WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-representative sample representing

  1. Using fabric softeners, drying and ironing in Germany. A non-representative census of consumer behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Verena; Stamminger, Rainer [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Household and Appliance Technology Section

    2011-05-15

    During the annually arranged Action Day Sustainable Washing on May 10{sup th}, 5284 questionnaires about laundry treatment were collected from private people in Germany with the aim of obtaining information about consumer behaviour and attitudes towards sustainability. This is a non-representative census as only 15% of all respondents were male. Nevertheless, relative distribution and correlation provide a relevant insight into consumers' behaviour towards washing, drying and ironing. The most important results of the analysis can be summed up as follows: - Nearly 50% of the respondents own a laundry-dryer. - Nearly one third of all respondents never use fabric softeners. The prevention of ecological damage was the reason for not using fabric softeners for 30% of the respondents. - About one fourth of all respondents always use fabric softeners, with younger people having a significantly higher attitude towards using them. - Under good weather conditions, about 90% of the respondents choose energy-saving alternatives to dry their laundry. - The average weekly time spent on ironing is about two hours on average of all respondents who gave information. The analysis shows that laundry treatment beyond the pure washing process is a multi-faceted process with several starting points of improvement in favour of sustainable handling. (orig.)

  2. Response to Comment on `Non-representative Quantum Mechanical Weak Values' by Ben-Israel and Vaidman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, B. E. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ben-Israel and Vaidman (Found Phys 47:467-470, 2017) have raised objections to my arguments that there are cases where a quantum mechanical weak value can be said not to represent the system to which it pertains. They are correct in pointing out that some of my conclusions were too general. However, for weak values of projection operators my conclusions still stand.

  3. Response to Comment on `Non-representative Quantum Mechanical Weak Values' by Ben-Israel and Vaidman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, B. E. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Ben-Israel and Vaidman (Found Phys 47:467-470, 2017) have raised objections to my arguments that there are cases where a quantum mechanical weak value can be said not to represent the system to which it pertains. They are correct in pointing out that some of my conclusions were too general. However, for weak values of projection operators my conclusions still stand.

  4. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  5. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    /or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect......Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and...... presented cases of variography either solved the initial problems or served to understand the reasons and causes behind the specific process structures revealed in the variograms. Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are not complete without process TOS....

  6. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE).......We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...

  7. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Sampling (TOS) provides a description of all errors involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials as well as all necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization. This tutorial elaborates on—and illustrates—selected central aspects of TOS. The theoretical...... regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...

  8. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data...... analysis (“data” do not exist in isolation of their provenance). The Total Sampling Error (TSE) is by far the dominating contribution to all analytical endeavours, often 100+ times larger than the Total Analytical Error (TAE).We present a summarizing set of only seven Sampling Unit Operations (SUOs...

  9. Recommendations for representative ballast water sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2017-05-01

    Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further, some sampling campaigns addressed awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume to evaluate the species introduction risk by analysing the propagule pressure of species. A new aspect of ballast water sampling, which this contribution addresses, is compliance monitoring and enforcement of ballast water management standards as set by, e.g., the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. To achieve this, sampling methods which result in representative ballast water samples are essential. We recommend such methods based on practical tests conducted on two commercial vessels also considering results from our previous studies. The results show that different sampling approaches influence the results regarding viable organism concentrations in ballast water samples. It was observed that the sampling duration (i.e., length of the sampling process), timing (i.e., in which point in time of the discharge the sample is taken), the number of samples and the sampled water quantity are the main factors influencing the concentrations of viable organisms in a ballast water sample. Based on our findings we provide recommendations for representative ballast water sampling.

  10. Sample representativeness verification of the FADN CZ farm business sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample representativeness verification is one of the key stages of statistical work. After having joined the European Union the Czech Republic joined also the Farm Accountancy Data Network system of the Union. This is a sample of bodies and companies doing business in agriculture. Detailed production and economic data on the results of farming business are collected from that sample annually and results for the entire population of the country´s farms are then estimated and assessed. It is important hence, that the sample be representative. Representativeness is to be assessed as to the number of farms included in the survey and also as to the degree of accordance of the measures and indices as related to the population. The paper deals with the special statistical techniques and methods of the FADN CZ sample representativeness verification including the necessary sample size statement procedure. The Czech farm population data have been obtained from the Czech Statistical Office data bank.

  11. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  12. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    Representative sampling is important throughout the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) process, and the demonstrated success of the DWPF process to achieve glass product quality over the past two decades is a direct result of the quality of information obtained from the process. The objective of this report was to present sampling methods that the Savannah River Site (SRS) used to qualify waste being dispositioned at the DWPF. The goal was to emphasize the methodology, not a list of outcomes from those studies. This methodology includes proven methods for taking representative samples, the use of controlled analytical methods, and data interpretation and reporting that considers the uncertainty of all error sources. Numerous sampling studies were conducted during the development of the DWPF process and still continue to be performed in order to evaluate options for process improvement. Study designs were based on use of statistical tools applicable to the determination of uncertainties associated with the data needs. Successful designs are apt to be repeated, so this report chose only to include prototypic case studies that typify the characteristics of frequently used designs. Case studies have been presented for studying in-tank homogeneity, evaluating the suitability of sampler systems, determining factors that affect mixing and sampling, comparing the final waste glass product chemical composition and durability to that of the glass pour stream sample and other samples from process vessels, and assessing the uniformity of the chemical composition in the waste glass product. Many of these studies efficiently addressed more than one of these areas of concern associated with demonstrating sample representativeness and provide examples of statistical tools in use for DWPF. The time when many of these designs were implemented was in an age when the sampling ideas of Pierre Gy were not as widespread as they are today. Nonetheless, the engineers and

  13. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  14. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Process sampling of moving streams of particulate matter, fluids and slurries (over time or space) or stationary one-dimensional (1-D) lots is often carried out according to existing tradition or protocol not taking the theory of sampling (TOS) into account. In many situations, sampling errors (s...

  15. Representing and publishing physical sample descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, Anusuriya; Klump, Jens; Cox, Simon J. D.; Golodoniuc, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a metadata model for physical samples, developed by CSIRO for its role as an allocating agent. The model is essential for connecting various samples to the Web in a systematic manner. It serves as a basis for registering and publishing samples from researchers and laboratories in CSIRO with the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN). The model is simple, extensible and publicly available. We specify how existing controlled vocabularies are incorporated into the model development, and discuss their relevance and limitations. We also describe the mappings between the developed model and existing standards. This is necessary to extend the model's adoption across various science domains. The model has been implemented and tested in the context of two large sample repositories in CSIRO. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the metadata model while maintaining its flexibility to adapt to various sample types.

  16. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    (sampling variances) can be reduced greatly however, and sampling biases can be eliminated completely, by respecting a simple set of rules and guidelines provided by TOS. A systematic approach for description of process heterogeneity furnishes in-depth knowledge about the specific variability of any 1-D lot...... of any hidden cycle, eliminating the risk of underestimating process variation. A brief description of selected hardware for extraction of samples from 1-D lots is provided in order to illustrate the key issues to consider when installing new, or optimizing existing sampling devices and procedures...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 261 - Representative Sampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative Sampling Methods I...—Representative Sampling Methods The methods and equipment used for sampling waste materials will vary with the form and consistency of the waste materials to be sampled. Samples collected using the...

  18. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect ...

  19. The prevalence of workaholism: a survey study in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Workaholism has become an increasingly popular area for empirical study. However, most studies examining the prevalence of workaholism have used non-representative samples and measures with poorly defined cut-off scores. To overcome these methodological limitations, a nationally representative survey among employees in Norway (N = 1,124 was conducted. Questions relating to gender, age, marital status, caretaker responsibility for children, percentage of full-time equivalent, and educational level were asked. Workaholism was assessed by the use of a psychometrically validated instrument (i.e., Bergen Work Addiction Scale. Personality was assessed using the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. Results showed that the prevalence of workaholism was 8.3% (95% CI  = 6.7-9.9%. An adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that workaholism was negatively related to age and positively related to the personality dimensions agreeableness, neuroticism, and intellect/imagination. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  20. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect the outcome of the study. Important factors to consider for estimating the sample size include the size of the study population, confidence level, expected proportion of the outcome variable (for categorical variables/standard deviation of the outcome variable (for numerical variables, and the required precision (margin of accuracy from the study. The more the precision required, the greater is the required sample size. Sampling Techniques: The probability sampling techniques applied for health related research include simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. These are more recommended than the nonprobability sampling techniques, because the results of the study can be generalized to the target population.

  1. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  2. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  3. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    This report presents a new simulation tool under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This tool uses EnergyPlus to simulate each single-family home in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), and generates a calibrated, nationally representative set of simulated homes whose energy use is statistically indistinguishable from the energy use of the single-family homes in the RECS sample. This research builds upon earlier work by Ritchard et al. for the Gas Research Institute and Huang et al. for LBNL. A representative national sample allows us to evaluate the variance in energy use between individual homes, regions, or other subsamples; using this tool, we can also evaluate how that variance affects the impacts of potential policies. The RECS contains information regarding the construction and location of each sampled home, as well as its appliances and other energy-using equipment. We combined this data with the home simulation prototypes developed by Huang et al. to simulate homes that match the RECS sample wherever possible. Where data was not available, we used distributions, calibrated using the RECS energy use data. Each home was assigned a best-fit location for the purposes of weather and some construction characteristics. RECS provides some detail on the type and age of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in each home; we developed EnergyPlus models capable of reproducing the variety of technologies and efficiencies represented in the national sample. This includes electric, gas, and oil furnaces, central and window air conditioners, central heat pumps, and baseboard heaters. We also developed a model of duct system performance, based on in-home measurements, and integrated this with fan performance to capture the energy use of single- and variable-speed furnace fans, as well as the interaction of duct and fan performance with the efficiency of heating and cooling equipment. Comparison with RECS revealed

  4. Frequency of lucid dreaming in a representative German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Erlacher, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Lucid dreams occur when a person is aware that he is dreaming while he is dreaming. In a representative sample of German adults (N = 919), 51% of the participants reported that they had experienced a lucid dream at least once. Lucid dream recall was significantly higher in women and negatively correlated with age. However, these effects might be explained by the frequency of dream recall, as there was a correlation of .57 between frequency of dream recall and frequency of lucid dreams. Other sociodemographic variables like education, marital status, or monthly income were not related to lucid dream frequency. Given the relatively high prevalence of lucid dreaming reported in the present study, research on lucid dreams might be pursued in the sleep laboratory to expand the knowledge about sleep, dreaming, and consciousness processes in general.

  5. The structure of feared situations in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian J; McWilliams, Lachlan A; Clara, Ian P; Stein, Murray B

    2003-01-01

    This study addressed the paucity of research on the covariation and hierarchic structure of fears in nationally representative or "real world" samples. Using data from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey (N=8098), exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed with split-half samples to delineate the multidimensional structure and hierarchic organization of 19 feared situations assessed by structured interview. On a first-order level, support was obtained for a five-factor model of fears: (1). agoraphobia, (2). speaking fears, (3). fears of being observed, (4). fears of heights or water, and (5). threat fears. The four latter fear dimensions in turn loaded on to two second-order fear factors: social fears and specific fears. A hierarchic model with a single, general fear factor at a third-order level provided good fit to the data. Results are discussed in the context of Taylor's [Behav. Res. Ther. 36 (1998) 205-214] proposed hierarchic framework of fears. Implications of these general population findings for the composition and classification of phobias in recent editions of the DSM are also highlighted.

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern.

  7. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Ortega Anta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN, in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española" (2009, was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years from 15 provinces (30 sampling points. Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increases with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with an University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended, it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad- Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity (2010-2011 was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7

  8. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  9. Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Jakob; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

  10. Assessing terpene content variability of whitebark pine in order to estimate representative sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Milena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In studies of population variability, particular attention has to be paid to the selection of a representative sample. The aim of this study was to assess the size of the new representative sample on the basis of the variability of chemical content of the initial sample on the example of a whitebark pine population. Statistical analysis included the content of 19 characteristics (terpene hydrocarbons and their derivates of the initial sample of 10 elements (trees. It was determined that the new sample should contain 20 trees so that the mean value calculated from it represents a basic set with a probability higher than 95 %. Determination of the lower limit of the representative sample size that guarantees a satisfactory reliability of generalization proved to be very important in order to achieve cost efficiency of the research. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-173011, br. TR-37002 i br. III-43007

  11. A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for Radionuclide Analysis of RI Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, K. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo [FNC Tech. Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We developed a quantitative method for attaining a representative sample during sampling survey of RI waste. Considering a source, process, and type of RI waste, the method computes the number of sample, confidence interval, variance, and coefficient of variance. We also systematize the method of sampling survey logically and quantitatively. The result of this study can be applied to sampling survey of low- and intermediate-level waste generated from nuclear power plant during the transfer process to disposal facility.

  12. Representative Sampling of Maritally Violent and Nonviolent Couples: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Coreen; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Despite the methodological advantages of representative sampling, few researchers in the field of marital violence have employed random samples for laboratory assessments of couples. The current study tests the feasibility and sampling success of three recruitment methods: (a) random digit dialing, (b) directory-assisted recruitment, and (c) a…

  13. Aiming for a representative sample: Simulating random versus purposive strategies for hospital selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van Loan R.; Janssen, Mart P.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Background A ubiquitous issue in research is that of selecting a representative sample from the study population. While random sampling strategies are the gold standard, in practice, random sampling of participants is not always feasible nor necessarily the optimal choice. In our case, a selection m

  14. Aiming for a representative sample: Simulating random versus purposive strategies for hospital selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Janssen, Mart P; Roes, Kit C B; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A ubiquitous issue in research is that of selecting a representative sample from the study population. While random sampling strategies are the gold standard, in practice, random sampling of participants is not always feasible nor necessarily the optimal choice. In our case, a selection

  15. 76 FR 69585 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the applicable periodic testing interval. The number of samples selected for the sampling procedure... requirement to test representative samples, by requiring each manufacturer of a children's product to select... the last periodic test occurred (or since certification for the first periodic tests). In order...

  16. Sleepiness and Motor Vehicle Crashes in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Drivers: The Importance of Epidemiological Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M; Peralta, A R; Monteiro Ferreira, J; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleepiness is considered to be a leading cause of crashes. Despite the huge amount of information collected in questionnaire studies, only some are based on representative samples of the population. Specifics of the populations studied hinder the generalization of these previous findings. For the Portuguese population, data from sleep-related car crashes/near misses and sleepiness while driving are missing. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of near-miss and nonfatal motor vehicle crashes related to sleepiness in a representative sample of Portuguese drivers. Structured phone interviews regarding sleepiness and sleep-related crashes and near misses, driving habits, demographic data, and sleep quality were conducted using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep apnea risk using the Berlin questionnaire. A multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the associations with sleepy driving (feeling sleepy or falling asleep while driving) and sleep-related near misses and crashes. Nine hundred subjects, representing the Portuguese population of drivers, were included; 3.1% acknowledged falling asleep while driving during the previous year and 0.67% recalled sleepiness-related crashes. Higher education, driving more than 15,000 km/year, driving more frequently between 12:00 a.m. and 6 a.m., fewer years of having a driver's license, less total sleep time per night, and higher scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were all independently associated with sleepy driving. Sleepiness-related crashes and near misses were associated only with falling asleep at the wheel in the previous year. Sleep-related crashes occurred more frequently in drivers who had also had sleep-related near misses. Portugal has lower self-reported sleepiness at the wheel and sleep-related near misses than most other countries where epidemiological data are available. Different population characteristics and cultural, social, and road safety specificities may

  17. Health related quality of life in a nationally representative sample of haematological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna T; Tholstrup, Dorte; Petersen, Morten Aa;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of health related quality of life of haematological patients is limited. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a representative sample of haematological patients in Denmark.......Knowledge of health related quality of life of haematological patients is limited. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a representative sample of haematological patients in Denmark....

  18. Representativeness-based sampling network design for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest M. Hoffman; Jitendra Kumar; Richard T. Mills; William W. Hargrove

    2013-01-01

    Resource and logistical constraints limit the frequency and extent of environmental observations, particularly in the Arctic, necessitating the development of a systematic sampling strategy to maximize coverage and objectively represent environmental variability at desired scales. A quantitative methodology for stratifying sampling domains, informing site selection,...

  19. Phylogenetic representativeness: a new method for evaluating taxon sampling in evolutionary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonti Marco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxon sampling is a major concern in phylogenetic studies. Incomplete, biased, or improper taxon sampling can lead to misleading results in reconstructing evolutionary relationships. Several theoretical methods are available to optimize taxon choice in phylogenetic analyses. However, most involve some knowledge about the genetic relationships of the group of interest (i.e., the ingroup, or even a well-established phylogeny itself; these data are not always available in general phylogenetic applications. Results We propose a new method to assess taxon sampling developing Clarke and Warwick statistics. This method aims to measure the "phylogenetic representativeness" of a given sample or set of samples and it is based entirely on the pre-existing available taxonomy of the ingroup, which is commonly known to investigators. Moreover, our method also accounts for instability and discordance in taxonomies. A Python-based script suite, called PhyRe, has been developed to implement all analyses we describe in this paper. Conclusions We show that this method is sensitive and allows direct discrimination between representative and unrepresentative samples. It is also informative about the addition of taxa to improve taxonomic coverage of the ingroup. Provided that the investigators' expertise is mandatory in this field, phylogenetic representativeness makes up an objective touchstone in planning phylogenetic studies.

  20. Validation of the IPQ-R in a large, representative dutch sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a validation study of the revised version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire ( IPQ-R) in a large representative Dutch sample of 4000 chronic disease patients. All patients took part in a longitudinal study, called Panel of Patients with Chronic Diseases, which is conducted b

  1. Stuttering Attitudes among Turkish Family Generations and Neighbors from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…

  2. Stuttering Attitudes among Turkish Family Generations and Neighbors from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…

  3. Investigating sex differences in psychological predictors of snack intake among a large representative sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    It is often assumed that there are substantial sex differences in eating behaviour (e.g. women are more likely to be dieters or emotional eaters than men). The present study investigates this assumption in a large representative community sample while incorporating a comprehensive set of

  4. Age Differences in Personality: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Cross-sectional age differences in the Big Five personality traits were examined in a nationally representative sample of Australians (N = 12,618; age range = 15-84). Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness were negatively associated with age, whereas Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were positively associated with age. Effect sizes comparing…

  5. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Longitudinally in a Representative Sample of Hospitalized Injured Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatzick, Douglas F.; Grossman, David C.; Russo, Joan; Pynoos, Robert; Berliner, Lucy; Jurkovich, Gregory; Sabin, Janice A.; Katon, Wayne; Ghesquiere, Angela; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents constitute a high-risk population for traumatic physical injury, yet few longitudinal investigations have assessed the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over time in representative samples. Method: Between July 2002 and August 2003,108 randomly selected injured adolescent patients ages 12 to 18 and…

  6. Associations among School Characteristics and Foodservice Practices in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…

  7. Disentangling the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Violent Delinquency: Using a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Ball, Jeremy D.; Lim, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents (Add Health) data, a nationally representative sample of adolescents, to disentangle the relationship between child maltreatment and violent delinquency. Also examined are potential moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and religiosity on the association between…

  8. On the creation of representative samples of random quasi-orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eSchrepp

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dependencies between educational test items can be represented as quasi-orders on the item set of a knowledge domain and used for an efficient adaptive assessment of knowledge. One approach to uncovering such dependencies is by exploratory algorithms of Item Tree Analysis (ITA. There are several methods of ITA available. The basic tool to compare such algorithms concerning their quality are large-scale simulation studies that are crucially set up on a large collection of quasi-orders. A serious problem is that all known ITA algorithms are sensitive to the structure of the underlying quasi-order. Thus, it is crucial to base any simulation study that tries to compare the algorithms upon samples of quasi-orders that are representative, meaning each quasi-order is included in a sample with the same probability. Up to now, no method to create representative quasi-orders on larger item sets is known. Non-optimal algorithms for quasi-order generation were used in previous studies, which caused misinterpretations and erroneous conclusions. In this paper, we present a method for creating representative random samples of quasi-orders. The basic idea is to consider random extensions of quasi-orders from lower to higher dimension and to discard extensions that do not satisfy the transitivity property.

  9. Symptoms and problems in a nationally representative sample of advanced cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A T; Groenvold, M; Pedersen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the need for palliative care among advanced cancer patients who are not in specialist palliative care. The purpose was to identify prevalence and predictors of symptoms and problems in a nationally representative sample of Danish advanced cancer patients. Patients with cancer...... or not were associated with several symptoms and problems. This is probably the first nationally representative study of its kind. It shows that advanced cancer patients in Denmark have symptoms and problems that deserve attention and that some patient groups are especially at risk....

  10. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  11. The prevalence of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI in a representative sample of the German population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Plener

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is a proposed new “condition for further study” in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. Methods A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 % completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G. Results A history of NSSI at least once during lifetime was reported by 3.1 % of all participants, with higher lifetime prevalence rates in younger age groups. DSM-5 NSSI disorder criteria were met by 0.3 %. The most common function of NSSI was automatic negative reinforcement (e.g. to alleviate negative feelings. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting rates for the proposed NSSI category in DSM-5 from a representative sample of the general population. In comparison to findings from community samples of adolescents, adults seem to have lower lifetime prevalence rates of NSSI, thus making it necessary to emphasize prevention and treatment efforts in younger age groups.

  12. Video Games Exposure and Sexism in a Representative Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, Laurent; Sarda, Elisa; Gentile, Douglas A.; Bry, Clementine; Roché, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11–19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women. Controlling for gender and socioeconomic level, results showed that video game exposure and religiosity were both related to sexism. Implications of these results for future research on sexism in video games are discussed.

  13. Pigeon NCL and NFL neuronal activity represents neural correlates of the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Melissa; Anderson, Catrona; Colombo, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Four birds were trained on a delayed matching-to-sample task with common outcomes where correct responses during both red and green trials yielded reward. We recorded neuronal activity from the avian nidopallium caudolaterale, the avian equivalent of the mammalian prefrontal cortex, and the avian nidopallium frontolaterale, a higher-order visual processing region. In both regions we found sustained activity during the delay period of both red and green trials. These findings provide the first evidence that delay activity in the pigeon's nidopallium caudolaterale and nidopallium frontolaterale represent a neural correlate for the to-be-remembered sample stimulus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; LU, FURONG; Zhang, Qin; Wang, De Yun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteri...

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative ...... for probable PTSD in active military samples. However, it is of great importance that cutoff scores be chosen based on the sample and the purpose of the particular study or screening....... military sample compared to a clinical interview. Danish soldiers (N = 415; 94.4% male, mean age 26.6 years) were assessed with the PCL-C and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002) 2.5 years after their return from deployment to Afghanistan...

  16. [Anxiety in a representative sample of the Spanish population over 50 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira Capeáns, Cecilia; Facal, David

    Anxiety is common throughout the ageing process. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety in a representative sample of the Spanish population over 50 years-old. The data of this study come from the Pilot Study developed within the Longitudinal Ageing Study in Spain (ELES), in which a representative sample of the non-institutionalised Spanish population was evaluated. An analysis was performed on the data of 1086 people who answered the question «I am now going to read a list with a series of diseases or health problems. I would like you to tell me if your doctor has diagnosed any of them». The tools used were a questionnaire consisting of 218 questions, along with standardised tests, such as the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Anxiety was reported to have been diagnosed at some time in 14.3% of the sample. The prevalence was higher in women than in men (77.8 vs. 22.2%), decreasing with age, and related to different chronic diseases. The results show that the prevalence of anxiety throughout the lifespan is noticeable in people over 50 years, and should be taken into account, especially in the female population and in those with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality factors and suicide risk in a representative sample of the German general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Blüml

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown an association between certain personality characteristics and suicidality. Methodological differences including small sample sizes and missing adjustment for possible confounding factors could explain the varying results. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Big Five personality dimensions on suicidality in a representative population based sample of adults. METHOD: Interviews were conducted in a representative German population-based sample (n=2555 in 2011. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10 and suicide risk was assessed with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated adjusting for depression, anxiety, and various sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Neuroticism and openness were significantly associated with suicide risk, while extraversion and conscientiousness were found to be protective. Significant sex differences were observed. For males, extraversion and conscientiousness were protective factors. Neuroticism and openness were found to be associated with suicide risk only in females. These associations remained significant after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the role of personality dimensions as risk factors for suicide-related behaviors. Different personality dimensions are significantly associated with suicide-related behaviors even when adjusting for other known risk factors of suicidality.

  18. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  19. Associations between psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and lifetime panic attack history in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the associations between lifetime psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks. The study consisted of a representative epidemiological sample from a state wide survey of the Colorado general adult population (n=4745; 52% female). Consistent with prediction, after controlling for theoretically relevant variables, psychedelic abuse and dependence, but not use, were significantly related to an increased lifetime risk of panic attacks. The results are discussed in terms of better understanding the role of psychedelic use in relation to the occurrence of panic attacks.

  20. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM.

  1. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children's Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children's exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse.

  2. Acceptance of sexual aggression myths in a representative sample of German residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    A representative sample of German residents (N = 5397) was surveyed with the aim of studying their acceptance of contemporary rape myths (RMA), using items from the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale [AMMSA; Gerger et al., 2007] in relation to demographic variables (e.g., gender, age), intolerant belief systems (e.g., sexism, islamophobia), the ideologies of rightwing authoritarianism (RWA), and social dominance orientation (SDO), as well as gender identification. Age showed a U-shaped relationship with RMA, whereas gender was unrelated to RMA. For men (women), greater identification with their gender was associated with higher (lower) RMA. Substantial correlations of RMA with intolerant belief systems support the idea of a schema of intolerance. Although RWA and SDO were both related to RMA, only RWA explained unique variance beyond the effects of intolerant belief systems. Results are discussed in comparison to prior studies using mainly student samples.

  3. [Feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Sureda, Xisca; Ballbè, Montse; Riccobene, Anna; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of following up a representative sample of the adult population of Barcelona 8 years after the baseline study. We selected a random sample (n=100) of the 1161 participants who consented to be re-contacted. We contacted 66 participants: 52 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the follow-up, three (4.5%) had died, four (6.1%) had moved, and seven (10.6%) declined to participate in the follow-up. The participation rate in the feasibility study was 52%. In conclusion, the results of our study show a good feasibility of conducting a follow-up study 8 years after the baseline study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs.

  5. Problematic Social Media Use: Results from a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Fanni; Zsila, Ágnes; Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou

    2017-01-01

    Despite social media use being one of the most popular activities among adolescents, prevalence estimates among teenage samples of social media (problematic) use are lacking in the field. The present study surveyed a nationally representative Hungarian sample comprising 5,961 adolescents as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) and based on latent profile analysis, 4.5% of the adolescents belonged to the at-risk group, and reported low self-esteem, high level of depression symptoms, and elevated social media use. Results also demonstrated that BSMAS has appropriate psychometric properties. It is concluded that adolescents at-risk of problematic social media use should be targeted by school-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:28068404

  6. Discrimination in health care and CAM use in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Sheryl; Faith, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2013-06-01

    Discrimination in medical settings may influence patient attitudes about health care and health-seeking behaviors. Patients who experience discrimination may seek alternative means of health care, including use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between discrimination in health care and CAM use. Data come from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), which used a multistage sampling design with random-digit dialing, oversampling telephone exchanges with higher densities of African-American, Hispanic, and Asian households. The 2001 HCQS sample consisted of 6722 adults living in the continental United States. To correct for the disproportionate sample design, data were adjusted using sample weights to make the results representative of the U.S. population 18 years and older. Present analyses were limited to 6008 respondents who had visited a doctor or clinic or had been admitted to the hospital in the last 2 years. Outcome measures were CAM use, practitioner-provided CAM use, and herbal medicine use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, discrimination in health care was significantly associated with use of herbal medicines alone (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, confidence interval: 1.05, 2.04), but not with use of practitioner-provided CAM (i.e., use of acupuncture, chiropractor, traditional healer or herbalist, alone or in combination with herbal medicines). Further research is needed to examine the direction of the relationship between discrimination and CAM use and differences by CAM modality.

  7. Formal verification of medical monitoring software using Z language: a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Borhani, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Medical monitoring systems are useful aids assisting physicians in keeping patients under constant surveillance; however, taking sound decision by the systems is a physician concern. As a result, verification of the systems behavior in monitoring patients is a matter of significant. The patient monitoring is undertaken by software in modern medical systems; so, software verification of modern medial systems have been noticed. Such verification can be achieved by the Formal Languages having mathematical foundations. Among others, the Z language is a suitable formal language has been used to formal verification of systems. This study aims to present a constructive method to verify a representative sample of a medical system by which the system is visually specified and formally verified against patient constraints stated in Z Language. Exploiting our past experience in formal modeling Continuous Infusion Insulin Pump (CIIP), we think of the CIIP system as a representative sample of medical systems in proposing our present study. The system is responsible for monitoring diabetic's blood sugar.

  8. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Tibubos, Ana N.; Klein, Eva M.; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14–92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities. PMID:28296938

  9. Multiscale imaging of carbonate rocks and representative sampling for digital rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geomaterials containing nano-pores (e.g., shales and carbonate rocks) have become increasingly important for emerging problems such as unconventional gas and oil resources, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic storage of CO2. Accurate prediction of coupled geophysical and chemical processes at the pore scale requires realistic representation of pore structure and topology. This is especially true for chalk materials, where pore networks are small and complex, and require characterization at sub-micron scale. In this work, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy with various filters to characterize pore structures and microlithofacies at a thin-section scale (micron resolution) and dual focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcracks and pore distributions. With imaging techniques advanced for nano-pore characterization, it is critical to define representative sampling of FIB-SEM images and apply it to the thin-section or larger scale. In this work, several texture characterization techniques are applied for segmentation clusters represented by a couple of 3-D FIB-SEM image stacks per each cluster. Pore structure evolution is characterized based on geometric and topological properties from a set of FIB-SEM images and lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to obtain permeability at several different scales. Upscaling of permeability to the Darcy scale (e.g., the thin-section scale) with image dataset will be discussed with emphasis on understanding microfracture-matrix interaction, representative volume for FIB-SEM sampling, and multiphase flow and reactive transport. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet are low in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Vidra, Nikoletta; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Koinaki, Stella; Belogianni, Katerina; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Data from studies in pediatric samples exploring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are scarce. The aim of the present work was to explore adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. The study sample (n = 1305, 3-18 y) was representative o

  11. Applying an Occupational Classification to a National Representative Sample of Work Histories of Young Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Dean H.; And Others

    Holland's occupational classification was used to analyze the work histories of a national representative sample of young men and women age 14-24. This study extended previous tests of the classification in three ways: (1) It was applied for the first time to a national, representative sample of women, (2) For the sample of men, 3-year…

  12. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Life Satisfaction in a Representative Adolescent and Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Koglin, Ute; Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-09-01

    Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms correlated negatively with life satisfaction (r = -0.41, p life satisfaction. Counteracting problems with social relationships and treating depressive symptoms may help to increase life satisfaction in adults with ADHD symptoms.

  14. Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keczer, Zsolt; File, Bálint; Orosz, Gábor; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior.

  15. Satisfaction with life scale in a representative sample of Spanish adults: validation and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Duque, Almudena; Hervás, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a measure widely used to assess life satisfaction. This paper aims to test its psychometric properties, factor structure, and distribution scores across age, gender, education, and employment status. For this purpose, a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 2,964) was used. Although analyses showed no significant differences across age or gender, participants with higher education level and those who held an occupation were more satisfied with their lives. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a unifactorial structure with significant correlations between the SWLS, and subjective happiness and social support. The internal consistency of the scale was .88. Thus, our results indicate that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction within the Spanish context.

  16. Pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L

    2017-10-01

    Clinical observation has linked externalizing coping strategies such as substance overuse and aggressive behaviours with narcissistic personality dysfunction. This study examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours among Canadian men. An online survey was distributed among a stratified, nationally representative sample of 1000 men from across Canada. The survey included brief self-report measures of pathological narcissism, maladaptive externalizing coping behaviours, and general psychological distress. After controlling for the effects of age and general psychological distress, pathological narcissism was found to be significantly associated with alcohol overuse and aggressive behaviour. Significant though modest interaction effects were found between pathological narcissism and age - with regards to drug use - and distress - with regards to risk-taking behaviour. The findings point to the need for attention to narcissistic dysfunction as a clinical and public health issue among men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Associations between body dysmorphic symptoms, body image and self-consciousness in a representative population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daig, Isolde; Burkert, Silke; Albani, Cornelia; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between body image and body dysmorphic symptoms in the population by taking different kinds of self-consciousness into account. Body dysmorphic symptoms are characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance. A representative sample of 1621 persons in Germany was examined with screening instruments for body image, body dysmorphic symptoms and self-consciousness. Women reported more body dysmorphic symptoms and higher self-consciousness than men. People with body dysmorphic symptoms reported a more negative body image and higher self-consciousness. Different aspects of self-consciousness moderated the association between body dysmorphic symptoms and negative body image. Results were discussed towards hypotheses of affect modulation and depression tendency of patients with body dysmorphic symptoms.

  18. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schilling

    Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results

  19. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  20. Quantitative analysis of nano-pore geomaterials and representative sampling for digital rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geomaterials containing nano-pores (e.g., shales and carbonate rocks) have become increasingly important for emerging problems such as unconventional gas and oil resources, enhanced oil recovery, and geologic storage of CO2. Accurate prediction of coupled geophysical and chemical processes at the pore scale requires realistic representation of pore structure and topology. This is especially true for chalk materials, where pore networks are small and complex, and require characterization at sub-micron scale. In this work, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to characterize pore structures and microlithofacies at micron- and greater scales and dual focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcracks and pore distributions. With imaging techniques advanced for nano-pore characterization, a problem of scale with FIB-SEM images is how to take nanometer scale information and apply it to the thin-section or larger scale. In this work, several texture characterization techniques including graph-based spectral segmentation, support vector machine, and principal component analysis are applied for segmentation clusters represented by 1-2 FIB-SEM samples per each cluster. Geometric and topological properties are analyzed and lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to obtain permeability at several different scales. Upscaling of permeability to the Darcy scale (e.g., the thin-section scale) with image dataset will be discussed with emphasis on understanding microfracture-matrix interaction, representative volume for FIB-SEM sampling, and multiphase flow and reactive transport. Funding from the DOE Basic Energy Sciences Geosciences Program is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under

  1. Internet addiction among elementary and middle school students in China: a nationally representative sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%).

  2. The interdependence of family functioning and problematic internet use in a representative quota sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kammerl, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Moritz; Hirschhäuser, Lena; Hein, Sandra; Schwinge, Christiane; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Rainer, Thomasius

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out investigating the interdependence of family structures or interactions and excessive adolescent Internet use. In this study, we surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,744 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years with standardized questionnaires. Adolescents assessed their perceived own functioning in the family with the Self-Rating Scale (FB-S) of the German version of the Family Assessment Measure III, and reported on problematic Internet use with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). To predict problematic Internet use (CIUS summary score), we conducted a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the seven FB-S scales, the FB-S overall index, and gender and age as explanatory variables. For the full sample, a model with only one predictor (FB-S overall index) that summarizes the quality of family functioning produced a corrected coefficient of determination of 0.239 and explained variance of nearly 24%. t Test results for unpaired samples showed significant differences in the mean values of the FB-S scales and the FB-S overall index for comparisons of both sexes, as well as of a lower age group and higher age group. The prediction of problematic Internet use between both sexes and both age groups showed comparable findings (males: corrected coefficient of determination=0.288; females: corrected coefficient of determination=0.183; lower age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.231; higher age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.251), each with a single predictor (FB-S overall index). The results emphasize the importance of family functioning for the occurrence of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  3. The Relationship between Insufficient Sleep and Self-Rated Health in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dee Geiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced sleep has been found to be associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and mortality. Self-rated health (SRH has been shown to be a predictor of CVD and mortality. However, study of the association between insufficient sleep and SRH is limited. We examined participants >18 years of age (n=377, 160 from a representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS. Self-reported insufficient sleep in the previous 30 days was categorized into six groups. The outcome was poor SRH. We calculated odds ratios ((OR (95% confidence interval (CI of increasing categories of insufficient rest/sleep, taking zero days of insufficient sleep as the referent category. We found a positive association between increasing categories of insufficient sleep and poor SRH, independent of relevant covariates. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to 0 days insufficient sleep, the OR (95% CI of poor SRH was 1.03 (0.97–1.10 for 1–6 days, 1.45 (1.34–1.57 for 7–13 days, 2.12 (1.97–2.27 for 14–20 days, 2.32 (2.09–2.58 for 21–29 days, and and 2.71 (2.53–2.90 for 30 days of insufficient sleep in the prior 30 days (P-trend <0.0001. In a nationally representative sample, increasing categories of insufficient sleep were associated with poor SRH.

  4. Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Platt, Jonathan; Kaufman, Alan S; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires from parents were obtained. The data were analyzed from February to December 2016. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and included a broad range of fear, distress, behavior, substance use, and other disorders. Disorder severity was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Fluid IQ measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, normed within the sample by 6-month age groups. The sample included 10 073 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.50] years; 49.0% female) with valid data on fluid intelligence. Lower mean (SE) IQ was observed among adolescents with past-year bipolar disorder (94.2 [1.69]; P = .004), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (96.3 [0.91]; P = .002), oppositional defiant disorder (97.3 [0.66]; P = .007), conduct disorder (97.1 [0.82]; P = .02), substance use disorders (alcohol abuse, 96.5 [0.67]; P Intelligence was not associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders other than specific phobia, and was positively associated with past-year major depression (mean [SE], 100 [0.5]; P = .01). Associations of fluid intelligence with lifetime disorders that had remitted were attenuated compared with past-year disorders, with the exception of separation anxiety disorder. Multiple past

  5. Internet Gaming Disorder Among Slovenian Primary Schoolchildren: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) - a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia.

  6. Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-05-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb iron-deficient nonanemic (SF iron-deficiency anemia (SF iron deficiency (sTfr >8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy.

  7. A descriptive analysis of a representative sample of pediatric randomized controlled trials published in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Denise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs are the gold standard for trials assessing the effects of therapeutic interventions; therefore it is important to understand how they are conducted. Our objectives were to provide an overview of a representative sample of pediatric RCTs published in 2007 and assess the validity of their results. Methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using a pediatric filter and randomly selected 300 RCTs published in 2007. We extracted data on trial characteristics; outcomes; methodological quality; reporting; and registration and protocol characteristics. Trial registration and protocol availability were determined for each study based on the publication, an Internet search and an author survey. Results Most studies (83% were efficacy trials, 40% evaluated drugs, and 30% were placebo-controlled. Primary outcomes were specified in 41%; 43% reported on adverse events. At least one statistically significant outcome was reported in 77% of trials; 63% favored the treatment group. Trial registration was declared in 12% of publications and 23% were found through an Internet search. Risk of bias (ROB was high in 59% of trials, unclear in 33%, and low in 8%. Registered trials were more likely to have low ROB than non-registered trials (16% vs. 5%; p = 0.008. Effect sizes tended to be larger for trials at high vs. low ROB (0.28, 95% CI 0.21,0.35 vs. 0.16, 95% CI 0.07,0.25. Among survey respondents (50% response rate, the most common reason for trial registration was a publication requirement and for non-registration, a lack of familiarity with the process. Conclusions More than half of this random sample of pediatric RCTs published in 2007 was at high ROB and three quarters of trials were not registered. There is an urgent need to improve the design, conduct, and reporting of child health research.

  8. Internet Addiction Among Elementary and Middle School Students in China: A Nationally Representative Sample Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of bullying in the workplace: a national representative sample in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuno, Kanami; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Odagiri, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Haratani, Takashi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in the workplace is an increasingly recognized threat to employee health. We sought to test three hypotheses related to the determinants of workplace bullying: power distance at work; safety climate; and frustration related to perceived social inequality. A questionnaire survey was administered to a nationally representative community-based sample of 5,000 residents in Japan aged 20-60 years. The questionnaire included questions about employment, occupation, company size, education, household income, and subjective social status (SSS). We inquired about both the witnessing and personal experience of workplace bullying during the past 30 days. Among 2,384 respondents, data were analyzed from 1,546 workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the social determinants of workplace bullying. Six percent and 15 percent of the total sample reported experiencing or witnessing workplace bullying, respectively. After adjusting for gender and age, temporary employees (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.45 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.03-5.85]), junior high school graduates (OR: 2.62 [95%CI: 1.01-6.79]), workers with lowest household income (OR: 4.13 [95%CI:1.58-10.8]), and workers in the lowest SSS stratum (OR: 4.21 [95%CI:1.66-10.7]) were at increased risk of experiencing workplace bullying. When all variables were entered simultaneously in the model, a significant inverse association was observed between higher SSS and experiencing bullying (p = 0.002). Similarly in terms of witnessing bullying; SSS was significantly inversely associated (p = 0.017) while temporary employees reported a significantly higher risk of witnessing bullying compared to permanent workers (OR: 2.25 [95%CI:1.04 to 4.87]). The significant association between SSS and experiencing/witnessing workplace bullying supports the frustration hypothesis. The power distance hypothesis was also partly supported by the finding that temporary employees experienced a higher prevalence of

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of bullying in the workplace: a national representative sample in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Tsuno

    Full Text Available Bullying in the workplace is an increasingly recognized threat to employee health. We sought to test three hypotheses related to the determinants of workplace bullying: power distance at work; safety climate; and frustration related to perceived social inequality. A questionnaire survey was administered to a nationally representative community-based sample of 5,000 residents in Japan aged 20-60 years. The questionnaire included questions about employment, occupation, company size, education, household income, and subjective social status (SSS. We inquired about both the witnessing and personal experience of workplace bullying during the past 30 days. Among 2,384 respondents, data were analyzed from 1,546 workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the social determinants of workplace bullying. Six percent and 15 percent of the total sample reported experiencing or witnessing workplace bullying, respectively. After adjusting for gender and age, temporary employees (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.45 [95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.03-5.85], junior high school graduates (OR: 2.62 [95%CI: 1.01-6.79], workers with lowest household income (OR: 4.13 [95%CI:1.58-10.8], and workers in the lowest SSS stratum (OR: 4.21 [95%CI:1.66-10.7] were at increased risk of experiencing workplace bullying. When all variables were entered simultaneously in the model, a significant inverse association was observed between higher SSS and experiencing bullying (p = 0.002. Similarly in terms of witnessing bullying; SSS was significantly inversely associated (p = 0.017 while temporary employees reported a significantly higher risk of witnessing bullying compared to permanent workers (OR: 2.25 [95%CI:1.04 to 4.87]. The significant association between SSS and experiencing/witnessing workplace bullying supports the frustration hypothesis. The power distance hypothesis was also partly supported by the finding that temporary employees experienced a higher prevalence

  11. Is It Attachment Style or Socio-Demography: Singlehood in a Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Schurig, Susan; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2015-01-01

    Since the percentage of single adults is steadily increasing, the reasons for this development have become a matter of growing interest. Hereby, an individual's attachment style may have a connection to the partnership status. In the following analysis, attachment style, gender, age, education, and income were compared in regard to the partnership status. Furthermore, an analysis of variance was computed to compare the attachment style within different groups. In 2012, a sample of 1,676 representative participants was used. The participants were aged 18 to 60 (M = 41.0, SD = 12.3); 54% of the sample were female, and 40% were single. Attachment-related attitudes were assessed with the German version of the adult attachment scale (AAS). Single adult males did not show a more anxious attachment style than single adult females or females in relationships. Younger, i.e., 18 to 30 years old, paired individuals showed greater attachment anxiety than single individuals, whereby single individuals between the ages of 31 to 45 showed greater attachment anxiety than individuals in relationships. In addition, single individuals more frequently had obtained their high school diploma in contrast to individuals in relationships. Concerning attachment style, the individuals who had not completed their high school diploma showed less faith in others independent of singlehood or being in a relationship. Concerning age, older single individuals, i.e., 46 to 60 years, felt less comfortable in respect to closeness and showed less faith in others compared to paired individuals. Logistic regression showed that individuals were not single if they did not mind depending on others, showed high attachment anxiety, were older, and had lower education. An income below € 2000/month was linked to a nearly 13-fold increase of likelihood of being single. In sum, the attachment style had a differential age-dependent association to singlehood versus being in a relationship. Education played also a

  12. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-11-01

    This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors.

  13. Gaps in the Public's Knowledge About Chronic Pain: Representative Sample of Hispanic Residents From 5 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Liang, Yuanyuan; Rodriguez, Natalia; Valerio, Melissa A; Rochat, Andrea; Potter, Jennifer S; Winkler, Paula

    2017-01-12

    Educating the general public about chronic pain and its care is a national health priority. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) of a 5-state, population-based sample of Hispanic individuals aged 35 to 75 years without chronic pain, representing more than 8.8 million persons. A Web-based survey assessed KAB using an adapted version of the Survey of Pain Attitudes-Brief and self-reported knowledge about chronic pain (nothing, a little, a lot). In unweighted analyses of participants (N = 349), the mean age was 52.0 (±10.6) years, 54% were women, 53% preferred Spanish, and 39% did not graduate from high school. More participants reported knowing nothing about chronic pain (24%) than a lot (12%). In weighted logistic models with knowing nothing as the reference, knowing a lot was associated with greater KAB for chronic pain-related emotions, functioning, and cure (all P chronic pain care, these data underscore the need for effective public educational campaigns about chronic pain.

  14. Galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity scaling relations from a representative local sample (REXCESS)

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Arnaud, M; Böhringer, H

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We examine the X-ray luminosity scaling relations of 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS). The objects are selected in X-ray luminosity only, optimally sampling the cluster luminosity function; temperatures range from 2 to 9 keV and there is no bias toward any particular morphological type. Pertinent values are extracted in an aperture corresponding to R_500, estimated using the tight correlation between Y_X and total mass. The data exhibit power law relations between bolometric X-ray luminosity and temperature, Y_X and total mass, all with slopes that are significantly steeper than self-similar expectations. We examine the causes for the steepening, finding that the primary driver appears to be a systematic variation of the gas content with mass. Scatter about the relations is dominated in all cases by the presence of cool cores. The logarithmic scatter about the raw X-ray luminosity-temperature relation is approximately 30%, and that abou...

  15. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data from a large nationally representative sample of Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter; Watson, Nicole; Wooden, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used to calculate weighted norms for the written version of the Symbol Digits Modalities Test (SDMT) by gender, 5-year age groups and four levels of educational attainment. The sample comprised 14,456 Australians (47% male; age range 15-100), of whom 25% reported a tertiary qualification, 30% reported a technical qualification (diploma or trade certificate), 16% reported completing Year 12 (final year of high school), and 29% reported their highest level of educational attainment to be Year 11 or below. Participants were excluded if they reported physical or neurological conditions that limited performance. Age, gender, and education were all significantly associated with SDMT performance, as was poor health, and cultural background. The reported norms are of greater scope and precision than previously available and have utility in a range of clinical and research settings. Indeed, normative data for the SDMT that are representative of a national population have not previously been published. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Social Representations of Hero and Everyday Hero: A Network Study from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keczer, Zsolt; File, Bálint; Orosz, Gábor; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    The psychological investigation of heroism is relatively new. At this stage, inductive methods can shed light on its main aspects. Therefore, we examined the social representations of Hero and Everyday Hero by collecting word associations from two separate representative samples in Hungary. We constructed two networks from these word associations. The results show that the social representation of Hero is more centralized and it cannot be divided into smaller units. The network of Everyday Hero is divided into five units and the significance moves from abstract hero characteristics to concrete social roles and occupations exhibiting pro-social values. We also created networks from the common associations of Hero and Everyday Hero. The structures of these networks show a moderate similarity and the connections are more balanced in case of Everyday Hero. While heroism in general can be the source of inspiration, the promotion of everyday heroism can be more successful in encouraging ordinary people to recognize their own potential for heroic behavior. PMID:27525418

  17. Sexual Violence Experienced in the Sport Context by a Representative Sample of Quebec Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6 450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceeding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593

  18. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís B Sardinha

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18-103 years (n = 9,447; 18-64 years: n = 6,908; ≥ 65 years: n = 2,539. Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25-29.9 kg/m(2 and ≥ 30 kg/m(2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18-64 years. Respective values in older adults (≥ 65 years were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08-3.09, obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20-3.45, and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60-6.52. This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level.

  19. Determinants of Childhood Obesity in Representative Sample of Children in North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Baygi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has become, a global public health problem, and epidemiological studies are important to identify its determinants in different populations. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour, Iran. This study was conducted among 1500 randomly selected 6–12-year-old students from urban areas of Neishabour, northeast of Iran. Then, through a case-control study, 114 obese (BMI≥95th percentile of Iranian reference children were selected as the case group and were compared with 102 controls (15th≤BMI<85th percentile. Factors suggested to be associated with weight status were investigated, for example, parental obesity, child physical activity levels, socio-economic status (SES, and so forth. The analysis was conducted using univariate and multivariate logistic regression (MLR in SPSS version 16. In univariate logistic regression model, birth weight, birth order, family extension, TV watching, sleep duration, physical activity, parents’ job, parents’ education, parental obesity history, and SES were significantly associated with children’s obesity. After MLR analysis, physical activity and parental obesity history remained statistically significant in the model. Our findings showed that physical activity and parental obesity history are the most important determinants for childhood obesity in our population. This finding should be considered in implementation of preventive interventions.

  20. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-04-26

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents' suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents - (all protective): mother's warmth and father's warmth in childhood and mother's control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p parental separation events. Parenting style does matter. While children of Authoritative parents profit, children of

  1. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of Italian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Asciutto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF ITALIAN ADULTSBackground: Diabetes mellitus is a dramatic epidemic worldwide. This study providea an updated estimate of itsprevalence and determinants among Italian adults.Methods: Data were derived from a face-to-face survey conducted in 2013 on 2901 individuals (1391 men, 1510 women aged ≥18 years, representative of the general adult Italian population. Odds ratios (OR for diabetes versus non diabetes in relation to selected risk factors were derived using multiple logistic regression models.Results: Overall, 135 out of 2901 adults (4.7% reported a diagnosis of diabetes, with similar prevalence in men (4.8% and in women (4.5%. Diabetes increased with age (0.6% at age 18-44, 5.1% at age 45-64, and 11.3% at age ≥65 years; p-trend <0.001 and decreased with increasing level of education (12.8% for low, 7.8% for middle, and 1.4% for high education; p-trend <0.001. Prevalence was higher among obese subjects (10.8% compared to normal weight subjects (3.1%; OR=2.46; p-trend=0.001, among individuals reporting a physical activity <30 minutes of walk/day (5.6% compared to those reporting >60 minutes of walk/day (3.8%; OR=1.43, and among ex-smokers (11.6% compared to never smokers (4.2%; OR=2.51; moreover, it was lower among moderate drinkers (3.1% than among abstainers (6.1%; OR=0.57; p-trend=0.016. Prevalence of diabetes was 16.1% in individuals with a diagnosis of hypertension (OR=4.66, 15.2% in those with high cholesterol (OR=3.84, and 21.6% among aspirin users (OR=4.46.Conclusion: Although diabetes prevalence in Italy is still comparatively low, effective clinical and preventive intervention strategies – focused on major risk behaviors – should be implemented to control the diffusion of this condition.

  2. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p parental separation events. Conclusions Parenting style does matter. While

  3. Antihypertensive medications and serious fall injuries in a nationally representative sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Mary E; Han, Ling; Lee, David S H; McAvay, Gail J; Peduzzi, Peter; Gross, Cary P; Zhou, Bingqing; Lin, Haiqun

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE The effect of serious injuries, such as hip fracture and head injury, on mortality and function is comparable to that of cardiovascular events. Concerns have been raised about the risk of fall injuries in older adults taking antihypertensive medications. The low risk of fall injuries reported in clinical trials of healthy older adults may not reflect the risk in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether antihypertensive medication use was associated with experiencing a serious fall injury in a nationally representative sample of older adults. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING Competing risk analysis as performed with propensity score adjustment and matching in the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey cohort during a 3-year follow-up through 2009. Participants included 4961 community-living adults older than 70 years with hypertension. EXPOSURES Antihypertensive medication intensity based on the standardized daily dose for each antihypertensive medication class that participants used. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serious fall injuries, including hip and other major fractures, traumatic brain injuries, and joint dislocations, ascertained through Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims. RESULTS Of the 4961 participants, 14.1% received no antihypertensive medications; 54.6% were in the moderate-intensity and 31.3% in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups. During follow-up, 446 participants (9.0%) experienced serious fall injuries, and 837 (16.9%) died. The adjusted hazard ratios for serious fall injury were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.03-1.90) in the moderate-intensity and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91-1.80) in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups compared with nonusers. Although the difference in adjusted hazard ratios across the groups did not reach statistical significance, results were similar in the propensity score-matched subcohort. Among 503 participants with a previous fall injury, the adjusted

  4. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Portuguese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Luís B.; Santos, Diana A.; Silva, Analiza M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Raimundo, Armando M.; Moreira, Helena; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Baptista, Fátima; Mota, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity in the Portuguese adults and examined the relationship between above mentioned prevalences and educational level. Body mass, stature, and waist circumference were measured in a representative sample of the Portuguese population aged 18–103 years (n = 9,447; 18–64 years: n = 6,908; ≥65 years: n = 2,539). Overweight and obesity corresponded to a body mass index ranging between 25–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >102 cm for males and >88 cm for females. After adjusting for educational level, the combined prevalences of overweight and obesity were 66.6% in males and 57.9% in females (18–64 years). Respective values in older adults (≥65 years) were 70.4% for males and 74.7% for females. About 19.3% of adult males and 37.9% of adult females presented abdominal obesity. Correspondent values in older adults were 32.1%, for males, and 69.7%, for females. In adults, low educational level was related to an increased risk for overweight (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 2.08–3.09), obesity (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 2.20–3.45), and abdominal obesity (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 4.60–6.52). This reinforces the importance of adjusting public health strategies for educational level. PMID:23118905

  5. Use of opioid analgesics in skin disorders: Results from a nationally representative US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K; Vujcic, Branka; Piccinin, Meghan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing and inappropriate use of opioid analgesics (OA) have been declared a public health concern in the United States. There are no epidemiologic studies of OA use in skin disorders. We examined OA use in a nationally representative sample of US patient visits with only physician-diagnosed skin disorders. Retrospective cross-sectional study of 56 751 patient visits from 1995 to 2010 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes 680-709 denoting "Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue"; 172, 173, 216 and 232 denoting malignant and benign skin neoplasms). An estimated 3.1% ± 0.2% of skin disorders visits were associated with OA use; 52.7% ± 5.4% were Schedule III opioids; 11.4% ± 1.4% of OA visits involved skin neoplasms and 45.4% ± 2.3% cellulitis and abscess. OA use increased from 1995 to 2010 (adjusted OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.49-2.22), even after controlling for increase in the frequency of skin infections from 1995 to 2010. The most frequent use OA for cellulitis and abscess is entirely consistent with their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications for pain management. The almost two-fold increase in OA use in skin disorders from 1995 to 2010 may suggest that OA are being considered for pain management earlier in therapy. Only a minority of patient visits with OA had primary dermatologic disease. OA are being used in dermatology primarily for FDA-approved indications.

  6. Is it attachment style or socio-demography: Singlehood in a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja ePetrowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the percentage of single adults is steadily increasing, the reasons for this development have become a matter of growing interest. Hereby, an individual’s attachment style has come under close scrutiny in the context of its possible association to the partnership status.In the current study, a comparison of an individual’s attachment style, gender, age, education, and income was carried out in regard to the partnership status. Furthermore, an analysis of variance was computed to compare the attachment style within different groups. A sample of 1,676 representative participants between 18 and 60 years was investigated (M = 41.0, SD = 12.3; 54% were female, and 40% were single. Attachment-related attitudes were assessed employing the German version of the Adult Attachment Scale (AAS.Single adult males did not show a more anxious attachment style than single adult females, or females in relationships. Paired individuals between 18 and 30 years showed greater attachment anxiety than single individuals, while single individuals between 31 to 45 years showed greater attachment anxiety than paired individuals. In addition, single individuals more frequently had completed high school in contrast to paired individuals. Concerning the attachment style, the individuals who had not completed high school showed less faith in others. Concerning age, single individuals between 46 and 60 years, felt less comfortable with closeness and showed less trust in others than paired individuals. Logistic regression showed that individuals who felt comfortable depending on others, were older on average, showed more attachment anxiety, and had less formal education did not remain single. An income below €2000/month was linked to a nearly 13-fold increase in the likelihood of being single.In sum, the attachment style had a differential age-dependent association to remaining single versus being in a relationship. Education also played a role, especially in

  7. Stages of dietary change among nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, C; Van der Gaag, M; Kafatos, A; Lennernas, M; Kearney, J M

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the distribution across the different stages of change for each of the 15 participating European countries, and the effect of socio-demographic variables such as sex and education on this distribution. Also to assess the relationships between stages of change and influences of food choice, and other variables. A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. 14331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Subjects were divided into five different categories according to their attitudes towards 'changing their eating habits in order to eat healthier': (1) Precontemplation; do not consider any changes, (2) Contemplation; consider changes, (3) Decision; make plans to change, (4) Action; carry out the changes, and (5) Maintenance; maintained changes for more than six months. 52% of the subjects were in the precontemplation stage, whereas 31% of the subjects were in the maintenance stage. Two, one, and seven percent of subjects were in the contemplation, decision and action stage, respectively. In the Mediterranean countries, and in Germany, there were more people (55-64%) in the precontemplation stage, whereas in the Scandinavian countries there were less people in precontemplation stage (20-38%). The opposite was true for the maintenance stage, whereas women and people with a higher education level tended to be more in the maintenance stage. With respect to influence on food choice, subjects in precontemplation stage found that taste was more important, whereas people in maintenance stage found that health was more important. The stages of change model makes a useful

  8. Accounting for Non-Represented Heterogeneity in Soil Water Flow by Estimating Miller Scaling Fields with Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauser, H. H.; Jaumann, S.; Roth, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a widely used data assimilation method in soil hydrology to estimate states and parameters, incorporating uncertainties in measurements and all model components.Of these components not only states and parameters, but also the representation of small scale heterogeneities of different soil layers suffers from large uncertainties. This is particularly severe when measuring soil water content, which reflects the soil's local texture and is typically discontinuous across heterogeneity boundaries. To address this challenge we enhance the EnKF to simultaneously also estimate a Miller scaling field for each soil layer.The enhanced EnKF is tested with a one-dimensional water content data set based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements and leads to an improved consistency of model and measurements.

  9. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  10. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    will continue for two more years and will include international collaborators (Australia, Canada). The Danish authorities have instituted a system of control analysis, which contains a set of mandated sampling and analysis methods. From a preliminary survey it was concluded that in fact all of the existing...... sampling procedures are not optimized in the light of Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling (TOS).......Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project...

  11. Buffer AVL Alone Does Not Inactivate Ebola Virus in a Representative Clinical Sample Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J; Weller, Simon A; Phelps, Amanda; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O'Brien, Lyn M; Steward, Jackie; Lonsdale, Steve G; Lever, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Rapid inactivation of Ebola virus (EBOV) is crucial for high-throughput testing of clinical samples in low-resource, outbreak scenarios. The EBOV inactivation efficacy of Buffer AVL (Qiagen) was tested against marmoset serum (EBOV concentration of 1 × 10(8) 50% tissue culture infective dose per milliliter [TCID50 · ml(-1)]) and murine blood (EBOV concentration of 1 × 10(7) TCID50 · ml(-1)) at 4:1 vol/vol buffer/sample ratios. Posttreatment cell culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis indicated that treatment with Buffer AVL did not inactivate EBOV in 67% of samples, indicating that Buffer AVL, which is designed for RNA extraction and not virus inactivation, cannot be guaranteed to inactivate EBOV in diagnostic samples. Murine blood samples treated with ethanol (4:1 [vol/vol] ethanol/sample) or heat (60°C for 15 min) also showed no viral inactivation in 67% or 100% of samples, respectively. However, combined Buffer AVL and ethanol or Buffer AVL and heat treatments showed total viral inactivation in 100% of samples tested. The Buffer AVL plus ethanol and Buffer AVL plus heat treatments were also shown not to affect the extraction of PCR quality RNA from EBOV-spiked murine blood samples. © Crown copyright 2015.

  12. Improving sample representativeness in environmental studies: a major component for the uncertainty budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Franca, E.J.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Bode, P.; Van Soldt, R.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    For environmental quality assessment, INAA has been applied for determining chemical elements in small (200 mg) and large (200 g) samples of leaves from 200 trees. By applying the Ingamells’ constant, the expected percent standard deviation was estimated in 0.9–2.2% for 200 mg samples. Otherwise, fo

  13. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  14. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  15. A Measure of Severe Psychological Abuse Normed on a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follingstad, Diane R.

    2011-01-01

    A psychological abuse scale representing truly egregious psychological actions that could occur between adult intimate partners was constructed. To insure that the component behaviors would be viewed as highly problematic, the likely malignant intent of the actions was included in item descriptions. Fourteen categories of psychological abuse were…

  16. The Effect of Sample Representativeness on Consumer Responses to Target Products

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanrui

    2016-01-01

    Marketers often give consumers samples of products before consumers make decisions. However, in the marketplace, samples can be offered in many different forms. For example, to promote a cake, marketers could provide a slice of the cake or a mini version of the cake. To advocate for a software package, marketers could provide either a trial version with full features but for a limited time only, or a trial version with limited features but for a longer time period. Are all samples created equ...

  17. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J.; Basurko, O.C.; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J.E.; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C.; Mesbahi, E.

    ). This study has shown the effect that low sampling frequency has on the accuracy of data obtained from a 1 tonne storage tank. In reality ships can carry between 100 and 100,000 tonnes of ballast water and discharge at flow rates of 100 to over 3000 m3hr-1... and uncertainty in the accuracy of data obtained from collecting only three replicate samples at three sampling points on discharge of ballast water will, in reality, be much greater than that seen in this study. Previous studies have used different...

  18. Selection of representative calibration sample sets for near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict nitrogen concentration in grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Rinnan, Åsmund; Gislum, René

    2012-01-01

    The effect of using representative calibration sets with fewer samples was explored and discussed. The data set consisted of near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra of grass samples. The grass samples were taken from different years covering a wide range of species and cultivars. Partial least...... squares regression (PLSR), a chemometric method, has been applied on NIR spectroscopy data for the determination of the nitrogen (N) concentration in these grass samples. The sample selection method based on NIR spectral data proposed by Puchwein and the CADEX (computer aided design of experiments...

  19. Measurement of representative landfill gas migration samples at landfill perimeters: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Breda M.; Beirne, Stephen; Fay, Cormac; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fully integrated autonomous system based on existing infrared sensing technology capable of monitoring landfill gas migration (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) at landfill sites. Sampling using the described system was validated against the industry standard, GA2000 Plus hand held device, manufactured by Geotechnical Instruments Inc. As a consequence of repeated sampling during validation experiments, fluctuations in the gas mixtures became ap...

  20. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  1. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender,…

  2. Applying an Occupational Classification to a Representative Sample of Work Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    To test the predictive efficiency of the Holland Occupational Classification and the related hypotheses concerned with occupational achievement and stability of career from Holland's theory of careers, the classification was applied to a national sample of 973 male retrospective work histories. Analyses were performed by organizing and…

  3. Dietary patterns and depressive mood in a multiethnic representative sample of Texas eighth graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between dietary patterns and depressive mood among 8th grade students in Texas. Data were from the 2004–2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a multistage probability-based sample of Texas 8th graders. Participants (n=8827; 14.7% Afri...

  4. Transvitreal Retinochoroidal Biopsy Provides a Representative Sample From Choroidal Melanoma for Detection of Chromosome 3 Aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Mette; Andersen, Morten T.; Heegaard, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the status of chromosomes 3 and 8 in 25-gauge transvitreal retinochoroidal (TVRC) biopsy specimens and enucleated eyes in order to evaluate for genetic heterogeneity and the utility of TVRC biopsy to obtain an adequate sampling of the tumor. METHODS: Genetic heterogeneity...

  5. The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Brownridge, Douglas A; MacMillan, Harriet; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that family violence is associated with gambling problems. However, to date, this relationship has not been thoroughly investigated using representative data. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between gambling problems and the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (including dating and marital violence) and child maltreatment (including minor child assault and severe child abuse) using nationally representative data. Data were drawn from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n=3334; 18years and older). Multiple logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between gambling and the perpetration and victimization of dating violence, marital violence, and child maltreatment. The results indicated that problem gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs) ranged from 2.2 to 4.2), while pathological gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (AORs ranged from 5.7 to 11.9), severe marital violence (AOR=20.4), and severe child abuse (AOR=13.2). Additionally, dating violence, marital violence, and severe child abuse victimization were associated with increased odds of gambling problems. The results were attenuated when adjusted for lifetime mental disorders. These findings can be used as evidence-based research to inform healthy public gambling polices and inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. [Rosenberg self-esteem scale: validation in a representative sample of Chilean adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Zegers, Beatriz; Förster, Carla E

    2009-06-01

    Self-esteem is positively associated to the well being of people and could be a good mental health indicator. To determine the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in a Chilean adult sample. The instrument was applied to 473 subjects living in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, evenly distributed according to gender, age, educational level and income. The Neugarten Life Satisfaction index (LSI-A) was also applied to the sample. Cronbach's alpha for reliability of the scale was 0.754. There was no gender bias and factor analysis grouped items into two factors (5 positive and 5 negative). The instrument had a correlation of 0.455 with the LSI-A. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale meets the criteria for validity and reliability of a quality instrument to measure self-esteem in Chile.

  7. The core self-evaluation scale: psychometric properties of the german version in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Körner, Annett; Maier, Günter W; Hinz, Andreas; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES) is an economical self-reporting instrument that assesses fundamental evaluations of self-worthiness and capabilities. The broad aims of this study were to test the CSES's psychometric properties. The study is based on a representative survey of the German general population. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for different models with 1, 2, and 4 latent factors. The CSES was found to be reliable and valid, as it correlated as expected with measures of depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-report health status, and pain. A 2-factor model with 2 related factors (r = -.62) showed the best model fit. Furthermore, the CSES was measurement invariant across gender and age. In general, males had higher values of positive self-evaluations and lower negative self-evaluations than females. It is concluded that the CSES is a useful tool for assessing resource-oriented personality constructs.

  8. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of active commuting to school in a nationwide representative sample of German adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Anne Kerstin; Jekauc, Darko; Peterhans, Eliane; Wagner, Matthias O.; Woll, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of walking and cycling to school in a nationwide representative cross-sectional sample of German adolescents.Methods. A sample of 1828 German adolescents aged 11–17 years were examined between 2003 and 2006. Mode of commuting to school was assessed using a reliable self-report measure. Socioeconomic status, migration background and residential area were assessed as socio-demographic variables using a parent-report questionna...

  9. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  10. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  11. Reduced cognitive function in children with toxocariasis in a nationally representative sample of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2012-12-01

    Toxocariasis has recently been recognised as a potentially important neglected infection in developed countries, particularly those that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. Given a relatively high prevalence of infection, an association between Toxocara infection and cognitive function may elucidate an important mechanism by which toxocariasis could contribute significantly to morbidity while still remaining hidden and, thus, neglected. To assess the potential relationship between toxocariasis and cognitive function, this investigation measured differences in components of both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) in children seropositive and in children seronegative for Toxocara antibodies in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large, nationally-representative survey of the United States population. Seropositive children scored significantly lower on the WISC-R and WRAT-R compared with the seronegative children. Moreover, this relationship was independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, rural residence, cytomegalovirus infection and blood lead levels. These results identify an important association that may reflect morbidity attributable to a genuine neglected infection. Nevertheless, longitudinal data are required to confirm an etiological connection between toxocariasis and cognitive function, as well as the true population attributable risk for toxocariasis and its chronic sequelae.

  12. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. METHODS: In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. CONCLUSION: Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  13. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18 who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM. Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience, smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57], and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96] than non-smokers (p < 0.05. In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92] and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08] than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required.

  14. Chronic pain and marijuana use among a nationally representative sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Cougle, Jesse R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Norberg, Melissa M; Johnson, Kirsten; Kosiba, Jesse; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relations between chronic pain and marijuana use in a large nationally representative survey of adults (n = 5,672; 53% female; M(age) = 45.05, SD = 17.9) conducted in the United States. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime history of depression, and alcohol abuse/dependence, there was a significant association between lifetime chronic pain and lifetime and current marijuana use. Moreover, current chronic pain was significantly associated with lifetime marijuana use. There was no significant association between current chronic pain and current marijuana use, possibly owing to limited statistical power. Results suggest that there are generally consistent statistically significant relations between chronic pain and marijuana use. Future work is needed to explicate the developmental patterning between chronic pain and marijuana use. This paper presents the potential linkage between chronic pain and marijuana use. Results from this study suggest that it may be beneficial for clinicians to assess for marijuana use among patients suffering from chronic pain. Such patients may be using marijuana as a maladaptive coping strategy.

  15. Requirements for representative sampling for fluvial fish assemblages – literary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potyó, I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish are good indicators of long-term changes of fluvial ecosystems therefore, assessment of fish assemblages is frequently used in evaluation of the ecological status of surface waters, especially since the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. Long-term changes of fish fauna and old-time abundance of fish populations in the Danube can be documented by historical data of fisheries. Direct detection of long-term changes of fish populations in large rivers is a difficult task due to large-scale temporal and spatial variability of fish distribution. The present study provides a review of river fish sampling methods, with special attention to approaches based on electrofishing. Our goal is to develop a standard monitoring method in large rivers to get more reliable and consistent data for description of long-term changes of fish populations.

  16. Personality correlates of type 1 diabetes in a national representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Čukić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined cross-sectional relationships between personality traits and type 1 diabetes. The sample (n=8490 was taken from the 1982-84 wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study. We fit three logistic regression models to test whether neuroticism, extraversion, openness, or the Type A behavior pattern were associated with type 1 diabetes. Model 1 included sex, age, race/ethnicity and all four personality traits. Model 2 added depressive symptoms. Model 3 added body mass index, hypertension, and cigarette smoking status. Results regarding personality traits were consistent across all three models: higher neuroticism was associated with 39% higher chance of having type 1 diabetes per standard deviation increase and openness was associated with 26% decrease in that chance per standard deviation increase. Extraversion, and Type A personality were not associated with type 1 diabetes in our models.

  17. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  18. Associations between body weight and personality disorders in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Amber A; Cox, Brian J; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether, in the general population, individuals in numerous abnormal body weight categories had higher odds of having personality disorders (PDs) than normal-weight individuals. Although personality functioning is hypothesized to be associated with body weight, there is a dearth of empirical evaluation of this topic. The association of body weight (five categories: underweight [body mass index [BMI] or=40]) with personality disorders was investigated using data from the nationally representative National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093). Lifetime paranoid, schizoid, antisocial, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PDs were examined, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV). After adjusting for sociodemographics, Axis I disorders, schizophrenia, physical health conditions, and comorbid PDs, extreme obesity was associated with antisocial or avoidant PDs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.66-1.73), whereas underweight was associated with increased odds of schizoid PD (AOR = 1.89). The pattern of associations differed when stratified by gender. Overweight men had lower odds of paranoid PD (AOR = 0.73). Women with higher-than-normal body weights had higher odds of paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs (AOR range = 1.33-2.50), whereas underweight women more often met the criteria for schizoid PD (AOR = 1.95). Higher-than-normal body weight is associated with paranoid, antisocial, and avoidant PDs for women, whereas overweight men have lower rates of paranoid PD and underweight women have higher odds of schizoid PD. Possible clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  19. Dietary restraint and body mass change. A 3-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Herman, C.P.; Verheijden, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine in a representative Dutch sample the association of dietary restraint, Concern for Dieting, and Weight Fluctuation with subsequent change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) in addition to possible moderator effects of sex, level of education, age category, ethnicity,

  20. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  1. The Relationship between Child Abuse, Parental Divorce, and Lifetime Mental Disorders and Suicidality in a Nationally Representative Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years;…

  2. Dietary restraint and body mass change. A 3-year follow up study in a representative Dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Herman, C.P.; Verheijden, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine in a representative Dutch sample the association of dietary restraint, Concern for Dieting, and Weight Fluctuation with subsequent change in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) in addition to possible moderator effects of sex, level of education, age category, ethnicity, overwe

  3. The Association of Attitude to Reading and Reading Achievement among a Representative Sample of Nine Year Olds in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the association between reading self-belief and reading achievement among a representative sample of nine year old children in the Republic of Ireland. Results from analysis of variance and simple effects analysis showed a positive linear association between reading achievement and "attitude to reading." The…

  4. Examining the Relationship between At-Risk Gambling and Suicidality in a National Representative Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lesieur, Henry

    2006-01-01

    Although many clinical studies document a relationship between gambling and suicidality, evidence of this association in general population surveys has been mixed. Probing this association in a nationally representative sample of young adults with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we made same gender comparisons of…

  5. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L

    2015-08-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Using the 2011 National Survey of Children's Health, 62,215 interviews with parents of children 6 to 17 were analyzed. Extracurricular categories of sports only, sports + nonsport, nonsport only, and no activities were based on parental response to questions regarding sport teams/lessons, clubs, and organizations. Bullying was derived from report of the child "bullying or being cruel/mean to others." Weighted bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and sex/race/ethnicity/age stratified analyses were conducted. Eighty percent of children participated in extracurricular activities: 8% sports, 48% sports + nonsports, and 24% nonsports. Bullying perpetration was reported in 15% of the sample. Compared with those not participating in extracurricular activities, the odds of bullying were significantly lower for children who participated in sports + nonsports (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.79) and nonsport only (AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97). Stratified analyses showed attenuated effects of extracurricular activities for boys and for Hispanics. Children who participate in a variety of extracurricular activities exhibit the least frequent bullying perpetration. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  7. The prevalence of discrimination across racial groups in contemporary America: Results from a nationally representative sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Nedelec, Joseph L; Winegard, Bo; Shackelford, Todd; Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael; Barnes, J C; Wright, John P

    2017-01-01

    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (N = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences-an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members-across racial and ethnic categories.

  8. The prevalence of discrimination across racial groups in contemporary America: Results from a nationally representative sample of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Joseph L.; Winegard, Bo; Shackelford, Todd; Beaver, Kevin M.; Vaughn, Michael; Barnes, J. C.; Wright, John P.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (N = 14,793) while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences—an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members—across racial and ethnic categories. PMID:28837680

  9. Determinants of subjective well-being in representative samples of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert

    2017-04-01

    Maximising the happiness and life satisfaction [i.e. subjective well-being (SWB)] of citizens is a fundamental goal of international governmental organizations' policies. In order to decide what policies should be pursued in order to improve SWB there is a need to identify what the key drivers of SWB are. However, to date most studies have been conducted in unrepresentative samples of largely 'developed' nations. Data from the latest World Value Survey (2010-14) and gathered 85 070 respondents from 59 countries (Age 1-99 years, Mean = 42, SD = 16.54; 52.29% females) were pooled for the analysis. A cross-sectional multilevel random effects model was performed where respondents were nested by country. The average levels of SWB varied across countries and geographical regions. Among the lowest 10 SWB countries are nations from: Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union and Middle East and North Africa. Factors driving SWB include state of health, financial satisfaction, freedom of choice, GDP per capita, income scale, importance of friends, leisure, being females, weekly religious attendance, unemployment and income inequality. Nevertheless, according to Cohen's rules of thumb, most of these factors have 'small' effect sizes. Thus, the main factors that possibly will improve the SWB of people across the globe are: state of health, household's financial satisfaction and freedom of choice. To maximize the well-being of the population, policy makers may focus on health status, household's financial satisfaction and emancipative values. The levels of prosperity and political stability appear to positively improve the SWB of people.

  10. Validation of self-reported diabetes in a representative sample of São Paulo city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanelli, Mariane de Mello; Teixeira, Juliana Araújo; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the self-reported diabetes mellitus in adults and older adults living in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS We have used data of 569 subjects (284 adults and 285 older adults), participants of the population-based cross-sectional study Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (Health Survey of São Paulo). Fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) and/or use of drugs (oral hypoglycemic and/or insulin) defined the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. We have validated the self-reported diabetes mellitus by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. We have used Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the factors associated with the sensitivity of the self-reported datum. For all analyses, we have considered the sample design of the study. RESULTS The sensitivity of self-reported diabetes mellitus was 63.8% (95%CI 49.2–76.3), specificity was 99.7% (95%CI 99.1–99.9), positive predictive value was 95.5% (95%CI 84.4–98.8), and negative predictive value was 96.9% (95%CI 94.9–98.2). The correct reporting of diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among older adults (PR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2–3.5) than among adults. CONCLUSIONS The use of the datum of self-reported diabetes mellitus is valid, especially among older adults living in the city of São Paulo. The results highlight the need to track diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic subjects who have one or more risk factors for it, mainly in the adult population of this city.

  11. Visual impairment and multimorbidity in a representative sample of the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Lara, Elvira; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-08

    In the context of population aging, visual impairment has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, there is a need for further research into the relationship between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions in the elderly. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between visual impairment and three main types of co-morbidity: chronic physical conditions (both at an independent and additive level), mental health and cognitive functioning. Data were collected from the COURAGE in Europe project, a cross-sectional study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included. Diagnosis of chronic medical conditions included self-reported medical diagnosis and symptomatic algorithms. Depression and anxiety were assessed using CIDI algorithms. Visual assessment included objective distance/near visual acuity and subjective visual performance. Descriptive analyses included the whole sample (n = 4,583). Statistical analyses included participants aged over 50 years (n = 3,625; mean age = 66.45 years) since they have a significant prevalence of chronic conditions and visual impairment. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify independent associations between visual impairment and chronic medical conditions, physical multimorbidity and mental conditions. Covariates included age, gender, marital status, education level, employment status and urbanicity. The number of chronic physical conditions was found to be associated with poorer results in both distance and near visual acuity [OR 1.75 (CI 1.38-2.23); OR 1.69 (CI 1.27-2.24)]. At an independent level, arthritis, stroke and diabetes were associated with poorer distance visual acuity results after adjusting for covariates [OR 1.79 (CI 1.46-2.21); OR 1.59 (CI 1.05-2.42); OR 1.27 (1.01-1.60)]. Only stroke was associated with near visual impairment [OR 3.01 (CI 1.86-4.87)]. With regard to mental health, poor subjective visual acuity was associated with depression

  12. Dating of a representative pottery sample from the basin of Sayula, Jalisco in Mexico using the thermoluminescence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado U, H. [CINVESTAV, Unidad Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Schaaf, P.; Ramirez, A. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, P.R. [ININ, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brunet, J. [CUCSH, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work is presented a study of dating of the representative pottery sample from the west of Mexico, in a predominantly saline region. The study is carried out with the thermoluminescence method and the fine grain technique. The archaeological region was begun to study from 1990. This work also presents an historical and geographical context of the region and its relevance in the western culture of Mexico. (Author)

  13. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jason E; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires, and both samples were compared to a population-based sample of cancer survivors (n = 5,150). The Internet sample was younger, better educated, more likely to be female, had longer time since diagnosis, and had more advanced stage of disease (p's sample was over-represented by men and those with prostate or other cancer types (p's sample also exhibited lower quality of life and social support and greater mood disturbance (p's convenience and systematic samples differ has important implications for external validity and potential for dissemination of Internet-based interventions.

  14. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  15. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nischkauer, Winfried [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhaecke, Frank [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas, E-mail: Andreas.Limbeck@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL{sup −1} with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  16. Binge drinking as a risk factor for violence among secondary school students in a nationally representative sample in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pulliza, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette; Moscoso-Álvarez, Margarita R; Colón, Héctor; Cotto-Negrón, Coral; Rivera, Laura; Irizarry-Pérez, Marisela

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between binge drinking and violence in a representative sample of secondary-school students in Puerto Rico. Consulta Juvenil VII (a biennial survey of school-aged youths in Puerto Rico) has a representative sample of adolescent students in Puerto Rico. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design was used. The sampling frame of Consulta Juvenil VII includes all the public and private schools registered with the Department of Education and the Council of General Education in Puerto Rico. The study utilizes a self-administered questionnaire that was translated and adapted from the "Student Survey of Risk and Protective Factors and Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use". "Binge drinking" was defined as having 5 or more alcoholic drinks in a row during the 30 days preceding the survey. Almost 20% of the sample members reported that at least 1 instance of binge drinking had taken place during the 2 weeks prior to the survey (17.7%). After controlling for gender, age, school level, the type of system, and the parents' educational levels, the odds of a given binge drinker reporting violent behaviors were 5 times greater than the odds among non-binge drinkers (OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 4.7-6.7). The study shows an association between binge drinking and violence in Puerto Rican adolescents, indicating that Hispanic youths who abuse alcohol may be at increased risk of violence. These findings suggest that violence prevention programs should be integrated with substance use prevention programs. [PR Health

  17. The Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) of an X-ray Luminosity Selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Böhringer, H; Pratt, G W; Arnaud, M; Ponman, T J; Croston, J H; Borgani, S; Bower, R G; Briel, U G; Collins, C A; Donahue, M; Forman, W R; Finoguenov, A; Geller, M J; Guzzo, L; Henry, J P; Kneissl, R; Mohr, J J; Matsushita, K; Mullis, C R; Ohashi, T; Pedersen, K; Pierini, D; Quintana, H; Raychaudhuri, S; Reiprich, T H; Romer, A K; Rosati, P; Sabirli, K; Temple, R F; Viana, P T P; Vikhlinin, A; Voit, G M; Zhang, Y Y

    2007-01-01

    The largest uncertainty for cosmological studies using clusters of galaxies is introduced by our limited knowledge of the statistics of galaxy cluster structure, and of the scaling relations between observables and cluster mass. To improve on this situation we have started an XMM-Newton Large Programme for the in-depth study of a representative sample of 33 galaxy clusters, selected in the redshift range z=0.055 to 0.183 from the REFLEX Cluster Survey, having X-ray luminosities above 0.4 X 10^44 h_70^-2 erg s^-1 in the 0.1 - 2.4 keV band. This paper introduces the sample, compiles properties of the clusters, and provides detailed information on the sample selection function. We describe the selection of a nearby galaxy cluster sample that makes optimal use of the XMM-Newton field-of-view, and provides nearly homogeneous X-ray luminosity coverage for the full range from poor clusters to the most massive objects in the Universe. For the clusters in the sample, X-ray fluxes are derived and compared to the previo...

  18. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL- 1 with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  19. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents: the role of different types of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B

    2003-01-01

    40% increased odds for multiple physical symptoms among less advantaged girls, to 90% increased odds of multiple psychological symptoms for less advantaged boys. Relationships with friends or teachers showed small social class differences, while strong and consistent social class differences were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. Measures included family social class, indices of social relations to parents, friends, teachers, and school. SETTING: Random sample of 55 schools...... in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of 5205 students from grades 5, 7, and 9. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported physical and psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Adolescents from families of lower socioeconomic position reported more physical and psychological symptoms. This ranged from...

  20. Do public health surveys provide representative data? Comparison of three different sampling approaches in the adult population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the sample representativeness in three different types of population-based public health surveys in Croatia. Responses from the household sampling based Croatian Adult Health Survey (CAHS), health insurance register based Croatian Health Survey (CHS) and a telephone survey (TPS) were analysed and compared to gender, age and education composition of the Croatian adult population, based on the 2001 Census. The raw (unweighted) survey data were used and analysed with Spearman's rank test and distance analysis. The results indicated that TPS had the most similar gender composition compared to the Census data. TPS also had the most similar age composition in men, while CHS had the most similar age composition in women. Finally, CAHS had the most similar education composition to the Census data. Three population subgroups were substantially under-sampled in all three surveys--men, younger people, and elderly from the lowest educational classes. For these sub-groups, advanced sampling methods should be employed in order to obtain more precise estimates from public health surveys.

  1. Forecasting elections with mere recognition from small, lousy samples: A comparison of collective recognition, wisdom of crowds, and representative polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gaissmeier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the extent to which the human capacity for recognition helps to forecast political elections: We compared naive recognition-based election forecasts computed from convenience samples of citizens' recognition of party names to (i standard polling forecasts computed from representative samples of citizens' voting intentions, and to (ii simple---and typically very accurate---wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts computed from the same convenience samples of citizens' aggregated hunches about election results. Results from four major German elections show that mere recognition of party names forecast the parties' electoral success fairly well. Recognition-based forecasts were most competitive with the other models when forecasting the smaller parties' success and for small sample sizes. However, wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts outperformed recognition-based forecasts in most cases. It seems that wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts are able to draw on the benefits of recognition while at the same time avoiding its downsides, such as lack of discrimination among very famous parties or recognition caused by factors unrelated to electoral success. Yet it seems that a simple extension of the recognition-based forecasts---asking people what proportion of the population would recognize a party instead of whether they themselves recognize it---is also able to eliminate these downsides.

  2. Concurrent and simultaneous polydrug use: latent class analysis of an Australian nationally representative sample of young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake-Hui eQuek

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol use and illicit drug use peak during young adulthood (around 18-29 years of age, but comparatively little is known about polydrug use in nationally representative samples of young adults. Drawing on a nationally representative cross-sectional survey (Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey, this study examines polydrug use patterns and associated psychosocial risk factors among young adults (n = 3,333; age 19-29. Method: The use of a broad range of licit and illicit drugs were examined, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, ecstasy, ketamine, GHB, inhalants, steroids, barbiturates, meth/amphetamines, heroin, methadone/buprenorphine, other opiates, painkillers and tranquillizers/sleeping pills. Latent class analysis was employed to identify patterns of polydrug use. Results: Polydrug use in this sample was best described using a 5-class solution. The majority of young adults predominantly used alcohol only (52.3%, alcohol and tobacco (34.18%. The other classes were cannabis, ecstasy, and licit drug use (9.4%, cannabis, amphetamine derivative, and licit drug use (2.8%, and sedative and alcohol use (1.3%. Young adult males with low education and/or high income were most at risk of polydrug use. Conclusion: Almost half of young adults reported polydrug use, highlighting the importance of post-high school screening for key risk factors and polydrug use profiles, and the delivery of early intervention strategies targeting illicit drugs.

  3. Investigating the link between liking versus wanting self-esteem and depression in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Konrath, Sara; Crocker, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    The self-esteem movement has been around since the 1970s, and may have influenced how much value people place on self-esteem. We predicted a negative relationship between age and the amount of value placed on self-esteem boosts. We also investigated the correlates of liking versus wanting self-esteem boosts (and other pleasant rewards) on depression. A nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 867) indicated how much they liked and wanted several pleasant rewards (i.e., sex, food, alcohol, money, friendship, self-esteem boost). They also completed a standardized measure of depressive symptoms. As expected, there was a negative relationship between age and valuing self-esteem boosts, sex, and alcohol. People with depressive symptoms wanted self-esteem boosts, even though they did not like them very much. Similar effects were obtained for depressive symptoms and alcohol and friendship. This is the first research to show that self-esteem boosts are more valued among a nationally representative sample of younger American adults. It also is the first research to explore the association between depression and the motivation to boost self-esteem. People with depressive symptoms want self-esteem, and may pursue it, but this pursuit may feel unrewarding because they do not derive pleasure from it.

  4. Validation of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire Short Scale (NARQ-S) in Convenience and Representative Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckelt, Marius; Wetzel, Eunike; Gerlach, Tanja M; Ackerman, Robert A; Miller, Joshua D; Chopik, William J; Penke, Lars; Geukes, Katharina; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Hutteman, Roos; Richter, David; Renner, Karl-Heinz; Allroggen, Marc; Brecheen, Courtney; Campbell, W Keith; Grossmann, Igor; Back, Mitja D

    2017-03-02

    Due to increased empirical interest in narcissism across the social sciences, there is a need for inventories that can be administered quickly while also reliably measuring both the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. In this study, we sought to validate the factor structure, provide representative descriptive data and reliability estimates, assess the reliability across the trait spectrum, and examine the nomological network of the short version of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ-S; Back et al., 2013). We used data from a large convenience sample (total N = 11,937) as well as data from a large representative sample (total N = 4,433) that included responses to other narcissism measures as well as related constructs, including the other Dark Triad traits, Big Five personality traits, and self-esteem. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to validate the factor structure and estimate the reliability across the latent trait spectrum, respectively. Results suggest that the NARQ-S shows a robust factor structure and is a reliable and valid short measure of the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. We also discuss future directions and applications of the NARQ-S as a short and comprehensive measure of grandiose narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Diversity of nuclear short tandem repeat loci in representative sample of North-eastern Bosnian and Herzegovina population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžiavdić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of nuclear microsatellite markers were analyzed in a reference sample of the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. 437 samples taken from unrelated individuals were processed and three samples of paternity proof were shown. Detection effectiveness profile of the research, points to a valid choice of method of extraction, amplification and genotyping short tandem repeat (STR loci with PowerPlextm16 kit. Genetic analysis of allelic variants of the 15 STR loci PowerPlextm16 kit detected 17 samples determined as rare allelic variants or microvariants. Samples were divided into 15 different allelic variants at 7 different loci, and are: in locus D7S820, D16S539, D3S1358, D18S51, PENTA D, PENTA E and in locus vWA. Genetic analysis of mutations in cases of paternity determined three examples of single-step mutations in the loci FGA, Penta D and D3S1358. Genetic analysis of observed STR loci detected three allelic variant of genotype combination 7/10/11.3 in locus D7S820 Type II. Population genetic analysis of STR loci in a representative sample of the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina included the application of the assessment tests of within-population genetic diversity and interpopulation diversity, as well as genetic differentiation between populations: North-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH and BH general reference, then the Croatian population, Macedonian, Serbian and Slovenian. Based on the result analysis of specific forensic parameters, it can be assumed that the most informative marker is PENTA E for population genetic analysis and forensic testing in the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. Research results fit regional STR database of this part of Europe.

  6. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rey deCastro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. OBJECTIVES: Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. METHODS: NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects. A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3, there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19] relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29] in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  7. Social and psychological resources associated with health status in a representative sample of adults affected by the 2004 Florida hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Amstadter, Ananda B; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Overall health status after a disaster may be associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Little is known about factors associated with overall health status in the aftermath of disasters. We examined self-rated health in relation to disaster characteristics, social resources, and post-disaster outcomes in a sample of adults who experienced the 2004 Florida hurricanes. We interviewed a representative sample of 1,452 adults aged 18 years and older residing in the 33 Florida counties that were in the direct path of at least one of the 2004 hurricanes (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne). Overall health status was assessed using a self-rating format known to be predictive of mortality. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 14.6% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (p hurricane (p = 0.03), low social support (p = 0.03), and depression (p = 0.003) since the hurricane. Self-rated health following the Florida hurricanes was strongly associated with two variables (social support and depression) that potentially can be mitigated through targeted interventions after disasters. Future work should evaluate secondary prevention strategies that can address general health-related concerns in the wake of a disaster.

  8. Proposing a Pedigree Risk Measurement Strategy: Capturing the Intergenerational Transmission of Antisocial Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Beaver, Kevin M; Nedelec, Joseph L; Vaughn, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    An impressive literature has revealed that variation in virtually every measurable phenotype is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental influences. Based on these findings, studies that fail to use genetically informed modeling strategies risk model misspecification and biased parameter estimates. Twin- and adoption-based research designs have frequently been used to overcome this limitation. Despite the many advantages of such approaches, many available datasets do not contain samples of twins, siblings or adoptees, making it impossible to utilize these modeling strategies. The current study proposes a measurement strategy for estimating the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behavior (ASB) within a nationally representative sample of singletons using an extended pedigree risk approach that relies on information from first- and second-degree relatives. An evaluation of this approach revealed a pattern of findings that directly aligned with studies examining ASB using more traditional twin- and adoption-based research designs. While the proposed pedigree risk approach is not capable of effectively isolating genetic and environmental influences, this overall alignment in results provides tentative evidence suggesting that the proposed pedigree risk measure effectively captures genetic influences. Future replication studies are necessary as this observation remains preliminary. Whenever possible, more traditional quantitative genetic methodologies should be favored, but the presented strategy remains a viable alternative for more limited samples.

  9. Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: the genetics of personality and well-being in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-03-01

    Subjective well-being is known to be related to personality traits. However, to date, nobody has examined whether personality and subjective well-being share a common genetic structure. We used a representative sample of 973 twin pairs to test the hypothesis that heritable differences in subjective well-being are entirely accounted for by the genetic architecture of the Five-Factor Model's personality domains. Results supported this model. Subjective well-being was accounted for by unique genetic influences from Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness, and by a common genetic factor that influenced all five personality domains in the directions of low Neuroticism and high Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These findings indicate that subjective well-being is linked to personality by common genes and that personality may form an "affective reserve" relevant to set-point maintenance and changes in set point over time.

  10. Assessing the Risk Factors of Cyber and Mobile Phone Bullying Victimization in a Nationally Representative Sample of Singapore Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Bossler, Adam M; Chee, Grace; Ng, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study utilized routine activity theory to examine the relationships between online behaviors, target suitability, and cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization in a nationally representative sample of youth from nine schools across Singapore. Key measures in all three categories-access to technology, online routine behaviors, and target suitability-were significant predictors of both forms of bullying victimization. In particular, females and victims of physical bullying were more likely to experience both forms of victimization. Access to technology and online routine behaviors predicted cyber and mobile phone-based bullying victimization differently. These findings demonstrate that routine activity theory is a viable framework to understand online bullying in non-Western nations, consistent with the existing literature on Western nations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women among a Nationally Representative Probability Sample of Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbenick, Debby; Friedman, M. Reuel; Schick, Vanessa; Fu, Tsung-Chieh (Jane); Bostwick, Wendy; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Pletta, David; Reece, Michael; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2016-01-01

    As bisexual individuals in the United States (U.S.) face significant health disparities, researchers have posited that these differences may be fueled, at least in part, by negative attitudes, prejudice, stigma, and discrimination toward bisexual individuals from heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. Previous studies of individual and social attitudes toward bisexual men and women have been conducted almost exclusively with convenience samples, with limited generalizability to the broader U.S. population. Our study provides an assessment of attitudes toward bisexual men and women among a nationally representative probability sample of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. Data were collected from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), via an online questionnaire with a probability sample of adults (18 years and over) from throughout the U.S. We included two modified 5-item versions of the Bisexualities: Indiana Attitudes Scale (BIAS), validated sub-scales that were developed to measure attitudes toward bisexual men and women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gamma regression, and paired t-tests. Gender, sexual identity, age, race/ethnicity, income, and educational attainment were all significantly associated with participants' attitudes toward bisexual individuals. In terms of responses to individual scale items, participants were most likely to “neither agree nor disagree” with all attitudinal statements. Across sexual identities, self-identified other participants reported the most positive attitudes, while heterosexual male participants reported the least positive attitudes. As in previous research on convenience samples, we found a wide range of demographic characteristics were related with attitudes toward bisexual individuals in our nationally-representative study of heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and other-identified adults in the U.S. In particular, gender emerged as a significant

  12. Utilization of group-based, community acupuncture clinics: a comparative study with a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Maria T; Tippens, Kimberly M; Connelly, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Acupuncture utilization in the United States has increased in recent years, but is less common among racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status. Group-based, community acupuncture is a delivery model gaining in popularity around the United States, due in part to low-cost treatments provided on a sliding-fee scale. Affordable, community-based acupuncture may increase access to health care at a time when increasing numbers of people are uninsured. To assess the population using local community acupuncture clinics, sociodemographic factors, health status, and utilization patterns compared to national acupuncture users were examined. Data were employed from (1) a cross-sectional survey of 478 clients of two community acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon and (2) a nationally representative sample of acupuncture users from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Portland community acupuncture clients were more homogeneous racially, had higher educational attainment, lower household income, and were more likely to receive 10 or more treatments in the past 12 months (odds ratio=5.39, 95% confidence interval=3.54, 8.22), compared to a nationally representative sample of U.S. acupuncture users. Self-reported health status and medical reasons for seeking acupuncture treatment were similar in both groups. Back pain (21%), joint pain (17%), and depression (13%) were the most common conditions for seeking treatment at community acupuncture clinics. Study findings suggest that local community acupuncture clinics reach individuals of a broad socioeconomic spectrum and may allow for increased frequency of treatment. Limited racial diversity among community acupuncture clients may reflect local demographics of Portland. In addition, exposure to and knowledge about acupuncture is likely to vary by race and ethnicity. Future studies should examine access, patient satisfaction, frequency of treatment, and clinical outcomes of group-based models of community

  13. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  14. Integral field optical spectroscopy of a representative sample of ULIRGs: II. Two-dimensional kpc-scale extinction structure

    CERN Document Server

    García-Marín, M; Arribas, S

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the two-dimensional kpc-scale structure of the extinction in a representative sample of local ULIRGs using the Halpha/Hbeta line ratio.We use optical integral field spectroscopy obtained with the INTEGRAL instrument at the William Herschel Telescope. Complementary optical and near-IR high angular resolution HST images have also been used. The extinction exhibits a very complex and patchy structure in ULIRGs on kpc scales, from basically transparent regions to others deeply embedded in dust (Av~0.0 to Av~8.0 mag). Nuclear extinction covers a broad range in Av from 0.6 to 6 mag, 69% of the nuclei having Av>2.0 mag. Extinction in the external regions is substantially lower than in the nuclei with 64% of the ULIRGs in the sample having median Av of less than 2 mag for the entire galaxy. While post-coalescence nuclei tend to cluster around Av values of 2 to 3 mag, pre-coalescence nuclei appear more homogeneously distributed over the entire 0.4 mag

  15. Learning in later life: participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the participation of Spanish older people in formal, non-formal and informal learning activities and presents a profile of participants in each kind of learning activity. We used data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish people between 60 and 75 years old (n = 4,703). The data were extracted from the 2007 Encuesta sobre la Participación de la Población Adulta en Actividades de Aprendizaje (EADA, Survey on Adult Population Involvement in Learning Activities). Overall, only 22.8 % of the sample participated in a learning activity. However, there was wide variation in the participation rates for the different types of activity. Informal activities were far more common than formal ones. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that education level and involvement in social and cultural activities were associated with likelihood of participating, regardless of the type of learning activity. When these variables were taken into account, age did not predict decreasing participation, at least in non-formal and informal activities. Implications for further research, future trends and policies to promote older adult education are discussed.

  16. Coastal and open ocean aerosol characteristics: investigating the representativeness of coastal aerosol sampling over the North-East Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a better understanding of the modifications of the physical and chemical properties of marine aerosol particles during transport from offshore to the coast, size distribution and chemical composition were measured concurrently in clean air masses over the open North Atlantic Ocean and at an Irish coastal site. Open ocean sampling was performed on board the oceanographic vessel Celtic Explorer sailing 100–300 km off the Irish west coast, while coastal measurements were performed at the Mace Head GAW station. The experiment took place between 11 June and 6 July 2006, during the period of phytoplankton bloom.

    The number size distribution and size-resolved chemical composition of coastal and open ocean samples were very similar, indicating homogeneous physical and chemical aerosol properties over a wide region in the marine boundary layer. The results also show that submicron chemical and physical aerosol properties measured at the coastal Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station were not unduly influenced by coastal artefacts and are thus representative of open water properties. Greater differences between the coastal site and the open ocean were observed for the aerosol supermicron sea spray components; this could be due to a variety of reasons, ranging from higher local wind speeds at the coastal site over the comparison period, to differences in sampling heights and increased local surf-zone production.

    Evidence of ageing processes was observed: at the costal site the ratio between non-sea-salt sulphate and methanesulphonic acid was higher, and the aerosol water soluble organic compounds were more oxidized than in the open ocean.

  17. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Schwartz

    Full Text Available Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses.The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  18. Serum PCB levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: the BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetos, O; Bartolomé, M; Aragonés, N; Cervantes-Amat, M; Esteban, M; Ruiz-Moraga, M; Pérez-Gómez, B; Calvo, E; Vila, M; Castaño, A

    2014-09-15

    This manuscript presents the levels of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in the serum of 1880 individuals from a representative sample of the Spanish working population recruited between March 2009 and July 2010. Three out of the six PCBs studied (180, 153 and 138) were quantified in more than 99% of participants. PCB 180 was the highest contributor, followed by PCBs 153 and 138, with relative abundances of 42.6%, 33.2% and 24.2%, respectively. In contrast, PCBs 28 and 52 were detected in only 1% of samples, whereas PCB 101 was detectable in 6% of samples. The geometric mean (GM) for ΣPCBs138/153/180 was 135.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 121.3-151.2 ng/g lipid) and the 95th percentile was 482.2 ng/g lipid. Men had higher PCB blood concentrations than women (GMs 138.9 and 129.9 ng/g lipid respectively). As expected, serum PCB levels increased with age and frequency of fish consumption, particularly in those participants younger than 30 years of age. The highest levels we found were for participants from the Basque Country, whereas the lowest concentrations were found for those from the Canary Islands. The Spanish population studied herein had similar levels to those found previously in Greece and southern Italy, lower levels than those in France and central Europe, and higher PCB levels than those in the USA, Canada and New Zealand. This paper provides the first baseline information regarding PCB exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. The results will allow us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, as well as monitor implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Spain.

  19. Muestras y representatividad en vigilancia epidemiologica mediante sitios centinelas Sampling and representativeness in epidemiological surveillance using sentinel sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Samaja

    1996-09-01

    inferences from samples. It becomes necessary to abandon statistical samples (even stratified ones and to promote procedures of the "sentinel site" type. This techinique, originally applied in societies with insufficient statistical systems, can be developed in such a way as to become a substantial complement to monitoring of living conditions, even in societies with good information systems. The article suggests changes in the "sentinel site" concept, adding the requirement of "qualitative representativeness" through finalistic samples based on previous typologies of spatial/demographic units.

  20. Effects of established BMI-associated loci on obesity-related traits in a French representative population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumidi, Louisa; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline

    2014-05-23

    Genome-wide association studies have identified variants associated with obesity-related traits, such as the body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine how the combination of 31 validated, BMI-associated loci contributes to obesity- and diabetes-related traits in a French population sample. The MONA LISA Lille study (1578 participants, aged 35-74) constitutes a representative sample of the population living in Lille (northern France). Genetic variants were considered both individually and combined into a genetic predisposition score (GPS). Individually, 25 of 31 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI. Four loci (FTO, FANCL, MTIF3 and NUDT3) reached nominal significance (p ≤ 0.05) for their association with anthropometric traits. When considering the combined effect of the 31 SNPs, each additional risk allele of the GPS was significantly associated with an increment in the mean [95% CI] BMI of 0.13 [0.07-0.20] kg/m2 (p = 6.3x10-5) and a 3% increase in the risk of obesity (p = 0.047). The GPS explained 1% of the variance in the BMI. Furthermore, the GPS was associated with higher fasting glycaemia (p = 0.04), insulinaemia (p = 0.008), HbA1c levels (p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR scores (p = 0.0003) and a greater risk of type 2 diabetes (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.00-1.11], p = 0.03). However, these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for BMI. Our results show that the GPS was associated with a higher BMI and an insulin-resistant state (mediated by BMI) in a population in northern France.

  1. Frequency of aggressive behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadinejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore the frequency of aggressive behaviors among a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was performed on a multi-stage sample of 6-18 years students, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Students were asked to confidentially report the frequency of aggressive behaviors including physical fighting, bullying and being bullied in the previous 12 months, using the questionnaire of the World Health Organization Global School Health Survey. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 13,486 students completed the study (90.6% participation rate; they consisted of 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents. The mean age of participants was 12.47 years (95% confidence interval: 12.29, 12.65. In total, physical fight was more prevalent among boys than girls (48% vs. 31%, P < 0.001. Higher rates of involvement in two other behaviors namely being bullied and bulling to other classmates had a higher frequency among boys compared to girls (29% vs. 25%, P < 0.001 for being bullied and (20% vs. 14%, P < 0.001 for bulling to others. Physical fighting was more prevalent among rural residents (40% vs. 39%, respectively, P = 0.61, while being bullied was more common among urban students (27% vs. 26%, respectively, P = 0.69. Conclusions: Although in this study the frequency of aggressive behaviors was lower than many other populations, still these findings emphasize on the importance of designing preventive interventions that target the students, especially in early adolescence, and to increase their awareness toward aggressive behaviors. Implications for future research and aggression prevention programming are recommended.

  2. Moderators of the association between discrimination and alcohol consumption: findings from a representative sample of Brazilian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Isabela Zeni; Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2015-01-01

    Few studies about discrimination and patterns of alcohol consumption among youth populations have been conducted outside the United States addressing different types of discriminatory experiences, in addition to racially motivated events. This study investigated moderators of the association between discrimination attributed to single and multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample (n = 1,264) of undergraduate students from Florianópolis, southern Brazil, in 2013. Analyses included adjustment of associations for covariates in ordinal logistic regression models and the examination of effect modification by common mental disorders, year of study and age. Discrimination was reported by 65.8% of the students, and alcohol consumption, by 80.0%. Over half of the students reported being discriminated against for two or more reasons. The odds of alcohol-related problems were higher among lastyear students that reported discrimination (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.0-3.4) or multiple reasons for being discriminated against (OR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.3- 4.3), when compared to first-year students that did not report discrimination. For the whole sample, there were no associations between discrimination, discrimination attributed to multiple reasons and patterns of alcohol consumption (OR = 1.0, 95%CI 0.8-1.4; and OR = 0.9, 95%CI 0.5-1.6). The effects of discrimination on the patterns of alcohol consumption are seen at a critical period in university life, specifically during the completion of undergraduate studies.

  3. Association of Dietary Behaviors with Physical Activity in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Safiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional health and adequate physical activity (PA, especially in childhood and grow periods, have a substantial role in health. This study assessed the association of dietary behaviors (main courses and snacks intake with PA in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Using multistage random cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 14,880 school students were selected from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Through a validated questionnaire, daily consumption of main course ( breakfast, lunch, and dinner as well as daily consumption of different snacks and health foods ( fast foods, milk, vegetables, dry fruits, fresh fruits, sweetened beverages, salty snacks and sweets were recorded for every participants. Information of past week weekly frequency of leisure time PA was collected. Results: Overall, 13,486 out of 14,880 students (response rate: 90.6% participated in this survey. Participants consisted of 6,640 (49.2% girls and 75.6% urban residents; their mean and standard deviation (SD age was 12.47 (3.36 years. Daily consumption of fresh fruits (odds ratio [OR]: 1.35, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.52, dried fruits (OR: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.06-1.40, vegetable (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.24-1.56, and milk (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.21-1.52 increased the odds of high PA compare to low PA in adjusted model.  Skipping the breakfast, lunch and dinner decreased the odds of moderate and high PA compare to low PA (P

  4. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.

  5. Comorbidity and associated severity of borderline personality disorder and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Katz, Laurence Y; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the comorbidity and severity of borderline personality disorder and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample. Despite the recent trend of examining the relationship between physical and mental health, there has been limited research examining the association of physical health conditions and personality disorders, in particular, borderline personality disorder. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 2 (n = 34,653; cumulative response rate, 70.2%; age, ≥20 years) was used in the current study. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition was used to assess mental disorders, and self-reports were used to assess physical health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models examined the comorbidity of physical health conditions with borderline personality disorder and associated suicide attempts. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, common Axis I mental disorders, and Axis II personality disorders, the presence of borderline personality disorder was significantly associated with arteriosclerosis or hypertension, hepatic disease, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, arthritis, venereal disease, and "any assessed medical condition" (adjusted odds ratios, range 1.46-2.80). In the most stringent adjusted model, diabetes, stroke, and obesity were not associated with borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, a greater likelihood of suicide attempts was associated with cardiovascular disease, venereal disease, and "any assessed medical condition" with comorbid borderline personality disorder than borderline personality disorder alone. Careful screening and treatment of physical health conditions among people with borderline personality disorder are warranted.

  6. Associations of Neuroticism and Impulsivity with Binge Eating in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Winn, Angela E; Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors.

  7. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  8. Representativeness of soil samples collected to assess mining-related contamination of flood plains in southeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Historical lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of lead and zinc to the environment (Juracek, 2006; Juracek and Becker, 2009). In response to concern about the mining-related contamination, southeast Cherokee County, Kansas, was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) National Priority List as a Superfund hazardous waste site (fig. 1). To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County Superfund site, a study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that was requested and funded by USEPA. As part of the study, surficial-soil sampling was used to investigate the extent and magnitude of mining-related lead and zinc contamination in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the Superfund site. In mining-affected areas, flood-plain soils had lead and zinc concentrations that far exceeded background levels as well as probable-effects guidelines for toxic aquatic biological effects (Juracek, 2013). Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment.

  9. Quality Reporting of Multivariable Regression Models in Observational Studies: Review of a Representative Sample of Articles Published in Biomedical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Jordi; Forné, Carles; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2016-05-01

    Controlling for confounders is a crucial step in analytical observational studies, and multivariable models are widely used as statistical adjustment techniques. However, the validation of the assumptions of the multivariable regression models (MRMs) should be made clear in scientific reporting. The objective of this study is to review the quality of statistical reporting of the most commonly used MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression) that were applied in analytical observational studies published between 2003 and 2014 by journals indexed in MEDLINE.Review of a representative sample of articles indexed in MEDLINE (n = 428) with observational design and use of MRMs (logistic, linear, and Cox regression). We assessed the quality of reporting about: model assumptions and goodness-of-fit, interactions, sensitivity analysis, crude and adjusted effect estimate, and specification of more than 1 adjusted model.The tests of underlying assumptions or goodness-of-fit of the MRMs used were described in 26.2% (95% CI: 22.0-30.3) of the articles and 18.5% (95% CI: 14.8-22.1) reported the interaction analysis. Reporting of all items assessed was higher in articles published in journals with a higher impact factor.A low percentage of articles indexed in MEDLINE that used multivariable techniques provided information demonstrating rigorous application of the model selected as an adjustment method. Given the importance of these methods to the final results and conclusions of observational studies, greater rigor is required in reporting the use of MRMs in the scientific literature.

  10. Effect of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene polymorphism G-703 T on personality in a population representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kelli; Vaht, Mariliis; Mäestu, Jarek; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2015-03-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene (TPH2) is coding for the key enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain and has been associated with a number of psychiatric conditions. A functional variation in the TPH2 gene (G-703T, rs4570625) has been found to affect anxiety-related personality; however, information is very limited regarding the five factor model (FFM) personality traits. We have examined the association of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism with FFM personality traits, and the possible modulation by the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) in a large longitudinal population representative sample. The FFM personality traits were assessed in both birth cohorts of the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study at ages 15 (n=742) and 18 (n=834). Significant association of the TPH2 genotype with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness was found at age 15, and with Extraversion and Conscientiousness at age 18. Participants with the T/T genotype scored significantly lower on Neuroticism and higher on Conscientiousness and Extraversion scales. In addition, a gene×gene interaction effect on Conscientiousness was revealed: the TPH2 genotype effect was evident only in the 5-HTTLPR S-allele carriers. These results provide further evidence on the possible role of genetic variations in 5-HT neurotransmission on development of personality traits, and suggest a functional interaction between two key proteins in the 5-HT-ergic system.

  11. Trends of VOC exposures among a nationally representative sample: Analysis of the NHANES 1988 through 2004 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng-Chiao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2011-09-01

    Exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous due to emissions from personal, commercial and industrial products, but quantitative and representative information regarding long term exposure trends is lacking. This study characterizes trends from 1988 to 2004 for the 15 VOCs measured in blood in five cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a large and representative sample of U.S. adults. Trends were evaluated at various percentiles using linear quantile regression (QR) models, which were adjusted for solvent-related occupations and cotinine levels. Most VOCs showed decreasing trends at all quantiles, e.g., median exposures declined by 2.5 (m,p-xylene) to 6.4 (tetrachloroethene) percent per year over the 15 year period. Trends varied by VOC and quantile, and were grouped into three patterns: similar decreases at all quantiles (including benzene, toluene); most rapid decreases at upper quantiles (ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, chloroform, tetrachloroethene); and fastest declines at central quantiles (1,4-dichlorobenzene). These patterns reflect changes in exposure sources, e.g., upper-percentile exposures may result mostly from occupational exposure, while lower percentile exposures arise from general environmental sources. Both VOC emissions aggregated at the national level and VOC concentrations measured in ambient air also have declined substantially over the study period and are supportive of the exposure trends, although the NHANES data suggest the importance of indoor sources and personal activities on VOC exposures. While piecewise QR models suggest that exposures of several VOCs decreased little or any during the 1990's, followed by more rapid decreases from 1999 to 2004, questions are raised concerning the reliability of VOC data in several of the NHANES cohorts and its applicability as an exposure indicator, as demonstrated by the modest correlation between VOC levels in blood and personal air

  12. Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample

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    Melamed Yuval

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Israeli citizens have been exposed to intense and ongoing terrorism since September 2000. We previously studied the mental health impact of terrorism on the Israeli population (Bleich et al., 2002, however the long-term impact of ongoing terrorism has not yet been examined. The present study evaluated the psychological sequelae of 44 months of terrorism in Israel, and sought to identify factors that may contribute to vulnerability and resilience. Methods This was a telephone survey using strata sampling of 828 households, which reached a representative sample of 702 adult Israeli residents (84.8% contact rate. In total, 501 people (60.5% agreed to participate. The methodology was similar to that of our previous study. Exposure to terrorism and other traumatic events, number of traumatic stress-related symptoms (TSRS, percentage of respondents with symptom criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, traumatic stress (TS resiliency and feelings of depression, anxiety, optimism, sense of safety, and help-seeking were the main outcome measures. Results In total, 56 participants (11.2% were directly exposed to a terrorist incident, and 101 (20.2% had family members or friends exposed. Respondents reported a mean ± SD of 5.0 ± 4.5 TSRS; 45 (9% met symptom criteria for PTSD; and 72 (14.4% were TS-resilient. There were 147 participants (29.5% who felt depressed, 50 (10.4% felt anxious, and almost half (235; 47% felt life-threatening danger; 48 (9.7% felt the need for professional help. Women and people of Arab ethnicity had more TSRS, more PTSD, and less TS resiliency. Injury following a life-threatening experience, a major stressful life event, and a major loss of income were associated with PTSD. Immigrant status, lower education, low sense of safety, low sense of social support, high societal distress, and injury following life-threatening experiences were associated with TSRS. TSRS did not increase with exposure severity

  13. General and abdominal adiposity in a representative sample of Portuguese adults: dependency of measures and socio-demographic factors' influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara

    2016-01-14

    The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country.

  14. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

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    Ana M. López-Sobaler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI and waist to height ratio (WHtR were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p=0.000 and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p=0.000. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5 was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5, whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5. Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future.

  15. Blood pressure and its influencing factors in a national representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Ardalan, Gelayol; Gheiratmand, Riaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Delavari, Alireza; Heshmat, Ramin; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Razaghi, Emran Mohammad; Motaghian, Molouk; Mokhtari, Mohammad Reza; Barekati, Hamed; Arabi, Minoo Sadat Mahmoud

    2006-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the blood pressure (BP) percentile curves by height, as well as to assess the prevalence of high BP and its influencing factors among children in the first national survey in this field in Iran. A multicentre national cross-sectional survey. This study was performed in 23 provinces among a representative sample of 21,111 students aged 6-18 years. Age and sex-specific percentile curves of systolic and diastolic BP were obtained by height. A comparison of the values obtained corresponding to the 90th percentiles with the Second Task Force cut-offs showed that the BP values and trends were relatively similar in both studies. The overall prevalence of systolic, diastolic as well as systolic or diastolic hypertension according to the Second Task Force study 95th percentile cut-off points were 4.2, 5.4 and 7.7%, respectively, without a significant sex difference. A history of low birthweight, overweight, taller height, the consumption of solid hydrogenated fat, as well as the frequency of fast food consumption increased the risk of both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Male sex, large waist, and low education of the mother were the risks for systolic hypertension, whereas the risk of diastolic hypertension rose with living in an urban area, attending public school, low physical activity level, having a housewife mother, and a positive family history of obesity, especially in the parents. Considering the effect of modifiable environmental factors on the childrens' BP, encouraging breast feeding and a healthy lifestyle may have an important effect on public health.

  16. Depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risks of comorbidity in a population-based representative sample of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Rene L; Williamson, Douglas E; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Vatcheva, Kristina P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome and associations between them in a population-based representative cohort of Mexican Americans living on the United States-Mexico border. The sample in this cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1,768 Mexican American adults (≥ 18 years of age) assessed between the years 2004 and 2010, with whom we tested our central hypothesis of a significant relationship between obesity and depression. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) with a cutoff score of ≥ 16 for depression and a cutoff score of ≥ 27 for severe depression. We categorized body mass index (BMI) values as obese (≥ 30kg/m(2)) and later subdivided the obese subjects into obese (30-39 kg/m(2)[inclusive]) and morbidly obese (≥ 40 kg/m(2)). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the American Heart Association definition requiring at least 3 of the following: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting glucose. Weighted data were analyzed to establish prevalence of depression, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Univariate and multivariable weighted regression models were used to test potential associations between these disorders. Using weighted prevalence, we observed high rates of depression (30%), obesity (52%), and metabolic syndrome (45%). Univariate models revealed female gender (P = .0004), low education (P = .003), low HDL level (P = .009), and increased waist circumference (P = .03) were associated with depression. Female gender (P = .01), low education (P = .003), and morbid obesity (P = .002) were risk factors for severe depression and remained significant in multivariable models. In this large cohort of Mexican Americans, obesity, female gender, and low education were identified risk factors for depression. These indicators may serve as targets for early

  17. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Böhringer, H.; Ponman, T. J.; Croston, J. H.; Voit, G. M.; Borgani, S.; Bower, R. G.

    2010-02-01

    We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the representative XMM-Newton cluster structure survey (REXCESS), a sample in the temperature range 2-9 keV selected in X-ray luminosity only, with no bias toward any particular morphological type. The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R1000 in all systems and out to R500 in thirteen systems. Compared to theoretical expectations from non-radiative cosmological simulations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy, such that the excess is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the large observational and theoretical uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R500. There is a large dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions, apparently linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by approximately a factor of two to 30 per cent, and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. There are two peaks in the distribution of both inner slope and, after parameterising the profiles with a power law plus constant model, in central entropy K0. However, we are unable to distinguish between a bimodal or a left-skewed distribution of K0 with the present data. The distribution of outer slopes is unimodal with a median value of 0.98, and there is a clear correlation of outer slope with temperature. Renormalising the dimensionless entropy profiles by the gas mass fraction profile fgas (cool core.

  18. Should pathological gambling and obesity be considered addictive disorders? A factor analytic study in a nationally representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; García-Anaya, María; Wall, Melanie; de los Cobos, José Carlos Pérez; Swierad, Ewelina; Wang, Shuai; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gambling (PG) is now aligned with substance use disorders in the DSM-5 as the first officially recognized behavioral addiction. There is growing interest in examining obesity as an addictive disorder as well. The goal of this study was to investigate whether epidemiological data provide support for the consideration of PG and obesity as addictive disorders. Method Factor analysis of data from a large, nationally representative sample of US adults (N=43,093), using nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, PG and obesity as indicators. It was hypothesized that nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence and drug use dependence would load on a single factor. It was further hypothesized that if PG and obesity were addictive disorders, they would load on the same factor as substance use disorders, whereas failure to load on the addictive factor would not support their conceptualization as addictive disorders. Results A model with one factor including nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, drug dependence and PG, but not obesity, provided a very good fit to the data, as indicated by CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99 and RMSEA=.01 and loadings of all indicators >0.4. Conclusion Data from this study support the inclusion of PG in a latent factor with substance use disorders but do not lend support to the consideration of obesity, as defined by BMI, as an addictive disorder. Future research should investigate whether certain subtypes of obesity are best conceptualized as addictive disorders and the shared biological and environmental factors that account for the common and specific features of addictive disorders. PMID:25769392

  19. The emergence of spanking among a representative sample of children under two years of age in North Carolina.

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    Adam J. Zolotor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Spanking is common in the United States but less common in many European countries in which it has been outlawed. Being spanked has been associated with child abuse victimization, poor self-esteem, impaired parent-child relationships, and child and adult mental health, substance abuse, and behavioral consequences. Being spanked as a child has also been shown to increase the likelihood of abusing one’s own children or spouse as an adult. Spanking of very young children less than two is almost never recommended even among experts that consider spanking as reasonable in some circumstances. Using a cross-sectional anonymous telephone survey, we describe spanking rates among a representative sample of North Carolina mothers of children less than two years old and the association of spanking with demographic characteristics.A substantial proportion of mothers admit to spanking their very young children. The rate of spanking in the last year among all maternal respondents was 30%. Over 5% of the mothers of three month olds reported spanking. Over 70% of the mothers of 23 month olds reported spanking. Increased spanking was associated with higher age of the child and lower maternal age. With every month of age, a child had 27% increased odds of being spanked. Early spanking has been shown to be associated with poor cognitive development in early childhood. Further, early trauma has been shown to have significant effects on the early developing brain. It is therefore critical that health and human services professionals addres the risk of corporal punishment as a method of discipline early in the life of the child. The spanking of very young children may be an appropriate locus for policy and legislative debates regarding corporal punishment.

  20. Overweight and General and Abdominal Obesity in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sobaler, Ana M.; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the anthropometric parameters from a representative sample of Spanish adults participating in ANIBES study and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Methods. This cross-sectional study focused on 1655 adults aged 18–64 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. A composite index combining BMI and WHtR was designed to establish five groups with different anthropometric status. Results. The prevalence of overweight (OW) was 35.8% and that of obesity was 19.9%. Obesity (OB) was higher among men (OR 1.725, 1.415–2.104; p = 0.000) and each year of age increased the risk of obesity (OR 1.054, 1.045–1.064; p = 0.000). The prevalence of abdominal obesity (WHtR ≥ 0.5) was 58.4%. Only 36.1% of the population had an optimal anthropometric situation (BMI < 25 kg/m2, WHtR < 0.5), whereas 50.1% had weight excess and high WHtR (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, WHtR ≥ 0.5). Conclusions. More than half of Spanish population has weight excess and cardiometabolic risk. The results of this study provide an understanding of the current anthropometric situation in the Spanish population, as a first step toward planning interventions and assessing their effectiveness in the future. PMID:27382572

  1. The association between temporomandibular disorders and suicide ideation in a representative sample of the South Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Don-Hun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate in a representative sample of South Koreans (1) the prevalence of and associations between general pain, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and suicide ideation (SI), and (2) whether the associations between general pain, TMD, and SI differ according to cancer history. Data were from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV; N = 16,658). KNHANES IV participants provided reports regarding their cancer history, EQ-5D (a measure of health status from the EuroQoL Group), and TMD symptoms including clicking of one or both temporomandibular joints, pain, and mouth-opening limitation (MOL). Participants were assessed for any SI over the last 12 months, as a dependent variable. The independent variables were pain/discomfort (EQ-PD) reported by the subjects on the EQ-5D, severe TMD (tenderness or reduced jaw mobility once or more per week), and total TMD (occurrence of clicking, tenderness on palpation, or reduced jaw mobility [opening history were evaluated as covariates. The association of TMD with SI was assessed by the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals. In fully adjusted models, elevated PRs for SI were observed for each pain condition (PR = 1.26 for total TMD, PR = 1.35 for severe TMD, and PR = 1.75 for EQ-PD). In the subgroup analyses by cancer history, the PRs were higher in the cancer history (+) group; the order of magnitude was severe TMD (PR = 2.20), EQ-PD (PR = 2.16), and total TMD (PR = 2.02). Pain conditions, including TMD pain, might aggravate SI among those with a cancer history. These findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating that TMD warrants further attention in relation to suicide.

  2. Source apportionment of population representative samples of PM(2.5) in three European cities using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Hänninen, Otto; Saarela, Kristina; Katsouyanni, Klea; Künzli, Nino; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-10-01

    Apportionment of urban particulate matter (PM) to sources is central for air quality management and efficient reduction of the substantial public health risks associated with fine particles (PM(2.5)). Traffic is an important source combustion particles, but also a significant source of resuspended particles that chemically resemble Earth's crust and that are not affected by development of cleaner motor technologies. A substantial fraction of urban ambient PM originates from long-range transport outside the immediate urban environment including secondary particles formed from gaseous emissions of mainly sulphur, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Most source apportionment studies are based on small number of fixed monitoring sites and capture well population exposures to regional and long-range transported particles. However, concentrations from local sources are very unevenly distributed and the results from such studies are therefore poorly representative of the actual exposures. The current study uses PM(2.5) data observed at population based random sampled residential locations in Athens, Basle and Helsinki with 17 elemental constituents, selected VOCs (xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, nonane and benzene) and light absorbance (black smoke). The major sources identified across the three cities included crustal, salt, long-range transported inorganic and traffic sources. Traffic was associated separately with source categories with crustal (especially Athens and Helsinki) and long-range transported chemical composition (all cities). Remarkably high fractions of the variability of elemental (R(2)>0.6 except for Ca in Basle 0.38) and chemical concentrations (R(2)>0.5 except benzene in Basle 0.22 and nonane in Athens 0.39) are explained by the source factors of an SEM model. The RAINS model that is currently used as the main tool in developing European air quality management policies seems to capture the local urban fraction (the city delta term) quite well, but underestimates

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Elopement in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the United States.

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    Bridget Kiely

    Full Text Available Despite increased awareness and concern about children with developmental disabilities wandering away from adult supervision, there is a paucity of research about elopement. This is the first study to examine and report the prevalence and correlates of elopement in a nationally representative sample of school-age children in the United States with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD and/or cognitive impairment. Data were obtained from the CDC's "Pathways" Survey, a follow-up telephone survey of the parents of 4,032 children with a developmental condition. 3,518 children that had ASD, intellectual disability (ID, and/or developmental delay (DD at the time of survey administration were included for analysis. Children were divided into three condition groups: ASD-only; ID/DD-only; ASD+ID/DD. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of elopement and rates of preventive measure use (barriers and/or electronic devices across condition groups, and to examine the clinical and demographic correlates of elopement. T-tests were also performed to compare scores on the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ between wanderers and non-wanderers. Overall, 26.7% of children had reportedly eloped within the previous year, most commonly from public places. Children with ASD-only and ASD+ID/DD were more likely to have eloped than those with ID/DD-only. Across all groups, wanderers scored higher than non-wanderers on five out of six CSBQ subscales; they were more likely not to realize when there is danger, to have difficulty distinguishing between strangers and familiar people, to show sudden mood changes, to over-react to everything/everyone, to get angry quickly, to get lost easily, and to panic in new situations or if change occurs. Even after controlling for elopement history, parents of children in the ASD+ID/DD group were more likely than those in the other condition groups to report using physical or electronic measures to prevent

  4. Prevalence of Hearing Loss Among a Representative Sample of Canadian Children and Adolescents, 3 to 19 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL

  5. Diet- and Body Size-Related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-Grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Goldy C.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Kelder, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. Design: Cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a probability-based sample of schoolchildren. Children completed a questionnaire that assessed…

  6. Prevalence and predictors of grandparent childcare in Ireland: Findings from a nationally representative sample of infants and their families

    OpenAIRE

    SHARE, MICHELLE; MCNALLY, SINEAD; Murray, Aisling

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Introduction: Anecdotal evidence suggests that grandparents provide a substantial amount of childcare support to parents of infants in Ireland yet there has been little attention to the provision of grandparent childcare at policy-level. Using nationally representative data on childcare provision in the Republic of Ireland, this study examined the prevalence of grandparent childcare provision for very young children, and associations between this choice of childcare and key infan...

  7. Assessment of Different Sampling Methods for Measuring and Representing Macular Cone Density Using Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Gale, Michael J; Fay, Jonathan D; Faridi, Ambar; Titus, Hope E; Garg, Anupam K; Michaels, Keith V; Erker, Laura R; Peters, Dawn; Smith, Travis B; Pennesi, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    To describe a standardized flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) imaging protocol suitable for the clinical setting and to assess sampling methods for measuring cone density. Cone density was calculated following three measurement protocols: 50 × 50-μm sampling window values every 0.5° along the horizontal and vertical meridians (fixed-interval method), the mean density of expanding 0.5°-wide arcuate areas in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior quadrants (arcuate mean method), and the peak cone density of a 50 × 50-μm sampling window within expanding arcuate areas near the meridian (peak density method). Repeated imaging was performed in nine subjects to determine intersession repeatability of cone density. Cone density montages could be created for 67 of the 74 subjects. Image quality was determined to be adequate for automated cone counting for 35 (52%) of the 67 subjects. We found that cone density varied with different sampling methods and regions tested. In the nasal and temporal quadrants, peak density most closely resembled histological data, whereas the arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods tended to underestimate the density compared with histological data. However, in the inferior and superior quadrants, arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods most closely matched histological data, whereas the peak density method overestimated cone density compared with histological data. Intersession repeatability testing showed that repeatability was greatest when sampling by arcuate mean and lowest when sampling by fixed interval. We show that different methods of sampling can significantly affect cone density measurements. Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting cone density results, even in a normal population.

  8. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Annette L. Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  9. Using a representative sample of elementary school students to determine the statewide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, Karen; Coats, Karen; Friedrichs, Mike

    2009-10-01

    Utah's Height and Weight Measurement Project was conducted with elementary school students periodically from 2002 to 2008. The 2002 pilot project was performed to establish variability rates between schools and within schools. It allowed us to accurately determine both the sample size and the number of schools that were required to calculate a reliable statewide estimate based on a random sample of schools and to establish sentinel grades. The sentinel grades identified were grades 1, 3, and 5. Use of randomly selected classes in the sentinel grades resulted in decreased sample size and less school disruption while maintaining sufficient precision. Standardized, calibrated equipment was purchased and given to school nurses for safekeeping. Lessons learned included establishing strong relationships with partners, especially school nurses, and obtaining support from upper management at the schools, school districts, and the Utah Department of Health. A significant difference in participation rates and obesity rates at the individual school level was observed depending on parental consent type; active consent was associated with lower student participation rates and lower observed obesity rates. Data were presented to both participating and nonparticipating schools, school nurses, district superintendents, and principals. For surveillance purposes, sampling is an efficient, cost-effective way to estimate childhood overweight and obesity rates.

  10. A Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of a Representative Sample of Gravitationally-Lensed Star-Forming Galaxies: High Spatial Resolution Studies of Kinematics and Metallicity Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel P; Richard, Johan; Zitrin, Adi; Auger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of $z\\simeq2$ based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently-improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L$^{\\ast}$ galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2-D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offers a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. We demonstrate how serious errors of interpretation can only be revealed through better sampling. Although we include four sources from our earlier work, the present study provides a more representative sample unbiased with respect to emission line strength. Contrary t...

  11. A systematic review of studies with a representative sample of refugees and asylum seekers living in the community for participation in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Joanne C; Shawyer, Frances; Vasi, Shiva; Buck, Kimberly; Cheng, I-Hao; Russell, Grant; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Minas, Harry; Meadows, Graham

    2017-03-02

    The aim was to review the literature to identify the most effective methods for creating a representative sample of refugee and asylum seeker groups living in the community to participate in health and mental health survey research. A systematic search of academic and grey literature was conducted for relevant literature with 'hidden' groups published between January 1995 and January 2016. The main search used Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and SCOPUS electronic databases. Hidden groups were defined as refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons or hard/difficult to reach populations. A supplementary grey literature search was conducted. Identified articles were rated according to a created graded system of 'level of evidence for a community representative sample' based on key study factors that indicated possible sources of selection bias. Articles were included if they were assessed as having medium or higher evidence for a representative sample. All full-text papers that met the eligibility criteria were examined in detail and relevant data extracted. The searches identified a total of 20 publications for inclusion: 16 peer-reviewed publications and four highly relevant reports. Seventeen studies had sampled refugee and asylum seekers and three other hidden groups. The main search identified 12 (60.0%) and the grey search identified another eight (40.0%) articles. All 20 described sampling techniques for accessing hidden groups for participation in health-related research. Key design considerations were: an a priori aim to recruit a representative sample; a reliable sampling frame; recording of response rates; implementation of long recruitment periods; using multiple non-probability sampling methods; and, if possible, including a probability sampling component. Online social networking sites were used by one study. Engagement with the refugee and asylum seeker group was universally endorsed in the literature as necessary and a variety of additional efforts

  12. Quantifying Nonindex Hospital Readmissions and Care Fragmentation after Major Urological Oncology Surgeries in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappidi, Meera R; Kates, Max; Stimson, C J; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Pierorazio, Phillip M

    2017-01-01

    We quantified the underestimation of hospital readmission rates that can occur with institutional databases and the incidence of care fragmentation among patients undergoing urological oncology procedures in a nationally representative database. The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for patients undergoing prostatectomy, cystectomy, nephroureterectomy, nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for urological malignancies. Nationally representative 30 and 90-day readmission and care fragmentation rates were calculated for all procedures. Readmission rates with and without nonindex hospital readmissions were compared with Pearson's chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of care fragmentation at 90-day followup. For all surgical procedures readmission rates were consistently underestimated by 17% to 29% at 90-day followup. The rates of care fragmentation among readmitted patients were similar for all procedures, ranging from 24% to 34% at 90-day followup. Overall 1 in 4 readmitted patients would not be captured in institutional databases and 1 in 3 readmitted patients experienced care fragmentation. Multivariable models did not identify a predictor of care fragmentation that was consistent across all procedures. The high rate of underestimation of readmission rates across all urological oncology procedures highlights the importance of linking institutional and payer claims databases to provide more accurate estimates of perioperative outcomes and health care utilization. The high rate of care fragmentation across all procedures emphasizes the need for future efforts to understand the clinical relevance of care fragmentation in patients with urological malignancies, and to identify patients at risk along with potentially modifiable risk factors for care fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  13. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and extracted and organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  14. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Piffaretti, R; Böhringer, H; Ponman, T J; Croston, J H; Voit, G M; Borgani, S; Bower, R G

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS). The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R_1000 in all systems and out to R_500 in 13 systems. Compared to theoretical expectations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy that is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R_500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R_500. The dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions is linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by a factor of two and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. Parameterising the profiles with a power law plus consta...

  15. Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta

    2016-04-13

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed.

  16. The association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders: results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grimsrud

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. METHODS: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05, while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45, but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders.

  17. Chronic symptoms in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people: a cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büla, Christophe; Guessous, Idris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Goy, René; Demont, Maurice; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    symptoms represent good targets for preventive interventions. PMID:28096256

  18. Exploring the Relation between Prenatal and Neonatal Complications and Later Autistic-Like Features in a Representative Community Sample of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Dworzynski, Katharina; Bolton, Patrick; Plomin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal and neonatal events were reported by parents of 13,690 eighteen-month-old twins enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study, a representative community sample born in England and Wales. At ages 7-8, parents and teachers completed questionnaires on social and nonsocial autistic-like features and parents completed the Childhood Asperger…

  19. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  20. Prospective associations between unforgiveness and physical health and positive mediating mechanisms in a nationally representative sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Asani H; Toussaint, Loren L; Cheadle, Alyssa C D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prospective association between unforgiveness and self-reported physical health and potential positive psychological mediators of this association. Participants were a national sample of 1024 USA's adults of ages 66 years and older. Data were collected at two time points separated by three years. Measures of trait unforgiveness, self-rated physical health, socio-demographics, health behaviours and positive psychological traits (e.g. life satisfaction, self-esteem) were included in a comprehensive survey known as the 'Religion, Aging, and Health Survey.' The results indicated that unforgiveness was prospectively associated with declines in self-reported physical health three years later, and poor initial self-reported health status did not predict increases in unforgiveness across time. Furthermore, the prospective association of unforgiveness with self-reported health was mediated by a latent positive psychological traits variable. These results confirm cross-sectional findings suggesting that unforgiveness is related to health. The present study also suggests that unforgiveness has a prospective, but not reciprocal, association with self-reported physical health. Unforgiveness may have its association with self-reported physical health through its interruption of other positive traits that typically confer health benefits.

  1. Assessment of Disability among the Elderly in Xiamen of China: A Representative Sample Survey of 14,292 Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available The unprecedented number of elderly individuals in China presents a serious public health challenge. Limited data are available on the prevalence of disability or factors resulting in disability among the elderly in China.We aimed to assess the prevalence of disability and related risk factors among the elderly of Xiamen, China.A cross-sectional study was performed on individuals who were ≥60 years of age. The subjects were recruited by multi-stage sampling; a total of 14,292 valid questionnaires were received. Study measurements included activities of daily living (ADL, demographics, and health status. The ADL was assessed by the Katz Index Scale to evaluate disability. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with disabilities.Among the valid participants, 4.27% had at least one disability. Bathing was the most frequently reported disability and feeding was the least frequently reported disability. Disabilities were significantly associated with female gender, older age, unmarried status, living with family, urban residence, illiteracy, poor economic status, self-rated bad health, chronic illnesses, lower life satisfaction, bad mood, and feelings of loneliness.Functional disability among the elderly requires more public attention. Culturally appropriate policies and programs are also needed to address the care for the disabled elderly.

  2. Sodium intake may promote weight gain: results of the FANPE study in a representative sample of the adult Spanish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Navia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent studies have indicated that diets rich in sodium may predispose to the development of obesity, either directly, or be associated with the consumption of foods that promote weight gain. Objetive: The aims of this study were to analyze the association between urinary sodium and the presence of excess of weight. Additionally, the study investigated the relationships between salt intake and dietary habits, as a high salt intake may be associated with inadequate eating habits and a high incidence of obesity. Methods: This study involved 418 adults (196 men and 222 women aged 18 to 60 years old. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, and we calculated, BMI and waist/height ratio. Dietary intake was estimated using a "24 h recalls", for two consecutive days, and sodium content was determined from 24 h urine sample. Results: The 34.4% of the population had overweight and 13.6% had obesity. A positive association was seen between BMI and urinary sodium concentration. Urine sodium values were also positively associated with others adiposity indicators such as waist circumference and waist/height ratio. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio were higher in the group of individuals with a urinary sodium excretion > 154 mmol/l (Percentile 50 (P50. Additionally, individuals placed in this group presented a higher caloric intake and total food intake, in particular, more meat, processed food and snacks. Adjusting by energy intake, a higher sodium intake was a risk factor of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.0041, IC 95% 1.0015-1.0067, p < 0.01. Conclusions: Salt intake was associated with obesity; since people with higher sodium intake consumed more energy and presented worse eating habits. Additionally, sodium intake itself appears to be related to obesity.

  3. Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Amber M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial and other working conditions and body-mass index (BMI in a working population. This study contributes to the approximately dozen investigations of job stress, which have demonstrated mixed positive and negative results in relation to obesity, overweight and BMI. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among working Australians in the state of Victoria. Participants were contacted by telephone from a random sample of phone book listings. Information on body mass index was self-reported as were psychosocial work conditions assessed using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. Other working conditions measured included working hours, shift work, and physical demand. Separate linear regression analyses were undertaken for males and females, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1101 interviews (526 men and 575 women were completed. Multivariate models (adjusted for socio-demographics demonstrated no associations between job strain, as measured using the demand/control model, or ERI using the effort/reward imbalance model (after further adjustment for over commitment and BMI among men and women. Multivariate models demonstrated a negative association between low reward and BMI among women. Among men, multivariate models demonstrated positive associations between high effort, high psychological demand, long working hours and BMI and a negative association between high physical demand and BMI. After controlling for the effort/reward imbalance or the demand/control model, the association between physical demand and working longer hours and BMI remained. Conclusion Among men and women the were differing patterns of both exposures to psychosocial working conditions and associations with BMI. Among men, working long hours was positively associated with higher BMI and this association was partly

  4. Mental health and psychosocial problems in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquakes: findings from a representative cluster sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J C; Luitel, N P; Jordans, M J D; Kohrt, B A; Weissbecker, I; Tol, W A

    2017-01-09

    Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale). A substantial percentage of participants scored above validated cut-off scores for depression (34.3%, 95% CI 28.4-40.4) and anxiety (33.8%, 95% CI 27.6-40.6). Hazardous alcohol use was reported by 20.4% (95% CI 17.1-24.3) and 10.9% (95% CI 8.8-13.5) reported suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent reported that 'distress' was a serious problem in their community. Anger that was out of control (symptom from the WASSS) was reported by 33.7% (95% CI 29.5-38.2). Fewer people had elevated rates of PTSD symptoms above a validated cut-off score (5.2%, 95% CI 3.9-6.8), and levels of functional impairment were also relatively low. Correlates of elevated symptom scores were female gender, lower caste and greater number of perceived needs. Residing in Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk districts and lower caste were also associated with greater perceived needs. Higher levels of impaired functioning were associated with greater odds of depression and anxiety symptoms; impaired

  5. Transactional relationships and sex with a woman in prostitution: prevalence and patterns in a representative sample of South African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewkes Rachel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Methods Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18–49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex. Results 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men, 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314, few (34% reported that they had had sex with a ‘prostitute’. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25–34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. Conclusions The notion of ‘transactional sex’ developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be

  6. Transactional relationships and sex with a woman in prostitution: prevalence and patterns in a representative sample of South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2012-05-02

    Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18-49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex). 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men), 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni) and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314), few (34%) reported that they had had sex with a 'prostitute'. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25-34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. The notion of 'transactional sex' developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be similarities, when viewed relationally, these are quite distinct practices

  7. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin – Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A.; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  8. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten H D Larmuseau

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample

  9. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...

  10. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden – a 1 year follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla; Shepherdson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. Methods A population study wa...

  11. A workforce survey of Australian chiropractic: the profile and practice features of a nationally representative sample of 2,005 chiropractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy; Peng, Wenbo; Steel, Amie; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-05

    This paper reports the profile of the Australian chiropractic workforce and characteristics of chiropractic care from a large nationally-representative sample of practitioners. A 21-item questionnaire examining practitioner, practice and clinical management characteristics was distributed to all registered chiropractors (n = 4,684) in Australia in 2015 via both online and hard copy mail out. The survey attracted a response rate of 43% (n = 2,005), and the sample is largely representative of the national chiropractic workforce on a number of key indicators. The average age of the chiropractors was 42.1 years, nearly two-thirds are male, and the vast majority hold a bachelor degree or higher qualification. Australian chiropractors are focused upon treating people across a wide age range who mainly present with musculoskeletal conditions. Australian chiropractors have referral relationships with a range of conventional, allied health and complementary medicine (CAM) providers. The chiropractic profession represents a substantial component of the contemporary Australian health care system with chiropractors managing an estimated 21.3 million patient visits per year. While the Australian chiropractic workforce is well educated, research engagement and research capacity remains sub-optimal and there is much room for further capacity building to help chiropractic reach full potential as a key integrated profession within an evidence-based health care system. Further rich, in-depth research is warranted to improve our understanding of the role of chiropractic within the Australian health care system.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation Among Transgender Youth in California: Findings From a Representative, Population-Based Sample of High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Day, Jack K; Russell, Stephen T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2017-09-01

    No representative population-based studies of youth in the United States exist on gender identity-related disparities in suicidal ideation or on factors that underlie this disparity. To address this, this study examined gender identity-related disparities in the prevalence of suicidal ideation; evaluated whether established psychosocial factors explained these disparities; and identified correlates of suicidal ideation among all youth and stratified by gender identity. Data were derived from the 2013 to 2015 California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS; N = 621,189) and a weighted subsample representative of the Californian student population (Biennial Statewide California Student Survey [CSS], N = 28,856). Prevalence of past 12-month self-reported suicidal ideation was nearly twice as high for transgender compared with non-transgender youth (33.73% versus 18.85%; χ(2) = 35.48, p youth had 2.99 higher odds (95% CI 2.25-3.98) of reporting past-year suicidal ideation compared with non-transgender youth. Among transgender youth, only depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 5.44, 95% CI 1.81-16.38) and victimization (adjusted odds ratio 2.66, 95% CI 1.26-5.65) remained significantly associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation in fully adjusted models. In multiple mediation analyses, depression attenuated the association between gender identity and suicidal ideation by 17.95% and victimization by 14.71%. This study uses the first representative population-based sample of youth in the United States that includes a measurement of gender identity to report on gender identity-related disparities in suicidal ideation and to identify potential mechanisms underlying this disparity in a representative sample. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfection of RNA from organ samples of infected animals represents a highly sensitive method for virus detection and recovery of classical swine fever virus.

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    Denise Meyer

    Full Text Available Translation and replication of positive stranded RNA viruses are directly initiated in the cellular cytoplasm after uncoating of the viral genome. Accordingly, infectious virus can be generated by transfection of RNA genomes into susceptible cells. In the present study, efficiency of conventional virus isolation after inoculation of cells with infectious sample material was compared to virus recovery after transfection of total RNA derived from organ samples of pigs infected with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Compared to the conventional method of virus isolation applied in three different porcine cell lines used in routine diagnosis of CSF, RNA transfection showed a similar efficiency for virus rescue. For two samples, recovery of infectious virus was only possible by RNA transfection, but not by the classical approach of virus isolation. Therefore, RNA transfection represents a valuable alternative to conventional virus isolation in particular when virus isolation is not possible, sample material is not suitable for virus isolation or when infectious material is not available. To estimate the potential risk of RNA prepared from sample material for infection of pigs, five domestic pigs were oronasally inoculated with RNA that was tested positive for virus rescue after RNA transfection. This exposure did not result in viral infection or clinical disease of the animals. In consequence, shipment of CSFV RNA can be regarded as a safe alternative to transportation of infectious virus and thereby facilitates the exchange of virus isolates among authorized laboratories with appropriate containment facilities.

  14. Prevalence of sleep duration on an average school night among 4 nationally representative successive samples of American high school students, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Basch, Corey H; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-12-11

    Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.

  15. Improvement of the Work Environment and Work-Related Stress: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study of a Nationally Representative Sample of Japanese Workers.

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    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement of the work environment and work-related stress in a nationally representative sample in Japan. The study was based on a national survey that randomly sampled 1745 worksites and 17,500 nested employees. The survey asked the worksites whether improvements of the work environment were conducted; and it asked the employees to report the number of work-related stresses they experienced. Multilevel multinominal logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. Improvement of the work environment was not significantly associated with any level of work-related stress. Among men, it was significantly and negatively associated with the severe level of work-related stress. The association was not significant among women. Improvements to work environments may be associated with reduced work-related stress among men nationwide in Japan.

  16. Body Mass Index Percentile Curves for 7 To 18 Year Old Children and Adolescents; are the Sample Populations from Tehran Nationally Representative?

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    Mostafa Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The children’s body composition status is an important indicator of health condition evaluated through their body mass index (BMI. We aimed to provide standardized percentile curves of BMI in a population of Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the nationally representative of sample populations from Tehran. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 14,865 children aged 7-18 years was gathered. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma method was used to derive sex-specific smoothed centiles for age via the Lambda-Mu-Sigma Chart Maker Program. Finally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated. Results: BMI percentiles obtained from Tehran’s population, except for the 10th percentile, seem to be very slightly greater than the urban boys from all over Iran. BMI percentiles have an increasing trend by age that is S-shaped with a slight slope. Only in the 90th and 97th percentiles of BMI for girls, this rising trend seems to stop. Boys generally have higher BMIs than girls. The exceptions are younger ages of 90th and 97th percentiles and older ages of 3rd and 10th percentiles. A total number of 1,008 (13.20%; 95% CI: 12.46-13.98 boys and 603 (8.34%; 95% CI: 7.72-9.00 girls were categorized as overweight and obese. Obesity were observed in 402 (5.27%; 95% CI: 4.79-5.79 boys and 274 (3.76%; 95% CI: 3.35-4.22 girls. Conclusion: We construct BMI percentile curves by age and gender for 7 to 18 years Iranian children and adolescents. It can be concluded that sample populations from Tehran are nationally representative.

  17. A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol

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    Onwuteaka-Philipsen Bregje

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making reliable incidence estimates of end-of-life decisions, even rare ones, and describing their characteristics; allowing comparability with past ELD studies; guaranteeing strict anonymity given the sensitive nature of the research topic; and attaining a sufficient response rate are addressed in a post-mortem survey using a representative sample of death certificates. Study design Reliable incidence estimates are achievable by using large at random samples of death certificates of deceased persons in Flanders (aged one year or older. This entails the cooperation of the appropriate administrative authorities. To further ensure the reliability of the estimates and descriptions, especially of less prevalent end-of-life decisions (e.g. euthanasia, a stratified sample is drawn. A questionnaire is sent out to the certifying physician of each death sampled. The questionnaire, tested thoroughly and avoiding emotionally charged terms is based largely on questions that have been validated in previous national and European ELD studies. Anonymity of both patient and physician is guaranteed through a rigorous procedure, involving a lawyer as intermediary between responding physicians and researchers. To increase response we follow the Total Design Method (TDM with a maximum of three follow-up mailings. Also, a non-response survey is conducted to gain insight into the reasons for lack of response. Discussion The protocol of the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, is appropriate for achieving the objectives of the study; as past studies in Belgium, the Netherlands

  18. Guardianship primavera: a first look at factors associated with having a legal guardian using a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults.

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    Reynolds, S L

    2002-05-01

    Although guardianship is an intrusive intervention that usually removes an adult's basic civil rights, studies of factors that place adults at risk for guardianship have largely been based on small studies of court files. While important and informative, these studies do not allow us to draw anything but tentative conclusions on risk factors for guardianship. The purpose of this article is to examine risk factors for having a legal guardian using a nationally representative sample for the first time. Logistic regression was conducted on the probability of having a legal guardian, using the Andersen model of health care utilization adapted for factors implied by the guardianship literature. The National Health Interview Supplement on Disability (1995) sample consisted of 65,013 adults aged 19 and older, and a sub-sample aged 60 and older (n = 13,784). Results indicate, first, that the prevalence of guardianship in community-dwelling adults is 0.3 percent, or over 750,000 people. Second, particularly for older adults, increasing age, having physical or emotional limitations, a small family network, and not living with a spouse are associated with having a guardian. Decreasing size of family networks and increasing marital disruption in future cohorts of older adults may suggest increasing need for legal guardianship. Further study should be conducted to replicate these findings in other large data sets and in extensive community studies.

  19. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

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    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  20. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  1. Social Media Membership, Browsing, and Profile Updating in a Representative U.S. Sample: Independent and Interdependent Effects of Big Five Traits and Aging and Social Factors.

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    Bogg, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Guided by cybernetic perspectives on personality, the present work used a representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 992) to examine Big Five personality traits and social and aging factors as predictors of social media network membership and past-month browsing/searching and profile updating among members. The results showed adults who were less extraverted and less neurotic and who reported greater physical limitations were less likely to be members. Moreover, extraverted adults without partners were more likely to be members than introverted adults without partners. Among members, the results showed extraverted and emotionally stable younger and older adults reported a similar frequency of profile updating. In contrast, older adults with all other combinations of extraversion and neuroticism showed a reduced frequency of profile updating compared to younger adults. The findings are discussed in terms of social media involvement as a response of a self-regulatory system of personality adaptation.

  2. [A short version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-15): dimensionality and psychometric properties in a representative sample of the German population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Romppel, Matthias; Bormann, Bianca; Hofmeister, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; Strauß, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a commonly used measure of narcissism. This study administered a 15 item short version of the NPI (NPI-15). Central aims of the present study were to examine its dimensionality, and to provide data on its psychometric properties. NPI-15 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) were assessed in a representative sample of the German population (N=2,512). According to Scree-plot and model fit, a solution with 2 or 3 factors seemed feasible. Because of factor loadings and item-level associations to depression/anxiety we decided to favour a 2-factor-solution. 2 subscales reflecting different facets of narcissism were compiled (leadership ability/personality [LA/LP], grandiosity [G]). The psychometric properties of these scales were good (LA/LP) respectively unsatisfactory (G). The validity of the NPI-15 needs to be further studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Social Media Membership, Browsing, and Profile Updating in a Representative U.S. Sample: Independent and Interdependent Effects of Big Five Traits and Aging and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Guided by cybernetic perspectives on personality, the present work used a representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 992) to examine Big Five personality traits and social and aging factors as predictors of social media network membership and past-month browsing/searching and profile updating among members. The results showed adults who were less extraverted and less neurotic and who reported greater physical limitations were less likely to be members. Moreover, extraverted adults without partners were more likely to be members than introverted adults without partners. Among members, the results showed extraverted and emotionally stable younger and older adults reported a similar frequency of profile updating. In contrast, older adults with all other combinations of extraversion and neuroticism showed a reduced frequency of profile updating compared to younger adults. The findings are discussed in terms of social media involvement as a response of a self-regulatory system of personality adaptation. PMID:28713320

  4. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. Methods The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Results Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Conclusions Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV. PMID:28192455

  5. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martí, María L; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

  6. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: Data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland

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    María Luisa eMartínez Martí

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945. We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

  7. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

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    Novak SP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott P Novak,1 Cristie Glasheen,1 Carl L Roland,2 1Behavioral Health Epidemiology, RTI International, 2Clinical Sciences and Outcomes Evidence, Pfizer Inc., Durham, NC, USA Background: The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods: We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves. Results: Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion: This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of

  8. Six-Year Outcome of Opioid Maintenance Treatment in Heroin-Dependent Patients: Results from a Naturalistic Study in a Nationally Representative Sample.

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    Soyka, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Rehm, Jürgen; Bühringer, Gerhard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, the opioid agonists, buprenorphine and methadone, are licensed for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Many short-term studies have been performed, but little is known about long-term effects. Therefore, this study described over 6 years (1) mortality, retention and abstinence rates and (2) changes in concomitant drug use and somatic and mental health. A prevalence sample of n = 2,694 maintenance patients, recruited from a nationally representative sample of n = 223 substitution doctors, was evaluated in a 6-year prospective-longitudinal naturalistic study. At 72 months, n = 1,624 patients were assessed for outcome; 1,147 had full outcome data, 346 primary outcome data and 131 had died; 660 individuals were lost to follow-up. The 6-year retention rate was 76.6%; the average mortality rate was 1.1%. During follow-up, 9.4% of patients became "abstinent" and 1.9% were referred for drug-free addiction treatment. Concomitant drug use decreased and somatic health status and social parameters improved. The study provides further evidence for the efficacy and safety of maintenance treatment with opioid agonists. In the long term, the number of opioid-free patients is low and most patients are more or less continuously under opioid maintenance therapy. Further implications are discussed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Types and Number of Traumas Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in PTSD: Findings From a U.S. Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; McMillan, Katherine A; Thibodeau, Michel A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, research has largely focused on specific samples and a limited range of traumas. We examined suicidal ideation and suicide attempt relating to 27 traumas within a nationally representative U.S. sample of individuals with PTSD. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653). Participants were assessed for lifetime PTSD and trauma history, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt. We calculated the proportion of individuals reporting suicidal ideation or suicide attempt for each trauma and for the number of unique traumas experienced. Most traumas were associated with greater suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in individuals with PTSD compared to individuals with no lifetime trauma or with lifetime trauma but no PTSD. Childhood maltreatment, assaultive violence, and peacekeeping traumas had the highest rates of suicidal ideation (49.1% to 51.9%) and suicide attempt (22.8% to 36.9%). There was substantial variation in rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for war and terrorism-related traumas. Multiple traumas increased suicidality, such that each additional trauma was associated with an increase of 20.1% in rate of suicidal ideation and 38.9% in rate of suicide attempts. Rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied markedly by trauma type and number of traumas, and these factors may be important in assessing and managing suicidality in individuals with PTSD.

  10. Association of socioeconomic status with psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ghoreshi, Behnaz; Djalalinia, Shirin; Tabatabaie, Omid Reza; Safiri, Saeid; Noroozi, Mehdi; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Ahadi, Zeinab; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric problems and violent behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, based on nationwide surveillance programme data, 2011–2012. Methods Overall, 14 880 students, aged 6–18 years, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces in Iran. SES was estimated based on a main summarised component, extracted from principle component analysis of family assets and parents' jobs and education. For statistical analysis, SES was classified as ‘low’, ‘middle’ and ‘high’. The WHO-Global School Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS) questionnaire was used to assess psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Results In total, 13 486 students (participation rate 90.6%) completed the study: 50.8% were boys and 75.6% were urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47±3.36 years. In the multivariate model, the ORs of depression, anxiety, feeling worthless, anger, insomnia, confusion and physical fights were lower in students with high SES compared with those with low SES (pbullying and being victimised. Conclusions Children and adolescents with low SES were at higher risk for psychiatric problems and violent behaviours. Mental health policies and public interventional strategies should be considered at the public level, notably for low SES families. PMID:27531729

  11. Impacts on quality of life related to dental caries in a national representative sample of Thai 12- and 15-year-olds.

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    Krisdapong, S; Prasertsom, P; Rattanarangsima, K; Sheiham, A

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for school-aged populations. Yet, there is no study exploring the impacts on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in national samples of school-aged children. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of oral impacts attributed to dental caries on quality of life and compared them with overall oral health impacts. In addition, associations of oral impacts attributed to dental caries and dental caries status were investigated. A national representative sample of 1,063 12- and 811 15-year-olds completed a sociodemographic and behavioural questionnaire, and were orally examined and interviewed about oral health-related quality of life using the Child-OIDP or OIDP indexes, respectively. Associations of condition-specific impacts (CS impacts) attributed to dental caries with components of DMF were investigated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regressions. CS impacts attributed to dental caries were reported by nearly half the children and such impacts accounted for half of overall oral impacts from all oral conditions. The majority of impacts were of little intensity and affected only 1-2 daily performances, particularly performances on Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth. CS impacts were significantly positively associated with number of decayed teeth, and strongly associated with severe decay.

  12. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yutaka, Ono; Furukawa, Toshiaki A

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in a nationally representative study. Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), which comprises four subsamples: (1) a national random digit dialing (RDD) sample, (2) oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3) siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4) a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: "none of the time," "a little of the time," "some of the time," "most of the time," and "all of the time." The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from "a little of the time" to "all of the time" on log-normal scales, while "none of the time" response was not related to this exponential pattern. The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  13. A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Isabela S; Paula, Cristiane S; Oliveira, Melaine C; Bordin, Isabel A; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about specific learning disorder (SLD) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and even less from representative school samples in small size cities outside huge urban centers. Few studies addressed the new DSM-5 criteria for SLDs. We investigated the prevalence of DSM-5 SLDs, their comorbidities and correlates in school samples of students from the second to sixth grades living in median cities from four different geographic regions in Brazil. A national test for academic performance covering reading, writing and mathematical abilities was applied. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the K-SADS-PL applied to the primary caregiver. A total of 1618 children and adolescents were included in the study. The following prevalence rates of SLDs were found: 7.6% for global impairment, 5.4% for writing, 6.0% for arithmetic, and 7.5% for reading impairment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the only comorbidity significantly associated with SLD with global impairment (p = 0.031). Anxiety disorders and ADHD were associated with SLD with arithmetic impairment. Significant differences were detected in prevalence rates among cities, and several socio-demographic correlates (age, gender, IQ, and socioeconomic status) were significantly associated with SLD with global impairment in our sample. Careful validation and normatization of instruments to assess academic performance is a major problem in LMICs. As expected, we found a significant heterogeneity in prevalence rates of SLD according to geographic regions considering that Brazil is a country with a robust diversity. SLD with global and arithmetic impairment was significantly associated with psychiatric comorbidities.

  14. High levels of adherence and viral suppression in a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy for 6, 12 and 18 months in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Elul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generalizable data are needed on the magnitude and determinants of adherence and virological suppression among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with chart abstraction, patient interviews and site assessments in a nationally representative sample of adults on ART for 6, 12 and 18 months at 20 sites in Rwanda. Adherence was assessed using 3- and 30-day patient recall. A systematically selected sub-sample had viral load (VL measurements. Multivariable logistic regression examined predictors of non-perfect (40 copies/ml. RESULTS: Overall, 1,417 adults were interviewed and 837 had VL measures. Ninety-four percent and 78% reported perfect adherence for the last 3 and 30 days, respectively. Eighty-three percent had undetectable VL. In adjusted models, characteristics independently associated with higher odds of non-perfect 30-day adherence were: being on ART for 18 months (vs. 6 months; younger age; reporting severe (vs. no or few side effects in the prior 30 days; having no documentation of CD4 cell count at ART initiation (vs. having a CD4 cell count of <200 cells/µL; alcohol use; and attending sites which initiated ART services in 2003-2004 and 2005 (vs. 2006-2007; sites with ≥600 (vs. <600 patients on ART; or sites with peer educators. Participation in an association for people living with HIV/AIDS; and receiving care at sites which regularly conduct home-visits were independently associated with lower odds of non-adherence. Higher odds of having a detectable VL were observed among patients at sites with peer educators. Being female; participating in an association for PLWHA; and using a reminder tool were independently associated with lower odds of having detectable VL. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of adherence and viral suppression were observed in the Rwandan national ART program, and associated with potentially modifiable factors.

  15. Frequency, Causes, and Places of Unintentional Injuries in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Ardalan, Gelayol; Moafi, Mohammad; Mahmood-Arabi, Minoosadat; Heshmat, Ramin; Jari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to assess the frequency, causes, and places of injuries in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, as well as the referral, places allocated for injured individuals. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13486 elementary, secondary and high-school students who were selected by random cluster stratified multistage sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. The Global School-based Health Survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization was used. Results: The study participants consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban resident with a mean age of 12.5 years. Overall, 20.25% of participants reported that they were minimally injured once in the last 12 months; this prevalence was higher in boys than in girls (25.74% vs. 14.58%, respectively, P < 0.001), without significant difference in urban (20.11%) and rural (20.69%) areas. Most of them (39.92%) were injured at homes or house yards with higher prevalence in girls than in boys (48.61% vs. 35.17%, respectively, P < 0.001) and in rural than in urban areas (27.30% vs. 20.89%, respectively, P < 0.001). Schools were reported as the second prevalent site of injury occurrence (22.50%). Emergency departments and physician offices were the most prevalent referral places for injured individuals (32.31% and 22.38%, respectively). Most of the school injuries occurred during play or sport activities (45.92%). Conclusions: Prevention of unintentional injuries should be considered as a health priority. Appropriate preventive strategies should be enhanced at homes and schools. PMID:25400879

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use during pregnancy: results from a nationally representative sample of Australian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David; Steel, Amie; Broom, Alex; Gallois, Cindy

    2013-08-01

    Pregnant women have been identified as high users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, no research to date has provided a detailed analysis of the prevalence and determinants of CAM consumption amongst pregnant women. To examine the prevalence and determinants of CAM use by pregnant women, utilising a national representative sample. The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. This paper is based on a sub-study of 1,835 pregnant women, administered in 2010. The women answered questions about CAM use, demographics, pregnancy-related health concerns and health service utilisation. Complementary and alternative medicine use was found to be high with 48.1% (n = 623) of pregnant women consulting a CAM practitioner and 52.0% (n = 842) of women using CAM products (excluding vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy. CAM practitioner visits were more likely for selected pregnancy-related health concerns, namely back pain or back ache, neck pain and labour preparation. Women were less likely to consult a CAM practitioner if they suffered with headaches/migraines. Employment was also found to be predictive of pregnant women's visits to a CAM practitioner. Significant health history and demographic predictors of CAM product use were tiredness and fatigue, embarking on preparation for labour and having a university education. Most pregnant women are utilising CAM products and/or services as part of their maternity care and obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives need to enquire with women in their care about possible CAM use to help promote safe, effective coordinated maternity care. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and family health and aging concerns interact in the prediction of health-related Internet searches in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eBogg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent estimates suggest 60 % of the U.S. adult population uses the Internet to find health-related information. The goal of the present study was to model health-related Internet searches as a function of an interdependent system of personality adaptation in the context of recent health and aging-related concerns. Assessments of background factors, Big Five personality traits, past-month health and aging-related concerns, and the frequency of past-month health-related Internet searches (via Google, Yahoo, AOL, Bing, or some other search engine were obtained from a representative U.S. sample (N = 1,015. Controlling for background factors, regression analyses showed more frequent health-related Internet searches were predicted by a drive for exploration and investigation (high openness, as well as alarm sensitivity (high openness and high neuroticism and an anticipatory inclination (high openness and high conscientiousness in the context of recent problems with aging parents and recent health concerns for a family member. Consistent with interdependent models of personality adaptation, as well as prior evidence for surrogate health-related Internet searches, the results suggest a personality process model of search behavior that is partially dependent upon dispositional levels of exploration, emotional stability, control, and health and aging concerns for family members.

  19. Management of HIV-related stigma and adherence to HAART: evidence from a large representative sample of outpatients attending French hospitals (ANRS-EN12-VESPA 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, P; Spire, B; Pierret, J; Lert, F; Obadia, Y

    2006-04-01

    This study investigated patterns of HIV disclosure to significant others (parents, siblings, children, other relatives, friends and colleagues) and describe them in terms of socio-demographic background and other characteristics, including experiences of AIDS-related discrimination. It also assessed the relationship between disclosure patterns and adherence to HAART. We used a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national representative sample of 2,932 HIV-infected people recruited in French hospitals. HIV disclosure patterns were both selective and cumulative: disclosure was more frequent for friends and siblings, while concealment prevailed concerning children, other relatives, and colleagues; but patients who disclosed their seropositivity to one significant other were also more likely to disclose it to other significant others. Patients reporting experiences of discrimination from sexual partners were less likely to be highly adherent, and we also found a significant relationship between uncontrolled disclosure and non-adherence. Patients who have opted for concealment probably consider non-adherence and uncontrolled disclosure as competing risks, but among them a significant minority loses on both counts. Counselling provided to HIV-infected people should not separate the adherence and disclosure issues, and adherence interventions should seek to help patients to manage concurrently disclosure/concealment of their seropositivity and its consequences.

  20. Shadows of Beauty - Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Concerns in Germany is Increasing: Data from Two Representative Samples from 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, Tanja; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Braehler, Elmar; Schut, Christina; Peters, Eva; Kupfer, Jörg

    2016-08-23

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychosomatic disease associated with reduced quality of life and suicidal ideations. Increasing attention to beauty and the development of beauty industries lead to the hypothesis that BDD is increasing. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis in two representative samples of Germans, assessed in 2002 and 2013. In 2002, n = 2,066 and in 2013, n = 2,508 Germans were asked to fill in the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ), which assesses dysmorphic concerns. Subclinical and clinical dysmorphic concerns increased from 2002 to 2013 (subclinical from 0.5% to 2.6%, OR = 5.16 (CI95% = 2.64; 10.06); clinical from 0.5% to 1.0%, OR = 2.20 (CI95% = 1.03; 4.73). Women reported more dysmorphic concerns than men, with rates of 0.7% subclinical and 0.8 clinical BDD in women and 0.3% subclinical and 0.1% clinical BDD in men in 2002. In 2013, 2.8% subclinical and 1.2% clinical BDD were found in women and 2.4% subclinical and 0.8% clinical BDD in men. Further studies should assess predictors for developing a BDD and evaluate factors determining the efficacy of disease-specific psychotherapeutic and psychotropic drug treatments.

  1. Addictive Potential of Internet Applications and Differential Correlates of Problematic Use in Internet Gamers versus Generalized Internet Users in a Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Tabea; Müller, Kai W; Dreier, Michael; Beutel, Manfred E; Wölfling, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the addictive potential of 8 different Internet applications, distinguishing male and female users. Moreover, differential correlates of problematic use are investigated in Internet gamers (IG) and generalized Internet users (GIU). In a representative sample of 5,667 adolescents aged 12-19 years, use of Internet applications, problematic Internet use, psychopathologic symptoms (emotional problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and psychosomatic complaints), personality (conscientiousness and extraversion), psychosocial correlates (perceived stress and self-efficacy), and coping strategies were assessed. The addictive potential of Internet applications was examined in boys and girls using regression analysis. MANOVAs were conducted to examine differential correlates of problematic Internet use between IG and GIU. Chatting and social networking most strongly predicted problematic Internet use in girls, while gaming was the strongest predictor in boys. Problematic IG exhibited multiple psychosocial problems compared to non-problematic IG. In problematic Internet users, GIU reported even higher psychosocial burden and displayed dysfunctional coping strategies more frequently than gamers. The results extend previous findings on the addictive potential of Internet applications and validate the proposed distinction between specific and generalized problematic Internet use. In addition to Internet gaming disorder, future studies should also focus on other highly addictive Internet applications, that is, chatting or social networking, regarding differential correlates of problematic use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-10-23

    Although associations between a person's neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents' perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14-2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan.

  3. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity Is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Haynie, Denise L.; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b ± linearized SE = 0.24 ± 0.05, p juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods. PMID:27588287

  4. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  5. Determinants of Tobacco and Hookah Smoking in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program. Using a cluster random sampling method, a validated questionnaire was completed anonymously by 14,880 students who were aged 6 - 18 years and living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Results The final study group consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents (participation rate of 90.6%), of whom 49.2% were girls and 75.6% were urban residents. The mean age was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-reports of the students, 2.6% (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current tobacco smokers, 5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) were ever tobacco smokers, and 1.8% (2.49% of boys and 1.14% of girls) were current hookah smokers. Based on a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, the following factors increased the risk of current smoking: age, number of days spent with friends per week, hookah smoking or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, hookah smoking by other members of the family, and screen time. The age, number of days spent with friends, hookah or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, and screen time increased the risk of hookah smoking. Female gender and living in rural areas decreased the risk of current tobacco and hookah smoking. Conclusions Preventive measures against tobacco use should be underscored for Iranian families. The preparation of strategies on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be considered a health priority.

  6. Do cancer survivors change their prescription drug use for financial reasons? Findings from a nationally representative sample in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Han, Xuesong; Guy, Gery P; Davidoff, Amy J; Li, Chunyu; Banegas, Matthew P; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Yabroff, K Robin; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-04-15

    There is limited evidence from nationally representative samples about changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons among cancer survivors in the United States. The 2011 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey was used to identify adults who reported ever having been told they had cancer (cancer survivors; n = 8931) and individuals without a cancer history (n = 126,287). Measures of changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons included: 1) skipping medication doses, 2) taking less medicine, 3) delaying filling a prescription, 4) asking a doctor for lower cost medication, 5) buying prescription drugs from another country, and 6) using alternative therapies. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were controlled for demographic characteristics, number of comorbid conditions, interactions between cancer history and number of comorbid conditions, and health insurance coverage. Main analyses were stratified by age (nonelderly, ages 18-64 years; elderly, ages ≥65 years) and time since diagnosis (recently diagnosed, cancer survivors were more likely to report any change in prescription drug use for financial reasons than those without a cancer history (21.4%), with the excess percentage changes for individual measures ranging from 3.5% to 9.9% among previously diagnosed survivors and from 2.6% to 2.7% among recently diagnosed survivors (P cancer survivors and those without a cancer history had comparable rates of changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons. Nonelderly cancer survivors are particularly vulnerable to changes in prescription drug use for financial reasons, suggesting that targeted efforts are needed. Cancer 2017;123:1453-1463. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Characterizing the intersection of Co-occurring risk factors for illicit drug abuse and dependence in a U.S. nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Allison N; Keith, Diana R; Noble, Alyssa; Priest, Jeff S; Sprague, Brian; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness). Each of these risk factors was associated with significant increases in the odds of drug abuse/dependence in univariate logistic regressions. Each remained significant in a multivariate model examining all eight risk factors simultaneously. CART modeling of these 8 risk factors identified subpopulation risk profiles wherein drug abuse/dependence prevalence varied from 80% corresponding to differing combinations of risk factors present. Alcohol abuse/dependence and cigarette smoking had the strongest associations with drug abuse/dependence risk. These results demonstrate that co-occurring risk factors for illicit drug/abuse dependence generally intersect in the same independent manner as risk factors for cigarette smoking, underscoring further fundamental commonalities across these different types of substance use disorders. These results also underscore the fundamental importance of differences in the presence of co-occurring risk factors when considering the often strikingly different prevalence rates of illicit drug abuse/dependence in U.S. population subgroups.

  8. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonja R. Nansel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of US young adults. Participants (n=2202 completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b±linearized SE=0.24±0.05,p<.001, sweet and salty snacks (0.21±0.05,p<0.001, foods made with cheese (0.14±0.06,p=0.03, soda (0.12±0.04,p=0.009, processed meats (0.12±0.05,p=0.045, and fish (0.08±0.03 p=0.03, but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods, but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  9. [Prevalence and distribution of stroke and transient ischemic insults: secondary data analysis of a representative sample of insured members of the General Local Insurance Dortmund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlapp, V; Köster, I; von Ferber, L

    1996-01-01

    Apoplexia is not only one of the leading causes of death, but also a major contributor to disability in the aged. Population based prevalence rates, though being of basic importance for describing and planning health care structures, are sparse in the Federal Republic of Germany. We estimated the prevalence of apoplexia and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Data were gathered from a 5% representative random sample of insured of the local statuatory health insurance (AOK) in Dortmund, Germany (n = 7447). Cases were identified by the diagnosis on medical certificates, being further validated internally by other patient data. The rough prevalence rate was 0.86% (m 0.79%, f 0.93%) for apoplexia and 0.6% (m 0.4%, f 0.78%) for TIA. Adjusted for age and sex to the whole population of the FRG (excluding the former German Democratic Republic) the prevalence rate was 0.75% (m 0.8%, f 0.7%) for apoplexia and 0.52% (m 0.41%, f 0.63%) for TIA. 65% of the insured with apoplexia were 70 years and older; their average age was 71.7 years. The average age of the insured with TIA was 65.4 years. Prevalence rates for apoplexia increased continuously by age and were higher for men than for women in all age groups. Prevalence rates for TIA also increased with age, but under men only to the age of 70; after that-simultaneous to a steep rise of apoplexia prevalence-no more TIAs were noticed.

  10. Contributions of food categories to absolute nutrient intake and between-person variation within a representative sample of 2677 Norwegian men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annhild Mosdøl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTSemi-quantitative food frequency data from a nation-wide, representative sample of 2677 Norwegianmen and women were analysed to identify food categories contributing most to absolute intake andbetween-person variation in intake of energy and nine nutrients. The 149 food categories in the questionnairewere ranked according to their contribution to absolute nutrient intake, and categories contributingat least 0.5% to the average absolute intake were included in a stepwise regression model. Thenumber of food categories explaining 90% of the between-person variation varied from 2 categories forb -carotene to 33 for a-tocopherol. The models accounted for 53–76% of the estimated absolute nutrientintakes. These analyses present a meaningful way of restricting the number of food categories inquestionnaires aimed at capturing the between-person variation in energy or specific nutrient intakes.NORSK SAMMENDRAGSemikvantitative matvarefrekvensdata fra et landsrepresentativt utvalg av 2677 norske menn og kvinnerble analysert for å identifisere de matvarekategoriene som bidro mest til absolutt inntak og til variasjoni inntak mellom individer for energi og ni næringsstoffer. De 149 matvarekategoriene ble rangert iforhold til deres bidrag til inntaket av et næringsstoff, og de kategoriene som bidro med minst 0,5% avgjennomsnittlig inntak ble inkludert i en trinnvis regresjonsmodell. Antallet kategorier som forklarte90% av variasjonen mellom individer varierte fra 2 kategorier for b-karoten til 33 for a-tokoferol.Modellene inkluderte 53–76% av det estimerte absoluttinntaket av næringsstoffene. Disse analysenepeker på en meningsfylt måte å redusere antall kostspørsmål i spørreskjema som er rettet mot å fangeopp variasjonen i inntak av energi og utvalgte næringsstoffer mellom personer.

  11. Determinants of Self-Rated Health in a Representative Sample of a Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Darviri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a health measure related to future health, mortality, healthcare services utilization and quality of life. Various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle determinants of SRH have been identified in different populations. The aim of this study is to extend SRH literature in the Greek population. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities between 2001 and 2003. Interviews eliciting basic demographic, health-related and lifestyle information (smoking, physical activity, diet, quality of sleep and religiosity were conducted. The sample consisted of 1,519 participants, representative of the rural population of Tripoli. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted to identify putative SRH determinants. Among the 1,519 participants, 489 (32.2%, 790 (52% and 237 (15.6% rated their health as “very good”, “good” and “poor” respectively. Female gender, older age, lower level of education and impaired health were all associated with worse SRH, accounting for 16.6% of SRH variance. Regular exercise, healthier diet, better sleep quality and better adherence to religious habits were related with better health ratings, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. BMI and smoking did not reach significance while exercise and physical activity exhibited significant correlations but not consistently across SRH categories. Our results support previous findings indicating that people following a more proactive lifestyle pattern tend to rate their health better. The role of stress-related neuroendocrinologic mechanisms on SRH and health in general is also discussed.

  12. Delayed entry into HIV medical care in a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, McKaylee; Wei, Stanley C; Beer, Linda; Adedinsewo, Demilade; Stockwell, Sandra; Dombrowski, Julia C; Johnson, Christopher; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Before widespread antiretroviral therapy (ART), an estimated 17% of people delayed HIV care. We report national estimates of the prevalence and factors associated with delayed care entry in the contemporary ART era. We used Medical Monitoring Project data collected from June 2009 through May 2011 for 1425 persons diagnosed with HIV from May 2004 to April 2009 who initiated care within 12 months. We defined delayed care as entry >three months from diagnosis. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were calculated to identify risk factors associated with delayed care. In this nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care, 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3-8.8) delayed care after diagnosis. Black race was associated with a lower likelihood of delay than white race (aPR 0.38). Men who have sex with women versus women who have sex with men (aPR 1.86) and persons required to take an HIV test versus recommended by a provider (aPR 2.52) were more likely to delay. Among those who delayed 48% reported a personal factor as the primary reason. Among persons initially diagnosed with HIV (non-AIDS), those who delayed care were twice as likely (aPR 2.08) to develop AIDS as of May 2011. Compared to the pre-ART era, there was a nearly 60% reduction in delayed care entry. Although relatively few HIV patients delayed care entry, certain groups may have an increased risk. Focus on linkage to care among persons who are required to take an HIV test may further reduce delayed care entry.

  13. Regular drinking may strengthen the beneficial influence of social support on depression: findings from a representative Israeli sample during a period of war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Rapaport, Carmit; Zalta, Alyson K; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hall, Brian J

    2014-07-01

    Social support is consistently associated with reduced risk of depression. Few studies have investigated how this relationship may be modified by alcohol use, the effects of which may be particularly relevant in traumatized populations in which rates of alcohol use are known to be high. In 2008 a representative sample of 1622 Jewish and Palestinian citizens in Israel were interviewed by phone at two time points during a period of ongoing terrorism and war threat. Two multivariable mixed effects regression models were estimated to measure the longitudinal association of social support from family and friends on depression symptoms. Three-way interaction terms between social support, alcohol use and time were entered into the models to test for effect modification. Findings indicated that increased family social support was associated with less depression symptomatology (p=<.01); this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time (p=<.01). Social support from friends was also associated with fewer depression symptoms (p=<.01) and this relationship was modified by alcohol use and time as well (p=<.01). Stratified analyses in both models revealed that the effect of social support was stronger for those who drank alcohol regularly than those who did not drink or drank rarely. These findings suggest that social support is a more important protective factor for depression among regular drinkers than among those who do not drink or drink rarely in the context of political violence. Additional research is warranted to determine whether these findings are stable in other populations and settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  15. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-valueeducation and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-valueeducation and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by

  16. Differences between adiposity indicators for predicting all-cause mortality in a representative sample of United States non-elderly adults.

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    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiposity predicts health outcomes, but this relationship could depend on population characteristics and adiposity indicator employed. In a representative sample of 11,437 US adults (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, ages 18-64 we estimated associations with all-cause mortality for body mass index (BMI and four abdominal adiposity indicators (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and waist-to-thigh ratio [WTR]. In a fasting subsample we considered the lipid accumulation product (LAP; [WC enlargement*triglycerides]. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each adiposity indicator we estimated linear and categorical mortality risks using sex-specific, proportional-hazards models adjusted for age, black ancestry, tobacco exposure, and socioeconomic position. There were 1,081 deaths through 2006. Using linear models we found little difference among indicators (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs] per SD increase 1.2-1.4 for men, 1.3-1.5 for women. Using categorical models, men in adiposity midrange (quartiles 2+3; compared to quartile 1 were not at significantly increased risk (aHRs1.1, especially black men assessed by WTR (aHR 1.9 [1.4-2.6] and black women by LAP (aHR 2.2 [1.4-3.5]. Quartile 4 of WC or WHtR carried no significant risk for diabetic persons (aHRs 0.7-1.1, but elevated risks for those without diabetes (aHRs>1.5. For both sexes, quartile 4 of LAP carried increased risks for tobacco-exposed persons (aHRs>1.6 but not for non-exposed (aHRs<1.0. CONCLUSIONS: Predictions of mortality risk associated with top-quartile adiposity vary with the indicator used, sex, ancestry, and other characteristics. Interpretations of adiposity should consider how variation in the physiology and expandability of regional adipose-tissue depots impacts health.

  17. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

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    Manimunda Sathya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on prevalence, pattern of tobacco use, proportion of population dependent on nicotine and their determinants are important for developing and implementing tobacco control strategies. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependency. Methods A cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 18,018 individuals in the age group of >=14 years was conducted in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands during 2007–09. A structured questionnaire, a modified version of an instrument which was used successfully in several multi-country epidemiological studies of the World Health Organisation, was used to survey individual socio-demographic details, known co-morbid conditions, tobacco use and alcohol use. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND was used to estimate nicotine dependence. Results The response rate of our survey was 97% (18,018/18,554. Females (n = 8,888 were significantly younger than males (34.3 + 14.6 Vs 36.2 + 15.4 years. The prevalence of current tobacco use in any form was 48.9% (95% CI: 48.2–49.6. Tobacco chewing alone was prevalent in 40.9% (95% CI: 40.1–41.6 of the population. While one tenth of males (9.7%, 95% CI: 9.1–10.4 were nicotine dependent, it was only 3% (95% CI: 2.7–3.4 in females. Three fourth of the tobacco users initiated use of tobacco before reaching 21 years of age. Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and co-morbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in the population. Conclusion The high prevalence of tobacco use especially the chewing form of tobacco in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the differences in prevalence and pattern of tobacco use and nicotine dependency observed across subgroups warrants implementation of culturally specific tobacco control activities in this

  18. Employing a Multi-level Approach to Recruit a Representative Sample of Women with Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus into a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Skurnik, Geraldine; Zera, Chloe A; Reforma, Liberty G; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2016-02-01

    The postpartum period is a window of opportunity for diabetes prevention in women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM), but recruitment for clinical trials during this period of life is a major challenge. We adapted a social-ecologic model to develop a multi-level recruitment strategy at the macro (high or institutional level), meso (mid or provider level), and micro (individual) levels. Our goal was to recruit 100 women with recent GDM into the Balance after Baby randomized controlled trial over a 17-month period. Participants were asked to attend three in-person study visits at 6 weeks, 6, and 12 months postpartum. They were randomized into a control arm or a web-based intervention arm at the end of the baseline visit at six weeks postpartum. At the end of the recruitment period, we compared population characteristics of our enrolled subjects to the entire population of women with GDM delivering at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). We successfully recruited 107 of 156 (69 %) women assessed for eligibility, with the majority (92) recruited during pregnancy at a mean 30 (SD ± 5) weeks of gestation, and 15 recruited postpartum, at a mean 2 (SD ± 3) weeks postpartum. 78 subjects attended the initial baseline visit, and 75 subjects were randomized into the trial at a mean 7 (SD ± 2) weeks postpartum. The recruited subjects were similar in age and race/ethnicity to the total population of 538 GDM deliveries at BWH over the 17-month recruitment period. Our multilevel approach allowed us to successfully meet our recruitment goal and recruit a representative sample of women with recent GDM. We believe that our most successful strategies included using a dedicated in-person recruiter, integrating recruitment into clinical flow, allowing for flexibility in recruitment, minimizing barriers to participation, and using an opt-out strategy with providers. Although the majority of women were recruited while pregnant, women recruited in the early postpartum period were

  19. Employing a multi-level approach to recruit a representative sample of women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus into a randomized lifestyle intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnik, Geraldine; Zera, Chloe A.; Reforma, Liberty G.; Levkoff, Sue E.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The postpartum period is a window of opportunity for diabetes prevention in women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM), but recruitment for clinical trials during this period of life is a major challenge. Methods We adapted a social-ecologic model to develop a multi-level recruitment strategy at the macro (high or institutional level), meso (mid or provider level), and micro (individual) levels. Our goal was to recruit 100 women with recent GDM into the Balance after Baby randomized controlled trial over a 17-month period. Participants were asked to attend three in-person study visits at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. They were randomized into a control arm or a web-based intervention arm at the end of the baseline visit at six weeks postpartum. At the end of the recruitment period, we compared population characteristics of our enrolled subjects to the entire population of women with GDM delivering at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). Results We successfully recruited 107 of 156 (69%) women assessed for eligibility, with the majority (92) recruited during pregnancy at a mean 30 (SD± 5) weeks of gestation, and 15 recruited postpartum, at a mean 2 (SD±3) weeks postpartum. 78 subjects attended the initial baseline visit, and 75 subjects were randomized into the trial at a mean 7 (SD±2) weeks postpartum. The recruited subjects were similar in age and race/ethnicity to the total population of 538 GDM deliveries at BWH over the 17-month recruitment period. Conclusions Our multilevel approach allowed us to successfully meet our recruitment goal and recruit a representative sample of women with recent GDM. We believe that our most successful strategies included using a dedicated in-person recruiter, integrating recruitment into clinical flow, allowing for flexibility in recruitment, minimizing barriers to participation, and using an opt-out strategy with providers. Although the majority of women were recruited while pregnant, women recruited

  20. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  1. A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…

  2. Food Stamp Participation is Associated with Fewer Meals Away From Home, yet Higher Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Liu, Haiyong; DuBose, Katrina D.; Chen, Susan; Kranz, Sibylle

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Food Stamp (FS) participation, meals away from home (MAFH), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Nationally representative. Participants: Data from low-income, FS-eligible individuals (N = 945) ages 20-65 years, responding to the 2005-2006 National…

  3. Prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Baier, Dirk; Mößle, Thomas; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included as a condition for further study in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Nine criteria were proposed with a threshold of five or more criteria recommended for diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess how the specific criteria contribute to diagnosis and to estimate prevalence rates of IGD based on DSM-5 recommendations. Large-scale, state-representative school survey using a standardized questionnaire. Germany (Lower Saxony). A total of 11 003 ninth-graders aged 13-18 years (mean = 14.88, 51.09% male). IGD was assessed with a DSM-5 adapted version of the Video Game Dependency Scale that covered all nine criteria of IGD. In total, 1.16% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96, 1.36] of respondents were classified with IGD according to DSM-5 recommendations. IGD students played games for longer periods, skipped school more often, had lower grades in school, reported more sleep problems and more often endorsed feeling 'addicted to gaming' than their non-IGD counterparts. The most frequently reported DSM-5 criteria overall were 'escape adverse moods' (5.30%) and 'preoccupation' (3.91%), but endorsement of these criteria rarely related to IGD diagnosis. Conditional inference trees showed that the criteria 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were of key importance for identifying IGD as defined by DSM-5. Based on a state-wide representative school survey in Germany, endorsement of five or more criteria of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder (IGD) occurred in 1.16% of the students, and these students evidence greater impairment compared with non-IGD students. Symptoms related to 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' are most relevant for IGD diagnosis in this age group. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Impact of alcohol and alcohol mixed with energy drinks on non-medical prescription stimulant use in a nationally representative sample of 12th-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff M; Williams, Ronald D; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 30% of high school students use energy drinks. Alcohol use and alcohol mixed with energy drink use (AmED) is associated with risky behavior, including non-medical prescription stimulant use. We assessed alcohol-only, AmED and non-medical prescription stimulant use among 12th grade students in the U.S. using a nationally representative secondary data from the 2012 Monitoring the Future Study. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and logistic regression analyses were used to determine differences in non-medical prescription stimulant use by students who used alcohol-only versus AmED and to identify covariates of non-medical prescription stimulant use. Pearson-product moment coefficients were used to determine strength of variable relationships. Significant differences were found in frequency of Ritalin (p energy drink and AmED use, as the combined effects of stimulants contained in energy drinks and the depressant effects of alcohol appear to be associated with increased non-medical prescription stimulant use. Research on the influential factors related to energy drinks, alcohol, and non-medical prescription stimulants will help practitioners to more appropriately design prevention and intervention strategies addressing these high-risk behaviors. (Am J Addict 2016;25:378-384). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Stunting prevalence, plasma zinc concentrations, and dietary zinc intakes in a nationally representative sample suggest a high risk of zinc deficiency among women and young children in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Nankap, Martin; Killilea, David W; Brown, Kenneth H

    2014-03-01

    Before initiating a mass zinc fortification program, this study assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for low zinc status among Cameroonian women and children. In a nationally representative survey, we randomly selected 30 clusters in each of 3 strata (North, South, and Yaoundé/Douala) and 10 households per cluster, each with a woman aged 15-49 y and a child aged 12-59 mo (n = 1002 households). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls (with duplicates in a subset) and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and non-fasting blood was collected to measure plasma zinc concentration (PZC) and markers of inflammation. PZC was adjusted for methodologic factors (time of collection and processing, and presence of inflammation). The prevalence of stunting was 33% (32% South; 46% North; 13% Yaoundé/Douala). Among women, 82% had low adjusted PZC (Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG), 29 and 41% of women had inadequate zinc intakes, assuming moderate and low bioavailability, respectively, but only 8% of children had inadequate zinc intake. Depending on the estimated physiologic zinc requirement applied, 17% (IZiNCG) and 92% (Institute of Medicine) of women had inadequate absorbable zinc intakes. Total zinc intakes were greatest in the North region, possibly because of different dietary patterns in this area. Zinc deficiency is a public health problem among women and children in Cameroon, although PZC and dietary zinc yield different estimates of the prevalence of deficiency. Large-scale programs to improve zinc nutrition, including food fortification, are needed.

  6. Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children: findings from a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Jones, Lisa M; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2011-03-01

    This article explores the variety of ways in which the Internet is used to facilitate the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and provides national incidence estimates for the number of arrests involving such technology-facilitated crimes in 2006. The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study is a nationally representative longitudinal study of more than 2,500 local, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies across the United States. The current article utilizes Wave 2 data, which surveyed arrests in 2006 for Internet-related sex crimes against minors. Detailed data were collected via telephone interviews with investigators about 1,051 individual arrest cases. Findings show that an estimated 569 arrests for Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children (IF-CSEC) occurred in the United States in 2006. Offenders in IF-CSEC cases fell into two main categories: (1) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell access to identified children for sexual purposes including child pornography (CP) production (36% of cases), and (2) those who used the Internet to purchase or sell CP images they possessed but did not produce (64% of cases). Offenders attempting to profit from child sexual exploitation were more likely than those who were purchasing to have (a) prior arrests for sexual and nonsexual offenses, (b) a history of violence, (c) produced CP, (d) joined forces with other offenders, and (e) involved female offenders. Although the number of arrests for IF-CSEC crimes is relatively small, the victims of these crimes are a high-risk subgroup of youth, and the offenders who try to profit from these crimes are particularly concerning from a child welfare perspective.

  7. Individual- and Relationship-Level Factors Related to Better Mental Health Outcomes following Child Abuse: Results from a Nationally Representative Canadian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender; Boyle, Michael H

    2016-12-01

    Child abuse can have devastating mental health consequences. Fortunately, not all individuals exposed to child abuse will suffer from poor mental health. Understanding what factors are related to good mental health following child abuse can provide evidence to inform prevention of impairment. Our objectives were to 1) describe the prevalence of good, moderate, and poor mental health among respondents with and without a child abuse history; 2) examine the relationships between child abuse and good, moderate, and poor mental health outcomes; 3) examine the relationships between individual- and relationship-level factors and better mental health outcomes; and 4) determine if individual- and relationship-level factors moderate the relationship between child abuse and mental health. Data were from the nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health ( n = 23,395; household response rate = 79.8%; 18 years and older). Good, moderate, and poor mental health was assessed using current functioning and well-being, past-year mental disorders, and past-year suicidal ideation. Only 56.3% of respondents with a child abuse history report good mental health compared to 72.4% of those without a child abuse history. Individual- and relationship-level factors associated with better mental health included higher education and income, physical activity, good coping skills to handle problems and daily demands, and supportive relationships that foster attachment, guidance, reliable alliance, social integration, and reassurance of worth. This study identifies several individual- and relationship-level factors that could be targeted for intervention strategies aimed at improving mental health outcomes following child abuse.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of taste and smell impairment in a nationwide representative sample of the US population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Doty, Richard L; Sun, Qi

    2016-11-09

    To estimate the prevalence of, and explore potential risk factors for, taste and smell dysfunction in the general population of the USA. A cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2014). A total of 3519 men and women aged 40 years and older who participated in NHANES 2013-2014. Using the NHANES Pocket Smell Test, smell impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify 6 or more of the 8 odours. Taste impairment was defined as failing to correctly identify quinine or sodium chloride. The estimated prevalence was 13.5% for smell impairment, 17.3% for taste impairment and 2.2% for taste and smell impairment. For smell, but not taste, prevalence estimates increased with age and were higher in men and ethnic minorities. In backward stepwise logistic regression, low educational attainment, low family income and a history of asthma or cancer were independently associated with a higher prevalence of smell impairment, whereas light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (1-3 drinks/day) was associated with a lower prevalence of this condition. After multivariate adjustment, being non-Hispanic Black Americans, consuming ≥4 drinks of alcohol per day and having a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of taste impairment. Based on a nationally representative multistage probability survey among the US population aged 40 years and older, smell and taste dysfunction affected ∼20.5 million (13.5%) and 26.3 million (17.3%) individuals, respectively. Age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, family income, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and history of asthma or cancer were significant risk factors for smell dysfunction, whereas only ethnicity, heavy alcohol consumption and CVD history were associated with a higher prevalence of taste dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  9. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  10. Exploring the presentation of news information about the HPV vaccine: a content analysis of a representative sample of U.S. newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Johnson, Jessie; Sionean, Catlainn; Scott, Allison M

    2011-09-01

    Approximately 20 million people in the United States have genital human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection linked to cancer. We examined the news information presented about the HPV vaccine in major U.S. newspapers over the 19 months following its Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. To answer the question of how news information is presented in ways that might influence public health, we explored the frequency of cancer prevention and sexually transmitted infection prevention message frames used to describe the HPV vaccine, the extent to which journalists relied on official sources, and the presence of personal examples. A content analysis of 547 newspaper articles revealed that less than half of the articles provided detailed health information. Of the articles that contained a message frame, cancer prevention was most frequently employed. Government/political sources, medical doctors, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were the most commonly cited sources. Finally, we found that only 16% of all the articles we sampled featured personal accounts. Together, our findings suggest that U.S. newspaper coverage lacked detailed information about both HPV and the HPV vaccine in spite of federal approval of the vaccine, legal mandates for the vaccine, and a widespread information campaign. Implications for public health are discussed.

  11. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  12. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

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    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia.In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height" between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88% we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1 and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1 remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001 and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001.Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  13. Sample representativeness and incidence of liver biopsy complications caused by needles of bigger diameter (1.6 mm) and smaller diameter (1.2 mm) in children with cholestatic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Aleksandra; Kitić Ivana; Prokić Dragan; Stanković Ivica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Percutaneous liver biopsy and histomorphological analysis of liver tissue is an important diagnostic procedure in the investigation of neonates and infants with cholestatic syndrome. This study has been aimed at determining whether there is a difference in the incidence of complications after liver biopsy performed by Menghini technique using a needle of 1.6 mm as compared to 1.2 mm diameter and if there is a difference in the sample representativeness of liver tissue afte...

  14. Multiple dimensions of health locus of control in a representative population sample: ordinal factor analysis and cross-validation of an existing three and a new four factor model

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    Hapke Ulfert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the general approach of locus of control, health locus of control (HLOC concerns control-beliefs due to illness, sickness and health. HLOC research results provide an improved understanding of health related behaviour and patients' compliance in medical care. HLOC research distinguishes between beliefs due to Internality, Externality powerful Others (POs and Externality Chance. However, evidences for differentiating the POs dimension were found. Previous factor analyses used selected and predominantly clinical samples, while non-clinical studies are rare. The present study is the first analysis of the HLOC structure based on a large representative general population sample providing important information for non-clinical research and public health care. Methods The standardised German questionnaire which assesses HLOC was used in a representative adult general population sample for a region in Northern Germany (N = 4,075. Data analyses used ordinal factor analyses in LISREL and Mplus. Alternative theory-driven models with one to four latent variables were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. Fit indices, chi-square difference tests, residuals and factor loadings were considered for model comparison. Exploratory factor analysis was used for further model development. Results were cross-validated splitting the total sample randomly and using the cross-validation index. Results A model with four latent variables (Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance best represented the HLOC construct (three-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 9.55; RMSEA = 0.066; CFI = 0.931; SRMR = 0.075; four-dimensional model: normed chi-square = 8.65; RMSEA = 0.062; CFI = 0.940; SRMR = 0.071; chi-square difference test: p Conclusions Future non-clinical HLOC studies in western cultures should consider four dimensions of HLOC: Internality, Formal Help, Informal Help and Chance. However, the standardised German instrument

  15. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benninga Marc A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194. The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on

  16. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Marie; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Céline; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet

    2011-06-07

    The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents--an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer and video-games use, smoking

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  18. Representativity of TMA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The smaller the portion of a tumor sample that is analyzed becomes, the higher is the risk of missing important histological or molecular features that might be present only in a subset of tumor cells. Many researchers have, therefore, suggested using larger tissue cores or multiple cores from the same donor tissue to enhance the representativity of TMA studies. However, numerous studies comparing the results of TMA studies with the findings from conventional large sections have shown that all well-established associations between molecular markers and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis can be reproduced with TMAs even if only one single 0.6 mm tissue spot is analyzed. Moreover, the TMA technology has proven to be superior to large section analysis in finding new clinically relevant associations. The high number of samples that are typically included in TMA studies, and the unprecedented degree of standardization during TMA experiments and analysis often give TMA studies an edge over traditional large-section studies.

  19. Ecology of leishmaniasis in the South of France. 22. Reliability and representativeness of 12 Phlebotomus ariasi, P. perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta (Diptera: Psychodidae) sampling stations in Vallespir (eastern French Pyrenees region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Jean-Antoine; Carron, Stéphane; Dereure, Jacques; Périères, José; Zeraia, Lamri; Franquet, Evelyne; Babinot, Michel; Gállego, Montserrat; Prudhomme, Jorian

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted around Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales, mean elevation 200 m) to test the statistical reliability of 12 stations devoted to sampling the Leishmania infantum vectors Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in the South of France. Each station included a retaining wall and the surrounding phytoecological environment (total area: 2,000 m2). The wall had rectangular drainage cavities (weep holes) in which flight interception traps (sticky paper) were inserted and stretched every 10 days from May to October. For both vector species, the statistical analysis of 10-day and annual frequencies led to the following conclusions: (1) P. ariasi densities were significantly higher than P. perniciosus densities, (2) densities per species were significantly different at the 12 stations : none of them could be considered as representative of local vector densities, which depend on the wall structure (exposure, shade, vertebrate hosts), (3) the 10-day variation trends were not significantly different between stations, indicating that these variations are not determined by the station structure but rather by a common external factor (likely meteorological) and (4) the phytoecological features at the stations were not correlated with the sandfly densities. Most of the observations obtained with P. ariasi and P. perniciosus are also relevant for the non-vectorial species S. minuta. In conclusion, future research on the dynamics of leishmaniasis outbreaks relative to climate change and agricultural-silvicultural modifications should be very cautiously carried out, while focusing especially on the vector sampling quality and the use of phytoecological maps as vector density indicators. PMID:24112589

  20. Psychosocial working conditions and self-reported health in a representative sample of wage-earners: a test of the different hypotheses of the Demand-Control-Support-Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanroelen, Christophe; Levecque, Katia; Louckx, Fred

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth examination of the demand-control-support-model (DCS-model). Each hypothesis of the DCS-model is tested: the main effects of job demands, job autonomy, task variation and social support; the additive effects of job strain, active learning and iso-strain; and the interactive buffer-effects of job autonomy, task variation and support on job demands. Data from a representative cross-sectional sample of 11,099 male and female wage-earners are investigated using log linear methods. The outcome measures are self-reported persistent fatigue, musculoskeletal complaints and emotional well-being. There is some support for each of the hypotheses. Quantitative job demands and superior support have the strongest effects. The job autonomy and buffer hypotheses are only partially supported. The strong effects of job demands, support, job strain and active learning are suggesting that a policy aimed at improving psychosocial working conditions should focus on a bearable level of job demands and the quality of social relationships at work.

  1. Prevalence of 'Food Addiction' as Measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in a Representative German Sample and Its Association with Sex, Age and Weight Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Carolin; Weiß, Annegret; Schulte, Erica Marla; Meule, Adrian; Ellrott, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of addictive-like eating behavior in Germany. The German version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) 2.0 was used to investigate, for the first time, the prevalence of 'food addiction' in a representative sample aged 18-65 years (N = 1,034). The prevalence of 'food addiction' measured by the YFAS 2.0 was 7.9%. Individuals meeting criteria for 'food addiction' had higher BMI and were younger than individuals not meeting the threshold. Underweight (15.0%) and obese (17.2%) individuals exhibited the highest prevalence rate of 'food addiction'. Addictive-like eating was not associated with sex, education level, or place of residence. YFAS 2.0 'food addiction' was met by nearly 8% of the population. There is a non-linear relationship between addictive-like eating and BMI, with the highest prevalence among underweight and obese persons. These findings suggest that 'food addiction' may be a contributor to overeating but may also reflect a distinct phenotype of problematic eating behavior not synonymous with obesity. Further, the elevated prevalence of YFAS 2.0 'food addiction' among underweight individuals may reflect an overlap with eating disorders and warrants attention in future research. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Examination of the Five Comparable Component Scores of the Diet Quality Indexes HEI-2005 and RC-DQI Using a Nationally Representative Sample of 2–18 Year Old Children: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Kranz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been associated with low diet quality and the suboptimal intake of food groups and nutrients. Two composite diet quality measurement tools are appropriate for Americans 2–18 years old: the Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005 and the Revised Children’s Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI. The five components included in both indexes are fruits, vegetables, total grains, whole grains, and milk/dairy. Component scores ranged from 0 to 5 or 0 to 10 points with lower scores indicating suboptimal intake. To allow direct comparisons, one component was rescaled by dividing it by 2; then, all components ranged from 0 to 5 points. The aim of this study was to directly compare the scoring results of these five components using dietary data from a nationally representative sample of children (NHANES 2003–2006, . Correlation coefficients within and between indexes showed less internal consistency in the HEI; age- and ethnic-group stratified analyses indicated higher sensitivity of the RC-DQI. HEI scoring was likely to dichotomize the population into two groups (those with 0 and those with 5 points, while RC-DQI scores resulted in a larger distribution of scores. The scoring scheme of diet quality indexes for children results in great variation of the outcomes, and researchers must be aware of those effects.

  3. Do the Kaufman tests of cognitive ability and academic achievement display construct bias across a representative sample of Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian school-age children in grades 1 through 12?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    As the demographic profile in the United States continues to change and becomes ethnically more diverse, the need for culturally appropriate test instruments has become a national concern among educators, clinicians, and researchers. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition (KABC-II) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-2nd Edition (KTEA-II) are 2 popular tests of intelligence and achievement, known to appeal to an ethnically diverse client population. The present study investigated test bias in terms of the test scores' construct validity across a nationally representative sample of Caucasian, Black, and Hispanic (N = 2,001) children in Grades 1-12. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess whether increasing sets of equality constraints fit the test scores' underlying theoretical model equally well for all 3 ethnic groups. Results showed that factorial invariance of the factor structure, based on 7 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model broad abilities, was met for all 3 groups. Outcomes contribute to a scarce body of literature on ethnic test bias that goes beyond the simple comparison of mean score differences. Results of this study provide the evidence needed to justify continuous use of the KABC-II and KTEA-II in the assessment of minority group children and adolescents. Furthermore, findings are generalizable beyond the Kaufman tests to other popular tests of intelligence and achievement; this is because this study is based on the CHC factor structure, a universal theory of cognition that is used as the theoretical underpinning by many well-known tests of intelligence and achievement, including the most recent versions of the Wechsler scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners amongst wider care options for back pain: a study of a nationally representative sample of 1,310 Australian women aged 60-65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vijayendra; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon; Broom, Alex; Kirby, Emma; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2014-02-01

    Back pain is a significant health service issue in Australia and internationally. Back pain sufferers can draw upon a range of health care providers including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners. Women are higher users of health services than men and tend to use CAM frequently for musculoskeletal conditions. However, there remain important gaps in our understanding of women's consultation patterns with CAM practitioners for back pain. The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of use and characteristics of women who use CAM practitioners for back pain. The method used was a survey of a nationally representative sample of women aged 60-65 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Women consulted a massage therapist (44.1 %, n = 578) and a chiropractor (37.3 %, n = 488) more than other CAM practitioners for their back pain. Consultations with a chiropractor for back pain were lower for women who consulted a General Practitioner (GP) (OR, 0.56; 95 % CI 0.41, 0.76) or a physiotherapist (OR, 0.53; 95 % CI 0.39, 0.72) than for those who did not consult a GP or a physiotherapist. CAM practitioner consultations for back pain were greater for women who visited a pharmacist (OR, 1.99; 95 % CI 1.23, 3.32) than for women who did not visit a pharmacist. There is substantial use of CAM practitioners alongside conventional practitioners amongst women for back pain, and there is a need to provide detailed examination of the communication between patients and their providers as well as across the diverse range of health professionals involved in back pain care.

  5. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811

  6. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  7. Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Thi Vo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957, the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change, and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model – is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.

  8. 四类分配公平指标对工作满意度的影响%Effects of Four Types of Distributive Justice on Job Satisfaction Using a Large-Scale Representative Sample of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 白新文

    2012-01-01

    基于Adams和Jasso的两种分配公平理论以及自我和他人两类参照对象,本研究将分配公平感测量区分为自我参照的主观公平感、他人参照的主观公平感、自我参照的客观公平感和他人参照的客观公平感四类指标.通过采用大规模代表性样本,探讨四类公平感指标对工作满意度的影响及作用方式.结果表明,自我参照的主观公平感指标对工作满意度有显著预测作用,其他三类指标预测作用不显著;实际收入负向调节自我参照的主观公平感对工作满意度的影响.四类分配公平感指标中只有自我参照的主观公平感对工作满意度有预测作用;低收入群体自我参照的主观公平感对其工作满意度的预测作用更强.%The current study aimed to explore the effects of four types of distributive justice indices,i.e.,subjective self-reference justice,subjective other-reference justice,objective self-reference justice and objective other-reference justice,on job satisfaction using a large-scale representative sample of China. Results suggested that subjective self-reference justice was the significant predictor of job satisfaction,and the other three indices were not; the actual income negatively moderated its effect on job satisfaction. Conclusions: among all the four types of distributive justice indices,only the subjective self-reference justice was the significant predictor of job satisfaction; the subjective self-reference justice had greater impact on job satisfaction when the income was low rather than high.

  9. Ingesta y fuentes de calcio en una muestra representativa de escolares españoles Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La adecuación de la ingesta de calcio de la población infantil española ha sido objeto de debate y controversia, pues algunos estudios señalan que puede ser inadecuada en un porcentaje variable de escolares, mientras que algunos documentos insisten en el peligro de una ingesta excesiva en un amplio porcentaje de la población escolar. Objetivos: Valorar la ingesta de calcio y las fuentes alimentarias de este nutriente en una muestra representativa de niños españoles, analizando también la adecuación del aporte a la cobertura de las ingestas recomendadas. Métodos: Se estudiaron 903 escolares (de 7 a 11 años de diez provincias españolas: Tarragona, Cáceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Córdoba, Vizcaya, Lugo y Madrid, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población española de dicha edad. La ingesta de energía y nutrientes se determinó utilizando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días, incluyendo un domingo. El aporte de calcio se comparó con las Ingestas Recomendadas (IR marcadas para dicho mineral. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC. Resultados: En el colectivo estudiado (55,3% de niñas y 44,7% de niños, un 30,7% presentó exceso de peso (sobrepeso-23,3% y obesidad-7,4%. La ingesta de calcio de los niños estudiados (859,9 ± 249,2 mg/día supuso un 79,5% de lo recomendado, observándose la existencia de un 76,7% de niños con ingestas menores de las recomendadas y un 40,1 con ingestas Introduction: There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. Aim: To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of

  10. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  11. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J M

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  12. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Representing properties locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  14. Representing and Performing Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    and MacKenzie’s idea of performativity. Based on these two approaches, the article demonstrates that the segmentation model represents and performs the businesses as it makes up certain new ways to be a business and as the businesses can be seen as moving targets. Inspired by MacKenzie the argument......This article investigates a segmentation model used by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to classify businesses’ motivational postures. The article uses two different conceptualisations of performativity to analyse what the model’s segmentations do: Hacking’s notion of making up people...... is that the segmentation model embodies cleverness in that it simultaneously alters what it represents and then represents this altered reality to confirm the accuracy of its own model of the businesses’ postures. Despite the cleverness of the model, it also has a blind spot. The model assumes a world wherein everything...

  15. Validation of in Situ Networks Via Field Sampling: Case Study in the South Fork Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, M. H.; McKee, L.; Bindlish, R.; Coopersmith, E. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Prueger, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated by the logistics of installing a soil moisture network for a long term period in an active landscape. Therefore, these stations are located along field boundaries or in non-representative sites with regards to soil type or soil moisture. The representative character of this network can only be established by large scale field sampling to provide a calibration dataset. A team of samplers were deployed twice a week for the summer of 2014 to collect surface soil moisture data across a variety of land covers at 44 sites. These samples were compared and scaled to the domain to get a better understanding of the large scale soil moisture distributions and dynamics. In addition, comparisons are made to the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) soil moisture product for the length of the network installation.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of scaled steel samples taken from continuous casting blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Christoph; Sturm, Volker; Fleige, Rüdiger; Fricke-Begemann, Cord; Noll, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    To analyse continuous casting steel blooms a removal of non-representative surface layers is required prior to the analysis. In this work, an optimized process is developed to ablate such layers and to analyse the bulk material underneath with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A high ablation rate is crucial since the time slot for an inline analysis is limited, e.g. to metallic layers and typically have thicknesses from 200 μm to 600 μm each. The ablation behaviour of the oxide differs significantly from that of the metallic layers. An operation scheme for inline material identification is worked out to perform ablation and analysis with a single laser source. During the ablation phase and the subsequent measurement phase the laser source is operated with individually tailored parameters. A total penetration depth exceeding 1 mm in steel can be achieved within 20 s of ablation. Thereby the influence of non-representative surface layers on the following LIBS measurement can be suppressed to a large extent. For chromium, relative root mean square errors of predictions of less than 13% were achieved on high alloy samples with up to 16 m.-% Cr and on low alloy samples with Cr contents below 2 m.-%.

  17. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  18. On Representative Social Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemare, C.; Kroger, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data for a random sample drawn from the Dutch population who reveal their propensity to invest and reward investments in building up social capital by means of an economic experiment.We find substantial heterogeneity and asymmetries in the propensity to invest and in the propensi

  19. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...... are present in theoretical and empirical elaborations on mobility, but these remain largely implicit and unchallenged (Bauman 1998). This talk will endeavour to unmask distance as a theoretical entity by exploring ways in which distance can be understood and by discussing distance through its representations...

  20. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  1. Representative Sampling for Energetic Compounds at an Antitank Firing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Source Com- pounds (UXO-C) on Army Ranges.” The Technical Director and Program Manager for this work is Dr. John M. Cullinane and the Project Monitor...2003) Environmental conditions of surface soils and biomas prevailing in the training area at CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick. Defence Research and...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT 9

  2. Taxometric Investigation of PTSD: Data from Two Nationally Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Green, Bradley A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    Current psychiatric nosology depicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a discrete diagnostic category. However, only one study has examined the latent structure of PTSD, and this study suggested that PTSD may be more accurately conceptualized as an extreme reaction to traumatic life events rather than a discrete clinical syndrome. To build…

  3. Interrelationship of Family and Extrafamilial Violence in a Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    With limited exceptions, existing research has focused on either intrafamily violence or crime and violence outside the family. This study examined the proportion of men who only offend extrafamilially, the proportion of men who are violent only towards their wives, and the proportion of men who are violent in both spheres. Unincarcerated males…

  4. Taxometric Investigation of PTSD: Data from Two Nationally Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Green, Bradley A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2006-01-01

    Current psychiatric nosology depicts posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a discrete diagnostic category. However, only one study has examined the latent structure of PTSD, and this study suggested that PTSD may be more accurately conceptualized as an extreme reaction to traumatic life events rather than a discrete clinical syndrome. To build…

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Against Disabled Women as a Part of Widespread Victimization and Discrimination over the Lifetime: Evidence from a German Representative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Schröttle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence rates of partner violence are high for women in general, but disabled women seem to be even more vulnerable. To explore this question, interviews were conducted with a representative sample of women with physical, mental, intellectual, hearing, and vision disabilities living in households (N=800 and in institutions (N=420. Additionally, a supplementary survey with a non-representative sample of blind, severely physically/multiply disabled, and deaf women (N=341 and qualitative interviews with thirty-one victimized women with disabilities were conducted. The standardized questionnaire was comparable to an earlier German representative survey on violence against women in the general population (N=10,264. Overall, 25 to 45 percent of women with disabilities had experienced intimate partner violence, which is two to five times the rate for the general population (depending on the specific group. Type and severity of disability, living situation, and experience of discrimination and violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with increased vulnerability. The findings confirm the hypothesis of elevated vulnerability discussed in international research and deepen insights into risk factors for victimization, for example discrimination, violence in childhood and youth, life situation, and type of disability. The results are crucial for further research as well as for prevention, intervention and support.

  6. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard{reg_sign} sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause.

  7. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  8. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  9. Judgments of and by Representativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-15

    probably agree that John Updike is a more representative American writer than Norman Mailer. rlearly, such a judgment does not have a frequentistic...example, in an early study we presented people with the following description, " John is 27 years old, with an outgoing personality. At college he was an...outstanding athlete but did not show much ability or interest in in- tellectual matters". We found that John was judged to be more likely to be "a gym

  10. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  11. Valores poblacionales de referencia del perfil de salud CHIP-AE a partir de una muestra representativa de adolescentes escolarizados Reference population values for the Spanish Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition [CHIP-AE] using a representative school-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Serra-Sutton

    2003-06-01

    of the Spanish version of the CHIP-AE. Methods: The CHIP-AE was administered to a representative sample of adolescents from schools in Barcelona. The sample was selected by using cluster-sampling, stratified by type of school (public or private and an ecological socioeconomic index (Índice de Capacidad Familiar: low, middle, and high. The CHIP-AE scores were standardized to a mean of 20 and a standard deviation (SD of 5. Means and percentiles were computed. Means were compared by age, gender, and socioeconomic status using analysis of variance. Results: The response rate was 81% (n = 902. The distribution of the CHIP-AE scores presented a wide range with scores generally skewed toward positive health status. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the sample selected from a general population was not free of health problems. Twenty-five percent of adolescents presented scores below 17.2 in the domain of discomfort, indicating an effect size of 0.56 standardized SD units. The distribution of scores in the reference samples from Barcelona was similar to the original results in Baltimore (USA, with some marginal differences in individual risks. Conclusions: The CHIP-AE systematically gathers information on health domains in adolescents. The results from this reference sample will allow comparisons with adolescents from other regions, and/or with different health problems, as well as description of inequalities in health during adolescence.

  12. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages art_science/2003>. Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  13. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  14. Representing Conversations for Scalable Overhearing

    CERN Document Server

    Gutnik, G; 10.1613/jair.1829

    2011-01-01

    Open distributed multi-agent systems are gaining interest in the academic community and in industry. In such open settings, agents are often coordinated using standardized agent conversation protocols. The representation of such protocols (for analysis, validation, monitoring, etc) is an important aspect of multi-agent applications. Recently, Petri nets have been shown to be an interesting approach to such representation, and radically different approaches using Petri nets have been proposed. However, their relative strengths and weaknesses have not been examined. Moreover, their scalability and suitability for different tasks have not been addressed. This paper addresses both these challenges. First, we analyze existing Petri net representations in terms of their scalability and appropriateness for overhearing, an important task in monitoring open multi-agent systems. Then, building on the insights gained, we introduce a novel representation using Colored Petri nets that explicitly represent legal joint conv...

  15. [Sensitivity of four representative angular cephalometric measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xü, T; Ahn, J; Baumrind, S

    2000-05-01

    Examined the sensitivity of four representative cephalometric angles to the detection of different vectors of craniofacial growth. Landmark coordinate data from a stratified random sample of 48 adolescent subjects were used to calculate conventional values for changes between the pretreatment and end-of-treatment lateral cephalograms. By modifying the end-of-treatment coordinate values appropriately, the angular changes could be recalculated reflecting three hypothetical situations: Case 1. What if there were no downward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 2. What if there were no forward landmark displacement between timepoints? Case 3. What if there were no Nasion change? These questions were asked for four representative cephalometric angles: SNA, ANB, NAPg and UI-SN. For Case 1, the associations (r) between the baseline and the modified measure for the three angles were very highly significant (P < 0.001) with r2 values no lower than 0.94! For Case 2, however, the associations were much weaker and no r value reached significance. These angular measurements are less sensitive for measuring downward landmark displacement than they are for measuring forward landmark displacement.

  16. Actividad física deportiva en una muestra representativa de la población de la Región de Murcia Physical sports activity in a representative sample of the population of Región de Murcia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Martínez-Ros

    2003-02-01

    the region of Murcia, Spain, and to analyze its association with major demographic and socioeconomic determinants and other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Survey of a representative sample of the population aged between 18 and 65 years from Murcia was performed using multistage random sampling with definition of the sample quotas. A total of 3091 individuals were surveyed. The frequency and duration of intense physical sports activity during the two weeks prior to the survey was obtained using a validated questionnaire. Information was also collected on socioeconomic variables, smoking, blood pressure, weight and height and a blood test was performed to determine plasma lipids. Intense or vigorous physical activity (≥ 6 Metabolic Equivalents [MET] was measured in kcal/day and reduced to hours/week to give three categories: no vigorous physical activity, less than 2 hours/week, and 2 hours/week or more. Results: Overall, 17.8% (95% CI: 16.6-19.0 of the adult population of the region of Murcia performed intense physical activity for ≥ 2 hours/week. The figures were twice as high in men (23.1%; 95% CI: 21.0-25.2 than in women (12.5%; 95% CI: 10.9-14.1. In the logistic regression analysis, a higher frequency of intense physical activity was associated with age, level of education and employment situation. In men it was also associated with occupation and residence in urban areas. Conclusions: During the study period, one in five adults in the region of Murcia took intense physical sports activity with a frequency and duration that were compatible with the prevention of episodes of coronary ischemia.

  17. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  18. Sampling algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Tillé, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Important progresses in the methods of sampling have been achieved. This book draws up an inventory of methods that can be useful for selecting samples. Forty-six sampling methods are described in the framework of general theory. This book is suitable for experienced statisticians who are familiar with the theory of survey sampling.

  19. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  20. Sample Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  3. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  4. Dietary predictors of childhood obesity in a representative sample of children in north east of Iran%伊朗东北部儿童代表性样本中儿童肥胖的膳食预测因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fereshteh Baygi; Mostafa Qorbani; Ahmad Reza Dorosty; Roya Kelishadi; Hamid Asayesh; Aziz Rezapour; Younes Mohammadi; Fatemeh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    目的 伊朗儿童的肥胖患病率不断升高.这项研究旨在评价伊朗东北部城市Neishabour的儿童代表性样本中肥胖的某些膳食决定因素.方法 在这项病例对照研究中,病例组为114名在校学生,年龄6~ 12岁,体重指数(BMI)≥第95个百分位(根据伊朗儿童的参考值),而对照组为102名年龄和性别匹配的非肥胖同班同学.由受过训练的营养师在儿童在场的情况下与母亲面谈,进行两次24h膳食回顾调查,收集了营养摄入数据;使用食物频率问卷调查了零食摄入模式;使用SPSS软件(第16版)进行了单因素和多因素logistic回归分析.结果 单因素logistic回归分析显示,总能量、蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪(包括饱和脂肪、单不饱和脂肪和多不饱和脂肪)和膳食纤维是学生肥胖的正向预测因素;玉米膨化食品、碳酸饮料、薯片、快餐食品和巧克力的摄入频率的粗估比值比(OR)有统计学意义.多因素logistic回归分析显示,肥胖与能量摄入量(OR=2.489,95%CI:1.667~3.716)、玉米膨化食品摄入频率(OR=1.122,95% CI:1.007 ~1.250)及薯片摄入频率(OR=1.143,95%CI:1.024 ~1.276)显著相关;而膳食纤维摄入量(OR =0.909,95% CI:0.835 ~0.988)和天然果汁摄入量(OR=0.60t,95%CI:0.368~0.983)是预防肥胖的保护因素.结论 该研究结果证实了不健康饮食对儿童肥胖的作用,尤其是高热量零食.应鼓励儿童养成健康的饮食习惯,如摄入高纤维食物.%Objective The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Iranian youngsters.This study aimed to assess some dietary determinants of obesity in a representative sample of children in Neishabour,a city in northeastern,Iran.Methods This case-control study was conducted among 114 school students,aged 6-12 years,with a body mass index (BMI) ≥95th (based on percentile of Iranian children) as the case group and 102 age-and gender-matched controls,who were selected from their non

  5. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  6. Capillary sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited ... do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication ...

  7. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  8. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  9. 7 CFR 1280.611 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1280.611 Section 1280.611... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.611 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to § 518 of the Act. ...

  10. 29 CFR 548.405 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representative period. 548.405 Section 548.405 Labor... Application § 548.405 Representative period. (a) The application must set forth the facts relied upon to show... employee exclusive of overtime premiums over a representative period of time. 21 The basic rate will be...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.618 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1230.618 Section 1230.618... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.618 Representative period. The term Representative period means the 12-consecutive months prior to the first day of absentee and...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.612 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1220.612 Section 1220.612... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.612 Representative period. Representative period means the period designated by the Secretary pursuant to section 1970 of the Act. ...

  13. Spatio-temporal representativeness of aerosol remote sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutgens, Nick; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Tsyro, Svetlana; Goto, Daisuke; Watson-Parris, Duncan; Weigum, Natalie; Schulz, Michael; Stier, Philip

    2016-04-01

    One characteristic of remote sensing observations is the strong intermittency with which they observe the same scene. Due to unfavourable conditions (due to e.g. low visible light, cloudiness or high surface albedo), sampling constraints (due to e.g. polar orbits) or instrument malfunction or maintenance, gaps in the observing record of hours to months exist. At the same time, satellite L3 products often are spatial aggregates over considerable distances (e.g. 1 by 1 degree). We study the impact of spatio-temporal sampling of observations on their representativeness: i.e. how well can satellite products represent the large scale (~ 100 by 100 km) aerosol field over periods of days, months, or years. This study was conducted by using diverse global and regional aerosol models as a truth and sub-sample them according to actual observations. In this way, we have been able to study the representativeness of different observing systems like MODIS, CALIOP and AERONET. Monthly and yearly averages allow serious sampling errors, that may still be present in multi-year climatologies due to recurring observing patterns. Even daily averages are affected as diurnal cycles can often not be observed. We discuss the implications these representativeness errors have for e.g. model evaluation or the construction of climatologies. We also assess similar representativeness issues in ground site in-situ observations from e.g. EMEP or IMPROVE and show that satellite datasets have distinct advantages due to their better spatial coverage provided temporal sampling is dealt with properly (i.e. through collocation of datasets). Finally, we briefly introduce a software tool (the Community Intercomparison Suite or CIS) that is designed to improve representativeness of datasets in intercomparion studies through aggregation and collocation of data.

  14. Mining Representative Subset Based on Fuzzy Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongfang; FENG Boqin; L(U) Lintao

    2007-01-01

    Two new concepts-fuzzy mutuality and average fuzzy entropy are presented. Then based on these concepts, a new algorithm-RSMA (representative subset mining algorithm) is proposed, which can abstract representative subset from massive data.To accelerate the speed of producing representative subset, an improved algorithm-ARSMA(accelerated representative subset mining algorithm) is advanced, which adopt combining putting forward with backward strategies. In this way, the performance of the algorithm is improved. Finally we make experiments on real datasets and evaluate the representative subset. The experiment shows that ARSMA algorithm is more excellent than RandomPick algorithm either on effectiveness or efficiency.

  15. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our ...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research.......This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  16. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  17. Representing Others in a Public Good Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Evelyn Hauge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In many important public good situations the decision-making power and authority is delegated to representatives who make binding decisions on behalf of a larger group. The purpose of this study is to compare contribution decisions made by individuals with contribution decisions made by group representatives. We present the results from a laboratory experiment that compares decisions made by individuals in inter-individual public good games with decisions made by representatives on behalf of their group in inter-group public good games. Our main finding is that contribution behavior differs between individuals and group representatives, but only for women. While men’s choices are equally self-interested as individuals and group representatives, women make less self-interested choices as group representatives.

  18. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  19. Representing Quadric Surfaces Using NURBS Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    A method for representing quadrc surfaces using NURBS is presented.By means of the necessary and sufficient conditons for NURBS curves to precisely represent circular arcs and other conics,quadric surfaces can be represented by NURBS surfaces with fewer control vertices.The method can be used not only for NURBS surface representation of quadric surfaces,but also for rounding polyhedrons.Many examples are given in the paper.

  20. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  1. Sample Preparation for Bioanalytical and Pharmaceutical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Zhang, Cheng; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-12-06

    Biological and pharmaceutical samples represent formidable challenges in sample preparation that hold important consequences for bioanalysis and genotoxic impurity quantification. This Feature will emphasize significant advances toward the development of rapid, sensitive, and selective sample preparation methods.

  2. Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

  3. 7 CFR 1205.20 - Representative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative period. 1205.20 Section 1205.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... period means the 2006 calendar year....

  4. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...

  5. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  6. Sample Spaces and Events(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Definition: An event is a subset E of the sample space S. The impossible event is the subset E = φ (empty set). The certain event is the subset E = S (sample space).Note that any subset of S represents an event, according to this defintion. Thus, in rolling a die the subset E={1,2,5} represents an event, which we can describe in words as "the die comes up 1,2, or 5. "

  7. Caspar Wessel on representing complex numbers (1799)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Bodil

    1999-01-01

    In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787.......In celebration of the bicentenary of the publication of Wessel's paper on the geometric interpretation of complex numbers it is decsribed how Wessel used complex numbers to represent directions in surveying, at least as early as 1787....

  8. Quadratic forms representing all odd positive integers

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of classifying all positive-definite integer-valued quadratic forms that represent all positive odd integers. Kaplansky considered this problem for ternary forms, giving a list of 23 candidates, and proving that 19 of those represent all positive odds. (Jagy later dealt with a 20th candidate.) Assuming that the remaining three forms represent all positive odds, we prove that an arbitrary, positive-definite quadratic form represents all positive odds if and only if it represents the odd numbers from 1 up to 451. This result is analogous to Bhargava and Hanke's celebrated 290-theorem. In addition, we prove that these three remaining ternaries represent all positive odd integers, assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis. This result is made possible by a new analytic method for bounding the cusp constants of integer-valued quaternary quadratic forms $Q$ with fundamental discriminant. This method is based on the analytic properties of Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions, and we use it to prove...

  9. Comparison of methods to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet in a large representative sample of young people in Southern Spain Comparación de dos métodos para evaluar la calidad de la dieta mediterránea en una muestra representativa de jóvenes del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mariscal-Arcas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the usefulness of two methods to evaluate diet quality in young people in Southern Spain: a new Mediterranean Diet Pattern (MDP and a modification of the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I for the Mediterranean area. The study population was 3190 schoolchildren aged 8-15 yrs. The questionnaires used were first validated (Bland-Altman plot and Wilcoxon tests in a randomized sample. The DQI gives a more detailed evaluation of food components, whereas the MDS gives global information on food groups but includes foods characteristically consumed in the Mediterranean region. Highly similar results were obtained using the MDP and the adapted DQI-I, which appear to be equally useful to evaluate diet quality in a Mediterranean population. The fact that we selected the same types of food for both indices may explain the similar overall evaluations. According to these results, both methods appear to be equally appropriate for evaluating diet quality in a Mediterranean population.El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la utilidad de dos métodos para evaluar la calidad de la dieta de jóvenes en el sur de España: un nuevo patrón de dieta mediterránea (MDP y una modificación de la dieta del índice de calidad-Internacional (ICD-I para el área Mediterránea. La población de estudio fue 3.190 escolares de entre 8-15 años. Los cuestionarios utilizados fueron validados primero (gráfico de Bland-Altman y las pruebas de Wilcoxon en una muestra tomada al azar. El ICD-I ofrece una evaluación más detallada de los componentes de los alimentos, mientras que el MDP proporciona información global sobre los grupos de alimentos, que incluye alimentos típicamente consumidos en la región mediterránea. Se obtuvieron resultados similares utilizándole MDP y la adaptación del ICD-I, que parecen ser igualmente útiles para evaluar la calidad de una dieta en una población mediterránea. El hecho de que se

  10. Subregistro de defunciones de menores y certificación de nacimiento en una muestra representativa de los 101 municipios con más bajo índice de desarrollo humano en México Underreporting of deaths in children and birth certification in a representative sample of the 101 municipalities with lowest human development index in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar el subregistro de la mortalidad en menores de cinco años de edad y la cobertura del certificado de nacimiento (CD en municipios de muy bajo índice de desarrollo humano (IDH en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron todas las defunciones de menores de cinco años de edad ocurridas en 2007 y nacimientos ocurridos en 2007 y 2008 en una muestra de 20 municipios de muy bajo IDH en siete estados de México, a través de una búsqueda intencionada de defunciones y nacimientos. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 12 muertes no incluidas en las estadísticas oficiales para un subregistro de 22.6%; 68.1% de los nacimientos no tenían CD. La falta de CD se asoció positivamente con que la madre no hablara español, que no tuviera Seguro Popular o que el nacimiento ocurriera con ayuda de partera. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario mejorar el registro de defunciones y nacimientos en municipios de muy bajo IDH en México.OBJECTIVE: To measure the underregistry of mortality in children under five years old, and the coverage of the Birth Certificate (BC in municipalities with very low human development index (HDI in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied all deaths of children under five years old occurred in 2007 and all births occurred in 2007 and 2008 in a sample of 20 municipalities with very low HDI in Mexico. We conducted an intentional search of births and deaths. RESULTS: We identified 12 additional deaths not included in official registries, for an underregistration of 22.6%, and 68.1% of births did not have a BC. Lack of BC was more frequent if the mother did not speak Spanish, if she did not have Seguro Popular if the birth was attended by a traditional midwife. Conclusions. It is necessary to strengthen the registry of deaths and births in municipalities with very low HDI.

  11. Work sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, julio; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Work sampling is a method of indirect measurement, which means instantaneous observations, to determine the amount of uptime or downtime in a production process El muestreo de trabajo es un método de medición indirecto, que mediante observaciones instantaneas, permite determinar la cantidad de tiempo en actividad o inactividad en un proceso productivo

  12. Do regional climate models represent regional climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    When using climate change scenarios - either from global climate models or further downscaled - to assess localised real world impacts, one has to ensure that the local simulation indeed correctly represents the real world local climate. Representativeness has so far mainly been discussed as a scale issue: simulated meteorological variables in general represent grid box averages, whereas real weather is often expressed by means of point values. As a result, in particular simulated extreme values are not directly comparable with observed local extreme values. Here we argue that the issue of representativeness is more general. To illustrate this point, assume the following situations: first, the (GCM or RCM) simulated large scale weather, e.g., the mid-latitude storm track, might be systematically distorted compared to observed weather. If such a distortion at the synoptic scale is strong, the simulated local climate might be completely different from the observed. Second, the orography even of high resolution RCMs is only a coarse model of true orography. In particular in mountain ranges the simulated mesoscale flow might therefore considerably deviate from the observed flow, leading to systematically displaced local weather. In both cases, the simulated local climate does not represent observed local climate. Thus, representativeness also encompasses representing a particular location. We propose to measure this aspect of representativeness for RCMs driven with perfect boundary conditions as the correlation between observations and simulations at the inter-annual scale. In doing so, random variability generated by the RCMs is largely averaged out. As an example, we assess how well KNMIs RACMO2 RCM at 25km horizontal resolution represents winter precipitation in the gridded E-OBS data set over the European domain. At a chosen grid box, RCM precipitation might not be representative of observed precipitation, in particular in the rain shadow of major moutain ranges

  13. A method of language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik; Hengeveld, Kees

    1993-01-01

    In recent years more attention is paid to the quality of language samples in typological work. Without an adequate sampling strategy, samples may suffer from various kinds of bias. In this article we propose a sampling method in which the genetic criterion is taken as the most important: samples...... created with this method will reflect optimally the diversity of the languages of the world. On the basis of the internal structure of each genetic language tree a measure is computed that reflects the linguistic diversity in the language families represented by these trees. This measure is used...... to determine how many languages from each phylum should be selected, given any required sample size....

  14. Sampling Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  16. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  17. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  18. Occupational Representativeness and Prestige Rating: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Harry J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    College students (N=319) rated 100 occupations on Occupational Standing Scale. Comparison with prior sample and predicted prestige scores for 1950 census job titles revealed that college sample was similar in prestige ratings regardless of gender or ethnicity. Composition of occupational listings did not appear to affect ratings. (Author/NB)

  19. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  20. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non-li...

  1. 26 CFR 601.502 - Recognized representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 230; (4) Enrolled actuary. Any individual who is enrolled as an actuary by and is in active status with the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries pursuant to 29 U.S.C. 1242. (5) Other individuals... actuaries, and others); (3) I am authorized to represent the taxpayer(s) identified in the power of...

  2. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  3. Caffeine consumption, insomnia, and sleep duration: Results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ninad S; Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas J; Chakravorty, Subhajit

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia symptoms have been individually associated with both caffeine consumption and sleep duration abnormalities in prior studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether caffeine consumption was associated with insomnia symptoms from a population perspective and whether this relationship depended on habitual sleep duration. Data were extracted from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 4730). Caffeine consumption was quantified as mg/d from 2 typical days of use, 7 to 10 d apart. Insomnia symptoms were evaluated using frequencies of difficulty falling asleep (DFA), difficulty staying asleep (DSA), non-restorative sleep (NRS), and daytime sleepiness (DS). Habitual sleep duration was assessed as the hours of sleep obtained on a typical night. Binomial logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationships of individual insomnia and sleepiness symptoms (DFA, DSA, NRS, and DS) with caffeine consumption and sleep duration variables, after adjusting for covariates. The mean ± SD caffeine consumption was 176.6 ± 201 mg/d. Mean habitual sleep duration was 6.8 ± 1.4 h. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent in 19.1% to 28.4% of the respondents. Although caffeine consumption was associated with all insomnia symptoms in the unadjusted models, the adjusted models demonstrated a trend toward significance with DSA. Sleep duration was inversely associated with the insomnia symptoms in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Finally, NRS was associated with an interaction between increased caffeine consumption and sleep duration. The association between caffeine use and insomnia symptoms depends on habitual sleep duration at a population level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415. Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities, and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 1.29. Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden.

  5. Prevalences of Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative U.S. Air Force Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Heather M.; Smith Slep, Amy M.; Heyman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern, but little is known about prevalence of IPV in the armed forces, as military members cope with the pressures of long-standing operations. Furthermore, previous prevalence studies have been plagued by definitional issues; most studies have focused on acts of aggression without…

  6. Methods for Analyzing Data from a Randomized Control Trial with a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Ronna J.; Heid, Camilla A.

    2013-01-01

    Access to Head Start has been shown to improve children's preschool experiences and school readiness on selected factors through the end of 1st grade. Two more years of follow-up, through the end of 3rd grade, can now be examined to determine whether these effects continue into the middle elementary grades. The statistical design and impact…

  7. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  8. 77 FR 72205 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... that many testing decisions are made upstream in the supply chain. Now that the CPSC accepts component... design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts,'' and the ``testing of random... supplied by another party, such as a foreign manufacturer or a supplier, then it is the voluntary certifier...

  9. The Association of Divorce and Extramarital Sex in a Representative U.S. Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S.; Atkins, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies provide specific rates of marital divorce or separation in association with a history of infidelity. Research based primarily from clinical or help-seeking populations suggests that most couples who have experienced infidelity do not divorce within the time frames assessed. Using self-reported history of extramarital sex (EMS),…

  10. Correlates of smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Agrawal (Arpana); C. Sartor (Chiara); M.L. Pergadia (Michele); A.C. Huizink (Anja); M.T. Lynskey (Michael)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPersistent cigarette smoking is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Correlates of difficulty quitting smoking include psychopathology, such as major depressive disorder, and problems with other substances, such as alcoholism. In addition, socio-demographic risk (e.g. pov

  11. The Relationship between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…

  12. Social networks and alcohol use disorders: findings from a nationally representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion; Quinn, Adam; Cranford, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While some argue that social network ties of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) are robust, there is evidence to suggest that individuals with AUDs have few social network ties, which are a known risk factor for health and wellness. Objectives Social network ties to friends, family, co-workers and communities of individuals are compared among individuals with a past-year diagnosis of alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse to individuals with no lifetime diagnosis of AUD. Method Respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC) were assessed for the presence of past-year alcohol dependence or past-year alcohol abuse, social network ties, sociodemographics and clinical characteristics. Results Bivariate analyses showed that both social network size and social network diversity was significantly smaller among individuals with alcohol dependence, compared to individuals with alcohol abuse or no AUD. When social and clinical factors related to AUD status were controlled, multinomial logistic models showed that social network diversity remained a significant predictor of AUD status, while social network size did not differ among AUD groups. Conclusion Social networks of individuals with AUD may be different than individuals with no AUD, but this claim is dependent on specific AUD diagnosis and how social networks are measured. PMID:24405256

  13. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  14. Statistics and implications of substructure detected in a representative sample of X-ray clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung; Smith, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We present a morphological study of 35 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at 0.15

  15. Life Goals and Well-Being: Does Financial Status Matter? Evidence from a Representative Hungarian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Tamas; Kopp, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research with the Aspiration Index suggests that the importance of intrinsic life goals (e.g. personal growth and relationships) is in positive association with indicators of well-being, whereas an orientation toward extrinsic life goals (e.g. wealth and appearance) is connected with decreased positive functioning. Our study extended the…

  16. Prevalence of Civilian Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Representative National Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed prevalence of traumatic events, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD in past 6 months in 4,008 adult women. Lifetime exposure to any type of traumatic event was 69%, whereas exposure to crimes that included sexual or aggravated sexual assault or homicide of close relative of friend occurred among 36%. (Author/NB)

  17. [Calcium and vitamin D intakes in a representative sample of Spanish women; particular problem in menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa María; González Rodríguez, Liliana G; Navia Lombán, Beatriz; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; López Sobaler, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentos: La acelerada desmineralización ósea que se produce en menopausia está muy condicionada por la ingesta de calcio y vitamina D, por lo que profundizar en la adecuación de la dieta en estos nutrientes, en mujeres menopáusicas constituye el objetivo del presente estudio. Métodos: Se estudió una muestra representativa de la población femenina espAÑOla de 17 a 60 AÑOs (n = 547), seleccionada en diez provincias, aunque el colectivo de 108 mujeres menopáusicas (45-60 AÑOs) es objeto de atención prioritaria. El estudio dietético se realizó por registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC). Resultados: La ingesta de calcio en menopausia (M) (992,1 ± 340,7 mg/día) fue inferior a la recomendada (IR) en un 79,6% de las estudiadas (menor del 67% de las IR en el 30,6%). El aporte de vitamina D (3,08 ± 3,6 μg/día) es todavía más desfavorable, pues en mujeres M supone un 61,1% de lo recomendado, con 85,2% que no alcanzan las IR y un 75,9% que no llegan a cubrir el 67% de lo recomendado. Un 72,6% de las mujeres estudiadas (68,5% de mujeres M) no cubren las IR ni para calcio ni para vitamina D, mientras que cubren lo recomendado para ambos nutrientes solo un 4,0% del total (3,7% de mujeres M). Aplicando un análisis de regresión logística para ver cual es la modificación dietética que puede favorecer el lograr cubrir con las IR para el calcio y la vitamina D, simultáneamente, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de la edad y del IMC, se observa que el principal condicionante es el consumo de productos lácteos [OR = 0,188 (0,108-0,327; p menopausia tienen ingestas adecuadas de ambos nutrientes, se considera urgente tomar medidas de mejora encaminadas a proteger la salud ósea de la población femenina espAÑOla.

  18. Socioeconomic health inequalities among a nationally representative sample of Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Lynch, J; Holstein, B

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities.......To investigate the role of different types of social relations in adolescent health inequalities....

  19. Risk Factors for Suicidality among a Nationally Representative Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Using the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (n = 13,917) of high school students, we examined the association between four domains of risk factors (alcohol/drug use, aggression, HIV risk-related behaviors, and health problems) and indicators of suicidality (considering a suicide attempt, making a plan to attempt suicide, and actually…

  20. Multimorbidity patterns in a national representative sample of the Spanish adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Garin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of population aging, multimorbidity has emerged as a growing concern in public health. However, little is known about multimorbidity patterns and other issues surrounding chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to examine multimorbidity patterns, the relationship between physical and mental conditions and the distribution of multimorbidity in the Spanish adult population. METHODS: Data from this cross-sectional study was collected from the COURAGE study. A total of 4,583 participants from Spain were included, 3,625 aged over 50. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to detect multimorbidity patterns in the population over 50 years of age. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to identify individual associations between physical and mental conditions. RESULTS: THREE MULTIMORBIDITY PATTERNS ROSE: 'cardio-respiratory' (angina, asthma, chronic lung disease, 'mental-arthritis' (arthritis, depression, anxiety and the 'aggregated pattern' (angina, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cataracts, edentulism, arthritis. After adjusting for covariates, asthma, chronic lung disease, arthritis and the number of physical conditions were associated with depression. Angina and the number of physical conditions were associated with a higher risk of anxiety. With regard to multimorbidity distribution, women over 65 years suffered from the highest rate of multimorbidity (67.3%. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity prevalence occurs in a high percentage of the Spanish population, especially in the elderly. There are specific multimorbidity patterns and individual associations between physical and mental conditions, which bring new insights into the complexity of chronic patients. There is need to implement patient-centered care which involves these interactions rather than merely paying attention to individual diseases.

  1. Child-Related Interparental Conflict in Infancy Predicts Child Cognitive Functioning in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2013-01-01

    While associations between exposure to marital conflict and child development have been documented extensively in middle childhood and adolescence, few studies have examined the developmental consequences of conflict exposure in infancy. Moreover, those that have examined marital conflict in infancy tended to focus on consequences of conflict…

  2. Prevalence of teen dating victimization among a representative sample of high school students in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos: a examinar las tasas de prevalencia y la frecuencia de la victimización de la violencia en parejas en una muestra representativa de adolescentes de Secundaria de Quebec y b explorar diferencias por sexo en esas tasas, así como en el impacto percibido de la victimización. Método: Una muestra de 8.194 estudiantes respondió cuestionarios que evalúan la victimización en las relaciones de pareja adolescente en los últimos 12 meses, además del impacto percibido. Resultados: La violencia psicológica es la forma más frecuente de victimización en parejas adolescentes. Las chicas fueron más proclives a reportar violencia psicológica, física y comportamientos amenazantes, así como victimización sexual que los chicos. Los diversos indicadores del impacto de la violencia en las relaciones de pareja adolescente (miedo, sentimientos de angustia y síntomas de estrés postraumático revelan que las mujeres son más vulnerables a sufrir impactos más generalizados que los varones. Conclusiones: La violencia en las relaciones de parejas adolescentes es un problema de salud pública. Un número significativo de adolescentes informó haber sido víctima en sus relaciones de pareja, con las mujeres con más probabilidades que los varones de percibir impactos negativos asociados.

  3. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  4. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  6. Representing a public that does not exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    and function of the teacher. Confronted by this teachers and educationalists in Denmark have chosen different paths. One current returns to nationalistic and traditional educational ideals and another accepts the global agenda and attempts to find a new form of legitimacy within the ‘what works’ framework......In her seminal essay ‘The Crisis in Education’ Hannah Arendt presents teachers with the challenge of having to represent a world that is becoming out of joint. This means that the teacher stands as a representative of a world that is becoming increasingly inexplicable and incomprehensible......, and the only way of retaining any form of authority (and legitimacy as a teacher) is to remain loyal to the task of presenting this world to the child. This challenge presents itself acutely in the form of a global reform agenda that legitimizes standardisation and accountability while eroding the authority...

  7. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  8. Representing exact number visually using mental abacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Barner, David

    2012-02-01

    Mental abacus (MA) is a system for performing rapid and precise arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, a physical calculation device. Previous work has speculated that MA is based on visual imagery, suggesting that it might be a method of representing exact number nonlinguistically, but given the limitations on visual working memory, it is unknown how MA structures could be stored. We investigated the structure of the representations underlying MA in a group of children in India. Our results suggest that MA is represented in visual working memory by splitting the abacus into a series of columns, each of which is independently stored as a unit with its own detailed substructure. In addition, we show that the computations of practiced MA users (but not those of control participants) are relatively insensitive to verbal interference, consistent with the hypothesis that MA is a nonlinguistic format for exact numerical computation.

  9. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  10. Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Saxon E

    2007-10-23

    The primary objective of Project Activity ORD-FY04-012, “Yucca Mountain Climate Technical Support Representative,” was to provide the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with expertise on past, present, and future climate scenarios and to support the technical elements of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) climate program. The Climate Technical Support Representative was to explain, defend, and interpret the YMP climate program to the various audiences during Site Recommendation and License Application. This technical support representative was to support DOE management in the preparation and review of documents, and to participate in comment response for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, the Site Recommendation Hearings, the NRC Sufficiency Comments, and other forums as designated by DOE management. Because the activity was terminated 12 months early and experience a 27% reduction in budget, it was not possible to complete all components of the tasks as originally envisioned. Activities not completed include the qualification of climate datasets and the production of a qualified technical report. The following final report is an unqualified summary of the activities that were completed given the reduced time and funding.

  11. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound.The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate,and/or first spike latency(FSL)of a given neuron.The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic ampli-tudes,whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable.This implies that FSL might represent the fre-quency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate.This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus(IC)neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli.We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency(CF)of sound stimulus were usually the shortest,regardless of sound intensity,and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency,especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  12. Latency represents sound frequency in mouse IC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Qiang; TANG Jie; YU ZuLin; ZHANG Juan; ZHOU YingJie; XIAO ZhongJu; SHEN JunXian

    2007-01-01

    Frequency is one of the fundamental parameters of sound. The frequency of an acoustic stimulus can be represented by a neural response such as spike rate, and/or first spike latency (FSL) of a given neuron. The spike rates/frequency function of most neurons changes with different acoustic amplitudes, whereas FSL/frequency function is highly stable. This implies that FSL might represent the frequency of a sound stimulus more efficiently than spike rate. This study involved representations of acoustic frequency by spike rate and FSL of central inferior colliculus (IC) neurons responding to free-field pure-tone stimuli. We found that the FSLs of neurons responding to characteristic frequency (CF) of sound stimulus were usually the shortest, regardless of sound intensity, and that spike rates of most neurons showed a variety of function according to sound frequency, especially at high intensities.These results strongly suggest that FSL of auditory IC neurons can represent sound frequency more precisely than spike rate.

  13. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  14. Mental disorders, psychological symptoms and quality of life 8 years after an earthquake: findings from a community sample in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Marchi, Fabio; Bini, Lucia; Flego, Martina; Costa, Ana; Galeazzi, Gian

    2011-07-01

    Various studies assessed mental disorders and psychological symptoms following natural disasters, including earthquakes. Yet, samples were often non-representative, and the periods of time between earthquake and assessments were usually short. This study aims to assess the prevalence of mental disorders, level of psychological symptoms and subjective quality of life in a random sample in a rural region in Italy 8 years after an earthquake. Using a random sampling method, a pool of potential participants of working age who had experienced the earthquake were identified 8 years after the earthquake. They were sequentially approached until the target sample of 200 was reached. Mental disorders were assessed on the MINI, psychological symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and subjective quality of life on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). 200 people were interviewed, and the response rate of contacted people was 43%. In the MINI, 15 participants (7.5%) had any type of mental disorder; 5 participants had PTSD at any time since the earthquake, and 1 participant at the time of the interview. Symptom levels were low (Global Severity Index of BSI mean = 0.29, SD = 0.30; IES total mean = 0.40, SD = 3.33) and subjective quality of life (MANSA mean = 5.26, SD = 0.59) was in a positive range. The distribution of mental health outcomes made it difficult to explore factors associated with them. There is no evidence that the earthquake had a negative impact on the mental health of the affected population years later. Possible reasons include the relatively weak nature of the earthquake, strong community support that helped overcome mental distress, the long period of time (8 years) between the occurrence of the earthquake and the study, and a capacity of people to maintain or restore mental health after a natural disaster in the long term.

  15. 40 CFR 72.26 - Delegation by designated representative and alternate designated representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an... representative may delegate, to one or more natural persons, his or her authority to make an electronic... this part and parts 73 through 77 of this chapter. (c) In order to delegate authority to make an...

  16. How Are Feedbacks Represented in Land Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land systems are characterised by many feedbacks that can result in complex system behaviour. We defined feedbacks as the two-way influences between the land use system and a related system (e.g., climate, soils and markets, both of which are encompassed by the land system. Land models that include feedbacks thus probably more accurately mimic how land systems respond to, e.g., policy or climate change. However, representing feedbacks in land models is a challenge. We reviewed articles incorporating feedbacks into land models and analysed each with predefined indicators. We found that (1 most modelled feedbacks couple land use systems with transport, soil and market systems, while only a few include feedbacks between land use and social systems or climate systems; (2 equation-based land use models that follow a top-down approach prevail; and (3 feedbacks’ effects on system behaviour remain relatively unexplored. We recommend that land system modellers (1 consider feedbacks between land use systems and social systems; (2 adopt (bottom-up approaches suited to incorporating spatial heterogeneity and better representing land use decision-making; and (3 pay more attention to nonlinear system behaviour and its implications for land system management and policy.

  17. Online Recruitment: Feasibility, Cost, and Representativeness in a Study of Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Liana S; Butterworth, Peter; Poyser, Carmel; Batterham, Philip J; Farrer, Louise M

    2017-03-08

    Online recruitment is feasible, low-cost, and can provide high-quality epidemiological data. However, little is known about the feasibility of recruiting postpartum women online, or sample representativeness. The current study investigates the feasibility of recruiting a population of postpartum women online for health research and examines sample representativeness. Two samples of postpartum women were compared: those recruited online as participants in a brief survey of new mothers (n=1083) and those recruited face-to-face as part of a nationally representative study (n=579). Sociodemographic, general health, and mental health characteristics were compared between the two samples. Obtaining a sample of postpartum women online for health research was highly efficient and low-cost. The online sample over-represented those who were younger (aged 25-29 years), were in a de facto relationship, had higher levels of education, spoke only English at home, and were first-time mothers. Members of the online sample were significantly more likely to have poor self-rated health and poor mental health than the nationally representative sample. Health differences remained after adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Potential exists for feasible and low-cost e-epidemiological research with postpartum populations; however, researchers should consider the potential influence of sample nonrepresentativeness.

  18. Phoenix Test Sample Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken. Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  20. Representing the vacuum polarization on de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Katie E.; Woodard, Richard P. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies of the vacuum polarization on de Sitter have demonstrated that there is a simple, noncovariant representation of it in which the physics is transparent. There is also a cumbersome, covariant representation in which the physics is obscure. Despite being unwieldy, the latter form has a powerful appeal for those who are concerned about de Sitter invariance. We show that nothing is lost by employing the simple, noncovariant representation because there is a closed form procedure for converting its structure functions to those of the covariant representation. We also present a vastly improved technique for reading off the noncovariant structure functions from the primitive diagrams. And we discuss the issue of representing the vacuum polarization for a general metric background.

  1. STATISTICAL MODELS OF REPRESENTING INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Feraru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled Statistical Models of Representing Intellectual Capital approaches and analyses the concept of intellectual capital, as well as the main models which can support enterprisers/managers in evaluating and quantifying the advantages of intellectual capital. Most authors examine intellectual capital from a static perspective and focus on the development of its various evaluation models. In this chapter we surveyed the classical static models: Sveiby, Edvisson, Balanced Scorecard, as well as the canonical model of intellectual capital. Among the group of static models for evaluating organisational intellectual capital the canonical model stands out. This model enables the structuring of organisational intellectual capital in: human capital, structural capital and relational capital. Although the model is widely spread, it is a static one and can thus create a series of errors in the process of evaluation, because all the three entities mentioned above are not independent from the viewpoint of their contents, as any logic of structuring complex entities requires.

  2. Recent activities of the Seismology Division Early Career Representative(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Van Noten, Koen; Ermert, Laura; Mai, P. Martin; Krawczyk, CharLotte

    2016-04-01

    The European Geosciences Union is a bottom-up-organisation, in which its members are represented by their respective scientific divisions, committees and council. In recent years, EGU has embarked on a mission to reach out for its numerous 'younger' members by giving awards to outstanding young scientists and the setting up of Early Career Scientists (ECS) representatives. The division representative's role is to engage in discussions that concern students and early career scientists. Several meetings between all the division representatives are held throughout the year to discuss ideas and Union-wide issues. One important impact ECS representatives have had on EGU is the increased number of short courses and workshops run by ECS during the annual General Assembly. Another important contribution of ECS representatives was redefining 'Young Scientist' to 'Early Career Scientist', which avoids discrimination due to age. Since 2014, the Seismology Division has its own ECS representative. In an effort to more effectively reach out for young seismologists, a blog and a social media page dedicated to seismology have been set up online. With this dedicated blog, we'd like to give more depth to the average browsing experience by enabling young researchers to explore various seismology topics in one place while making the field more exciting and accessible to the broader community. These pages are used to promote the latest research especially of young seismologists and to share interesting seismo-news. Over the months the pages proved to be popular, with hundreds of views every week and an increased number of followers. An online survey was conducted to learn more about the activities and needs of early career seismologists. We present the results from this survey, and the work that has been carried out over the last two years, including detail of what has been achieved so far, and what we would like the ECS representation for Seismology to achieve. Young seismologists are

  3. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  4. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  5. A Comparison of EPI Sampling, Probability Sampling, and Compact Segment Sampling Methods for Micro and Small Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Fleming, Peter; Leite, Rui; Magerman, Jesswill; Ngwenya, Godfrey B.; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Behrman, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Finding an efficient method for sampling micro- and small-enterprises (MSEs) for research and statistical reporting purposes is a challenge in developing countries, where registries of MSEs are often nonexistent or outdated. This lack of a sampling frame creates an obstacle in finding a representative sample of MSEs. This study uses computer simulations to draw samples from a census of businesses and non-businesses in the Tshwane Municipality of South Africa, using three different sampling me...

  6. Passion and Compassion Represent Dualities for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the impact of passion and compassion on innovation and growth and, in this way, add to the current knowledge on organising growth in the context of networking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design....../methodology/approach – The research was conducted in three networks with a sample of 55 separate SMEs. Through a quantitative study, the anticipated positive impact of passion and compassion on growth and on intermediate innovation issues were tested. Findings – The analyses reveal no direct significant impacts of passion (own...... to better understand and organise own actions to pursue growth. Policy bodies can use the findings to motivate SMEs to pursue growth. Originality/value – The findings of this study enhance the theoretical understanding of passion and compassion and their integrated impact on growth. In firm networks...

  7. Do Female Representatives Adhere More Closely to Citizens’ Preferences Than Male Representatives?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We analyze whether female or male members of parliament adhere more closely to citizens’ revealed preferences with quasi-experimental data. By matching individual representatives’ voting behavior on legislative proposals with real referenda outcomes on the same issues, we identify the effect of gender on representatives’ responsiveness to revealed preferences of the majority of voters. Overall, female members of parliament tend to adhere less to citizens’ preferences than male parliam...

  8. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  9. HOW TO REPRESENT THE GENETIC CODE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Santos-Magalhães

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South. Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West. Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be

  10. Sampling Designs in Qualitative Research: Making the Sampling Process More Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…

  11. A representative density profile of the North Greenland snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian Schaller, Christoph; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Laepple, Thomas; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Eisen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Along a traverse through North Greenland in May 2015 we collected snow cores up to 2 m depth and analyzed their density and water isotopic composition. A new sampling technique and an adapted algorithm for comparing data sets from different sites and aligning stratigraphic features are presented. We find good agreement of the density layering in the snowpack over hundreds of kilometers, which allows the construction of a representative density profile. The results are supported by an empirical statistical density model, which is used to generate sets of random profiles and validate the applied methods. Furthermore we are able to calculate annual accumulation rates, align melt layers and observe isotopic temperatures in the area back to 2010. Distinct relations of δ18O with both accumulation rate and density are deduced. Inter alia the depths of the 2012 melt layers and high-resolution densities are provided for applications in remote sensing.

  12. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  13. Seeking professional help for nightmares: a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schredl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nightmares are defined as disturbing mental experiences that generally occur during REM sleep and often result in awakening. Even though about 5% of the general population suffers from nightmares, little is known about seeking professional help in this patient group. Methods: A quota sample of 2019 participants representative for the German population was studied. Results: The findings indicate that every eighth person with frequent nightmares (cutoff: every other week or more often sought at one time of his/her life for professional help for coping with nightmares. Socio-demographic variables did not correlate with help-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Nightmares are an undertreated condition and future studies should aim at a more throughout understanding why nightmare sufferers rarely seek help for their condition.

  14. Registration Appointment and Services for Representatives Management Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A new internet/intranet application that collects all representative information and establishes the relationship between the claimant and the representative. Allow...

  15. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  16. Biodiversity optimal sampling: an algorithmic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity sampling is a very serious task. When biodiversity sampling is not representative of the biodiversity spatial pattern due to few data or uncorrected sampling point locations, successive analyses, models and simulations are inevitably biased. In this work, I propose a new solution to the problem of biodiversity sampling. The proposed approach is proficient for habitats, plant and animal species, in addition it is able to answer the two pivotal questions of biodiversity sampling: 1 how many sampling points and 2 where are the sampling points.

  17. Representative Delay Measurements (RDM: Facing the Challenge of Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Fabini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Network access technologies have evolved significantly in the last years. They deploy novel mechanisms like reactive capacity allocation and time-slotted operation to optimize overall network capacity. From a single node's perspective, such optimizations decrease network determinism and measurement repeatability. Evolving application fields like machine to machine (M2M communications or real-time gaming often have strict real-time requirements to operate correctly. Highly accurate delay measurements are necessary to monitor network compliance with application demands or to detect deviations of normal network behavior, which may be caused by network failures, misconfigurations or attacks. This paper analyzes factors that challenge active delay measurements in modern networks. It introduces the Representative Delay Measurement tool (RDM that addresses these factors and proposes solutions that conform to requirements of the recently published RFC7312. Delay measurement results acquired using RDM in live networks confirm that advanced measurement methods can significantly improve the quality of measurement samples by isolating systematic network behavior. The resulting high-quality samples are one prerequisite for accurate statistics that support proper operation of subsequent algorithms and applications.

  18. Spanish exit polls. Sampling error or nonresponse bias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavía, Jose M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Countless examples of misleading forecasts on behalf of both pre-election and exit polls can be found all over the world. Non-representative samples due to differential nonresponse have been claimed as being the main reason for inaccurate exit-poll projections. In real inference problems, it is seldom possible to compare estimates and true values. Electoral forecasts are an exception. Comparisons between estimates and final outcomes can be carried out once votes have been tallied. In this paper, we examine the raw data collected in seven exit polls conducted in Spain and test the likelihood that the data collected in each sampled voting location can be considered as a random sample of actual results. Knowing the answer to this is relevant for both electoral analysts and forecasters as, if the hypothesis is rejected, the shortcomings of the collected data would need amending. Analysts could improve the quality of their computations by implementing local correction strategies. We find strong evidence of nonsampling error in Spanish exit polls and evidence that the political context matters. Nonresponse bias is larger in polarized elections and in a climate of fearExiste un gran número de ejemplos de predicciones inexactas obtenidas a partir tanto de encuestas pre-electorales como de encuestas a pie de urna a lo largo del mundo. La presencia de tasas de no-respuesta diferencial entre distintos tipos de electores ha sido la principal razón esgrimida para justificar las proyecciones erróneas en las encuestas a pie de urna. En problemas de inferencia rara vez es posible comparar estimaciones y valores reales. Las predicciones electorales son una excepción. La comparación entre estimaciones y resultados finales puede realizarse una vez los votos han sido contabilizados. En este trabajo, examinamos los datos brutos recogidos en siete encuestas a pie de urna realizadas en España y testamos la hipótesis de que los datos recolectados en cada punto

  19. 29 CFR 417.19 - Assistant Secretary's representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Secretary's representative. 417.19 Section 417.19... Union To Take Appropriate Remedial Action Following Subpart A Procedures § 417.19 Assistant Secretary's representative. The Assistant Secretary shall appoint a representative or representatives whose functions shall...

  20. 48 CFR 1830.7002-3 - Representative investment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Representative investment... Representative investment calculations. (a) The calculation of the representative investment requires... accounting period, the contractor shall either: (1) Determine a representative investment for the...

  1. ROE Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Sample Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset describes dissolved oxygen levels in the Gulf of Mexico. Individual sampling sites are represented by point data. The background polygon shows areas...

  2. Hierarchy in Sampling Gaussian-correlated Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Joonsuk

    2016-01-01

    Boson Sampling represents a class of physical processes potentially intractable for classical devices to simulate. The Gaussian extension of Boson Sampling remains a computationally hard problem, where the input state is a product of uncorrelated Gaussian modes. Besides, motivated by molecular spectroscopy, Vibronic Boson Sampling involves operations that can generate Gaussian correlation among different Boson modes. Therefore, Gaussian Boson Sampling is a special case of Vibronic Boson Sampling. However, this does not necessarily mean that Vibronic Boson Sampling is more complex than Gaussian Boson Sampling. Here we develop a hierarchical structure to show how the initial correlation in Vibronic Boson Sampling can be absorbed in Gaussian Boson Sampling with ancillary modes and in a scattershot fashion. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling ...

  3. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  4. Uniform sampling table method and its applications: establishment of a uniform sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A novel uniform sampling method is proposed in this paper. According to the requirements of uniform sampling, we propose the properties that must be met by analyzing the distribution of samples. Based on this, the proposed uniform sampling method is demonstrated and evaluated strictly by mathematical means such as inference. The uniform sampling tables with respect to Cn(t2) and Cn(t3) are established. Furthermore, a one-dimension uniform sampling method and a multidimension method are proposed. The proposed novel uniform sampling method, which is guided by uniform design theory, enjoys the advantages of simplified use and good representativeness of the whole sample.

  5. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...... analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung...

  6. Rock Sample Destruction Limits for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. K.; Budney, C. J.; Shiraishi, L.; Klein, K.; Gilbert, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sample return missions, including the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, propose to collect core samples from scientifically valuable sites on Mars. These core samples would undergo extreme forces during the drilling process, and during the reentry process if the Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) performs a hard landing on Earth. Because of the foreseen damage to the cores, it is important to evaluate each core for rock quality. However, because no planetary core sample return mission has yet been conducted, it remains unclear as to how to assess the cores for rock quality. In this report, we describe the development of a metric designed to quantitatively assess the quality of the rock cores returned from MSR. We report on the process by which we tested the metric on core samples of Mars analogue materials, and the effectiveness of the core assessment metric (CAM) in assessing rock core quality before and after the cores were subjected to shocking (g forces representative of an EEV landing). Mars-analogue Basalt rock core. Cores like this one are being used to develop a metric with which to assess rock quality before and after shock-testing. The sample canister that houses the cores during shock-testing. SolidWorks design by James Gilbert.

  7. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  8. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  9. A new algorithm for extracting a small representative subgraph from a very large graph

    CERN Document Server

    Sethu, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks are prohibitively large for data retrieval, storage and analysis of all of its nodes and links. Understanding the structure and dynamics of these networks entails creating a smaller representative sample of the full graph while preserving its relevant topological properties. In this report, we show that graph sampling algorithms currently proposed in the literature are not able to preserve network properties even with sample sizes containing as many as 20% of the nodes from the original graph. We present a new sampling algorithm, called Tiny Sample Extractor, with a new goal of a sample size smaller than 5% of the original graph while preserving two key properties of a network, the degree distribution and its clustering co-efficient. Our approach is based on a new empirical method of estimating measurement biases in crawling algorithms and compensating for them accordingly. We present a detailed comparison of best known graph sampling algorithms, focusing in particular on how the prop...

  10. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  11. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  12. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  13. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  14. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  15. Using Candy Samples to Learn about Sampling Techniques and Statistical Data Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaes, Larissa S.; Brancalion, Marcel L.; Rossi, Adriana V.; Rath, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    A classroom exercise for undergraduate and beginning graduate students that takes about one class period is proposed and discussed. It is an easy, interesting exercise that demonstrates important aspects of sampling techniques (sample amount, particle size, and the representativeness of the sample in relation to the bulk material). The exercise…

  16. Statistics On Title II Direct Payments To Claimant Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Every person has the right to be represented by an attorney or other representative while pursuing a claim or other rights. This dataset contains data around Title...

  17. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes in Vermont polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  18. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  19. Implicit Theories and Offender Representativeness in Judgments About Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A; Bartels, Ross M

    2016-07-01

    Implicit theories structure the way people understand and respond to various human actions. Typically, people believe attributes are either fixed (entitists) or malleable (incrementalists). The present study aimed to examine (a) whether attitudes toward sexual offenders differ depending upon one's implicit theory about human nature and sexual offenders, and (b) whether implicit theories are associated with judgments made about different types of child abusers. A sample of 252 community participants was recruited. Their attitudes, implicit theories, and political orientation were assessed via self-report. One of three vignettes describing an incidence of child sexual abuse was then presented. The cases were identical except the perpetrator was either an adult male, an adult female, or a male juvenile. Participants then made judgments about the offender's deserved sentence and moral character. Entitists (across both domains) held more negative attitudes than incrementalists, although the magnitude of the difference was greatest when examining implicit theories about sexual offenders. Compared with those with an incremental theory of sexual offenders, entity theorists judged sexual offending to be more (a) indicative of the perpetrator's moral character and (b) deserving of punishment. However, scores were greater toward the adult male relative to the adult female and juvenile. The findings suggest that implicit theories about sexual offenders are domain specific. They also indicate that judgments made by those with an entity theory (about sexual offenders) are affected by whether a case is representative of a stereotypical sexual offender. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and future research.

  20. Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-06-01

    Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.

  1. Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA: computerization and representativeness of its collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo F. Treviño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific collections and herbaria are essential sources of information and education for researchers and practitioners in biological sciences. The Herbarium Areqvipense (HUSA, registered at Index Herbariorum since 2004, holds one of the most important collections in Peru. In this paper we provide information about the collection, and its representativeness for the Peruvian flora. HUSA has more than 11000 specimens recorded to date, with more than 2300 determined species, consisting mostly of Magnoliophyta and Pteridophyta (ca. 98%, and a smaller proportion of Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes (fungi and lichens and Bryophyta (mosses. The collection includes specimens from 23 departments of Peru, where the samples belonging to Arequipa have the largest number of individuals collected (3375 accounting for 31% of the collection. Asteraceae and Solanaceae are the most collected with 1571 and 964 specimens, respectively. The majority of geo-referenced specimens came from the tropical wet forest with 15%, followed by the tropical pre-montane wet forest with 8%. We also provide a list of the nomenclatural types and a brief summary of the history and development of HUSA since its creation.

  2. A Comparison of EPI Sampling, Probability Sampling, and Compact Segment Sampling Methods for Micro and Small Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Fleming, Peter; Leite, Rui; Magerman, Jesswill; Ngwenya, Godfrey B; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Behrman, Jere

    2012-05-01

    Finding an efficient method for sampling micro- and small-enterprises (MSEs) for research and statistical reporting purposes is a challenge in developing countries, where registries of MSEs are often nonexistent or outdated. This lack of a sampling frame creates an obstacle in finding a representative sample of MSEs. This study uses computer simulations to draw samples from a census of businesses and non-businesses in the Tshwane Municipality of South Africa, using three different sampling methods: the traditional probability sampling method, the compact segment sampling method, and the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling method. Three mechanisms by which the methods could differ are tested, the proximity selection of respondents, the at-home selection of respondents, and the use of inaccurate probability weights. The results highlight the importance of revisits and accurate probability weights, but the lesser effect of proximity selection on the samples' statistical properties.

  3. 42 CFR 422.1010 - Authority of representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of representatives. 422.1010 Section 422.1010 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1010 Authority of representatives. (a) A representative appointed and qualified in accordance with...

  4. 42 CFR 423.1010 - Authority of representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of representatives. 423.1010 Section 423.1010 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Penalties § 423.1010 Authority of representatives. (a) A representative appointed and qualified...

  5. 40 CFR 197.31 - What is a representative volume?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a representative volume? 197... a representative volume? (a) It is the volume of ground water that would be withdrawn annually from... Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume. The DOE must then use...

  6. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section 23.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.4 Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means...

  7. 20 CFR 266.7 - Accountability of a representative payee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability of a representative payee. 266.7 Section 266.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT REPRESENTATIVE PAYMENT § 266.7 Accountability of a representative payee. (a) A...

  8. Sampling Criterion for EMC Near Field Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Ebert, Hans

    2012-01-01

    -case representative of a signal trace on a typical printed circuit board. It has been found that the sampling density derived in this way is in fact very similar to that given by the antenna near field sampling theorem, if an error less than 1 dB is required. The principal advantage of the proposed formulation is its...

  9. Incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction in network-based cancer prognosis analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements, an important goal is to construct gene signatures with predictive power. In this study, we describe the coordination among genes using the weighted coexpression network, where nodes represent genes and nodes are connected if the corresponding genes have similar expression patterns across samples. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, that are tightly connected to each other. In several published studies, it has been suggested that the first principal components of individual modules, also referred to as "eigengenes", may sufficiently represent the corresponding modules. Results In this article, we refer to principal components and their functions as representative features". We investigate higher-order representative features, which include the principal components other than the first ones and second order terms (quadratics and interactions. Two gradient thresholding methods are adopted for regularized estimation and feature selection. Analysis of six prognosis studies on lymphoma and breast cancer shows that incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction performance over using eigengenes only. Simulation study further shows that prediction performance can be less satisfactory if the representative feature set is not properly chosen. Conclusions This study introduces multiple ways of defining the representative features and effective thresholding regularized estimation approaches. It provides convincing evidence that the higher-order representative features may have important implications for the prediction of cancer prognosis.

  10. Incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction in network-based cancer prognosis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangge; Kosorok, Michael R; Huang, Jian; Dai, Ying

    2011-01-12

    In cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements, an important goal is to construct gene signatures with predictive power. In this study, we describe the coordination among genes using the weighted coexpression network, where nodes represent genes and nodes are connected if the corresponding genes have similar expression patterns across samples. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, that are tightly connected to each other. In several published studies, it has been suggested that the first principal components of individual modules, also referred to as "eigengenes", may sufficiently represent the corresponding modules. In this article, we refer to principal components and their functions as representative features". We investigate higher-order representative features, which include the principal components other than the first ones and second order terms (quadratics and interactions). Two gradient thresholding methods are adopted for regularized estimation and feature selection. Analysis of six prognosis studies on lymphoma and breast cancer shows that incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction performance over using eigengenes only. Simulation study further shows that prediction performance can be less satisfactory if the representative feature set is not properly chosen. This study introduces multiple ways of defining the representative features and effective thresholding regularized estimation approaches. It provides convincing evidence that the higher-order representative features may have important implications for the prediction of cancer prognosis.

  11. Multi-mode entangled states represented as Grassmannian polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce generalized Grassmannian representatives of multi-mode state vectors. By implementing the fundamental properties of Grassmann coherent states, we map the Hilbert space of the finite-dimensional multi-mode states to the space of some Grassmannian polynomial functions. These Grassmannian polynomials form a well-defined space in the framework of Grassmann variables; namely Grassmannian representative space. Therefore, a quantum state can be uniquely defined and determined by an element of Grassmannian representative space. Furthermore, the Grassmannian representatives of some maximally entangled states are considered, and it is shown that there is a tight connection between the entanglement of the states and their Grassmannian representatives.

  12. Soil porosity distribution representative elementary area analyzed through gamma-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Talita Rosas; Pires, Luiz Fernando

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to use γ-ray computed tomography images to define the representative elementary area of the soil porosity distribution. Different textured soils from Southeast Brazil and different schemes of areas were analyzed. The image acquisition was performed in 2006 using a first generation γ-ray computed tomography system equipped with 241Am radioactive source. Consecutive increasing areas located at the center (scheme 1), the inferior (scheme 2) and superior (scheme 3) borders of the sample computed tomography image, with size areas ranging from 1.2 to 678.8 mm², were selected. The full width at a half maximum parameter was used to describe the samples soil porosity distribution and mathematical analysis concepts were adopted to define the representative elementary area. The representative elementary areas found for the sandy soil (Geric Ferralsol) and clayey soils (Rhodic Ferralsol and Eutric Nitosol) were respectively: 514.3, 514.3 and 555.4 mm² (scheme 1); 279.5, 393.3 and 457.4 mm² (scheme 2); and 457.4, 457.4 and 457.4 mm² (scheme 3). The results confirmed that the representative elementary area were influenced by the soil texture and management. Different schemes were noticed to provide different representative elementary areas for the same soil, which suggests that this procedure was efficient to detect the heterogeneity inside the soil samples.

  13. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  14. Sampling and II-Sampling Expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sousa Pinto; R F Hoskins

    2000-11-01

    Using the hyperfinite representation of functions and generalized functions this paper develops a rigorous version of the so-called `delta method' approach to sampling theory. This yields a slightly more general version of the classical WKS sampling theorem for band-limited functions.

  15. Defining sample size and sampling strategy for dendrogeomorphic rockfall reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Pauline; Trappmann, Daniel; Corona, Christophe; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Optimized sampling strategies have been recently proposed for dendrogeomorphic reconstructions of mass movements with a large spatial footprint, such as landslides, snow avalanches, and debris flows. Such guidelines have, by contrast, been largely missing for rockfalls and cannot be transposed owing to the sporadic nature of this process and the occurrence of individual rocks and boulders. Based on a data set of 314 European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) trees (i.e., 64 trees/ha), growing on an active rockfall slope, this study bridges this gap and proposes an optimized sampling strategy for the spatial and temporal reconstruction of rockfall activity. Using random extractions of trees, iterative mapping, and a stratified sampling strategy based on an arbitrary selection of trees, we investigate subsets of the full tree-ring data set to define optimal sample size and sampling design for the development of frequency maps of rockfall activity. Spatially, our results demonstrate that the sampling of only 6 representative trees per ha can be sufficient to yield a reasonable mapping of the spatial distribution of rockfall frequencies on a slope, especially if the oldest and most heavily affected individuals are included in the analysis. At the same time, however, sampling such a low number of trees risks causing significant errors especially if nonrepresentative trees are chosen for analysis. An increased number of samples therefore improves the quality of the frequency maps in this case. Temporally, we demonstrate that at least 40 trees/ha are needed to obtain reliable rockfall chronologies. These results will facilitate the design of future studies, decrease the cost-benefit ratio of dendrogeomorphic studies and thus will permit production of reliable reconstructions with reasonable temporal efforts.

  16. Demographic and Psychological Predictors of Parent-Adolescent Communication about Sex: A Representative Statewide Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Constantine, Norman A.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge between parents and children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A representative…

  17. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  18. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... It's been added to your dashboard . Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test . It’s used to ...

  19. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  20. A Comparison of EPI Sampling, Probability Sampling, and Compact Segment Sampling Methods for Micro and Small Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Fleming, Peter; Leite, Rui; Magerman, Jesswill; Ngwenya, Godfrey B.; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Behrman, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Finding an efficient method for sampling micro- and small-enterprises (MSEs) for research and statistical reporting purposes is a challenge in developing countries, where registries of MSEs are often nonexistent or outdated. This lack of a sampling frame creates an obstacle in finding a representative sample of MSEs. This study uses computer simulations to draw samples from a census of businesses and non-businesses in the Tshwane Municipality of South Africa, using three different sampling methods: the traditional probability sampling method, the compact segment sampling method, and the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) sampling method. Three mechanisms by which the methods could differ are tested, the proximity selection of respondents, the at-home selection of respondents, and the use of inaccurate probability weights. The results highlight the importance of revisits and accurate probability weights, but the lesser effect of proximity selection on the samples’ statistical properties. PMID:22582004

  1. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  2. [Quantitative method of representative contaminants in groundwater pollution risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-03-01

    In the light of the problem that stress vulnerability assessment in groundwater pollution risk assessment is lack of an effective quantitative system, a new system was proposed based on representative contaminants and corresponding emission quantities through the analysis of groundwater pollution sources. And quantitative method of the representative contaminants in this system was established by analyzing the three properties of representative contaminants and determining the research emphasis using analytic hierarchy process. The method had been applied to the assessment of Beijing groundwater pollution risk. The results demonstrated that the representative contaminants hazards greatly depended on different research emphasizes. There were also differences between the sequence of three representative contaminants hazards and their corresponding properties. It suggested that subjective tendency of the research emphasis had a decisive impact on calculation results. In addition, by the means of sequence to normalize the three properties and to unify the quantified properties results would zoom in or out of the relative properties characteristic of different representative contaminants.

  3. Using stories to disseminate research: the attributes of representative stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, John F

    2007-11-01

    When researchers communicate their findings to patients, clinicians, policy-makers, or media, they may find it helpful to supplement quantitative data with stories about individuals who represent themes in their research. Whether such stories are gathered during the research itself or identified from other sources, researchers must develop strategies for assessing their representativeness. This paper proposes 5 attributes of representative stories: (1) expression of important themes in the research, (2) explicit location in the "distribution" of stories that exemplify the theme, (3) verifiability, (4) acknowledgment of uncertainty, and (5) compelling narration. This paper summarizes research on substance abuse among physicians, and uses these 5 attributes to assess the representativeness of a published case report and a fictional short story about addicted physicians. While neither story is fully representative of the research, the process of evaluating these stories illustrates an approach to identifying representative stories for use in disseminating research.

  4. High School Students' perception of University Students as STEM representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    2012-01-01

    . Some representatives transmit information and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM educations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relationship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  5. High School Students' Perception of University Students as STEM Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard

    . Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students......The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...

  6. Japanese practicing physicians' relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%, received drug samples (85% and stationery (96%, and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME events at the workplace (80% and outside the workplace (93%. Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49% and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%. Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to

  7. Japanese Practicing Physicians' Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Sayaka; Mukohara, Kei; Bito, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous surveys on the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical representatives (PRs) have been of limited quality. The purpose of our survey of practicing physicians in Japan was to assess the extent of their involvement in pharmaceutical promotional activities, physician characteristics that predict such involvement, attitudes toward relationships with PRs, correlations between the extent of involvement and attitudes, and differences in the extent of involvement according to self-reported prescribing behaviors. Methods and Findings From January to March 2008, we conducted a national survey of 2621 practicing physicians in seven specialties: internal medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, and ophthalmology. The response rate was 54%. Most physicians met with PRs (98%), received drug samples (85%) and stationery (96%), and participated in industry-sponsored continuing medical education (CME) events at the workplace (80%) and outside the workplace (93%). Half accepted meals outside the workplace (49%) and financial subsidies to attend CME events (49%). Rules at the workplace banning both meetings with PRs and gifts predicted less involvement of physicians in promotional activities. Physicians valued information from PRs. They believed that they were unlikely to be influenced by promotional activities, but that their colleagues were more susceptible to such influence than themselves. They were divided about the appropriateness of low-value gifts. The extent of physician involvement in promotional activities was positively correlated with the attitudes that PRs are a valuable source of information and that gifts are appropriate. The extent of such involvement was higher among physicians who prefer to ask PRs for information when a new medication becomes available, physicians who are not satisfied with patient encounters ending only with advice, and physicians who prefer to prescribe brand

  8. [Lactase deficiency among representatives of various nationalities of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Kozlov, A I; Kondik, V M

    1991-01-01

    Some features of lactase tolerance were investigated in representatives of varying groups of indigenous population in Siberia-Mansi, Khanty, Nenets, Buryats. The indirect method was used to evaluate lactase activity. A total of 92 subjects were investigated. It was found that 32% of the representatives of the Urals population group and 53% of Buryats were capable of lactase assimilating. The data obtained correspond to the cultural-genetic hypothesis on the nature of lactase tolerance in the representatives of different ethnic groups.

  9. Sampling efficiency of national, EU and global stratifications : exploring by using CL2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, M.J.; Brus, D.J.; Ortega, M.

    2012-01-01

    Stratification, dividing the statistical population into less heterogeneous subgroups before sampling, can help improve sampling efficiency by improving representativeness and reducing sampling error. This report explores the added sampling efficiency that is achieved by using the European Environme

  10. Selecting a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of sampling methods that are appropriate for conducting online surveys. The authors review some of the basic concepts relevant to online survey sampling, present some probability and nonprobability techniques for selecting a sample, and briefly discuss sample size determination and nonresponse bias. Although some…

  11. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-08-05

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-102. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media. The team, consisting of Sampling and Mobile Laboratories (SML) and Special Analytical Studies (SAS) personnel, used the vapor sampling system (VSS) to collect representative samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the headspace of SST 241-B-102 with sorbent traps and SUMMA canisters.

  12. 42 CFR 102.44 - Representatives of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 102.44 Representatives of requesters. (a) Persons other than a requester (e.g., a lawyer, guardian, friend) may file a Request Package on a requester's behalf as his or her representative. A requester need not use the services of a lawyer to secure benefits...

  13. A geometric language for representing structure in polyphonic music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2012-01-01

    is represented as a set of multidimensional points, generated by performing transformations on component patterns. The language introduces the concept of a periodic mask, a generalisation of Deutsch and Feroe’s notion of a pitch alphabet, that can be applied to any dimension of a geometric representation......, allowing for both rhythms and pitch collections to be represented parsimoniously in a uniform way....

  14. 16 CFR 460.6 - “Representative thickness” testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âRepresentative thicknessâ testing. 460.6 Section 460.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.6 “Representative thickness” testing. All tests except aluminum...

  15. State Tax Capacity and the Representative Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the merit of using the Representative Tax System to measure state fiscal capacity instead of the traditional measure of per capita income. The conclusion is that the Representative Tax System can play a major role in determining the allocation of federal grants. (MJL)

  16. 20 CFR 725.363 - Qualification of representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualification of representative. 725.363... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE....363 Qualification of representative. (a) Attorney. Any attorney in good standing who is admitted...

  17. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  18. Dontion From CCPIT Overseas Representative Offices To Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@After the strong earthquake centered in Wenchuan County in the Southwestern Chinese Sichuan Province took place,the CCPIT Overseas Representative Offices immediately responding to the call of the CPC Central Committee,the State Council and following the instruction of CCPIT concerning disaster relief work,vigororsly organized.Below are the statistics of donation from partial overseas representative offices by May 19.

  19. 20 CFR 211.5 - Employee representative compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative compensation. 211.5... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.5 Employee representative compensation. All payments made by a railway... office he occupies with such organization are creditable as compensation, including payments made...

  20. 37 CFR 10.84 - Representing a client zealously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representing a client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.84 Representing a client zealously. (a) A practitioner shall not intentionally: (1) Fail to seek the lawful objectives of a client through reasonably available...