time constant τ0 at T = 4.2 K changes with the light intensity I from 4 to 57 s, so τ0 is proportional to I-1. The exponential recovery process at T = 4.2 K goes rather slowly, with τ1 in interval from 0.4 to 3.11 min depending on the location of the donor levels in a band gap. It is shown that the linear law connects the dependence of the TD-2 EPR intensity increase and the Si- nK EDSR intensity decrease versus the MC decay under continuous illumination.

  18. A new non-resonant laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the airborne in situ measurement of formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. St. Clair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new in situ instrument for gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO, COmpact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE, is presented. COFFEE utilizes non-resonant laser-induced fluorescence (NR-LIF to measure HCHO, with 300 mW of 40 kHz 355 nm laser output exciting multiple HCHO absorption features. The resulting HCHO fluorescence is collected at 5 ns resolution, and the fluorescence time profile is fit to yield the ambient HCHO mixing ratio. Typical 1σ precision at  ∼  0 pptv HCHO is 150 pptv for 1 s data. The compact instrument was designed to operate with minimal in-flight operator interaction and infrequent maintenance (1–2 times per year. COFFEE fits in the wing pod of the Alpha Jet stationed at the NASA Ames Research Center and has successfully collected HCHO data on 27 flights through 2017 March. The frequent flights, combined with a potentially long-term data set, makes the Alpha Jet a promising platform for validation of satellite-based column HCHO.

  19. A new non-resonant laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the airborne in situ measurement of formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Jason M.; Swanson, Andrew K.; Bailey, Steven A.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Marrero, Josette E.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hagopian, John G.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2017-12-01

    A new in situ instrument for gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO), COmpact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE), is presented. COFFEE utilizes non-resonant laser-induced fluorescence (NR-LIF) to measure HCHO, with 300 mW of 40 kHz 355 nm laser output exciting multiple HCHO absorption features. The resulting HCHO fluorescence is collected at 5 ns resolution, and the fluorescence time profile is fit to yield the ambient HCHO mixing ratio. Typical 1σ precision at ˜ 0 pptv HCHO is 150 pptv for 1 s data. The compact instrument was designed to operate with minimal in-flight operator interaction and infrequent maintenance (1-2 times per year). COFFEE fits in the wing pod of the Alpha Jet stationed at the NASA Ames Research Center and has successfully collected HCHO data on 27 flights through 2017 March. The frequent flights, combined with a potentially long-term data set, makes the Alpha Jet a promising platform for validation of satellite-based column HCHO.

  20. Microwave assisted ignition to achieve combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Balakrishnan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave heating to initiate combustion synthesis has been increasingly investigated in recent years because of its advantages over traditional methods. A simple mathematical model is used to model these experiments. The microwave power absorption term is modelled as the product of an Arrhenius reaction term with a function that decays exponentially with distance. The former represents the temperature-dependent absorption of the microwaves whereas the latter describes the penetration of the material by the microwaves. Combustion kinetics are modelled as a first-order Arrhenius reaction.

  1. Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting using inter-ferroelectric phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Moyet, Richard; Rossetti, George A., E-mail: george.rossetti-jr@uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Stace, Joseph; Amin, Ahmed [Sensors and Sonar Systems Department, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Newport, Newport, Rhode Island 02841 (United States); Finkel, Peter [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Non-resonant electromechanical energy harvesting is demonstrated under low frequency excitation (<50 Hz) using [110]{sub C}-poled lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary. The efficiency of power generation at the stress-induced phase transition between domain-engineered rhombohedral and orthorhombic ferroelectric states is as much as four times greater than is obtained in the linear piezoelectric regime under identical measurement conditions but during loading below the coercive stress of the phase change. The phase transition mode of electromechanical transduction holds potential for non-resonant energy harvesting from low-frequency vibrations and does not require mechanical frequency up-conversion.

  2. Shape of the Hα emission line in non resonant charge exchange in hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susino Bueno, A.; Zurro Hernandez, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Hα line shape emitted from a maxwellian hydrogen plasma and produced by non resonant change exchange has been calculated. Its explicit shape depends on the ion temperature, on background neutral energy and on the relative shape of the collision cross section. A comparison between theoretical and experimental shapes of the Hα line is carried out to check the model and to deduce the ion plasma temperature. (author) [es

  3. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave Irradiation. Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. This article highlights with examples, the usefulness of microwaves for carrying out a'variety of organic transfor- mations. Introduction and Background. The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens prompted a number of ...

  4. The microwave Tokamak experiment (MTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.; Cohen, B.I.; Hooper, E.B.; Lang, D.D.; Nevins, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new experimental facility is being assembled at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for studying microwave propagation and absorption in high density plasmas. A unique feature of the facility is the free electron laser (FEL) used to generate high peak power microwaves at 250 GHz, at a repetition rate so as to produce up to 2 MW of average power for up to 30 s. Called the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX), the facility will be used for studies of plasma heating, current drive, and confinement

  5. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  6. Study on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Machining Applying the Non-Resonant Three-Dimensional Elliptical Vibration Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The poor machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy makes it hard to process by conventional processing methods even though it has been widely used in military and civilian enterprise fields. Non-resonant three-dimensional elliptical vibration cutting (3D-EVC is a novel cutting technique which is a significant development potential for difficult-to-cut materials. However, few studies have been conducted on processing the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique, the effect of surface quality, roughness, topography and freeform surface has not been clearly researched yet. Therefore, the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using the non-resonant 3D-EVC apparatus is studied in this paper. Firstly, the principle of non-resonant 3D-EVC technique and the model of cutter motion are introduced. Then the tool path is synthesized. The comparison experiments are carried out with traditional continuous cutting (TCC, two-dimension elliptical vibration cutting (2D-EVC, and the non-resonant 3D-EVC method. The experimental results shown that the excellent surface and lower roughness (77.3 nm could be obtained using the non-resonant 3D-EVC method; the shape and dimension of elliptical cutting mark also relates to the cutting speed and vibration frequency, and the concave/convex spherical surface topography are achieved by non-resonant 3D-EVC in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This proved that the non-resonant 3D-EVC technique has the better machinability compared with the TCC and 2D-EVC methods.

  7. Probing 2D Physics with Microwave

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsui, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Microwave absorption, using the co-planar waveguide configuration that we developed earlier, was employed to investigate electron dynamics of the high mobility 2D charge carriers in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures...

  8. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bandwidth below −10 dB and minimum RL decrease with increasing thickness of HCNSs/paraffin composites. Keywords. Nanomaterials; nanospheres; CVD; electric; magnetic; microwave absorption properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, microwave absorbing materials have attracted considerable attention because it ...

  9. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  11. Microwave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  12. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br metamagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zorko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO32O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  13. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  14. Non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for car-key applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Hehn, T.; Thewes, M.; Kuehne, I.; Frey, A.; Scholl, G.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel non-resonant electromagnetic energy harvester for application in a remote car-key, to extend the lifetime of the battery or even to realize a fully energy autonomous, maintenance-free car-key product. Characteristic for a car-key are low frequency and large amplitude motions during normal daily operation. The basic idea of this non-resonant generator is to use a round flat permanent magnet moving freely in a round flat cavity, which is packaged on both sides by printed circuit boards embedded with multi-layer copper coils. The primary goal of this structure is to easily integrate the energy harvester with the existing electrical circuit module into available commercial car-key designs. The whole size of the energy harvester is comparable to a CR2032 coin battery. To find out the best power-efficient and optimal design, several magnets with different dimensions and magnetizations, and various layouts of copper coils were analysed and built up for prototype testing. Experimental results show that with an axially magnetized NdFeB magnet and copper coils of design variant B a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.1V can be observed.

  15. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  16. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  17. A non-resonant RF cavity loaded with amorphous alloy for proton cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Makita, Y; Nayayama, T; Tsuchidate, H; Tsukishima, C; Yoshida, K

    1999-01-01

    A non-resonant RF cavity loaded with amorphous alloy cores has been designed and tested. The cavity has a re-entrant structure loaded with 8 amorphous alloy toroidal core and its characteristic impedance is designed as 450 Omega . The RF power is fed by 1 kW solid state amplifier using a step-up transformer with 1:9 impedance ratio. In the high power test, an accelerating gap voltage of more than 900 V was measured with input power of 1 kW in the frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz. The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) was less than 2.0. The results prove that the cavity may be used successfully within a compact proton synchrotron for a cancer therapy facility. (3 refs).

  18. Fabrication and characterization of non-resonant magneto-mechanical low-frequency vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammari, Abdullah; Caskey, Logan; Negrete, Johnny; Bardaweel, Hamzeh

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a non-resonant magneto-mechanical vibration energy harvester. When externally excited, the energy harvester converts vibrations into electric charge using a guided levitated magnet oscillating inside a multi-turn coil that is fixed around the exterior of the energy harvester. The levitated magnet is guided using four oblique mechanical springs. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated using additive manufacturing. Both experiment and model are used to characterize the static and dynamic behavior of the energy harvester. Measured restoring forces show that the fabricated energy harvester retains a mono-stable potential energy well with desired stiffness nonlinearities. Results show that magnetic spring results in hardening effect which increases the resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Additionally, oblique mechanical springs introduce geometric, negative, nonlinear stiffness which improves the harvester's response towards lower frequency spectrum. The unique design can produce a tunable energy harvester with multi-well potential energy characteristics. A finite element model is developed to estimate the average radial flux density experienced by the multi-turn coil. Also, a lumped parameter model of the energy harvester is developed and validated against measured data. Both upward and downward frequency sweeps are performed to determine the frequency response of the harvester. Results show that at higher excitation levels hardening effects become more apparent, and the system dynamic response turns into non-resonant. Frequency response curves exhibit frequency jump phenomena as a result of coexistence of multiple energy states at the frequency branch. The fabricated energy harvester is hand-held and measures approximately 100.5 [cm3] total volume. For a base excitation of 1.0 g [m/s2], the prototype generates a peak voltage and normalized power density of approximately 3.5 [V] and 0.133 [mW/cm3 g2], respectively, at 15.5 [Hz].

  19. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  20. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu{sub 3}Bi(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}Br metamagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorko, A., E-mail: andrej.zorko@ijs.si; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova c. 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ozarowski, A. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Tsurkan, V. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Science of Moldova, MD-2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Loidl, A. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Zaharko, O. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu{sub 3}Bi(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 2}Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  1. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br metamagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A.; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Zaharko, O.

    2016-05-01

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  2. Performance analysis and experimental verification of mid-range wireless energy transfer through non-resonant magnetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Wang, Jingyu; Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency analysis of a mid-range wireless energy transfer system is performed through non-resonant magnetic coupling. It is shown that the self-resistance of the coils and the mutual inductance are critical in achieving a high efficiency, which is indicated by our theoretical...

  3. Nonlinear response of a forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J.C.; Zhang, N.

    2009-01-01

    Non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two may appear in the controlled van der Pol-Duffing oscillator when two critical time delays corresponding to a double Hopf bifurcation have the same value. With the aid of centre manifold theorem and the method of multiple scales, the non-resonant response and two types of primary resonances of the forced van der Pol-Duffing oscillator at non-resonant bifurcations of codimension two are investigated by studying the possible solutions and their stability of the four-dimensional ordinary differential equations on the centre manifold. It is shown that the non-resonant response of the forced oscillator may exhibit quasi-periodic motions on a two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) torus. The primary resonant responses admit single and mixed solutions and may exhibit periodic motions or quasi-periodic motions on a 2D torus. Illustrative examples are presented to interpret the dynamics of the controlled system in terms of two dummy unfolding parameters and exemplify the periodic and quasi-periodic motions. The analytical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results of numerical integration of the original delay differential equation.

  4. Non-resonant New Physics in Top Pair Production at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Degrande, Celine; Grojean, Christophe; Maltoni, Fabio; Servant, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    We use top quark pair production as a probe of top-philic non-resonant new physics. Following a low energy effective field theory approach, we calculate several key observables in top quark pair production at hadron colliders (e.g., total cross section, ttbar invariant mass distribution, forward-backward asymmetry, spin correlations) including the interference of the Standard Model with dimension-six operators. We determine the LHC reach in probing new physics after having taken into account the Tevatron constraints. In particular, we show that the gluon fusion process gg -> ttbar which remains largely unconstrained at the Tevatron is affected by only one top-philic dimension-six operator, the chromo-magnetic moment of the top quark. This operator can be further constrained by the LHC data as soon as a precision of about 20% is reached for the total ttbar cross-section. While our approach is general and model-independent, it is particularly relevant to models of Higgs and top compositeness, which we consider ...

  5. Non-resonant Mie scattering: emergent optical properties of core-shell polymer nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudiyev, Tural; Huseyinoglu, Ersin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-04-09

    We provide the in-depth characterization of light-polymer nanowire interactions in the context of an effective Mie scattering regime associated with low refractive index materials. Properties of this regime sharply contrast with these of resonant Mie scattering, and involve the formation of strictly forward-scattered and coupling-free optical fields in the vicinity of core-shell polymer nanowires. Scattering from these optical fields is shown to be non-resonant in nature and independent from incident polarization. In order to demonstrate the potential utility of this scattering regime in one-dimensional (1D) polymeric nanostructures, we fabricate polycarbonate (PC) - polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) core-shell nanowires using a novel iterative thermal drawing process that yields uniform and indefinitely long core-shell nanostructures. These nanowires are successfully engineered for novel nanophotonics applications, including size-dependent structural coloration, efficient light capture on thin-film solar cells, optical nano-sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity and a mask-free photolithography method suitable for the straightforward production of 1D nanopatterns.

  6. Consistent searches for SMEFT effects in non-resonant dijet events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alte, Stefan; König, Matthias; Shepherd, William

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the bounds which can be placed on generic new-physics contributions to dijet production at the LHC using the framework of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, deriving the first consistently-treated EFT bounds from non-resonant high-energy data. We recast an analysis searching for quark compositeness, equivalent to treating the SM with one higher-dimensional operator as a complete UV model. In order to reach consistent, model-independent EFT conclusions, it is necessary to truncate the EFT effects consistently at order 1/Λ2 and to include the possibility of multiple operators simultaneously contributing to the observables, neither of which has been done in previous searches of this nature. Furthermore, it is important to give consistent error estimates for the theoretical predictions of the signal model, particularly in the region of phase space where the probed energy is approaching the cutoff scale of the EFT. There are two linear combinations of operators which contribute to dijet production in the SMEFT with distinct angular behavior; we identify those linear combinations and determine the ability of LHC searches to constrain them simultaneously. Consistently treating the EFT generically leads to weakened bounds on new-physics parameters. These constraints will be a useful input to future global analyses in the SMEFT framework, and the techniques used here to consistently search for EFT effects are directly applicable to other off-resonance signals.

  7. Investigation of microwave absorption property of the core–shell structured Li{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite in X-band region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Hatui, Goutam; Mandal, Avinandan [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Das, Chapal Kumar, E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Kumar, Rudresh; Shami, T.C. [Defence Materials and Stores Research and Development Establishment, Kanpur 208013, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Li{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a new spinel ferrite. • The synthetic procedure is simple and cost effective. • The composite shows core–shell morphology. • The composite shows good magnetic, optical and microwave absorbing properties. • The material shows the maximum reflection loss of −41.6 dB. The thickness of the absorber is only 2.5 mm. -- Abstract: Initially, we have synthesized a magnetic spinel-type ferrite, Li{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (LMF) by a simple chemical coprecipitation method. The LMF particles of different sizes were formed, and the most populated size range is 45–75 nm. Further, the LMF was coated by titanium di-oxide (TiO{sub 2}) via the sol–gel process, and examined the microwave absorption property of TiO{sub 2} coated LMF (Ti@LMF) in the X-band region. The formation of both LMF and Ti@LMF was supported by analysing the materials through different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The core–shell morphology of Ti@LMF was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The result indicates that the average shell thickness is around 40–50 nm. The optical and magnetic property was studied by UV–VIS spectroscopy and SQUID analysis. Ti@LMF showed excellent microwave absorption property under the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix. The maximum reflection loss (−41.6 dB) was measured with the help of Vector Network Analyzer, and the mechanism of absorption was explained by considering the relative complex permittivity and permeability of the prepared materials. The matching of both the dielectric loss (initiated by TiO{sub 2}) and magnetic loss (initiated by LMF) is the main reason for remarkable microwave absorption property of Ti@LMF.

  8. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Microwave Irradiation - Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 77-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Microwaves photonic links components and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rumelhard, Christian; Billabert, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the electrical models for the different elements of a photonic microwave link like lasers, external modulators, optical fibers, photodiodes and phototransistors. The future trends of these components are also introduced: lasers to VCSEL, external modulators to electro-absorption modulators, glass optical fibers to plastic optical fibers, photodiodes to UTC photodiodes or phototransistors. It also describes an original methodology to evaluate the performance of a microwave photonic link, based on the developed elcetrical models, that can be easily incorporated in

  10. Microwave transmission measurements in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, J.L.; Giruzzi, G.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave transmission diagnostic system below the electron gyrofrequency is now operating on Tore-Supra. In low density Lower-Hybrid current drive discharges the refraction effects are weak and the measurement of the wave transmission coefficient provides an estimate of the non inductive current. For higher densities, the signal is modulated by refraction effects related to sawteeth and MHD modes. In this case, more elaborated computational techniques are required in order to isolate the absorption effect from the apparent wave attenuation due to refraction. Conversely, at frequencies low enough to avoid cyclotron absorption, microwave transmission can be used as a diagnostic of sawteeth and MHD activity

  11. Polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering from spin-density-wave modulation in chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal

  12. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  13. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  14. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  15. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  16. Microwave torch. Physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsinin, Sergei; Knyazev, Vitalii; Kossyi, Igor

    2004-09-01

    New construction of a coaxial microwave torch (CMT) has been developed, tested and investigated. CMT provides a means for plasma stream production virtually in all gases and gaseous mixture flow at atmospheric pressure. A broad spectrum of diagnostics has been applied including microwave and laser interferometry, optical active and absorptive spectroscopy, laser holographic interferometry, microwave radiation detection, high-speed photography, etc. The time evolution of the torch operating in the pulsed mode is considered. It has been revealed that the evolution is different in noble and molecular gases. The characteristic feature of torches in noble gases is a dense core with plasma density no less than 1016 cm-3. Plasma bunches with density of 1014-1015 cm-3 successively propagate downstream from this core, which are seen as glow bursts. In molecular gases, the core is absent and the torch is formed by propagating plasma bunches. By optical diagnostics application temperature of neutral component of microwave torch has been determined. With high efficiency energy of microwave radiation comes into gas heating. Gas temperature is maximal near the nozzle (4,5 - 5,0 kK) and falls down in axial direction (to 2,5 - 3,0 kK). Torch is thermally-non-equilibrium plasma formation capable of significant change of working and surrounding gaseous state. Peculiarities of discharge development and maintenance are under discussion as well as possibilities to use microwave torch as a spaceborne plasma source, combustion ignitor, mean for nanoparticles production, different plasmachemical applications etc. Contact information: Mailing address: Prof. I.A.Kossyi General Physics Institute, 119991, Vavilov Street 38 Moscow, Russia Tel.: 7(095)135-41-65; Fax: 7(095)135-80-11 E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru

  17. Ultrasonic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Are 'negative bursts' due to absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, C.

    1977-01-01

    Optical activity near the time of two microwave negative bursts is distinctive enough to demonstrate a real relation, but does not occur simultaneously with the radio events. Such a loose association between microwave flux decreases and Hα prominence or filament activity is typical of a sample of 23 negative bursts. A model of a microwave occulting cloud differs from that of an Hα absorber: the Hα dark flocculus is relatively low, dense and compact: the microwave occulter is higher in the corona, larger, and more completely ionized. The two types of absorption are not expected to been seen simultaneously, although they could be separate phases of an ejection of chromospheric material into the corona. The association of microwave decreases with Hα activity in some cases, and their usual non-simultaneity, is consistent with interpretation of the decrease as absorption, but it does not rule out alternative interpretation such as an intrinsic change in the emission of the microwave source. The location of decrease-associated activity has a suggestive, though not statistically significant, bias toward east limb that leads one toward an absorption interpretation, with asymmetry introduced by a tendency for ejected material to move from the leading part of an active region toward the following part, agreeing with Liska's observation of asymmetry in the line-of-sight velocities of prominences. (Auth.)

  19. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  20. Microwave assisted spectrophotometric method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed method is based on the reaction of copper(II) with potassium iodide in acid medium to liberate iodine, which oxidizes leucocrystal violet to crystal violet dye having absorption maximum at 590 nm. The reaction between copper and potassium iodide is accelerated by irradiating the mixture with microwave ...

  1. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P.; Cortina, D.; Hernando, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  2. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Cortina, D. [Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.e [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  3. Silicon photonics non-resonant wavelength filters: comparison between AWGs, echelle gratings, and cascaded Mach-Zehnder filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Wim; Pathak, Shibnath; Ruocco, Alfonso; Dwivedi, Sarvagya

    2015-02-01

    We present a comparison of different silicon photonics-based wavelength filters for different design criteria (e.g. channel spacing, number of channels, ...) and different performance metrics (e.g. insertion loss or crosstalk ). In this paper we compare only non-resonant filters, or finite-impulse response (FIR) filters, such as Arrayed Waveguide Gratings, Echelle Gratings and higher-order cascades of Mach-Zehnder filters. We derive the strengths and weaknesses from their operational principles and confirm those with experimental data from fabricated devices and extrapolated simulations.

  4. Polarization control of intermediate state absorption in resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)

  5. Crystal field and microwave absorption spectra in tetragonal HoBa.sub.2./sub.Cu.sub.3./sub.O.sub.x./sub.(x = 6.0, 6.3)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kazei, Z.A.; Snegirev, V. V.; Danilova, N.P.; Goiran, M.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Kozeeva, L. P.; Kameneva, M.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), 134444/1-134444/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100803 Grant - others:EuroMagtNet II(XE) 228043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : level splitting * crystal field * microwave * layered perovskites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010

  6. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  7. Diamond Windows for High Powered Microwave Transmission. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, R.

    2011-01-01

    This phase II SBIR developed technology for manufacturing diamond windows for use in high energy density photon transmission e.g. microwave or laser light photons. Microwave sources used in fusion research require microwave extraction windows with high thermal conductivity, low microwave absorption, and low resistance to thermal cracking. Newly developed, man made diamond windows have all three of these properties, but these windows are prohibitively expensive. This limits the natural progress of these important technologies to higher powers and slows the development of additional applications. This project developed a lower cost process for manufacturing diamond windows using microwave plasma. Diamond windows were deposited. A grinding process was used to provide optical smoothness for 2 cm diameter diamond windows that met the parallelism specifications for fusion beam windows. The microwave transmission performance (loss tangent) of one of the windows was measured at 95GHz to be less than 10-4, meeting specifications for utilization in the ITER tokamak.

  8. Control of vortex-induced non-resonance vibration using piezo-ceramic actuators embedded in a structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. M.; Cheng, L.; Zhou, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Closed-loop control of vortex-induced non-resonant vibration of a flexible square cylinder is experimentally investigated in this paper. Piezo-ceramic actuators were embedded inside the cylinder to cause an oscillation of the cylinder surface, which subsequently altered the fluid-structure interaction. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers, Re, of 2800 and 8000. Two typical control schemes, i.e. Y_control and u+Y_control, were deployed using feedback signals from structural vibration Y and combined Y and fluctuating flow velocity u, respectively. The control effects on the structural vibration and flow were assessed using a laser vibrometer, an optical fiber Bragg grating sensor, hot wires and particle image velocimetry. Experimental results show that both vortex shedding from the cylinder and the vortex-induced non-resonant vibration were effectively suppressed. The best control effects were observed with u+Y_control in use; the root mean square values of Y, the structural strain rate ɛy along the lift direction and u, i.e. Yrms, ɛy,rms and urms, and the circulation Γ dropped at Re = 8000 by 58%, 52%, 53% and 88%, respectively, compared with the unperturbed case. It was found that the control effectively modified the nature of the fluid-structure interaction by changing the in-phase fluid-structure synchronization at all dominant frequencies into anti-phase interaction, accounting for the suppression in both vortex shedding and structural vibration.

  9. Maximum coherent superposition state achievement using a non-resonant pulse train in non-degenerate three-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Li; Niu, Yueping; Jin, Luling; Gong, Shangqing

    2010-01-01

    The coherent superposition state of the lower two levels in non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms is investigated using the accumulative effects of non-resonant pulse trains when the repetition period is smaller than the decay time of the upper level. First, using a rectangular pulse train, the accumulative effects are re-examined in the non-resonant two-level atoms and the modified constructive accumulation equation is analytically given. The equation shows that the relative phase and the repetition period are important in the accumulative effect. Next, under the modified equation in the non-degenerate three-level Λ atoms, we show that besides the constructive accumulation effect, the use of the partial constructive accumulation effect can also achieve the steady state of the maximum coherent superposition state of the lower two levels and the latter condition is relatively easier to manipulate. The analysis is verified by numerical calculations. The influence of the external levels in such a case is also considered and we find that it can be avoided effectively. The above analysis is also applicable to pulse trains with arbitrary envelopes.

  10. Microwave absorbing properties of activated carbon fibre polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite. Keywords. Activated carbon fibres; microwave absorbing properties; composite materials. 1. Introduction. The reduction of electromagnetic backscatter with ...

  11. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  12. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  13. Infrared-microwave double resonance: signal dependence on microwave radiation strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.P.M. de; Dijkerman, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of MW radiation on the magnitude of double resonance signals is studied in the case of steady-state 3-level IR-MW double resonance, using IR or MW radiation as probe field. The measurements reveal a strong signal dependence on the microwave power level. Changes in the absorption factor

  14. A study on the complexity of a business cycle model with great excitements in non-resonant condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Junhai; Cui Yaqiang; Liulixia

    2009-01-01

    Based on the researches of Szydlowski and Krawiec, we studied the inherent complexity of a chaotic business cycle with great excitements in non-resonant condition. First, we got the first-order and second-order approximate solutions of the system by using multiple scale method. Then deduced the formulation reflecting the complex relations between vibration, phase, bifurcation parameter μ and excite frequency Ω of first-order solution. As the great excitement F varied, the global changes of the system solutions were analyzed. We also explored the different paths leading the systems with different parameter combinations into catastrophe region, fuzzy region or chaos region. Finally, we discussed the evolution trends of business cycle models under the above-mentioned conditions. Hence, this paper has some theoretical and practical significance.

  15. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of the non-resonant instability in shock precursors of young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzar, Oleh; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Bohdan, Artem

    2017-08-01

    A non-resonant cosmic ray (CR) current-driven instability may operate in the shock precursors of young supernova remnants and be responsible for magnetic-field amplification, plasma heating and turbulence. Earlier simulations demonstrated magnetic-field amplification, and in kinetic studies a reduction of the relative drift between CRs and thermal plasma was observed as backreaction. However, all published simulations used periodic boundary conditions, which do not account for mass conservation in decelerating flows and only allow the temporal development to be studied. Here we report results of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations with open boundaries that permit inflow of plasma on one side of the simulation box and outflow at the other end, hence allowing an investigation of both the temporal and the spatial development of the instability. Magnetic-field amplification proceeds as in studies with periodic boundaries and, observed here for the first time, the reduction of relative drifts causes the formation of a shock-like compression structure at which a fraction of the plasma ions are reflected. Turbulent electric field generated by the non-resonant instability inelastically scatters CRs, modifying and anisotropizing their energy distribution. Spatial CR scattering is compatible with Bohm diffusion. Electromagnetic turbulence leads to significant non-adiabatic heating of the background plasma maintaining bulk equipartition between ions and electrons. The highest temperatures are reached at sites of large-amplitude electrostatic fields. Ion spectra show supra-thermal tails resulting from stochastic scattering in the turbulent electric field. Together, these modifications in the plasma flow will affect the properties of the shock and particle acceleration there.

  17. Advances in microwaves 7

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.

  18. Microwave dielectrics: solid solution, ordering and microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 6. Microwave dielectrics: solid solution, ordering and microwave dielectric properties of ( 1 − x ) Ba(Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 )O 3 − x Ba(Mg 1 / 8 Nb 3 / 4 )O3 ceramics. YOGITA BISHT RICHA TOMAR PULLANCHIYODAN ABHILASH DEEPA RAJENDRAN LEKSHMI M ...

  19. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  20. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. Nor...... do we fully realize how we might have changed as we return for the fictional worlds we have visited. The feeling of being absorbed is one of the most illusive and transient feelings, but also one that motivates audiences to spend considerable amounts of time in narrative worlds, and one...... that is central to our understanding of the effects of narratives on beliefs and behavior. Key specialists inform the reader of this book about the nature of the peculiar state of consciousness during episodes of absorption, the perception of absorption in history, the role of absorption in meaningful experiences...

  1. Proceedings of microwave processing of materials 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the third MRS Symposium on Microwave Processing of Materials. Topics covered include: Microwave Processing Overviews, Numerical Modeling Techniques, Microwave Processing System Design, Microwave/Plasma Processing, Microwave/Materials Interactions, Microwave Processing of Ceramics, Microwave Processing of Polymers, Microwave Processing of Hazardous Wastes, Microwave NDE Techniques and Dielectric Properties and Measurements

  2. The σ-stark effect of rotational transitions : Part II: The microwave spectrum of methyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, H.A.; Dymanus, A.

    1962-01-01

    The method described in Part I is applied to absorption lines of methyl alcohol in the microwave region. Recorded ΔM = ± 1 Stark patterns of absorption lines with linear Stark effect are compared with calculated patterns. The ΔM = ± 1 Stark patterns of 7 absorption lines with second order Stark

  3. The influence of microwave irradiation on thermal properties of main rock-forming minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Gao-ming; Li, Yuan-hui; Hassani, Ferri; Zhang, Xiwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different rock-forming minerals present very different microwave absorption capacity to microwave energy. • The test results can be used to estimate the heating behaviors of rocks to microwave irradiation. • SEM-EDX technique was used to determine the elemental distribution and mineralogical composition. • Ferrum may influence the interacting mechanisms between rock-forming minerals and microwaves. - Abstract: The sample will burst into fragment when the thermal stress induced by thermal expansion greater than the ultimate strength of the rock after microwave irradiation. Microwave-assisted rock fragmentation has been illustrated to be potentially beneficial for mineral processing, mining and geotechnical engineering. In order to have a comprehensive understanding on the influence of microwave on thermo-mechanical properties of rocks, it is necessary to investigate the interaction effect between microwaves and the main rock-forming minerals. In this work, eleven rock-forming minerals were tested in a multimode cavity at 2.45G Hz with a power of 2 kW, subsequently, the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) was used to determine the elemental distribution and mineralogical composition of the tested samples. It was observed that different rock-forming minerals present very different susceptibility induced by microwave treatment. Enstatite presents the strongest microwave absorption capacity by a large margin and most of the rock-forming minerals are weak microwave absorbers. It is significant that the results can be used to predict the heating behaviors of rocks subjected to microwave energy. Furthermore, the SEM-EDX elemental analysis demonstrates that the microwave absorption capacity of rock-forming minerals could link to the contribution of the ferrum, which may influence the interacting mechanisms between microwaves and the rock-forming minerals.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-temperature microwave processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Yu V.; Rybakov, K. I.; Semenov, V. E.

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the physical aspects of a cross-disciplinary science and technology field: the microwave processing of materials. High-temperature microwave processing has a clear industrial perspective in such areas as the production of advanced ceramics, the deposition of thermal barrier coatings, the remediation of hazardous wastes etc. This review starts with the relevant fundamental notions regarding the absorption of electromagnetic waves, heat transfer and the electrodynamics of single- and multimode microwave cavities. Useful formulae, estimates, and interrelations between process variables are presented. This is followed by a review of process examples illustrating the specific features of microwave processing: reduction in energy consumption and process duration, rapid and controllable heating, peculiar temperature distribution, and selectivity of energy deposition. Much attention is given to the advantages of higher-frequency millimetre-wave processing, which include the enhanced absorption in many materials of industrial interest, improved uniformity of electromagnetic energy and temperature, and the possibility of surface treatment. The phenomenon of microwave process rate enhancement is addressed in connection with the problem of the non-thermal microwave effect on mass transport in solids. Both experimental and theoretical approaches to the identification of the mechanism responsible for this effect are illustrated. Finally, the physical and technical factors influencing microwave technology scaleup and transfer to industry are discussed.

  5. Large enhancement of deuteron polarization with frequency modulated microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Arik, S; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin,; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birda, I G; Birsa, R; Bjrkholm, P; Bonner, B E; de Botton, N; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Brullc, A; Buchanan, J; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Chen, J P; Clement, J; Clocchiatti, M; Corcoran, M D; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Deshpande, S; Dalla Torre, A; Van Dantzig, R; Dhawan, S; Dulya, C; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Day, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, B; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M; von Goeler, E; Goloutvin, Igor A; Gómez, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, D; von Harrach, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; De Jong, M; Kabu, E M; Kageya, T; Kaiser, R; Karev, A; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kisselev, Yu; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kukhtin, V; Kyynarinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, V; Krivokhijinea, K; Layda, T; Le Go, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; López-Ponte, S; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B; McCarthy, J S; van Middelkoop, K; Medved, G; Miller, D; Mitchell, J; Mori, K; Moromisato, J; Mutchler, G S; Nagaitsev, A; Nassalski, J; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J E J; Ogawa, A; Okumi, S; Ozben, C S; Penzo, Aldo L; Pérez, C A; Perrot-Kunne, F; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, D; Peshekhonov, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Reyhancan, I; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, E; Rondon, O; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Salvato, G; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I; Schiavon, Paolo; Schüler, K P; Segel, R; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Smirnov, G; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stuhrmann, H; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thiel, W; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, R; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Zanetti, A M; Zhao, J; Zamiatin, N I

    1996-01-01

    We report a large enhancement of 1.7 in deuteron polarization up to values of 0.6 due to frequency modulation of the polarizing microwaves in a two liters polarized target using the method of dynamic nuclear polarization. This target was used during a deep inelastic polarized muon-deuteron scattering experiment at CERN. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance absorption spectra show that frequency modulation gives rise to additional microwave absorption in the spectral wings. Although these results are not understood theoretically, they may provide a useful testing ground for the deeper understanding of dynamic nuclear polarization.

  6. Observation of resonant and non-resonant magnetic braking in the n = 1 non-axisymmetric configurations on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kimin; Choe, W.; In, Y.; Ko, W. H.; Choi, M. J.; Bak, J. G.; Kim, H. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Kwak, J. G.; Yoon, S. W.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, J.-K.

    2017-12-01

    Toroidal rotation braking by neoclassical toroidal viscosity driven by non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields, called magnetic braking, has great potential to control rotation profile, and thereby modify tokamak stability and performance. In order to characterize magnetic braking in the various 3D field configurations, dedicated experiments have been carried out in KSTAR, applying a variety of static n=1 , 3D fields of different phasing of -90 , 0, and +90 . Resonant-type magnetic braking was achieved by -90 phasing fields, accompanied by strong density pump-out and confinement degradation, and explained by excitation of kink response captured by ideal plasma response calculation. Strong resonant plasma response was also observed under +90 phasing at q95 ∼ 6 , leading to severe confinement degradation and eventual disruption by locked modes. Such a strong resonant transport was substantially modified to non-resonant-type transport at higher q95 ∼ 7.2 , as the resonant particle transport was significantly reduced and the rotation braking was pushed to plasma edge. This is well explained by ideal perturbed equilibrium calculations indicating the strong kink coupling at lower q95 is reduced at higher q95 discharge. The 0 phasing fields achieved quiescent magnetic braking without density pump-out and confinement degradation, which is consistent with vacuum and ideal plasma response analysis predicting deeply penetrating 3D fields without an excitation of strong kink response.

  7. Accuracy of non-resonant laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) in a convergent-divergent nozzle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J.; Mayer, J.; Weigand, B.

    2018-02-01

    Non-resonant laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) was applied to measure Mach number, temperature and turbulence level along the centerline of a transonic nozzle flow. The accuracy of the measurement results was systematically studied regarding misalignment of the interrogation beam and frequency analysis of the LITA signals. 2D steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed for reference. The simulations were conducted using ANSYS CFX 18 employing the shear-stress transport turbulence model. Post-processing of the LITA signals is performed by applying a discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) to determine the beat frequencies. It is shown that the systematical error of the DFT, which depends on the number of oscillations, signal chirp, and damping rate, is less than 1.5% for our experiments resulting in an average error of 1.9% for Mach number. Further, the maximum calibration error is investigated for a worst-case scenario involving maximum in situ readjustment of the interrogation beam within the limits of constructive interference. It is shown that the signal intensity becomes zero if the interrogation angle is altered by 2%. This, together with the accuracy of frequency analysis, results in an error of about 5.4% for temperature throughout the nozzle. Comparison with numerical results shows good agreement within the error bars.

  8. Detecting non-bridging oxygens: non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in crystalline lithium borates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Gérald; Radtke, Guillaume; Cormier, Laurent; Bricha, Hanane; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Ablett, James M; Cabaret, Delphine; Gélébart, Frédéric; Shukla, Abhay

    2014-10-20

    Probing the local environment of low-Z elements, such as oxygen, is of great interest for understanding the atomic-scale behavior in materials, but it requires experimental techniques allowing it to work with versatile sample environments. In this paper, the local environment of lithium borate crystals is investigated using non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) at energy losses corresponding to the oxygen K-edge. Large variations of the spectral features are observed close to the edge onset in the 535-540 eV energy range when varying the Li2O content. Calculations allow identification of contributions associated with bridging oxygen (BO) and non-bridging oxygen (NBO) atoms. The main result resides in the observed core-level shift of about 1.7 eV in the spectral signatures of the BO and NBO. The clear signature at 535 eV in the O K-edge NRXIS spectrum is thus an original way to probe the presence of NBOs in borates, with the great advantage of making possible the use of complex environments such as a high-pressure cell or high-temperature device for in situ measurements.

  9. Microwave absorption properties of planar-anisotropy Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3−δ} powders/Silicone composite in X-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xisheng [Research Center of Magnetic and Electronic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310000 (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Tan, Guoguo; Chen, Shuwen [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Man, Qikui, E-mail: Manqk@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Che, Shenglei, E-mail: Cheshenglei@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Magnetic and Electronic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310000 (China); and others

    2017-02-15

    The soft-magnetic properties of planar-anisotropy Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3-δ} powders were reported, and reflection loss (RL) of the powders/Silicone composites with various volume concentrations have been studied in 0.1–18 GHz frequency range. It was found that the optimal RL of this composite absorber with a thickness of 1.72 mm is −60.5 dB at 9.97 GHz and the RL is less than −10 dB in the whole X-band (8–12 GHz). The bandwidth with RL exceeding −10 dB and −20 dB are 5.24 GHz and 1.32 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, all the optimal RL value of the composite with the thickness less than 2.13 mm can reach −20 dB in the range of 8–17 GHz, which indicates that the Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3-δ}/Silicone composite absorber will be a promising candidate in higher gigahertz frequency especially in X-band. - Highlights: • The high quality Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3−δ} powders was prepared. • The microwave magnetic properties were reported for the soft Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3−δ} powders. • Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3−δ} composite exhibits relative high permeability over GHz frequency range. • Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub 3−δ} composite can be an excellent candidate as the absorber in X-band.

  10. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  11. The microwave market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybokas, J.

    1989-01-01

    As superconductors move from the laboratory to the marketplace, it becomes more important for researchers and manufacturers to understand the markets for this technology. The large market for microwave systems represents a major opportunity for high-T c superconductors. Conductor losses are a primary design limitation in conventional microwave systems. The low losses of superconductors at microwave frequencies will allow component designers and system designers to improve their products in many ways. The most important market segments for microwave systems are outlined in this discussion

  12. Dielectric properties of Zea mays kernels - studies for microwave power processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Emanoil; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves absorption in biological samples can be predicted by their specific dielectrical properties. In this paper, the dielectric properties ({epsilon}' and {epsilon}'') of corn (Zea mays) kernels in the 500 MHz - 20 GHz frequencies range are presented. A short analysis of the microwaves absorption process is also presented, in correlation with the specific thermal properties of the samples, measured by simultaneous TGA-DSC method.

  13. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  14. Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in

  15. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  16. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  17. Microwave ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  18. Ultrathin microwave metamaterial absorber utilizing embedded resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Ji Sub; Yoo, Young Joon; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Rhee, Joo Yull; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-10-01

    We numerically and experimentally studied an ultrathin and broadband perfect absorber by enhancing the bandwidth with embedded resistors into the metamaterial structure, which is easy to fabricate in order to lower the Q-factor and by using multiple resonances with the patches of different sizes. We analyze the absorption mechanism in terms of the impedance matching with the free space and through the distribution of surface current at each resonance frequency. The magnetic field, induced by the antiparallel surface currents, is formed strongly in the direction opposite to the incident electromagnetic wave, to cancel the incident wave, leading to the perfect absorption. The corresponding experimental absorption was found to be higher than 97% in 0.88-3.15 GHz. The agreement between measurement and simulation was good. The aspects of our proposed structure can be applied to future electronic devices, for example, advanced noise-suppression sheets in the microwave regime.

  19. Microwave-induced direct spin-flip transitions in mesoscopic Pd/Co heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Torsten; Egle, Stefan; Keller, Martin; Fridtjof-Pernau, Hans; Strigl, Florian; Scheer, Elke

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of resonant microwave absorption on the magneto-conductance of tunable Co/Pd point contacts. At the interface a non-equilibrium spin accumulation is created via microwave absorption and can be probed via point contact spectroscopy. We interpret the results as a signature of direct spin-flip excitations in Zeeman-split spin-subbands within the Pd normal metal part of the junction. The inverse effect, which is associated with the emission of a microwave photon in a ferromagnet/normal metal point contact, can also be detected via its unique signature in transport spectroscopy.

  20. Temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante in microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingguo; Peng JinHui; Huang Daifu; Zhang Libo; Hu Jinming; Zhuang Zebiao; Kong Dongcheng; Guo Shenghui; Li Chunxiang

    2010-01-01

    The temperature rising characteristics of ammonium diurante, triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ), and their mixture were investigated under microwave irradiation, aiming at exploring newly theoretical foundation for advanced metallurgical methods. The temperature rising curves showed that ammonium diurante had weak capability to absorb microwave energy, while triuranium octaoxide had the very strong absorption capability. The temperature of mixture containing 20% of U 3 O 8 could rise from room temperature to 1171 K within 280 s. The ability to absorb microwave energy for the mixture with different ratios increased with the increase in the amount of U 3 O 8 . These are in good agreement with the results of Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory. It is feasible to calcine ammonium diurante by adding of small amounts of U 3 O 8 in microwave fields.

  1. Electroless Ni–P–ferrite composite coatings for microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    posite coating, namely, Ni–P–ferrite, nanosized ferrite particles are co-deposited in the Ni–P matrix. The composite coating with thickness less than ∼0.1 mm has been produced and found to exhibit about 20 db of absorption of microwave in the range of 12–18 GHz, which can be exploited for radar applications. 2.

  2. Noise-modulated-microwave-induced response in snail neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C.; Arber, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    Helix aspersa neurons were irradiated with noise-amplitude-modulated microwaves (carrier frequency 2450 MHz, 20% AM, 0-20 kHz, specific absorption rate 6.8 and 14.4 mW/g). It was found that such an exposure caused an appearance of high frequency bursts and a rise in membrane resistance.

  3. Intensity measurements in microwave spectroscopy the "antimodulation" method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dymanus, A.

    Principle and theoretical background are presented of a new method for the precision measurement of absolute and relative peak intensities of microwave absorption lines. This method, called the “antimodulation” method, can be used with any spectrometer employing molecular modulation. In the present

  4. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface...

  5. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the application of microwave heating for the melting of powdered tin. The morphology and particle size of powdered tin prepared by the centrifugal atomization method were characterized. The tin particles were uniform and spherical in shape, with 90% of the particles in the size range of 38–75 μm. The microwave absorption characteristic of the tin powder was assessed by an estimation of the dielectric properties. Microwave penetration was found to have good volumetric heating on powdered tin. Conduction losses were the main loss mechanisms for powdered tin by microwave heating at temperatures above 150 °C. A 20 kW commercial-scale microwave tin-melting unit was designed, developed, and utilized for production. This unit achieved a heating rate that was at least 10 times higher than those of conventional methods, as well as a far shorter melting duration. The results suggest that microwave heating accelerates the heating rate and shortens the melting time. Tin recovery rate was 97.79%, with a slag ratio of only 1.65% and other losses accounting for less than 0.56%. The unit energy consumption was only 0.17 (kW·h·kg–1—far lower than the energy required by conventional melting methods. Thus, the microwave melting process improved heating efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  7. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  8. MICROWAVE STABILIZATION AND MICROWAVE-STIMULATED FIXATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; KOK, LP

    1990-01-01

    In microwave stabilization the tissue is prepared for histoprocessing through the uniformly distributed increased temperature. This procedure can be called unique: Exclusively by the uniform well-controlled temperature rise to 55-degrees-C it is possible to stabilize the tissue to the needed

  9. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Köhler, M.; Wolf, M.; Schwab, M.; Loidl, A.

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  10. Electromagnetic-radiation absorption by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, P; Emmert, S; Gulich, R; Köhler, M; Wolf, M; Schwab, M; Loidl, A

    2017-12-01

    Why does a microwave oven work? How does biological tissue absorb electromagnetic radiation? Astonishingly, we do not have a definite answer to these simple questions because the microscopic processes governing the absorption of electromagnetic waves by water are largely unclarified. This absorption can be quantified by dielectric loss spectra, which reveal a huge peak at a frequency of the exciting electric field of about 20 GHz and a gradual tailing off toward higher frequencies. The microscopic interpretation of such spectra is highly controversial and various superpositions of relaxation and resonance processes ascribed to single-molecule or molecule-cluster motions have been proposed for their analysis. By combining dielectric, microwave, THz, and far-infrared spectroscopy, here we provide nearly continuous temperature-dependent broadband spectra of water. Moreover, we find that corresponding spectra for aqueous solutions reveal the same features as pure water. However, in contrast to the latter, crystallization in these solutions can be avoided by supercooling. As different spectral contributions tend to disentangle at low temperatures, this enables us to deconvolute them when approaching the glass transition under cooling. We find that the overall spectral development, including the 20 GHz feature (employed for microwave heating), closely resembles the behavior known for common supercooled liquids. Thus water's absorption of electromagnetic waves at room temperature is not unusual but very similar to that of glass-forming liquids at elevated temperatures, deep in the low-viscosity liquid regime, and should be interpreted along similar lines.

  11. Microwaves - the hidden danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.

    1987-01-01

    Today, highly frequent radio waves are regarded as undangerous to man. Diseases seen at radar-technicians during the 2nd World War, however, indicated that microwaves applied in radar systems were hazardous to health. The Russian work medicine has been knowing microwave-caused hazards in industry since the beginning of the thirties. Therefore in some East-European countries there are terms of protection and severe norms of safety for the staying of persons in the radiation sphere of microwaves. (orig.) [de

  12. Advances in microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    1967-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 2 focuses on the developments in microwave solid-state devices and circuits. This volume contains six chapters that also describe the design and applications of diplexers and multiplexers. The first chapter deals with the parameters of the tunnel diode, oscillators, amplifiers and frequency converter, followed by a simple physical description and the basic operating principles of the solid state devices currently capable of generating coherent microwave power, including transistors, harmonic generators, and tunnel, avalanche transit time, and diodes. The next ch

  13. Advances in microwaves 4

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 4 covers some innovations in the devices and applications of microwaves. This volume contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the application of microwave phasers and time delay elements as beam steering elements in array radars. The next chapter provides first an overview of the technical aspects and different types of millimeter waveguides, followed by a survey of their application to railroads. The last chapter examines the general mode of conversion properties of nonuniform waveguides, such as waveguide tapers, using converted Maxwell's equatio

  14. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman, O. [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34720 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500, B. Cekmece-Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Functional Materials Division, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-16440 Stockholm (Sweden); Yildirim Beyazit University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulus-Ankara (Turkey); Coruh, Ali [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, 54100, Sakarya (Turkey); Aktas, B., E-mail: aktas@gyte.edu.tr [Physics Department, Gebze Institute of Technology (GYTE), 41400 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni, Co and Ni-Co alloyed coatings on PAN were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles leads to interfacial polarization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite prepared in Ni bath at 0.5 min leads to a wider absorption bandwidth and minimum coefficient of reflection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About of -42 dB, more than 99.99% of the microwave absorption.

  15. Microwave photonics shines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.

  16. Emitron: microwave diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  17. Steady state temperature profile in a sphere heated by microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M.; Jackson, H. W.

    1992-01-01

    A new theory has been developed to calculate the microwave absorption and resultant temperature profile within a sphere positioned in a single mode rectangular cavity. This theory is an extension of a total absorption model based on Mie scattering results. Temperature profiles have been computed for alumina spheres at the center of a rectangular cavity excited in the TM354 mode. Parametric studies reveal significant structure in those profiles under special conditions that are associated with electromagnetic resonances inside the spheres. Anomalous behavior similar to thermal runaway occurs at moderate temperatures when there is enhanced absorption associated with resonant conditions in the sphere.

  18. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  19. A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... of the microwave powered sensor assembly is operatively coupled to the RF antenna signal for extracting energy from the RF antenna signal and produce a power supply voltage. A sensor is connected to the power supply voltage and configured to measure a physical or chemical property of a food item under heating...... in a microwave oven chamber....

  20. Magnetic metal nanoparticles coated polyacrylonitrile textiles as microwave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, O.; Kavas, H.; Baykal, A.; Toprak, M. S.; Çoruh, Ali; Aktaş, B.

    2013-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) textiles with 2 mm thickness are coated with magnetic nanoparticles in coating baths with Ni, Co and their alloys via an electroless metal deposition method. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic nature of composites are investigated by X-ray Powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and dc magnetization measurement techniques. The frequency dependent microwave absorption measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (X and P bands). Diamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties are also investigated. Finally, the microwave absorption of composites is found strongly dependent on the coating time. One absorption peak is observed between 14.3 and 15.8 GHz with an efficient absorption bandwidth of 3.3-4.1 GHz (under -20 dB reflection loss limit). The Reflection loss (RL) can be achieved between -30 and -50 dB. It was found that the RL is decreasing and absorption bandwidth is decreasing with increasing coating time. While absorption peak moves to lower frequencies in Ni coated PAN textile, it goes higher frequencies in Co coated ones. The Ni-Co alloy coated composites have fluctuating curve of absorption frequency with respect to coating time. These results encourage further development of magnetic nanoparticle coated textile absorbers for broadband applications.

  1. Synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of Cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Y.; Li, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Cobalt ferrite power CoFe2O4 was synthesized through the chemical co-precipitation method. The structure, morphology and microwave absorbing properties were studied by changing raw materials, annealing temperature and experimental steps. The measurements of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron micrograph suggest that annealed CoFe2O4 sample is still a spinel structure. Moreover, the crystalline and grain sizes become large with the enhancement of annealing temperature. The measurements of microwave absorbing properties show that the reflection loss decreases continuously, and the wavelength of maximum absorption loss shift to short-wave limit as the sample thickness increases.

  2. Effect of microwave radiation on the biophysical properties of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed H; Abd El Halim, N; Khalil, W A

    2005-04-01

    Steadily growing use of electromagnetic fields, especially in conjunction with wireless communication systems, has led to increasing public concern about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiation. However, besides the well-known thermal effect of electromagnetic fields on biological tissue, there is no clear evidence of further athermal interaction mechanisms with biological systems. The present study was designed to determine the changes in bilayer permeability in egg lecithin multilamellar vesicles after exposure to 900 MHz microwave radiation for a period of 5 h. Specific absorption rate (SAR) of the radiation for the investigated liposome sample was found to be 12 +/- 1 W/kg. Liposomal changes in permeability were monitored using a light scattering technique. Optical anisotropy of the liposome sample decreased dramatically upon exposure to microwave radiation, indicating structural changes in acyl chain packing. IR and NMR ((1)H NMR) studies, which have been employed to reveal structural alterations in microwave, exposed vesicles showed an increased damage upon exposure to microwave. The changes observed in the (1)H NMR spectrum of the microwave exposed sample indicated hydrolysis of carboxylic and phosphoric esters. IR study showed conformational changes in the acyl chains of the lipids upon microwave exposure. However, both IR and (31)P NMR did not show any appreciable changes in the head group part of the lipids.

  3. Particle-size and temperature dependence of microwave noise in superconducting YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub y/: Evidence for random Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of particle size and temperature on the microwave noise and low-field microwave absorption in YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub y/ powders have been studied by the magnetically modulated microwave absorption technique. The results can be interpreted in terms of a network of random Josephson junctions in the individual superconducting grains but are not consistent with the thermally activated flux creep model. An estimate of the size of the Josephson junctions is also obtained from the variation of the microwave noise with particle size

  4. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  5. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Ying Liu1 Chengwen Qiang2. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China; Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China ...

  6. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Magnetic properties and ... Ying Liu1 Chengwen Qiang2. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China; Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China ...

  7. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The morphology and thickness of the. Ni–Fe/CF composites were analysed on a Hitachi S-4800 field-emission SEM operated at an accelerating voltage of. 5 kV. The magnetic properties of the Ni–Fe/CF compos- ites were measured with a Lake Shore 7304 vibrating sam- ple magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature.

  8. Microwave absorption by nanoresonator vibrations tuned with surface modification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivosudský, Ondřej; Cifra, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 44003. ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Resonance * Nanomechanical resonators * Oscillations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2016

  9. Microwave absorption by nanoresonator vibrations tuned with surface modification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivosudský, Ondřej; Cifra, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 44003. ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17102S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Resonance * Nanomechanical resonators * Oscillations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor : 1.957, year: 2016

  10. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  11. Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. The experiment, soon to be operational, provides an opportunity to study dense plasmas heated by powers unprecedented in the electron-cyclotron frequency range required by the especially high magnetic fields used with the MTX and needed for reactors. 1 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  12. Microwave Assisted Healing of Thermally Mendable Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Sosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer matrix composites offer high specific strength; however, their potential weight savings have been limited by the concern of damage tolerance. If microcracking and similar incurred damage could be autonomously sealed, composite structures could be built thinner and lighter while still addressing damage tolerance, thus achieving the weight savings they promise. Various self-healing mechanisms have been proposed to this end. Herein, a method of thermally reversible polymerization is investigated. To date, thermally activated repair of composites have been accomplished typically through resistive heating, which has certain inherent complexities. An alternate heating method, via microwave exposure of carbon nanotubes incorporated throughout a thermal reversible polymer matrix, is demonstrated. Carbon nanotube-doped composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption over an undoped control sample. Furthermore, it is shown that these composites can be heated locally by a focused microwave source. The particular composite formulation and layup studied could be uniformly heated to the targeted healing temperature of 100°C in as little as 20 seconds, followed by a healing time on the scale of minutes with total time depending upon the extent of damage.

  13. Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...

  14. PHYSICS OF MICROWAVES IN MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, LP

    1990-01-01

    Microwave technology can help in the preparation of samples for microscopy in many different ways. This paper discusses the physics of microwaves. It gives the theoretical background to understand the practical procedures. Some peculiarities in the optics of microwaves are pointed out. Diffusion

  15. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  16. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  17. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  18. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  19. A passive and active microwave-vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Min, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    A passive and active microwave vector radiative transfer (PAM-VRT) package has been developed. This fast and accurate forward microwave model, with flexible and versatile input and output components, self-consistently and realistically simulates measurements/radiation of passive and active microwave sensors. The core PAM-VRT, microwave radiative transfer model, consists of five modules: gas absorption (two line-by-line databases and four fast models); hydrometeor property of water droplets and ice (spherical and nonspherical) particles; surface emissivity (from Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)); vector radiative transfer of successive order of scattering (VSOS); and passive and active microwave simulation. The PAM-VRT package has been validated against other existing models, demonstrating good accuracy. The PAM-VRT not only can be used to simulate or assimilate measurements of existing microwave sensors, but also can be used to simulate observation results at some new microwave sensors. - Highlights: • A novel microwave vector radiative transfer model is developed. • It can simulate passive and active microwave radiative transfer simultaneously. • It can be applied to simulate measurements for different types of viewing geometry. • The accuracy of this model has been validated against other existing models

  20. Ferromagnetic microwire composites from sensors to microwave applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Hua-Xin; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-01-01

    Situated at the forefront of interdisciplinary research on ferromagnetic microwires and their multifunctional composites, this book starts with a comprehensive treatment of the processing, structure, properties and applications of magnetic microwires. Special emphasis is placed on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect, which forms the basis for developing high-performance magnetic sensors. After defining the key criteria for selecting microwires for various types of GMI sensors, the book illustrates how ferromagnetic microwires are employed as functional fillers to create a new class of composite materials with multiple functionalities for sensing and microwave applications. Readers are introduced to state-of-the-art fabrication methods, microwave tunable properties, microwave absorption and shielding behaviours, as well as the metamaterial characteristics of these newly developed ferromagnetic microwire composites. Lastly, potential engineering applications are proposed so as to highlight the most promisin...

  1. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  2. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  3. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  4. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  5. Microwave-induced changes in the decay rates of positronium localised in fluid ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Arganbright, R.H.; Ward, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    We have measured pick-off annihilation rates of orthopositronium localised in density fluctuations in fluid ethane as a function of microwave frequency in the range 90-100 GHz. Significant reductions in the annihilation rates are observed at 92 and 96.2 GHz. Possible mechanisms for microwave absorption and for the resulting decrease in the local density of electrons around Ps are discussed. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P.; Nijas, C.M.; Joy, P.A.; Joseph, Joseph M.; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Thachil, Eby T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe 3 O 4 particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics

  7. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P. [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Nijas, C.M. [Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Joy, P.A. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Joseph, Joseph M. [Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Kuthirummal, Narayanan, E-mail: kuthirummaln@cofc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Thachil, Eby T., E-mail: ethachil@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics.

  8. Mesonic and non-mesonic branching ratios of K{sup −} absorption in the nuclear medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekihara, Takayasu, E-mail: sekihara@post.kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamagata-Sekihara, Junko [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jido, Daisuke [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kanada-En' yo, Yoshiko [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    The branching ratios of K{sup −} absorption at rest in nuclear matter are evaluated from the K{sup −} self-energy by using the chiral unitary approach for the s-wave K{sup ¯}N amplitude. We find that both the mesonic and non-mesonic absorption potentials are dominated by the Λ(1405) contributions. We also observe that the mesonic absorption ratio [π{sup −}Σ{sup +}]/[π{sup +}Σ{sup −}] increases as a function of nuclear density due to the interference between Λ(1405) and the I=1 non-resonant background, which is consistent with experimental results. The fraction of the non-mesonic absorption is evaluated to be about 30% at the saturation density. The branching ratios of the K{sup −} absorption at rest into deuteron and {sup 4}He are also calculated.

  9. The structural, magnetic and microwave properties of spherical and flake shaped carbonyl iron particles as thin multilayer microwave absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, Omid, E-mail: omidkhani@mut-es.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar [Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ackland, Karl; Stamenov, Plamen [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2017-04-15

    An increase in microwave permeability is a prerequisite for reducing the thickness of radar absorber coatings. The aim of this paper is to increase the magnetic loss of commercial carbonyl iron particles for fabricating wideband microwave absorbers with a multilayer structure. For this purpose, carbonyl iron particles were milled and their static and dynamic magnetic properties were studied before and after milling. A distinct morphological change from spherical to flake-like particles is measured with increased milling time, whereas no distinct changes in magnetic properties are measured with increased milling time. The imaginary part of the permeability (µ'') of the milled carbonyl iron particles increased from 1.23 to 1.88 and showed a very broad peak over the entire frequency range 1–18 GHz. The experimental results were modeled using the Rousselle effective medium theory (EMT) in the Neo formulation. The theoretical predictions showed good agreement with the experimental results. Two layer absorbers were designed according to the measured microwave parameters and the multilayer design. The results revealed that a thin multilayer with a thickness of 1.75 mm can effectively absorb microwaves in both the entire X and Ku frequency bands. The results suggest that microwave absorbers with excellent absorption properties could be mass-produced, using commercial carbonyl iron particles. - Highlights: • The microwave properties of carbonyl iron particles can be controlled effectively by particles shape. • Milling process transforms the carbonyl iron particle morphology from spherical to flake-like. • No appreciable differences in the magnetic and chemical local environments were detected by means of Mossbauer spectroscopy. • The two layer design showed appropriate absorptions in a rather wide frequency range.

  10. Microwave and optical diagnostics in a gadolinium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of the separation process of the gadolinium isotopes by Ion Cyclotron Resonance requires a precise knowledge of the physical characteristics of the plasma. Thus, two kinds of diagnostics have been developed: the first one to estimate the microwave power inside the source and the second one to measure the density of atomic and ionic of the gadolinium inside the plasma source and in front of the collector. Microwave diagnostic: A microstrip antenna has been designed and developed in order to characterize the microwave at 36 GHz frequency in the plasma source. The experimental results for different plasma regimes are presented. The measurements inside the plasma source show a maximum of microwave absorption for an argon pressure of 10 -4 mb (93% of absorption of the incident wave in the conditions of isotope separation). Laser absorption diagnostic: The theory of laser absorption in presence of a magnetic field is recalled and the first results are presented. In the spectral range between 560 and 620 nm, corresponding to high energy levels of gadolinium, no signal is obtained so that the density is below the detection limit 10 10 cm -3 . In the spectral range between 380 and 400 nm, two lines are observed, issue from the fundamental and metastable (633 cm -1 ) levels. The density of metastable level of gadolinium ions is about 10 10 cm -3 with a relative precision of 15 % and its variation is studied as a function of argon pressure, at different sections of the plasma column (source, collector). The achieved set of measurements has been performed in order to check the theoretical models. (author)

  11. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  12. Effect of Low Level Subchronic Microwave Radiation on Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Megha, Kanu; Nasare, Namita; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of subchronic low level microwave radiation (MWR) on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level and DNA damage in brain of Fischer rats. Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 90 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I: Sham exposed, Group II: animals exposed to microwave radiation at 900 MHz and specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10-4 W/kg, Group III: animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 × 10-4 W/kg and Group IV: animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10-4 W/kg. All the animals were tested for cognitive function using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze at the end of the exposure period and subsequently sacrificed to collect brain tissues. HSP70 levels were estimated by ELISA and DNA damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay. Microwave exposure at 900-2450 MHz with SAR values as mentioned above lead to decline in cognitive function, increase in HSP70 level and DNA damage in brain. The results of the present study suggest that low level microwave exposure at frequencies 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz may lead to hazardous effects on brain. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Search for resonant and enhanced non-resonant di-Higgs production in the yybb channel at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the run 2 search for di-Higgs production in the yybb channel. In the Standard Model, this process provides a lens on the Higgs self-coupling and it is enhanced, resonantly or non-resonantly, in many extensions to the SM. It is appealing thanks to a clean diphoton trigger, relatively small backgrounds, and excellent diphoton mass resolution. It is also particularly important in the range from 260 to 400 GeV, where QCD backgrounds and combinatorics make other channels (4b, bbtautau) challenging. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 1/fb of proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Search for resonant and enhanced non-resonant di-Higgs production in the yybb channel at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cerda Alberich, Leonor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This poster presents the run 2 search for di-Higgs production in the yybb channel. In the Standard Model, this process provides a lens on the Higgs self-coupling and it is enhanced, resonantly or non-resonantly, in many extensions to the SM. It is appealing thanks to a clean diphoton trigger, relatively small backgrounds, and excellent diphoton mass resolution. It is also particularly important in the range from 260 to 400 GeV, where QCD backgrounds and combinatorics make other channels (4b, bbtautau) challenging. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 1/fb of proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  15. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  16. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  17. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  18. Microwave multicomponent synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügel, Helmut M

    2009-12-01

    In the manner that very important research is often performed by multidisciplinary research teams, the applications of multicomponent reactions involving the combination of multiple starting materials with different functional groups leading to the higher efficiency and environmentally friendly construction of multifunctional/complex target molecules is growing in importance. This review will explore the advances and advantages in microwave multicomponent synthesis (MMS) that have been achieved over the last five years.

  19. Microwave Multicomponent Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut M. Hügel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the manner that very important research is often performed by multidisciplinary research teams, the applications of multicomponent reactions involving the combination of multiple starting materials with different functional groups leading to the higher efficiency and environmentally friendly construction of multifunctional/complex target molecules is growing in importance. This review will explore the advances and advantages in microwave multicomponent synthesis (MMS that have been achieved over the last five years.

  20. Microwave Multicomponent Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut M. Hügel

    2009-01-01

    In the manner that very important research is often performed by multidisciplinary research teams, the applications of multicomponent reactions involving the combination of multiple starting materials with different functional groups leading to the higher efficiency and environmentally friendly construction of multifunctional/complex target molecules is growing in importance. This review will explore the advances and advantages in microwave multicomponent synthesis (MMS) that have been achiev...

  1. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, David H

    1999-01-04

    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Olefin Metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, François; Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Bicchielli, Dario; Delfosse, Sébastien; Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    Since the first reports on the use of microwave irradiation to accelerate organic chemical transformations, a plethora of papers have been published in this field. In most examples, microwave heating has been shown to dramatically reduce reaction times, increase product yields, and enhance product purity by reducing unwanted side reactions compared to conventional heating methods. The present contribution aims at illustrating the advantages of this technology in olefin metathesis and, when data are available, at comparing microwave-heated and conventionally heated experiments

  3. Microwave-assisted ADMET polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Jiménez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-assisted ADMET polymerization is reported on a series of α,ω-diene monomers, both polar and non-polar. Investigations indicate that of the multiple microwave modes possible, constant power is the most advantageous, providing polymers up to M‾w=31,000g/mol. Molecular weight values are nearly triple in comparison with conventional oil bath heating. Polymers are characterized by NMR, GPC, TGA, and DSC. Microwave irradiation provides a highly controllable and energy efficient ADMET poly...

  4. Optical absorption signature of a self-assembled dye monolayer on graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessnim Sghaier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-organized monolayer of alkylated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-diimide (PTCDI has been formed onto CVD graphene transferred on a transparent substrate. Its structure has been probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy and its optical properties by polarized transmission spectroscopy at varying incidence. The results show that the transition dipoles of adsorbed PTCDI are all oriented parallel to the substrate. The maximum absorption is consistent with the measured surface density of molecules and their absorption cross section. The spectrum presents mainly a large red-shift of the absorption line compared with the free molecules dispersed in solution, whereas the relative strengths of the vibronic structures are preserved. These changes are attributed to non-resonant interactions with the graphene layer and the neighbouring molecules.

  5. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium absorption was neither affected by soybean protein in the diet nor by supplemental phytate. The inhibitory influence of soybean protein and phytate on apparent magnesium absorption was found ...

  6. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  7. The European Microwave Week 2008 and its Microwave Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Van Vliet, F.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the European Microwave Association (EuMA) the 11th annual European Microwave Week was organized in the Amsterdam RAI Congress Centre, The Netherlands, 27-31 October 2008. This major event consisted this year of five conferences, an exhibition, and various side events. The 38th

  8. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    Defective absorption of calcium has been thought to exist in patients with achlorhydria. The author compared absorption of calcium in its carbonate form with that in a pH-adjusted citrate form in a group of 11 fasting patients with achlorhydria and in 9 fasting normal subjects. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by a modified double-isotope procedure with 0.25 g of calcium used as the carrier. Mean calcium absorption (+/- S.D.) in the patients with achlorhydria was 0.452 +/- 0.125 for citrate and 0.042 +/- 0.021 for carbonate (P less than 0.0001). Fractional calcium absorption in the normal subjects was 0.243 +/- 0.049 for citrate and 0.225 +/- 0.108 for carbonate (not significant). Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group. Administration of calcium carbonate as part of a normal breakfast resulted in completely normal absorption in the achlorhydric subjects. These results indicate that calcium absorption from carbonate is impaired in achlorhydria under fasting conditions. Since achlorhydria is common in older persons, calcium carbonate may not be the ideal dietary supplement

  9. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeinstein Jonathan N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP remains the gold standard for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. In general, while this procedure is safe, patients require a spinal, epidural, or general anesthesia and often several days of hospital stay; the potential morbidity and mortality limits the use of TURP in high-risk patients. Pharmacotherapy has been recommended as a first-line therapy for all patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Patients are oftentimes enthusiastic if they are offered a one-time method to treat lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH, provided that the method offers reduced risk and allows an efficacy equal to that of medical therapy. One such method is transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT. TUMT involves the insertion of a specially designed urinary catheter with a microwave antenna, which heats the prostate and destroys hyperplastic prostate tissue. TUMT allows the avoidance of general or regional anesthesia, and results in minimal blood loss and fluid absorption. In this review, the authors discussed the current indications and outcome of TUMT, including the history of the procedure, the mechanism of action, the indications for TUMT, the pre-operative considerations, the patient selection, the results in terms of efficacy, by comparing TUMT vs. Sham, TUMT vs. Alpha-blocker and TUMT vs. TURP. Finally, the complications are presented, as well as other uses and future directions of the procedure. The authors concluded that TUMT is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to treatment of symptomatic BPH.

  10. Microwave and Pulsed Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, E.K.

    1993-03-01

    The goals of the Microwave and Pulsed Power thrust area are to identify realizable research and development efforts and to conduct high-quality research in those pulse power and microwave technologies that support existing and emerging programmatic requirements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our main objective is to work on nationally important problems while enhancing our basic understanding of enabling technologies such as component design and testing, compact systems packaging, exploratory physics experiments, and advanced systems integration and performance. During FY-92, we concentrated our research efforts on the six project areas described in this report. (1) We are investigating the superior electronic and thermal properties of diamond that may make it an ideal material for a high-power, solid-state switch. (2) We are studying the feasibility of using advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar technology for reliable non-destructive evaluation of bridges and other high-value concrete structures. These studies include conceptual designs, modeling, experimental verifications, and image reconstruction of simulated radar data. (3) We are exploring the efficiency of pulsed plasma processing techniques used for the removal of NO{sub x} from various effluent sources. (4) We have finished the investigation of the properties of a magnetically delayed low-pressure gas switch, which was designed here at LLNL. (5) We are applying statistical electromagnetic theory techniques to help assess microwave effects on electronic subsystems, by using a mode stirred chamber as our measurement tool. (6) We are investigating the generation of perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) in proposed CFC replacement fluids when they are subjected to high electrical stresses and breakdown environments.

  11. Advances on integrated microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Jianji; Liao, Shasha; Yan, Siqi

    2017-01-01

    Integrated microwave photonics has attracted a lot of attentions and makes significant improvement in last 10 years. We have proposed and demonstrated several schemes about microwave photonics including waveform generation, signal processing and energy-efficient micro-heaters. Our schemes are all...

  12. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are ...

  13. Microwave Sterilization in School Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Brian; Dixon, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Described are two investigations carried out in a high school biology department using a domestic microwave oven to compare the relative attributes of the autoclave and microwave oven in school use. Discussed are equipment, methods, and results of each investigation. (Author/CW)

  14. Microwave Radiometry in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    1982-01-01

    Microwave radiometry has shown its capabilities of observing and monitoring large-scale geophysical observables from space. Examples are sea surface temperature and surface wind over the ocean, sea ice extent, concentration and category and snow cover extent and water content. At low microwave fr...

  15. Effect of Microwave Heating on the Dielectric Properties and Components of Iron-Fortified Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-shu Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the iron-fortified milk as research object, this paper makes a research on the influence of iron on the dielectric properties and wave absorption properties and effect of nutritional components, such as casein and whey protein in milk, and thermostability in the process of microwave heating, and rapid heat transfer method in ferrous gluconate–milk and ferrous chloride–milk, respectively. The results show that the iron of ionic form has greater influence to convert microwave to heat energy and the effect of microwave absorption properties was greater for ferrous chloride than for ferrous gluconate at high concentration. The effect of different forms of iron on the composition of milk was different, and the composition of milk systems was more stable by microwave heating, but the rapid heat transfer method is superior in the aim of increasing the nutritional value of milk. The ferrous gluconate–milk system has a better thermal stability than ferrous chloride–milk system. From the aspect of dielectric induction, the paper discovers the response rules of iron and evaluates the microwave thermal safety of the traditional and the iron-fortified products by microwave heating.

  16. Microwave-assisted low temperature synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Robina, E-mail: rkhan@kth.se [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden); Toprak, Muhammet S., E-mail: toprak@kth.se [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden); Muhammed, Mamoun [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 16440, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-15

    In this work we report, for the first time, on microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis can be done in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors. The QDs are less than 3 nm in size as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns to confirm the wurtzite phase of ZnS QDs. The optical properties were investigated by UV-Vis absorption which shows blue shift in absorption compared to bulk wurtzite ZnS due to quantum confinement effects. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of QDs reveal point defects related emission of ZnS QDs. - Graphical abstract: Microwave assisted synthesis of wurtzite ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been achieved in controlled reaction at temperature as low as 150 Degree-Sign C. The synthesis was performed in different microwave absorbing solvents with multisource or single source precursors for very short reaction periods due to effective heating with microwaves. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wurtzite a high temperature phase of ZnS was synthesized at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature synthesis was possible because of the use of microwave absorbing solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping agent was used to control the size of Quantum Dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different systems were developed using single molecular precursor and multisource precursors.

  17. Resonant freak microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, F.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The Helmholtz equation describing transverse magnetic modes in a closed flat microwave resonator with 60 randomly distributed discs is numerically solved. At lower frequencies, the calculated wave intensity spatially distributed obeys the universal Porter-Thomas form if localized modes are excluded. A superposition of resonant modes is shown to lead to rare events of extreme intensities (freak waves) at localized 'hot spots'. The temporally distributed intensity of such a superposition at the center of a hot spot also follows the Porter-Thomas form. Branched modes are found at higher frequencies. The results bear resemblance to recent experiments reported in an open cavity.

  18. DSN Microwave Antenna Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, D. J.; Seidel, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The DSN microwave antenna holography project will obtain three-dimensional pictures of the large DSN antenna surfaces. These pictures must be of suffi icient resolution to allow adjustment of the reflector panels to an rms surface of 0.5 mm (0.25 mm, goal). The major parameters and equations needed to define a holographic measurement system are outlined and then the proof of concept demonstration measurement that was made at DSS-43 (Australia) that resulted in contour maps with spatial resolution of 7 m in the aperture plane and resolution orthogonal to the aperture plane of 0.7 mm was discussed.

  19. Manganese and Zinc Spinel Ferrites Blended with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Microwave Absorbing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Teber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic and dielectric materials can be blended to enhance absorption properties at microwave frequencies, although the materials may have relatively weak attenuation capabilities by themselves. The specific goal of this work is to enhance microwave absorption properties of materials with interesting dielectric behavior by blending them with magnetic materials based on transition metals. The synthesized Mn1−xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 1.0 spinel ferrite nanoparticles (MZF NPs were blended with commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs in various proportions with a binder matrix of paraffin. This simple and efficient process did not cause a significant variation in the energy states of MWCNTs. MZF NPs were synthesized with a citric acid assisted sol–gel method. Their electromagnetic characteristics and microwave absorption properties were investigated. These properties were derived from the microwave scattering parameters measured via the transmission line technique by using a vector network analyzer (VNA in conjunction with an X band waveguide system. The return loss (RL values of the samples were obtained from the electromagnetic constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability. The results indicate that the minimum RL value and the bandwidth change significantly with the amount of ferrite material in the blend. These results encourage further development of MWCNTs blended with ferrite nanoparticles for broadband microwave applications.

  20. Dynamic of ozone formation in nanosecond microwave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nanosecond gas discharges are efficient sources of chemically active plasma. Studies of the nanosecond microwave discharge are interesting for remote modification of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in term of its purification, for diagnostics of impurities and ozone replenishment in the regions of local open-quotes ozone holesclose quotes. In this connection a study of plasma chemical processes in such a discharge seems appropriate, as well as modeling of ecological consequences of the effect of powerful microwave radiation on the atmosphere. The present paper contains generalized results of studying the process of ozone formation in a pulse-periodic freely localized nanosecond microwave discharge. The experiments were performed in a wide range of parameters: microwave radiation wavelength λ = 0.8 and 3cm, pulse duration τ = 6 and 500ns, pulse power P = 50kW and 20MW, pulse repetition rate F = 1-10 3 Hz. The working gases were air and oxygen under pressure P = 10-100Torr. As a source of the microwave radiation a pulse magnetron was used with a device for pulse compression based on the waveguide resonator, and a relativistic microwave generator. The discharge was produced in the focus of the parabolic mirror and had the form of homogeneous cylinder. The plasma chemical processes were studied in two cases. The discharge was created either in the quartz tube placed along the focal line of the mirror or in the free air. Dynamics of formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the discharge was studied by means of absorption spectroscopy in the regime of accumulation of the products of chemical reactions (in a closed volume) and their diffusion spreading

  1. Dynamic of ozone formation in nanosecond microwave discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Nanosecond gas discharges are efficient sources of chemically active plasma. Studies of the nanosecond microwave discharge are interesting for remote modification of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in term of its purification, for diagnostics of impurities and ozone replenishment in the regions of local {open_quotes}ozone holes{close_quotes}. In this connection a study of plasma chemical processes in such a discharge seems appropriate, as well as modeling of ecological consequences of the effect of powerful microwave radiation on the atmosphere. The present paper contains generalized results of studying the process of ozone formation in a pulse-periodic freely localized nanosecond microwave discharge. The experiments were performed in a wide range of parameters: microwave radiation wavelength {Lambda} = 0.8 and 3cm, pulse duration {tau} = 6 and 500ns, pulse power P = 50kW and 20MW, pulse repetition rate F = 1-10{sup 3} Hz. The working gases were air and oxygen under pressure p = 10-100Torr. As a source of the microwave radiation a pulse magnetron was used with a device for pulse compression based on the waveguide resonator, and a relativistic microwave generator. The discharge was produced in the focus of the parabolic mirror and had the form of homogeneous cylinder. The plasma chemical processes were studied in two cases. The discharge was created either in the quartz tube placed along the focal line of the mirror or in the free air. Dynamics of formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the discharge was studied by means of absorption spectroscopy in the regime of accumulation of the products of chemical reactions in a closed volume and in case of their diffusion spreading.

  2. Dynamic of ozone formation in nanosecond microwave discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Nanosecond gas discharges are efficient sources of chemically active plasma. Studies of the nanosecond microwave discharge are interesting for remote modification of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in term of its purification, for diagnostics of impurities and ozone replenishment in the regions of local {open_quotes}ozone holes{close_quotes}. In this connection a study of plasma chemical processes in such a discharge seems appropriate, as well as modeling of ecological consequences of the effect of powerful microwave radiation on the atmosphere. The present paper contains generalized results of studying the process of ozone formation in a pulse-periodic freely localized nanosecond microwave discharge. The experiments were performed in a wide range of parameters: microwave radiation wavelength {lambda} = 0.8 and 3cm, pulse duration {tau} = 6 and 500ns, pulse power P = 50kW and 20MW, pulse repetition rate F = 1-10{sup 3} Hz. The working gases were air and oxygen under pressure P = 10-100Torr. As a source of the microwave radiation a pulse magnetron was used with a device for pulse compression based on the waveguide resonator, and a relativistic microwave generator. The discharge was produced in the focus of the parabolic mirror and had the form of homogeneous cylinder. The plasma chemical processes were studied in two cases. The discharge was created either in the quartz tube placed along the focal line of the mirror or in the free air. Dynamics of formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the discharge was studied by means of absorption spectroscopy in the regime of accumulation of the products of chemical reactions (in a closed volume) and their diffusion spreading.

  3. YIG based broad band microwave absorber: A perspective on synthesis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2017-10-01

    The fabrication of a thin layer of microwave absorber that operates over a wide band of frequencies is still a challenging task. With recent advances in nanostructure synthesis techniques, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin nanocomposite layer designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation covering S to K band frequencies. The primary objective of this investigation is to achieve best possible EM absorption with a wide bandwidth and attenuation >10 dB for a thin absorbing layer (few hundred of microns). Magnetic yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12; in short YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by sol-gel (SG) as well as solid-state (SS) reaction methods to elucidate the effects of nanoscale finite size on the magnetic behavior of the particles and hence their microwave absorption capabilities. It is found that YIG prepared by these two methods are different in many ways. Magnetic properties investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) exhibit that the coercivity (Hc) of solid-state NPs is much larger (72 Oe) than the sol-gel NPs (31 Oe). Microwave absorption properties were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique in field sweep mode at different fixed frequencies. A thin layer (∼300 μm) of YIG film was deposited using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique over a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line made on copper coated RT/duroid® 5880 substrates. Temperature dependent magnetic properties were also investigated using VSM and FMR techniques. Microwave absorption properties were investigated at high temperatures (up to 300 °C) both for sol-gel and solid-state synthesized NPs and are related to skin depth of YIG films. It is observed that microwave absorption almost vanishes when the temperature reached the Néel temperature of YIG.

  4. Passive Microwave Components and Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    State-of-the-art microwave systems always require higher performance and lower cost microwave components. Constantly growing demands and performance requirements of industrial and scientific applications often make employing traditionally designed components impractical. For that reason, the design...... and development process remains a great challenge today. This problem motivated intensive research efforts in microwave design and technology, which is responsible for a great number of recently appeared alternative approaches to analysis and design of microwave components and antennas. This book highlights...... techniques. Modelling and computations in electromagnetics is a quite fast-growing research area. The recent interest in this field is caused by the increased demand for designing complex microwave components, modeling electromagnetic materials, and rapid increase in computational power for calculation...

  5. Manipulating the loss in electromagnetic cloaks for perfect wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Zhao, Yan; Hao, Yang

    2009-05-11

    We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.

  6. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  7. The role of the native oxide shell on the microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Morsi M.; Link, Guido; Thumm, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin oxide native layer had a critical role on microwave sintering of copper. • Explain why microwaves interact with copper powder differently than its bulk. • Abnormal expansion in copper is due to the plastic deformation and crack formation. • In-situ setup gives important insight about the microwave sintering of metals. • Microwave sintering is a promising candidate technology in powder metallurgy. - Abstract: Successful microwave sintering of several metal powders had been reported by many researchers with remarkable improvements in the materials properties and/or in the overall process. However, the concept behind microwave heating of metal powders has not been fully understood till now, as it is well known that bulk metals reflect microwaves. The progress of microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts was investigated via combining both in-situ electrical resistivity and dilatometry measurements that give important information about microstructural changes with respect to the inter-particle electrical contacts during sintering. The sintering behavior of copper metal powders was depending on the type of the gas used, particle size, the initial green density, the soaking sintering time and the thin oxide layer on the particles surfaces. The thin copper oxide native layer (ceramics) that thermodynamically formed on the particles surfaces under normal handling and ambient environmental conditions had a very critical and important role in the microwave absorption and interaction, the sintering behavior and the microstructural changes. This finding could help to have a fundamental understanding of why MW’s interact with copper metal powder in a different way than its bulk at room temperature, i.e. why a given metal powder could be heated using microwaves while its bulk reflects it

  8. Microwave metamaterial absorber based on multiple square ring structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicheng Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the design, analysis, and simulation of quintuple-band metamaterial absorber (MMA in the microwave region. The absorber is constructed of a delicate periodic patterned structures and a metallic background plane, separated by a dielectric substrate. By manipulating the periodic patterned structures, high absorption can be obtained at five specific resonance frequencies. Moreover, the significantly high absorptions of quintuple-peaks are persistent with polarization independence, and the influence of angle of incidence for both TE and TM modes was also elucidated. For explaining the absorption mechanism of proposed structures, the electric and magnetic field distributions and resistance matching principal were given. Importantly, the design idea has the ability to be extended to other frequencies, like terahertz, infrared and optical frequencies.

  9. Ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3) state in hydrochloric acid solutions under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Kuz'min, N.M.; Nesterov, A.A.; Runov, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    Reactions of hydration, poly- and depolymerization, oxidation-reduction processes with ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3) participation are investigated in hydrochloric acid solutions under microwave irradiation by the methods of molecular absorption spectroscopy in UV visible region taking K 4 [Ru 2 OCl 10 ] as an example. Content of state forms of ruthenium (4) and ruthenium (3), absorption characteristics of forming complexes are calculated. Variation of microwave irradiation parameters and HCl concentration permits to prepare solutions containing [RuCl 6 ] 2+ (95 %) and [(RuOH) 2 (H 2 O) 6 (OH) 2 ] 4+ (98 %) preeminently predominant forms. The role of microwave effect directly is established taking as an example the process of ruthenium (4) hydration [ru

  10. Synchronization of Two Non-Identical Coupled Exciters in a Non-Resonant Vibrating System of Linear Motion. Part I: Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytical approach is proposed to study the feature of frequency capture of two non-identical coupled exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The electromagnetic torque of an induction motor in the quasi-steady-state operation is derived. With the introduction of two perturbation small parameters to average angular velocity of two exciters and their phase difference, we deduce the Equation of Frequency Capture by averaging two motion equations of two exciters over their average period. It converts the synchronization problem of two exciters into that of existence and stability of zero solution for the Equation of Frequency Capture. The conditions of implementing frequency capture and that of stabilizing synchronous operation of two motors have been derived. The concept of torque of frequency capture is proposed to physically explain the peculiarity of self-synchronization of the two exciters. An interesting conclusion is reached that the moments of inertia of the two exciters in the Equation of Frequency Capture reduce and there is a coupling moment of inertia between the two exciters. The reduction of moments of inertia and the coupling moment of inertia have an effect on the stability of synchronous operation.

  11. BaM/YIG nano-composites: A microwave material for C to U band application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexaferrites have become important candidates for a variety of microwave and millimeter wave devices due to their large uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy and high saturation magnetization. The goal of the present investigation is to synthesize Barium hexaferrite/Yttrium Iron Garnet (BaFe12O19/Y3Fe5O12: (BaM/YIG Nano-Composites (NCs to be used in broad band microwave frequency range applications, especially as microwave absorber. X-ray diffractometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM, and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR techniques were used to characterize these NCs. Using a Cu coplanar wave guide and a Vector Network Analyzer, broadband (C to U microwave absorption were investigated by placing the bulk sample in flip chip mode. Various mathematical models were employed to fit the experimental data to yield intrinsic and extrinsic damping parameters.

  12. Characterization of YVO4:Eu3+ phosphors synthesized by microwave heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kazuyoshi; Ochiai, Ayumi; Toda, Kenji; Sato, Mineo

    2006-01-01

    YVO 4 :Eu 3+ phosphors were prepared using a domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz with 500 W. The temperature of raw materials with mixtures of Y 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 and Eu 2 O 3 that were irradiated with the microwave increased to about 840 o C within 150 s. Subsequently, the temperature dropped sharply in spite of the continuing microwave irradiation. Measurement of the dielectric loss factor of the raw materials and products at 2.45 GHz at temperatures from 25 deg. C to 800 deg. C revealed a high absorption efficiency of microwave energy by V 2 O 5 , which provided a rapid increase in the raw material's temperature. A low dielectric loss factor observed for YVO 4 :Eu engendered a sharp temperature drop after completion of the reaction of Y 2 O 3 with V 2 O 5

  13. Microwave spectrum, structure, dipole moment, and barrier to internal rotation of methylthioethyne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsen, D. den

    1967-01-01

    The microwave absorption spectrum is reported as well as rotational constants, dipole moment components, and centrifugal distortion constants of methylthioethyne. The spectra of two isotopic species of methylthioethyne were measured, namely, HCC---32SCH3 and HCC---34SCH3; the determination of the

  14. Magnetic and microwave-absorbing properties of SrAl4Fe8O19 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry & Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education,. Shaanxi University of ... technique also significantly affected the magnetic properties and microwave-absorptivity. Conversely, calcining tem- ... The grain size was found to be a key factor affecting the property of the powder.

  15. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip

    2009-01-01

    at different microwave or millimeter-wave frequency bands, we present several schemes to increase the achievable RF phase shift by enhancing light slow-down or speed-up. These schemes include integrating gain and absorption sections, optical filtering and the exploitation of the initial chirp effects...

  16. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Katsumata, H.; Uekusa, S.; Ooyagi, H.; Ishimura, T.; Miyakoshi, T.

    Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin (PUE) mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials; Ni-Zn ferrite, Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube (CNT) to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty. Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over -27 dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption. This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers.

  17. The removal of concrete layers from biological shields by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Concrete blocks reinforced with steel bars have been subjected to microwave attack at a frequency of 896 MHz at power levels up to 25 kW. The surface concrete has been explosively removed to the depth of the reinforcement, 10 cm, at a rate of about 2 litres per kWh. Heating was localized around the point of attack, with temperatures up to 300 0 C at the fractured face being attained. A simple mathematical model of the propagation and absorption of micro-waves was used to estimate the temperature rise of concrete at microwave frequencies of 896 wand 2450 MHz, at different power levels with and without the presence of reinforcing bars. This demonstrated that reinforcement is expected to significantly increase the temperature rise in the concrete between the irradiated surface and the reinforcement, and that near-surface heating should be more rapid at the higher frequency. There was reasonable agreement between predicted and observed temperature at the higher power levels. Further desk and laboratory studies are proposed before proceeding to a fullscale practical demolition machine and the requirements for a prototype remotely-operated demonstration system have been identified. This consists of a static generator of high power (at least 50 kW) transmitting microwaves via a steerable waveguide to a remote applicator mounted on a simple three-axis manipulator capable of traversing realistically large concrete test panels

  18. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR MICROWAVE AND RADIO FREQUENCY EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1030.10 Microwave ovens. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this standard are applicable to microwave ovens manufactured...

  19. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  20. The Liverpool Microwave Palaeointensity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mimi; Biggin, Andrew; Hawkins, Louise; Hodgson, Emma; Hurst, Elliot

    2016-04-01

    The motivation for the group at Liverpool in the 1990s (led by John Shaw and Derek Walton) to start experimenting with using microwaves to demagnetise and remagnetise palaeomagnetic samples, rather than heating using conventional ovens, was to reduce laboratory induced alteration in absolute palaeointensity experiments. As with other methods, the non-ideal effects of grain size and naturally altered remanence must still be addressed. From humble beginnings using a domestic microwave oven the current 4th generation microwave system (MWS) has developed in to an integrated combined 14 GHz microwave resonant cavity and SQUID magnetometer system. The MWS is designed to investigate one 5 mm diameter sample at a time with microwave exposure (the equivalent of a heating step in conventional experiments) ranging from a few seconds up to around a minute. Each experiment (protocol, checks, direction and strength of applied field, number of steps etc) can be tailored to the behaviour of each individual sample. There have been many published studies demonstrating the equivalence of conventional thermal (Thellier) and microwave techniques using both artificial and natural remanence and also that the microwave method can indeed reduce laboratory induced alteration. Here an overview of the present MWS including a discussion of the physical processes occurring will be given. Examples of current projects (both archaeological and geological) utilising the method will also be described. Finally, future developments and applications of the method will be discussed.

  1. Microwave mixer technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Although microwave mixers play a critical role in wireless communication and other microwave applications employing frequency conversion circuits, engineers find that most books on this subject emphasize theoretical aspects, rather than practical applications. That's about to change with the forthcoming release of Microwave Mixer Technology and Applications. Based on a review of over one thousand patents on mixers and frequency conversion, authors Bert Henderson and Edmar Camargo have written a comprehensive book for mixer designers who want solid ideas for solving their own design challenges.

  2. A facile one-pot strategy for fabrication of carbon-based microwave absorbers: effects on annealing and paraffin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Quan, Bin; Liu, Wei; Liang, Xiaohui; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2017-07-18

    In this work, a one-pot strategy was proposed to synthesize carbon-coated Fe 3 O 4 and carbon-coated Fe 3 C via the pyrolysis of colloidal Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals capped with oleic acid (OA) at different calcination temperatures. After exploring the microwave absorption performance of these composites, we found that carbon-coated Fe 3 C obtained at 700 °C possesses higher reflection loss (RL) and broader effective bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) at low thickness. So the further investigation of the microwave absorption performance for carbon-capped Fe 3 C composites mixed with different mass percentages of paraffin was also carried out. The results demonstrated that the multi-dielectric relaxation process and better impedance matching, especially at low thickness and high frequency, contributed to the preferable microwave absorption greatly.

  3. Comparative study of experimental and numerical behaviors of microwave absorbers based on ultrathin Al and Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.S., E-mail: daniel_eng_aero@hotmail.com [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Nohara, E.L. [Universidade de Taubaté, Rua Daniel Danelli, s/n, CEP 12060-440, Taubaté, SP (Brazil); Rezende, M.C. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    The study of radar absorbing materials increasingly thin, lightweight and flexible has gained growing importance in recent years. In military area these characteristics allow the reduction of weight and volume of platforms, and in civilian sector these materials stimulate innovative projects of electronic and microwave devices. The present work was devoted to studying ultrathin films of Al (20–80 nm) and Cu (10–100 nm) deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by magnetron sputtering technique. The electrical conductivity values of the films were determined by 4 probes method, the S parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) were obtained by transmission line using a X-band waveguide and the skin depth calculated. The results show the dependence of the electrical conductivity with the thickness for both films. The experimental values of microwave attenuation were compared with calculated values based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. This comparison shows a good adjustment and confirms the use of electrical conductivity measurements to predict the microwave absorption behavior of ultrathin films. - Highlights: • This article focuses on recent progresses in ultrathin films aiming microwave absorption. • Nanometric films of Al and Cu deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate were produced. • Electrical conductivity (4-probes) and S-parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) of nanofilms were measured. • Calculated microwave attenuations were obtained based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. • A good fit between experimental and predictions data of microwave absorption was observed.

  4. Microwave antenna holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Seidel, Boris L.

    1992-01-01

    This microwave holography technique utilizes the Fourier transform relation between the complex far field radiation pattern of an antenna and the complex aperture field distribution. Resulting aperture phase and amplitude distribution data can be used to precisely characterize various crucial performance parameters, including panel alignment, panel shaping, subreflector position, antenna aperture illumination, directivity at various frequencies, and gravity deformation effects. The methodology of data processing presented here was successfully applied to the Deep Space Network (DSN) 34-m beam waveguide antennas. The antenna performance was improved at all operating frequencies by reducing the main reflector mechanical surface rms error to 0.43 mm. At Ka-band (32 GHz), the estimated improvement is 4.1 dB, resulting in an aperture efficiency of 52 percent. The performance improvement was verified by efficiency measurements and additional holographic measurements.

  5. Study of microwave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; Chao, A.

    1996-12-01

    The microwave instability is usually described by linearizing Vlasov equation in the angle-action variables I, φ and assuming that the interaction of azimuthal harmonics ρ n (I) of the distribution function ρ is weak. The argument implied here is that the Hamiltonian flow smears out particles over invariant tori characterized by the action variables, and the remaining azimuthal dependence of the distribution function is small. Indeed, such an approach successfully describes bunch spectrum and the threshold of the microwave instability. However, recently there have been interesting observations of bunch centroid and bunch shape oscillations above instability threshold at LEP and the damping ring at SLAC. There are also indicates that the oscillations sometimes occur in localized region in the longitudinal coordinate instead of affecting the entire longitudinal distribution as one expects by an action-angle analysis. In this paper the authors describe an alternative approach to the problem of bunch stability using decomposition of the Fokker-Plank equation in the system of nonlinear equations for the moments of the distribution function. In particular, this approach allows them to avoid the conventional action-angle decomposition. The physical quantities they are interested in, the moments, are expressed in the Cartesian z - δ phase space. To close the infinite hierarchy of moments equations, the authors assume that higher order correlations are small. Although both the action-angle and the Cartesian languages must be equivalent before truncation, they may have different speed of convergence depending on the problem being studied. It is hoped that Cartesian expansion approach would converge faster for the cases corresponding to those observed recently above threshold. The recent experimental observations made them interested in it again. This note is a progress report of their work

  6. Microwave Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Lambot, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted research in microwave thermal propulsion as part of the space exploration access technologies (SEAT) research program, a cooperative agreement (NNX09AF52A) between NASA and Carnegie Mellon University. The SEAT program commenced on the 19th of February 2009 and concluded on the 30th of September 2015. The DARPA/NASA Millimeter-wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) project subsumed the SEAT program from May 2012 to March 2014 and one of us (Parkin) served as its principal investigator and chief engineer. The MTLS project had no final report of its own, so we have included the MTLS work in this report and incorporate its conclusions here. In the six years from 2009 until 2015 there has been significant progress in millimeter-wave thermal rocketry (a subset of microwave thermal rocketry), most of which has been made under the auspices of the SEAT and MTLS programs. This final report is intended for multiple audiences. For researchers, we present techniques that we have developed to simplify and quantify the performance of thermal rockets and their constituent technologies. For program managers, we detail the facilities that we have built and the outcomes of experiments that were conducted using them. We also include incomplete and unfruitful lines of research. For decision-makers, we introduce the millimeter-wave thermal rocket in historical context. Considering the economic significance of space launch, we present a brief but significant cost-benefit analysis, for the first time showing that there is a compelling economic case for replacing conventional rockets with millimeter-wave thermal rockets.

  7. Effect of Sand Base Grade and Density of Moulding Sands with Sodium Silicate on Effectiveness of Absorbing Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, presented is a research on effectiveness of absorbing electromagnetic waves at frequency 2.45 GHz by unhardened moulding sands prepared of three kinds of high-silica base and a selected grade of sodium silicate. Measurements of power loss of microwave radiation (Pin expressed by a total of absorbed power (Pabs, output power (Pout and reflected power (Pref were carried-out on a stand of semiautomatic microwave slot line. Values of microwave power loss in the rectangular waveguide filled with unhardened moulding sands served for determining effectiveness of microwave heating. Balance of microwave power loss is of technological and economical importance for manufacture of high-quality casting moulds and cores of various shapes and sizes. It was found that relative density influences parameters of power output and power reflected from samples of moulding sand placed in a waveguide. Absorption expressed by the parameter Pabs is not related to granularity of high-silica base: fine, medium and coarse. It was found that the semiautomatic microwave slot line supports evaluation of effectiveness of microwave absorption on the grounds of power loss measurements and enables statistic description of influence of relative density of the sandmix on penetration of electromagnetic waves in unhardened moulding sands.

  8. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  9. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  10. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  11. Develop Prototype Microwave Interferometry Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Converse, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A prototype microwave interferometer was created at NSTec to characterize moving conductive fronts in upcoming experiments. The interferometer is capable of operation in the ~26-40 GHz band, and interrogating fronts with more than 1 W of power.

  12. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) Microwave (MW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Microwave (MW) observations of tropical cyclones worldwide data consist of raw satellite observations. The data derive from the...

  13. Scanning Microwave Induced Acoustic Tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lihong V

    2001-01-01

    .... Cancerous breast tissues are found to be 2-5 times more strongly absorbing than surrounding normal breast tissues in the microwave, which has been attributed to an increase in bound water and sodium...

  14. Tracking Code for Microwave Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability

  15. Expanded graphite—Phenolic resin composites based double layer microwave absorber for X-band applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyoti Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi Saxena

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, double layer microwave absorbers are designed and developed with paired combination of 5 wt. %, 7 wt. %, 8 wt. %, and 10 wt. % expanded graphite-novolac phenolic resin (EG-NPR) composites, in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. The thickness and compositional combination of the two layers constituting the absorber are optimized to achieve minimum value of reflection loss (dB) and a broad microwave absorption bandwidth. Double layer combinations showing -25 dB absorption bandwidth >2 GHz and -30 dB absorption bandwidth >1 GHz are chosen for fabrication. The total thickness of the fabricated double layer microwave absorber is varied from 3 mm to 3.4 mm. Absorption bandwidths at -10 dB, -20 dB, -25 dB and -30 dB are determined for the fabricated structure. The maximum -25 dB and -30 dB absorption bandwidth of 2.47 GHz and 1.77 GHz, respectively, are observed for the double layer structure with (5 wt. %-8 wt. %) EG-NPR composites with total thickness of 3.2 mm, while -10 dB bandwidth covers the entire X-band range.

  16. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  17. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  18. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pettersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 g m−2 or less, the cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. This measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.

  19. Graphene Josephson Junction Microwave Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kin Chung; Walsh, Evan; Lee, Gil-Ho; Efetov, Dmitri; Crossno, Jesse; Ranzani, Leonardo; Ohki, Thomas; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk

    Modern readout schemes for superconducting qubits have predominately relied on weak microwave signal detection and discrimination. Most schemes are based on heterodyne or homodyne receiver systems and only a few have demonstrated direct detection of microwave photons. The challenges of direct detection stem from the low energy of microwave photons and existing detector efficiency. We have designed, fabricated, and measured a graphene-based Josephson junction (gJJ) microwave detector. Exploiting its low electronic thermal conductivity and specific heat, an electron temperature rise on the order of 0.1 K due to a time average of about 10 photons in the graphene thermal photodetector is readout via a Josephson junction embedded in an 8 GHz microwave cavity. We will estimate the quantum efficiency and dark count probability of the gJJ microwave single photon detectors. This document does not contain technology or technical data controlled under either the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations or the U.S. Export Administration Regulations.

  20. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  1. Study of federal microwave standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  2. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Jesus Moreira de

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 or (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  3. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Jesus Moreira de

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C), and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 or (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  4. On the Mechanism of Microwave Flash Sintering of Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Bykov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3 are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O3; MgAl2O4; and Yb(LaO2O3—were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98–0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5–5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering. Flash sintering occurs when the processing conditions—including the temperature of the sample; the properties of thermal insulation; and the intensity of microwave radiation—facilitate the development of thermal runaway due to an Arrhenius-type dependency of the material’s effective conductivity on temperature. The proper control over the thermal runaway effect is provided by fast regulation of the microwave power. The elevated concentration of defects and impurities in the boundary regions of the grains leads to localized preferential absorption of microwave radiation and results in grain boundary softening/pre-melting. The rapid densification of the granular medium with a reduced viscosity of the grain boundary phase occurs via rotation and sliding of the grains which accommodate their shape due to fast diffusion mass transport through the (quasi-liquid phase. The same mechanism based on a thermal runaway under volumetric heating can be relevant for the effect of flash sintering of various oxide ceramics under a dc/ac voltage applied to the sample.

  5. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL INTERACTIONS OF MICROWAVES WITH MATERIALS AND MICROWAVE CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner KUŞLU

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves in industry has generated interest recently as an alternative to classic thermal heating because of the drastic reduction in the processing time. In spite of the fact that there is a wide application of microwaves, the interaction mechanism between microwaves and materials has not been well understood. Nowadays, the fact that there is a debate on the alternative use of microwaves is on not the dielectric heating which is well known but microwave specific effect. In this article there are reports which show similar kinetic in both microwave and classic thermal methods at similar temperature and simple dielectric heating of materials under microwaves conditions. There are also reports which show a clear reaction rate enhancement by microwave radiation compared to the thermal method under similar reactions conditions and temperatures indicating microwave specific effect. In addition, the study on the effects of microwaves on chemical reactions and hypothesis associated with the microwave effects will discuss.

  7. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  8. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm 2 ). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p microwave radiation. Also histological changes were observed in the brain, liver, testis, kidney and spleen after whole-body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  9. Uranium absorption study pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raievski, V.; Sautiez, B.

    1959-01-01

    The report describes a pile designed to measure the absorption of fuel slugs. The pile is of graphite and comprises a central section composed of uranium rods in a regular lattice. RaBe sources and BF 3 counters are situated on either side of the center. A given uranium charge is compared with a specimen charge of about 560 kg, and the difference in absorption between the two noted. The sensitivity of the equipment will detect absorption variations of about a few ppm boron (10 -6 boron per gr. of uranium) or better. (author) [fr

  10. Influence of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Effective Absorption Bandwidth Shift of Hybrid Absorbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ameer

    Full Text Available The magnetic nanoparticle composite NiFe2O4 has traditionally been studied for high-frequency microwave absorption with marginal performance towards low-frequency radar bands (particularly L and S bands. Here, NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and nanohybrids using large-diameter graphene oxide (GO sheets are prepared via solvothermal synthesis for low-frequency wide bandwidth shielding (L and S radar bands. The synthesized materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, FTIR and microwave magneto dielectric spectroscopy. The dimension of these solvothermally synthesized pristine particles and hybrids lies within 30-58 nm. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy was performed in the low-frequency region in the 1 MHz-3 GHz spectrum. The as-synthesized pristine nanoparticles and hybrids were found to be highly absorbing for microwaves throughout the L and S radar bands ( 4 GHz with limited selective bandwidth.

  11. Analogy electromagnetism-acoustics: Validation and application to local impedance active control for sound absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Laurent; Furstoss, M.; Galland, Marie-Annick

    2007-01-01

    An analogy between electromagnetism and acoustics is presented in 2D. The propagation of sound in presence of absorbing material is modeled using an open boundary microwave package. Validation is performed through analytical and experimental results. Application to local impedance active control for free field sound absorption is finally described.

  12. Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied

  13. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  15. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  16. Skull and cerebrospinal fluid effects on microwave radiation propagation in human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Zarei, M.; Akhlaghipour, N.; Niknam, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of microwave absorption distribution in the human brain is necessary for the detection of brain tumors using thermo-acoustic imaging and for removing them using hyperthermia treatment. In contrast to ionizing radiation, hyperthermia treatment can be applied to remove tumors inside the brain without the concern of including secondary malignancies, which typically form from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum. The aim of this study is to determine the microwave absorption distribution in an adult human brain and to study the effects of skull and cerebrospinal fluid on the propagation of microwave radiation inside the brain. To this end, we simulate the microwave absorption distribution in a realistic adult brain model (Colin 27) using the mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC) method. This is because in spite of there being other numerical methods, the MMC does not require a large memory, even for complicated geometries, and its algorithm is simple and easy to implement with low computational cost. The brain model is constructed using high-resolution (1 mm isotropic voxel) and low noise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and its volume contains 181×217×181 voxels, covering the brain completely. Using the MMC method, the radiative transport equation is solved and the absorbed microwave energy distribution in different brain regions is obtained without any fracture or anomaly. The simulation results show that the skull and cerebrospinal fluid guide the microwave radiation and suppress its penetration through deep brain compartments as a shielding factor. These results reveal that the MMC can be used to predict the amount of required energy to increase the temperature inside the tumour during hyperthermia treatment. Our results also show why a deep tumour inside an adult human brain cannot be efficiently treated using hyperthermia treatment. Finally, the accuracy of the presented numerical method is verified using the signal flow graph technique.

  17. Development of FeCoB/Graphene Oxide based microwave absorbing materials for X-Band region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sukanta [Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur 756025 (India); Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Chandra Nayak, Ganesh, E-mail: ganeshnayak2006@gmail.com [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Sahu, S.K. [Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur 756025 (India); Oraon, Ramesh [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-06-15

    This work explored the microwave absorption capability of Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB for stealth technology. Epoxy based microwave absorbing materials were prepared with 30% loading of Graphene Oxide, FeCoB alloy and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB. Graphene Oxide and FeCoB were synthesized by Hummer's and Co-precipitation methods, respectively. The filler particles were characterized by FESEM, XRD and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer techniques. Permittivity, permeability and reflection loss values of the composite absorbers were measured with vector network analyzer which showed a reflection loss value of −7.86 dB, at 10.72 GHz, for single layered Graphene Oxide/Epoxy based microwave absorbers which can be correlated to the absorption of about 83.97% of the incident microwave energy. Reflection loss value of FeCoB/Epoxy based microwave absorber showed −13.30 dB at 11.67 GHz, which corresponded to maximum absorption of 93.8%. However, reflection loss values of Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB/Epoxy based single-layer absorber increased to −22.24 dB at 12.4 GHz which corresponds to an absorption of 99% of the incident microwave energy. - Highlights: • FeCoB coated Graphene Oxide (GO) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. • GO, FeCoB and GO@FeCoB based microwave absorbers were developed with Epoxy matrix. • GO and FeCoB/Epoxy absorbers showed −7.86 & −13.30 dB reflection loss, respectively. • Maximum Reflection loss of −22.24 dB was achieved with GO@FeCoB/Epoxy absorber.

  18. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  19. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning......Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...

  20. Slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides for applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip

    2009-01-01

    at different microwave or millimeter-wave frequency bands, we present several schemes to increase the achievable RF phase shift by enhancing light slow-down or speed-up. These schemes include integrating gain and absorption sections, optical filtering and the exploitation of the initial chirp effects......We review the theory of slow and fast light effects due to coherent population oscillations in semiconductor waveguides, and potential applications of these effects in microwave photonic systems as RF phase shifters. In order to satisfy the application requirement of 360º RF phase shift...

  1. A review of microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging: Excitation source, data acquisition system and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (TAI is a noninvasive modality based on the differences in microwave absorption of various biological tissues. TAI has been extensively researched in recent years, and several studies have revealed that TAI possesses advantages such as high resolution, high contrast, high imaging depth and fast imaging speed. In this paper, we reviewed the development of the TAI technique, its excitation source, data acquisition system and biomedical applications. It is believed that TAI has great potential applications in biomedical research and clinical study.

  2. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  3. Contamination by sputtering in mirror field electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatikin, S.M.; Berry, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir probe measurements, visual observation, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have been used to investigate source chamber sputtering for electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma systems operated with Ar, N 2 , and Cl 2 . Potentials in the source > 20eV combined with high plasma densities (>10 12 cm -3 ) led to source chamber sputtering and coating of the microwave entrance window. During Ar operation, the microwave entrance window coating caused significant absorption of incident microwave power and decreased source efficiency by as much as 40% in 11 cm 2 sec -1 . Cl 2 , operation did not result in microwave entrance window coating, however surface contamination from sputtering was detected. Operation of the source with an anodized aluminum liner was effective in reducing microwave entrance window coating but resulted in some heavy metal contamination due to sputtering of impurities in the liner itself. Also, checks with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) indicated some Al contamination from sputtering of the anodized aluminum liner material. Finally, a technique for in situ cleaning of the microwave entrance window was developed and expedited source contamination studies

  4. In vivo microwave-based thermoacoustic tomography of rats (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Microwave-based thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), based on the measurement of ultrasonic waves induced by microwave pulses, can reveal tissue dielectric properties that may be closely related to the physiological and pathological status of the tissues. Using microwaves as the excitation source improved imaging depth because of their deep penetration into biological tissues. We demonstrate, for the first time, in vivo microwave-based thermoacoustic imaging in rats. The transducer is rotated around the rat in a full circle, providing a full two-dimensional view. Instead of a flat ultrasonic transducer, we used a virtual line detector based on a cylindrically focused transducer. A 3 GHz microwave source with 0.6 µs pulse width and an electromagnetically shielded transducer with 2.25 MHz central frequency provided clear cross-sectional images of the rat's body. The high imaging contrast, based on the tissue's rate of absorption, and the ultrasonically defined spatial resolution combine to reveal the spine, kidney, muscle, and other deeply seated anatomical features in the rat's abdominal cavity. This non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality achieved an imaging depth beyond 6 cm in the rat's tissue. Cancer diagnosis based on information about tissue properties from microwave band TAT can potentially be more accurate than has previously been achievable.

  5. Absorption fluids data survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  6. Study of microwave components for an electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The system consists of a microwave source, an isolator, a directional coupler, a threestub tuner, a high voltage break, a microwave vacuum window, and a microwave launcher. These microwave components were simulated using microwave studio software. The low power and full term characterization of the microwave ...

  7. Microwave. Instructor's Edition. Louisiana Vocational-Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, William

    This publication contains related study assignments and job sheets for a course in microwave technology. The course is organized into 12 units covering the following topics: introduction to microwave, microwave systems, microwave oscillators, microwave modulators, microwave transmission lines, transmission lines, detectors and mixers, microwave…

  8. Study of Material Moisture Measurement Method and Instrument by the Combination of Fast Neutron Absorption and γ Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Chaoqin; Gong Yalin; Zhang Wei; Shang Qingmin; Li Yanfeng; Gou Qiangyuan; Yin Deyou

    2010-01-01

    To solve the problem of on-line sinter moisture measurement in the iron making plant, we developed material moisture measurement method and instrument by the combination of fast neutron absorption and y-absorption. It overcomes the present existed problems of other moisture meters for the sinter. Compare with microwave moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by conductance and magnetism of material; to infrared moisture meter, the measurement result dose not influenced by colour and light-reflect performance of material surface, dose not influenced by changes of material kind; to slow neutron scatter moisture meter, the measurement dose not affected by density of material and thickness of hopper wall; to the moisture measurement meter which combined by slow neutron penetrate through and y-absorption, there are definite math model and good linear relation between the measurement values, and the measurement dose not affected by material thickness, changes of material form and component. (authors)

  9. Absorption cooling device. Absorptions-Kuehlvorrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, J.; Vardi, I.; Kimchi, Y.; Ben-Dror, J.

    1980-03-25

    The invention concerns improvements of absorption refrigerators, where a lithium chloride or lithium bromide/water cycle is used. According to the invention an inner separating or dividing structure between different functional parts of a machine of this type is provided. The structure contains two sections of wall, which are separated from one another by a suitable space, in order to achieve thermal insulation. This air space is provided with an opening in the direction towards the inside of the container and the opening is shielded to prevent the entry of liquids (in liquid or spray form).

  10. Wideband Agile Digital Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; Brown, Shannon T.; Ruf, Christopher; Gross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to take the initial steps needed to develop a field programmable gate array (FPGA)- based wideband digital radiometer backend (>500 MHz bandwidth) that will enable passive microwave observations with minimal performance degradation in a radiofrequency-interference (RFI)-rich environment. As manmade RF emissions increase over time and fill more of the microwave spectrum, microwave radiometer science applications will be increasingly impacted in a negative way, and the current generation of spaceborne microwave radiometers that use broadband analog back ends will become severely compromised or unusable over an increasing fraction of time on orbit. There is a need to develop a digital radiometer back end that, for each observation period, uses digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to identify the maximum amount of RFI-free spectrum across the radiometer band to preserve bandwidth to minimize radiometer noise (which is inversely related to the bandwidth). Ultimately, the objective is to incorporate all processing necessary in the back end to take contaminated input spectra and produce a single output value free of manmade signals to minimize data rates for spaceborne radiometer missions. But, to meet these objectives, several intermediate processing algorithms had to be developed, and their performance characterized relative to typical brightness temperature accuracy re quirements for current and future microwave radiometer missions, including those for measuring salinity, soil moisture, and snow pack.

  11. Microwave Plasma System: PVA Tepla 300

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Microwave AsherA tool using microwave oxygen plasma to remove organics on the surfacesSpecifications / Capabilities:Frequency: 2.45 GHzPower:...

  12. DMSP SSM/I- Microwave Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/I is a seven-channel, four frequency, linearly-polarized, passive microwave radiometric system which measures atmospheric, ocean and terrain microwave...

  13. Digital microwave communication engineering point-to-point microwave systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kizer, George

    2013-01-01

    The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important. Until now, no book has adequately treated all en

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

  15. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  16. Microwave Activation of Drug Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    to verify the presence of creeping waves. Due to the inherent high wave attenuation in biological tissues, such as muscles at microwave frequencies, sensitive receiving structures are suggested to be integrated on a drug capsule. The capsules are meant to contain the pharmaceutical drugs and the receiving......Due to current limitations in control of pharmaceutical drug release in the body along with increasing medicine use, methods of externally-controlled drug release are of high interest. In this thesis, the use of microwaves is proposed as a technique with the purpose of externally activating...... setup, called the microwave activation system has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. The system presented in this thesis, operates unobtrusively, i.e. without physically interfering with the target (patient). The torso phantom is a simple dual-layered cylindrical...

  17. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...... integrated submillimeter receiver circuit which comprises a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as local oscillator, a superconducting variable attenuator, and a microwave SIS detector with tuned-out capacitance is also reported....

  18. Co/graphite based light weight microwave absorber for electromagnetic shielding and stealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azizurrahaman; Jaleel Akhtar, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic, thermal, thermo-mechanical, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of Co/graphite loaded polystyrene composites prepared by melt blending and injection molding techniques are studied in X-band (8.4-12.4 GHz) for seeking their usage as efficient light weight microwave absorbers. For profound understanding of electromagnetic absorption process at micro level, the advanced SEM and x-ray diffraction testing of the composites are carried out. The magnetic properties of the prepared Co/graphite loaded polystyrene composites are studied using the vibrating sample magnetometer. The thermal stability and thermo-mechanical properties of the prepared composites are analyzed by thermo gravimetric analysis and dynamic mechanical and thermal analysis, respectively. The complex permittivity and permeability values of the prepared composite samples in X-band of microwave frequency are extracted from the scattering data recorded during the vector network analyzer measurements. The minimum reflection loss (maximum absorption loss) of  -32.02 dB (99.94%) is achieved at 10.13 GHz for Co/graphite loaded polystyrene composite with the excess loading of graphite flakes for sample thickness of 1.8 mm. High absorption loss, light weight and low thickness of the proposed multicomponent Co/graphite loaded polystyrene composites make them promising candidates for electromagnetic shielding and stealth applications.

  19. Modeling of the water uptake process for cowpea seeds (vigna unguiculata l.) under common treatment and microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirhan, E.

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake kinetics of cowpea seeds were carried out at two different water absorption treatments - common treatment and microwave treatment - to evaluate the effects of rehydration temperatures and microwave output powers on rehydration. Water uptake of cowpea seeds during soaking in water was studied at various temperatures of 20 - 45 degree C, and at various microwave output powers of 180 - 900 W. As the rehydration temperature and microwave output power increased, the water uptake of cowpea seeds increased and the rehydration time decreased. The Peleg and Richards Models were capable of predicting water uptake of cowpea seeds undergoing common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated by fitting experimental absorption data to Fick second law of diffusion. The effective diffusivity coefficients for cowpea seeds varied from 7.75*10-11 to 1.99*10-10 m2/s and from 2.23*10-9 to 9.78*10-9 m2/s for common treatment and microwave treatment, respectively. (author)

  20. The microwave absorbing properties of ZnO/Fe3O4/paraffin composites in low frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pengfei; Deng, Yu; Zhang, Limin; Huang, Juan; Li, Huayao; Li, Youhongyu; Qi, Yali; Tao, Yu

    2018-02-01

    ZnO/Fe3O4/paraffin composites with good microwave absorption performance in low frequency band were prepared by physical blending technology. The morphology, phase structures, frequency-dependent electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the addition content of ZnO can adjust the microwave absorbing properties i.e. the position, intensity, and absorption bandwidth of composites, and the synergetic consequence of dielectric loss and magnetic loss is the main microwave absorption mechanism of the composites. The bandwidths with RL below -10 dB over different frequency ranges were obtained in the low frequency range of 0.5 ˜ 3 GHz at a thickness of 5 mm, e.g. 0.93 GHz from 1.59 to 2.52 GHz and 0.85 GHz from 1.26 to 2.11 GHz corresponding to the mass ratios of ZnO and Fe3O4 are 1:2 and 1:4, respectively. Thus, such absorbers can be applied as effective microwave absorbers in low frequency range of 0.5 ˜ 3 GHz.

  1. Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Kanu; Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar; Ahmed, Rafat; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade people have been constantly exposed to microwave radiation mainly from wireless communication devices used in day to day life. Therefore, the concerns over potential adverse effects of microwave radiation on human health are increasing. Until now no study has been proposed to investigate the underlying causes of genotoxic effects induced by low intensity microwave exposure. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the influence of low intensity microwave radiation on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. The study was carried out on 24 male Fischer 344 rats, randomly divided into four groups (n=6 in each group): group I consisted of sham exposed (control) rats, group II-IV consisted of rats exposed to microwave radiation at frequencies 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz, specific absorption rates (SARs) 0.59, 0.58 and 0.66 mW/kg, respectively in gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell for 60 days (2h/day, 5 days/week). Rats were sacrificed and decapitated to isolate hippocampus at the end of the exposure duration. Low intensity microwave exposure resulted in a frequency dependent significant increase in oxidative stress markers viz. malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO) and catalase (CAT) in microwave exposed groups in comparison to sham exposed group (pmicrowave exposed groups (pmicrowave exposed animal (pmicrowave exposed groups as compared to their corresponding values in sham exposed group (pmicrowave radiation induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in brain by exerting a frequency dependent effect. The study also indicates that increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response might be the factors involved in DNA damage following low intensity microwave exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electroless Ni-P-ferrite composite coatings for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Ramesh Chandra

    2005-11-01

    Electroless, EL coating technique is one of the elegant ways of coating by controlling the temperature and pH of the coating bath in which there is no usage of electric current. It is estimated that the market for this chemistry will increase at a rate of about 15% per year. Use of microwave energy for synthesis of material with novel microstructures is an exciting new field in material science with enormous application. In this investigation, nanograined BaZn_{2-y}Co_yFe_{16}O_{27} (y=0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0) powders have been synthesized by citrate precursor method followed by heat treatment at various specified temperatures like 650, 750 and 850^{circ}C for 3 h in the furnace. In addition heat treatments are also carried out in the microwave oven of the power rating of 760 W. The powders thus produced have been characterized by SEM, EPMA, VSM, XRD and thermal analysis techniques. As a forward step towards EL nano-composite coatings, Ni-P-X (X = BaZn_{2-y} Co_yFe_{16}O_{27}) coatings with thickness less than sim0.1 mm thick has been produced. Such coating exhibits absorption of microwave in the range of 12-18 GHz up to about 20 db depending upon the volume fraction of the ferrite particles embedded in the Ni-P matrix.

  3. Quantitative analysis of time-resolved microwave conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Obadiah G.; Moore, David T.; Li, Zhen; Zhao, Dewei; Yan, Yanfa; Zhu, Kai; Rumbles, Garry

    2017-12-01

    Flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (fp-TRMC) is a versatile, highly sensitive technique for studying the complex photoconductivity of solution, solid, and gas-phase samples. The purpose of this paper is to provide a standard reference work for experimentalists interested in using microwave conductivity methods to study functional electronic materials, describing how to conduct and calibrate these experiments in order to obtain quantitative results. The main focus of the paper is on calculating the calibration factor, K, which is used to connect the measured change in microwave power absorption to the conductance of the sample. We describe the standard analytical formulae that have been used in the past, and compare them to numerical simulations. This comparison shows that the most widely used analytical analysis of fp-TRMC data systematically under-estimates the transient conductivity by ~60%. We suggest a more accurate semi-empirical way of calibrating these experiments. However, we emphasize that the full numerical calculation is necessary to quantify both transient and steady-state conductance for arbitrary sample properties and geometry.

  4. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR OPTIMIZING ANTENNA FOR MICROWAVE COAGULATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAHA S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave coagulation therapy (MCT is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of soft tissues targeted in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. In this field of microwave coagulation therapy, the use of minimally invasive antenna is recognized as a very promising technique for the treatment of small tumors because a very thin antenna can be easily inserted inside the body and precisely localized using the advanced 3D imaging techniques and surgical robots. The authors investigated the microwave coaxial antenna operating at 2.45 GHz by varying the slots size for the removal of liver tumor. The analysis was done using 2D finite element modeling. By several optimization steps the antenna is simulated and optimized by comparing the values of specific absorption rate (SAR, mesh statistics and temperature distributions in tissue generated by the antenna with the variations of dimensions of slot from 1 mm to 1.7 mm.

  5. A focusing reflectarray and its application in microwave virus sanitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wan-Ting; Tung, Jen-Jung; Chen, Shih-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a focusing reflectarray based on the conductor-backed strip dipole unit cell is proposed and designed for use in the microwave virus sanitizer. Unlike traditional far-field antennas that form a planar phase front in a specified far-field direction, the focusing reflectarray is designed to coherently add the fields radiated from the feeding antenna at a predetermined focal point, typically within its radiating near-field region and to ensure adequate power density to inactivate the H3N2 virus sample. Furthermore, the focusing reflectarray has a simple and planar structure compared with conventional focusing antennas. Since the microwave resonant absorption frequency of the H3N2 virus is at about 8 GHz, an 8 × 8 focusing reflectarray is designed for operation at 8 GHz. A prototype antenna is then fabricated and used for H3N2 virus sanitization. It is demonstrated experimentally that the death rate of the H3N2 virus sample is up to 93%, verifying the feasibility of the microwave virus sanitizer as well as the proposed focusing reflectarray.

  6. Dendritic-metasurface-based flexible broadband microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Weng, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-06-01

    Based on the dendritic metasurface model, a type of flexible and lightweight microwave absorber (MA) comprising resistance film array with dendritic slot (RFADS), dielectric material, and metal plate is proposed. A broadband absorptivity of >80% is obtained both from simulation and experiment at frequency ranges of 3.0-9.2 and 3.2-9.00 GHz, respectively. And the thickness of MA is 5 mm, which is only 0.05λ _{low}, or 0.15λ _ {high}, where the λ _{low} and the λ _{high} are the beginning and the end of the working frequency. By combining this metasurface-based MA with the dendritic-resistance-film-based microwave metasurface absorber (MMA), we designed a broadband MMA. The simulations and experiments showed that this kind of MMA can absorb the radiation effectively at a wide frequency range 4.5-17.5 GHz. And the thickness of this combined MMA is 4 mm. All the structures showed their insensitivity to the incident angle (0°-40°) and the polarization of the incident wave because of their structural symmetry. In addition, the small thickness, low apparent density, and flexibility made those structures possess the advantages of being applied in microwave stealth and radar cross-section (RCS) reduction.

  7. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  8. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital modulation techniques and operating below 25.25 GHz (except for MVDDS stations in the 12,200-12,700 MHz band...

  9. Microwave assisted centrifuge and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    Centrifuge samples may be exposed to microwave energy to heat the samples during centrifugation and to promote separation of the different components or constituents of the samples using a centrifuge device configured for generating microwave energy and directing the microwave energy at a sample located in the centrifuge.

  10. Prospects of microwave processing: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    wave heating. In addition, microwave energy is being explored for the sintering of metal powders also. Ceramic and metal nanopowders have been sintered in microwave. Furthermore, initiatives have been taken to process the amorphous materials (e.g. glass) by microwave heating. Besides this, an attempt has been made ...

  11. The microwave era is just beginning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave energy applicators in curing rubber products and in ceramic manufacture are enunciated by some of the participants at the First Australian Symposium on Microwave Power Applications held in February 1989 at Wollongong. The advantages and disadvantages of microwave heating over conventional methods are stated

  12. Particle physics implications of Wilkinson microwave anisotropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 6. Particle physics implications of Wilkinson microwave anisotropy project measurements. U A Yajnik. Volume 63 Issue 6 December 2004 pp 1317-1330 ... Keywords. Cosmic microwave background radiation; inflation; Wilkinson microwave anisotropy project.

  13. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  14. Microwave power transmission by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keydel, W.

    The MPTS (microwave power transmission system) is examined with regard to the problems involved, the proposed solutions, the future outlook, and the necessity for further work. The MPTS is analyzed with regard to system considerations, design considerations (power transmission, frequency selection, power generation, the spacetenna, microwave propagation problems, the rectenna, and efficiency), environmental impacts (electromagnetic compatibility and RF interference, and health and ecological effects). It is concluded that the MPTS is feasible, but that further studies are needed to optimize the system with respect to such factors as efficiency and environmental impact.

  15. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  16. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 Series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  17. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S.

    1989-01-01

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  18. The study on microstructure and microwave-absorbing properties of lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xiaofei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Sun Kangning [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xiaowenhoulvbu1@yahoo.com.cn; Sun Chang; Leng Liang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University (south part), Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Lithium zinc ferrites doped with magnesium and copper were prepared by means of a combination of sol-gel method and subsequent calcination. The crystalline phase and microstructure of different doped lithium zinc ferrites were measured by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy analysis. The results indicate that there are no remarkable differences in phase composition between pure lithium zinc ferrite and the as-doped lithium zinc ferrites. The effects of magnesium and copper dopants on microwave absorption in low-frequency region were investigated by the transmission/reflection coaxial line method. It was found from the present work that doping with copper improved microwave-absorbing properties, while doping with magnesium had little effect on microwave absorption of pure lithium zinc ferrite.

  19. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Moretti, E.S.; Austin, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the effect of the oxidation state of plutonium on its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. For mice and rats that have been starved prior to gastrointestinal administration, there is no significant difference between the absorption factors for Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). The value obtained for Pu(VI) is an order of magnitude lower than that reported previously. The value obtained for Pu(IV) is two orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously for nitrate solutions and the same as those reported for citrate solutions

  20. Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-01

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power Jc vanishes as Jc∝Tcα, when Tc→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  1. Microwave modification of surface hydroxyl density for g-C3N4 with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Na; Zhao, Yang; Mao, Zhiyong; Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar; Wang, Dajian

    2018-03-01

    Microwave modification was performed on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) photocatalysts to tail the surface hydroxyl content for enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. The influence of microwave heating on the surface hydroxyl density was investigated by a suite of characterization methods. The microwave treated g-C3N4 (MT-g-C3N4) delivered a higher photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation than pristine g-C3N4 due to its improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carries and promoted absorption capacity of RhB reactants on surface, which resulted from the increased surface hydroxyl density induced by microwave treatment. This study provides a simple and convenient method to modify g-C3N4 materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity for the potential application in photocatalytic elimination of environmental pollutants.

  2. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Chang, C.C.; Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; Donni, A.J.H.; Kawahata, K.; Liang, C.; Liang, X.P.; Lu, H.J.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Mase, A.; Matsuura, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Miura, A.; Mizuno, K.; Munsat, T.; Nagayama, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Pol, M.J. van de; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.G.; Zhang, W-K.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented

  3. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  4. Ceramic matrix composites by microwave assisted CVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currier, R.P.; Devlin, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) processes for producing continuously reinforced ceramic composites are reviewed. Potential advantages of microwave assisted CVI are noted and numerical studies of microwave assisted CVI are reviewed. The models predict inverted thermal gradients in fibrous ceramic preforms subjected to microwave radiation and suggest processing strategies for achieving uniformly dense composites. Comparisons are made to experimental results on silicon-based composite systems. The role played by the relative ability of fiber and matrix to dissipate microwave energy is noted. Results suggest that microwave induced inverted gradients can be exploited to promote inside-out densification. 10 refs., 2 figs

  5. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs

  6. On the Use of a 77 GHz Automotive Radar as a Microwave Rain Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertoldo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI defines the frequency band of 77 GHz (W-band as the one dedicated to automatic cruise control long-range radars. A car can be thought as a moving integrated weather sensor since it can provide meteorological information exploiting the sensors installed on board. This work presents the preliminary analysis of how a 77 GHz mini radar can be used as a short range microwave rain gauge. After the discussion of the Mie scattering formulation applied to a microwave rain gauge working in the W-band, the proposal of a new Z-R equation to be used for correct rain estimation is given. Atmospheric attenuation and absorption are estimated taking into account the ITU-T recommendations. Functional requirements in adapting automatic cruise control long-range radar to a microwave rain gauge are analyzed. The technical specifications are determined in order to meet the functional requirements.

  7. A model for atmospheric brightness temperatures observed by the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    A closed-form mathematical model for the atmospheric contribution to microwave the absorption and emission at the SSM/I frequencies is developed in order to improve quantitative interpretation of microwave imagery from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The model is intended to accurately predict upwelling and downwelling atmospheric brightness temperatures at SSM/I frequencies, as functions of eight input parameters: the zenith (nadir) angle, the integrated water vapor and vapor scale height, the integrated cloud water and cloud height, the effective surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rate, and surface pressure. It is shown that the model accurately reproduces clear-sky brightness temperatures computed by explicit integration of a large number of radiosonde soundings representing all maritime climate zones and seasons.

  8. Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation (M8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, J.A.; Santos, D.M.; Trevizan, L.C.; Costa, L.M.; Nogueira, A.R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Focused-microwave-assisted sample preparation is a suitable strategy when dealing with high masses of organic samples. However, the final acid concentration of the digestate can difficult routine analytical measurements using spectroscopic techniques. Acids could be evaporated, but this step could be slow even when using microwave-assisted heating and requires a scrubber system for acid vapor collection and neutralization. We are investigating two procedures to decrease the acid concentration of digestates. The first one is based on acid vapor phase digestion of samples contained in PTFE devices' inserted into the microwave flask. The acid solution is heated by absorption of microwave radiation, then the acid vapor partially condenses in the upper part of the reaction flask and it is partially collected in each sample container. Calcium, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn were quantitatively recovered in samples of animal and vegetable tissues. Better recoveries were attained when adding a small volume of sodium hypochlorite to the sample. This effect is probably related to the generation of chlorine in the sample container after collecting condensed acid. The second procedure developed is based on the gradual addition of liquid samples to a previously heated acid digestion mixture. This procedure was successfully applied for digestion of milk, fruit juices, and red wine. The main advantage is the possibility of digesting up to four-fold more sample using up to ten-fold lower amounts of concentrated acids. Results obtained using both digestion procedures and measurements by ICP-OES with axial view will be presented. (author)

  9. On the impact of low power density microwaves in some living tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, M.; Tufescu, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    electromagnetic exposure was changed suggesting the influence of microwaves on the Light Harvesting Complex II from the tylakoidal membranes (the photosynthesis perturbation at the level of forest ecosystems is not excluded). Comparative study on the changes of the average content of DNA and RNA in vegetal and animal tissues was carried out (the putative influences of microwaves on the quality of fresh food of animal origin is underlined). The interpretation of the experimental data provided in such experiments was based on the concurrence of the thermal and non-thermal microwave effects as well as on the synergic biochemical reactions triggered following the microwave absorption. The living body ability to repair part of the damages induced by the physical stress was also considered. (authors)

  10. Effects of pulsed 2.856 GHz microwave exposure on BM-MSCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhen Wang

    Full Text Available The increasing use of microwave devices over recent years has meant the bioeffects of microwave exposure have been widely investigated and reported. However the exact biological fate of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs after microwave radiation remains unknown. In this study, the potential cytotoxicity on MSC proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and in vitro differentiation were assayed following 2.856 GHz microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR of 4 W/kg. Importantly, our findings indicated no significant changes in cell viability, cell division and apoptosis after microwave treatment. Furthermore, we detected no significant effects on the differentiation ability of these cells in vitro, with the exception of reduction in mRNA expression levels of osteopontin (OPN and osteocalcin (OCN. These findings suggest that microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on BM-MSCs. However, the reduced-expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can the influence at the mRNA expression genetic level.

  11. Effects of Pulsed 2.856 GHz Microwave Exposure on BM-MSCs Isolated from C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changzhen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Hongmei; Dong, Guofu; Guan, Xue; Wang, Lifeng; Xu, Xinping; Wang, Shuiming; Chen, Peng; Peng, Ruiyun; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of microwave devices over recent years has meant the bioeffects of microwave exposure have been widely investigated and reported. However the exact biological fate of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) after microwave radiation remains unknown. In this study, the potential cytotoxicity on MSC proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and in vitro differentiation were assayed following 2.856 GHz microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg. Importantly, our findings indicated no significant changes in cell viability, cell division and apoptosis after microwave treatment. Furthermore, we detected no significant effects on the differentiation ability of these cells in vitro, with the exception of reduction in mRNA expression levels of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN). These findings suggest that microwave treatment at a SAR of 4 W/kg has undefined adverse effects on BM-MSCs. However, the reduced-expression of proteins related to osteogenic differentiation suggests that microwave can the influence at the mRNA expression genetic level. PMID:25658708

  12. Iatrogenic burns: beware of microwaves!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    (1) The traditional hot-water bottle now faces competition from a variety of similar devices, such as microwave-heated compresses and gel packs; (2) These devices can cause severe burns; (3) Microwave-heated gel packs can be harmful for two main reasons. First, microwave ovens heat deeply and unevenly and dangerous temperatures can quickly be reached. In addition, gels retain heat longer than other materials such as cotton compresses or towels; (4) Burns are sometimes caused by lengthy contact with an object that is not hot enough to cause pain or even discomfort. The heat perceived by the user does not reflect the quantity of heat actually transferred. Instructions that can be inadequate and that vary among different brands are further contributing factors; (5) These heating devices must be used with care. The recommended microwaving duration must not be exceeded, the device should be let stand for at least 10 minutes before use, and the heat-retaining material should be homogenised before applying the device to the skin.

  13. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and their performances were checked numerically. The measurement of transmission and reflection coefficients in the frequency range 10 to 30 GHz was performed using Agilent N5230A microwave vector network analyzer. The numerical simulations are performed using FEMLAB package. 3. Results and discussion.

  14. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  15. Microwave sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the potential of microwave irradiation as an innovative energy- efficient alternative to conventional heating technologies in ceramic manufacturing is reviewed, addressing the advantages/disadvantages, while also commenting on future applications of possible commercial interest. Ceramic materials have been extensively studied and used due to several advantages they exhibit. Sintering ceramics using microwave radiation, a novel technology widely employed in various fields, can be an efficient, economic and environmentally-friendlier approach, to improve the consolidation efficiency and reduce the processing cycle-time, in order to attain substantial energy and cost savings. Microwave sintering provides efficient internal heating, as energy is supplied directly and penetrates the material. Since energy transfer occurs at a molecular level, heat is generated throughout the material, thus avoiding significant temperature gradients between the surface and the interior, which are frequently encountered at high heating rates upon conventional sintering. Thus, rapid, volumetric and uniform heating of various raw materials and secondary resources for ceramic production is possible, with limited grain coarsening, leading to accelerated densification, and uniform and fine-grained microstructures, with enhanced mechanical performance. This is particularly important for manufacturing large-size ceramic products of quality, and also for specialty ceramic materials such as bioceramics and electroceramics. Critical parameters for the process optimization, including the electromagnetic field distribution, microwave-material interaction, heat transfer mechanisms and material transformations, should be taken into consideration.

  16. Microstrip PIN diode microwave switch

    OpenAIRE

    Usanov, Dmitry A.; Skripal, A. V.; Kulikov, M. Yu.

    2011-01-01

    A possibility of creating narrow-band electrically controlled microwave breakers and switches with enhanced attenuation level in the blocking mode has been considered. The specified devices are based on the structure containing a short-circuited microstrip link with connected capacitor and the loop coupler, in the center of which is located a PIN diode.

  17. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...

  18. Neutron resonance absorption theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.

    1991-11-01

    After some recalls on the physics of neutron resonance absorption during their slowing down, this paper presents the main features of the theoretical developments performed by the french school of reactor physics: the effective reaction rate method so called Livolant-Jeanpierre theory, the generalizations carried out by the author, and the probability table method [fr

  19. Microwave digestion for determination content of iron and zinc total in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Trejos, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    The food digestion procedure was optimized by means of a microwave oven, to quantify the iron and total zinc in different matrices by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The optimum amount of concentrated HNO 3 was analyzed at 65% to digest sample mass determined by assessment of the percentage of recovery obtained with different amount of HNO 3 . The results have not differed from those obtained by officially recommended methods of acid digestion in open systems and calcination. (author) [es

  20. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  1. [On a Possible Mechanism of the Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biological Macromolecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, V N; Ivanov, A V; Ivanova, E K; Tamarov, K P; Oksengendler, B L

    2016-01-01

    A model describing the process of dissociation of hydrogen bonding in water clusters when irradiated by electromagnetic field in the microwave range is suggested. The model is also applicable for the case of rupture of the covalent bond of the water molecule cluster. If the energy absorption occurs at the interface of water and polymer clusters (e.g., DNA, chitosan), degradation of the polymer chain is possible.

  2. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  3. Extracellular calcium and microwave enhancement of membrane conductance in snail neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arber, S.L.; Lin, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    Microwave irradiation has been shown to decrease the input resistance of snail neurons. In this study, we examined the role of extracellular calcium in triggering the microwave-induced enhancement of membrane conductance. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first set, nerve cells were superfused using Ringer solution with added Cd/sup 2 +/ (0.9 mM) which is a known blocker of calcium channels. In the second set, cells were superfused with low Ca/sup 2 +/ (0.7 mM) Ringer solution. Microwave irradiation was conducted at 2,450 MHz for 30 min with a specific absorption rate of 13 mW/g. It was found that 7 mM to 0.7 mM loering of Ca/sup 2 +/ in bathing solution as well as blocking of calcium channels in neuronal membrane by means of Cd/sup 2 +/ did not influence the fall in membrane resistance induced by microwave radiation. In fact, the observed changed in membrane resistance in these experiments were nearly equal to those observed for neurons superfused by normal Ringer's. Thus, these results rule out the possible contribution of external Ca/sup 2 +/ in the observed microwave effect. Experiments with high Ca/sup 2 +/ solution also support his conclusion.

  4. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  5. Microwave SQUID multiplexer demonstration for cosmic microwave background imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dober, B.; Becker, D. T.; Bennett, D. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubmayr, J.; Mates, J. A. B.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Key performance characteristics are demonstrated for the microwave superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer (μmux) coupled to transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers that have been optimized for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. In a 64-channel demonstration, we show that the μmux produces a white, input referred current noise level of 29 pA/ √{H z } at a microwave probe tone power of -77 dB, which is well below the expected fundamental detector and photon noise sources for a ground-based CMB-optimized bolometer. Operated with negligible photon loading, we measure 98 pA/ √{H z } in the TES-coupled channels biased at 65% of the sensor normal resistance. This noise level is consistent with that predicted from bolometer thermal fluctuation (i.e., phonon) noise. Furthermore, the power spectral density is white over a range of frequencies down to ˜100 mHz, which enables CMB mapping on large angular scales that constrain the physics of inflation. Additionally, we report cross-talk measurements that indicate a level below 0.3%, which is less than the level of cross-talk from multiplexed readout systems in deployed CMB imagers. These measurements demonstrate the μmux as a viable readout technique for future CMB imaging instruments.

  6. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...

  7. Sound absorption of snow

    OpenAIRE

    Maysenhölder, W.; Schneebeli, M.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, T.; Heggli, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recently fallen snow possesses good sound-absorbing properties. This fact is well-known and confirmed by measurements. Is the filigree structure of snowflakes decisive? In principle we know that the sound-absorbing capacity of a porous material is dependent on its structure. But until now the question as to which structural characteristics are significant has been insufficiently answered. Detailed investigations of snow are to explain this fact by precise measurements of the sound absorption,...

  8. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  9. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  10. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  11. Terahertz absorption in graphite nanoplatelets/polylactic acid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychanok, D.; Angelova, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Meisak, D.; Shashkova, L.; Demidenko, M.; Plyushch, A.; Ivanov, E.; Krastev, R.; Kotsilkova, R.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Kuzhir, P.

    2018-04-01

    The electromagnetic properties of composite materials based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA) filled with graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were investigated in the microwave (26–37 GHz) and terahertz (0.2–1 THz) frequency ranges. The maximum of the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity was observed close to 0.6 THz for composites with 1.5 and 3 wt.% of GNP. The experimental data of complex dielectric permittivity of GNP/PLA composites was modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett theory. The effects of fine dispersion, agglomeration, and percolation in GNP-based composites on its electromagnetic constitutive parameters, presence, and position of THz absorption peak are discussed on the basis of the modeling results and experimental data. The unique combination of conductive and geometrical parameters of GNP embedded into the PLA matrix below the percolation threshold allow us to obtain the THz-absorptive material, which may be effectively used as a 3D-printing filament.

  12. Microwave-induced combustion synthesis of aluminum oxide-titanium carbide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atong, Duangduen

    2000-11-01

    to produce the Al2O3-TiC. The only difference was the way the reactants were heated. In conventional heating, material was heated by heat transfer process depending on its thermal conductivity. Heating by microwaves is a function of dielectric properties of the material. Depending on the microwave absorption of the materials in question, heat generation by microwave heating occurs internally.

  13. Microwave regeneration of molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.

    1984-05-01

    Molecular sieve driers have been included in the design of tritium handling systems for fusion reactors. In these systems there is a need to maintain extremely low exit dew points from the driers as well as a capability to rapidly reduce tritium concentrations following an accident. The required capacity of the driers is very high. The conventional method of regenerating these sieves after a water adsorption cycle is with hot air. However, because water is rapidly heated by microwave energy, this technology may be suitable for decreasing the bed regeneration time and hence may allow reduced capital and operating costs associated with a smaller bed. The present study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the technical feasibility of regenerating molecular sieves with microwave energy. The study concentrated on Type 4A molecular sieve with a few tests on Type 13X sieve and also a silica gel adsorbent

  14. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  15. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as voltage-controlled oscillators and electron devices for millimeter wave and submillimeter wave applications. This part also covers studies of integrated buffer circuits. Passive components are indispensable elements of any electronic system. The increasing demands to miniaturization and cost effectiveness...... push currently available technologies to the limits. Some considerations to meet the growing requirements are provided in the fifth part of this book. The following part deals with circuits based on LTCC and MEMS technologies. The book concludes with chapters considering application of microwaves...... in measurement and sensing systems. This includes topics related to six-port reflectometers, remote network analysis, inverse scattering for microwave imaging systems, spectroscopy for medical applications and interaction with transponders in medical sensors....

  17. Theoretical Calculation and Validation of the Water Vapor Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiancheng; Tipping, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an improved parameterization of the water vapor continuum absorption through the refinement and validation of our existing theoretical formalism. The chief advantage of our approach is the self-consistent, first principles, basis of the formalism which allows us to predict the frequency, temperature and pressure dependence of the continuum absorption as well as provide insights into the physical mechanisms responsible for the continuum absorption. Moreover, our approach is such that the calculated continuum absorption can be easily incorporated into satellite retrieval algorithms and climate models. Accurate determination of the water vapor continuum is essential for the next generation of retrieval algorithms which propose to use the combined constraints of multi-spectral measurements such as those under development for EOS data analysis (e.g., retrieval algorithms based on MODIS and AIRS measurements); current Pathfinder activities which seek to use the combined constraints of infrared and microwave (e.g., HIRS and MSU) measurements to improve temperature and water profile retrievals, and field campaigns which seek to reconcile spectrally-resolved and broad-band measurements such as those obtained as part of FIRE. Current widely used continuum treatments have been shown to produce spectrally dependent errors, with the magnitude of the error dependent on temperature and abundance which produces errors with a seasonal and latitude dependence. Translated into flux, current water vapor continuum parameterizations produce flux errors of order 10 W/ml, which compared to the 4 W/m' magnitude of the greenhouse gas forcing and the 1-2 W/m' estimated aerosol forcing is certainly climatologically significant and unacceptably large. While it is possible to tune the empirical formalisms, the paucity of laboratory measurements, especially at temperatures of interest for atmospheric applications, preclude tuning

  18. Modeling of Microwave Semiconductor Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multi-physical mode-ling of microwave diodes. The electrostatic, drift-diffusion and thermal phenomena are considered in the physical model of the components. The basic semiconductor equati-ons are summarized, and modeling issues are discussed. The simulations of the Gunn Effect in transferred electron devices and the carrier injection effect in PIN diodes are investigated and discussed. The analysis was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics using the finite element method.

  19. Modeling of Microwave Semiconductor Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, M.; Raida, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the multi-physical mode-ling of microwave diodes. The electrostatic, drift-diffusion and thermal phenomena are considered in the physical model of the components. The basic semiconductor equati-ons are summarized, and modeling issues are discussed. The simulations of the Gunn Effect in transferred electron devices and the carrier injection effect in PIN diodes are investigated and discussed. The analysis was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics using the finite element method.

  20. Microwave chemistry for inorganic nanomaterials synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilecka, Idalia; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-08-01

    This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play an outstanding role in the broad field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This article is not meant to give an exhaustive overview of all nanomaterials synthesized by the microwave technique, but to discuss the new opportunities that arise as a result of the unique features of microwave chemistry. Principles, advantages and limitations of microwave chemistry are introduced, its application in the synthesis of different classes of functional nanomaterials is discussed, and finally expected benefits for nanomaterials' synthesis are elaborated.

  1. Phenomenology of microwave coupling, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.; Breakall, J. K.; Hudson, H. G.; Morrison, J. J.; McGevna, V. G.; Kunz, K. S.; Ludwigsen, A. P.; Gnade, D. K.

    1984-11-01

    Advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity like objects, or the so called back door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry. Coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. The initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz) are summarized.

  2. Microwave heating for male contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study at Sichuan University investigated microwave irradiation as a reversible male contraception. In the first phase of the study, the testes of rabbits were exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves with intensity of 15-35 mW/cm/sup 2/ for 15-20 minutes. The animals' sperm count was reduced from 5.86 x 10/sup 8/ +- 1.67 x 10/sup 8//ml (S.D.), to 0.273 x 10/sup 8/ +- 0.385 x 10/sup -8//ml 35 days after exposure. The impregnation ability was lost for about two months, even though the animals retained a normal sexual desire and physical condition. In the second phase, a group of 200 human volunteers received 2450 MHz microwave exposure with an intensity of 80-100 mW/cm/sup 2/ at the surface of the scrotum for 40-60 minutes. The volunteers' sperm counts were reduced from 7511 x 10/sup 4/ +- 2758 x 10/sup 4//ml to 366 x 10/sup 4/ +- 352 x 10/sup 4//ml at 39 +- 5.4 days after exposure; reduction amounting to approximately 95 percent. The viability and motility of the sperm were also reduced. Two months after the last exposure, the sperm counts of the volunteers recovered to 4625 x 10/sup 4/ +- 1897 x 10/sup 4//ml. No obvious changes were found either in medical examinations or in the daily lifestyles of the volunteers

  3. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave heating on three vegetable oils having different lipid compositions was studied. Sunflower, soybean and peanut oils in comparison with oil admixture of soybean and peanut oil (1:1, w/w, were selected for this study. Each oil was heated for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 minutes in microwave oven. Peroxide value, free acidity and colour absorbance (at 420 nm were proportionally increasing with the increase of heating period. Colour absorption threw light on the formation of browning products arising from phospholipids during microwave heating. Total tocopherol contents were determined by preparative thin layer chromatography, whereas the fatty acid compositions and formed epoxy acid were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography. The formed conjugated dienes and trienes were determined by UV spectrophotometry. It was found that the total tocopherols of the microwave heated oils, decreased depending on the type of the predominating tocopherols. Also a relation of peroxide formation, during microwave heating, with changes in total tocopherol composition was discussed. It was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids generally decreased by increasing the heating period. The results obtained from the heated oil admixture helped interpret the results obtained from other heated individual oils.Se estudia el efecto del calentamiento en horno de microondas sobre aceites de diferente composición en ácidos grasos. Aceites de girasol, soja, cacahuete y una mezcla de soja y cacahuete al 50%, se calentaron durante 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 15 y 18 minutos. Los valores de índice de peróxidos, acidez libre y absorbancia a 420 nm fueron proporcionales al tiempo de calentamiento. Otras determinaciones incluyeron el contenido total en tocoferoles mediante cromatografía en capa fina, la composición en ácidos grasos y en epoxiácidos mediante cromatografía gas líquido, y la formación de dienos y trienos conjugados mediante

  4. Modelling microwave heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.C.; Liew, E.L.; Chang, S.L.; Chan, Y.S.; Leo, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave (MW) drying of oil palm kernels is experimentally determined and modelled. • MW heating of discrete samples of oil palm kernels (OPKs) is simulated. • OPK heating is due to contact effect, MW interference and heat transfer mechanisms. • Electric field vectors circulate within OPKs sample. • Loosely-packed arrangement improves temperature uniformity of OPKs. - Abstract: Recently, microwave (MW) pre-treatment of fresh palm fruits has showed to be environmentally friendly compared to the existing oil palm milling process as it eliminates the condensate production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the sterilization process. Moreover, MW-treated oil palm fruits (OPF) also possess better oil quality. In this work, the MW drying kinetic of the oil palm kernels (OPK) was determined experimentally. Microwave heating/drying of oil palm kernels was modelled and validated. The simulation results show that temperature of an OPK is not the same over the entire surface due to constructive and destructive interferences of MW irradiance. The volume-averaged temperature of an OPK is higher than its surface temperature by 3–7 °C, depending on the MW input power. This implies that point measurement of temperature reading is inadequate to determine the temperature history of the OPK during the microwave heating process. The simulation results also show that arrangement of OPKs in a MW cavity affects the kernel temperature profile. The heating of OPKs were identified to be affected by factors such as local electric field intensity due to MW absorption, refraction, interference, the contact effect between kernels and also heat transfer mechanisms. The thermal gradient patterns of OPKs change as the heating continues. The cracking of OPKs is expected to occur first in the core of the kernel and then it propagates to the kernel surface. The model indicates that drying of OPKs is a much slower process compared to its MW heating. The model is useful

  5. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  6. Microwave processing in MOX fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, G.K. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur, PO Ghivali, Thane 401 502, Maharasthra (India)]. E-mail: gatiwant@hotmail.com; Malav, R.K.; Panakkal, J.P. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur, PO Ghivali, Thane 401 502, Maharasthra (India)]. E-mail: panakkal@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Kamath, H.S. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur, PO Ghivali, Thane 401 502, Maharasthra (India)]. E-mail: hskamath@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    The prominent aspect of the microwave heating technique applications in nuclear material processing is its eco-friendly status. It is envisaged that no active liquid waste will be generated from microwave processing. AFFF has fabricated the (U, Pu){sub 2}O mixed oxide fuels for PHWRs, BWRs and PFBR. AFFF is also working for the AHWR fuel cycle. The present paper summarises about the process experiments, instrumental development, results, and future applications of microwave heating technique. (author)

  7. Microwave Tokamak Experiment: Overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Microwave generation and complex microwave responsivity measurements on small Dayem bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O; Mygind, Jesper

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the active properties of a Dayem micro-bridge at X-band frequencies is described. The bridge was mounted in a microwave cavity designed to match the bridge properly and the microwave output from the cavity was detected using a sensitive X-band spectrometer. Microwave power...

  9. TRMM MICROWAVE IMAGER (TMI) WENTZ OCEAN PRODUCTS V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) is a 5-channel, dual-polarized, passive microwave radiometer. Microwave radiation is emitted by the Earth's surface and by water...

  10. CAMEX-4 ER-2 MICROWAVE TEMPERATURE PROFILER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler dataset was collected by the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), which is a passive microwave radiometer which...

  11. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Safe Microwave Oven Use When you operate a microwave oven, ...

  12. TCSP ER-2 MICROWAVE TEMPERATURE PROFILER (MTP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), which is a passive microwave radiometer...

  13. Microwave-assisted addition of azomethines to isatoic anhydride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    . Kenstar domestic, multimode, without on and off mode, microwave oven, with rotating platform tray, with a power source of 230 V, 50 Hz, and micro- wave energy output 800 W, microwave input power. 1200 W and microwave frequency 2450 ...

  14. Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector with Selective Polarization Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward; U-yen, Kongpop; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Moseley, Samuel; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    A conventional low-noise detector requires a technique to both absorb incident power and convert it to an electrical signal at cryogenic temperatures. This innovation combines low-noise detector and readout functionality into one device while maintaining high absorption, controlled polarization sensitivity, and broadband detection capability. The resulting far-infrared detectors can be read out with a simple approach, which is compact and minimizes thermal loading. The proposed microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) consists of three basic elements. The first is the absorptive section in which the incident power is coupled to a superconducting resonator at far-infrared frequency above its superconducting critical frequency (where superconductor becomes normal conductor). This absorber's shape effectively absorbs signals in the desired polarization state and is resonant at the radio frequency (RF) used for readout of the device. Control over the metal film used in the absorber allows realization of structures with either a 50% broadband or 100% resonance absorptance over a 30% fractional bandwidth. The second element is a microwave resonator - which is realized from the thin metal films used to make the absorber as transmission lines - whose resonance frequency changes due to a variation in its kinetic inductance. The resonator's kinetic inductance is a function of the power absorbed by the device. A low-loss dielectric (mono-crystalline silicon) is used in a parallel-plate transmission line structure to realize the desired superconducting resonators. There is negligible coupling among the adjacent elements used to define the polarization sensitivity of each detector. The final component of the device is a microwave transmission line, which is coupled to the resonator, and allows detection of changes in resonance frequency for each detector in the focal plane array. The spiral shape of the detector's absorber allows incident power with two polarizations to

  15. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  16. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  17. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O. [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca{sup 2+} ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA.

  18. Microwave Photonic Imaging Radiometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive Microwave Remote Sensing is currently utilized by NASA, NOAA, and USGIS to conduct Earth Science missions, including weather forecasting, early warning...

  19. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, K.B.; Akyel, C.; Bilgen, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  20. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca 2+ ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA