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Sample records for non-repetitive activity patterns

  1. Self-sustaining non-repetitive activity in a large scale neuronal-level model of the hippocampal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorcioni, Ruggero; Hamilton, David J; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus is involved in spatial representation and memory storage and retrieval, and much research is ongoing to elucidate the cellular and system-level mechanisms underlying these cognitive functions. Modeling may be useful to link network-level activity patterns to the relevant features of hippocampal anatomy and electrophysiology. Investigating the effects of circuit connectivity requires simulations of a number of neurons close to real scale. To this end, we construct a model of the hippocampus with 16 distinct neuronal classes (including both local and projection cells) and 200,000 individual neurons. The number of neurons in each class and their interconnectivity are drawn from rat anatomy. Here we analyze the emergent network activity and how it is affected by reducing either the size or the connectivity diversity of the model. When the model is run with a simple variation of the McCulloch-Pitts formalism, self-sustaining non-repetitive activity patterns consistently emerge. Specific firing threshold values are narrowly constrained for each cell class upon multiple runs with different stochastic wiring and initial conditions, yet these values do not directly affect network stability. Analysis of the model at different network sizes demonstrates that a scale reduction of one order of magnitude drastically alters network dynamics, including the variability of the output range, the distribution of firing frequencies, and the duration of self-sustained activity. Moreover, comparing the model to a control condition with an equivalent number of (excitatory/inhibitory balanced) synapses, but removing all class-specific information (i.e. collapsing the network to homogeneous random connectivity) has surprisingly similar effects to downsizing the total number of neurons. The reduced-scale model is also compared directly with integrate-and-fire simulations, which capture considerably more physiological detail at the single-cell level, but still fail

  2. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  3. PATH: a work sampling-based approach to ergonomic job analysis for construction and other non-repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B; Paquet, V; Punnett, L; Lee, D; Moir, S

    1996-06-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been reported in construction work. Unlike industrial production-line activity, construction work, as well as work in many other occupations (e.g. agriculture, mining), is non-repetitive in nature; job tasks are non-cyclic, or consist of long or irregular cycles. PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling), a work sampling-based approach, was developed to characterize the ergonomic hazards of construction and other non-repetitive work. The posture codes in the PATH method are based on the Ovako Work Posture Analysing System (OWAS), with other codes included for describing worker activity, tool use, loads handled and grasp type. For heavy highway construction, observations are stratified by construction stage and operation, using a taxonomy developed specifically for this purpose. Observers can code the physical characteristics of the job reliably after about 30 h of training. A pilot study of six construction laborers during four road construction operations suggests that laborers spend large proportions of time in nonneutral trunk postures and spend approximately 20% of their time performing manual material handling tasks. These results demonstrate how the PATH method can be used to identify specific construction operations and tasks that are ergonomically hazardous.

  4. Biosynthesis and characterization of a non-repetitive polypeptide derived from silk fibroin heavy chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gaoqiang; Wu, Mingyang; Yi, Honggen; Wang, Jiannan, E-mail: wangjn@suda.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin heavy chain is the major protein component of Bombyx mori silk fibroin and is composed of 12 repetitive and 11 non-repetitive regions, with the non-repetitive domain consisting of a hydrophilic polypeptide chain. In order to determine the biomedical function of the non-repetitive domain or potentially use it to modify hydrophobic biomaterials, high-purity isolation is necessary. Previously, we cloned and extended a gene motif (f(1)) encoding the non-repetitive domain. Here, this motif and its multimers are inserted into a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion-protein expression vector. Motif f(1) and multimers f(4) and f(8) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells following isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction, purified by GST-affinity chromatography, and single bands of purified fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8), were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Target polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8), were cleaved clearly from the GST-fusion tag following thrombin digestion. Mass spectrometry results indicate that the molecular weights associated with fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8) are 31.5, 43.8, and 59.0 kDa, respectively, and with the cleaved polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8) are 4.8, 16.8, and 32.8 kDa, respectively. The F(1), F(4), and F(8) polypeptide chains are negatively charged with isoelectric points (pI) of 3.3, 3.2, and 3.0, respectively. The molecular weight and pI values of the polypeptide chains are consistent with the predicted values and the amino acid compositions similar to predicted sequences. FTIR and CD results show the molecular conformation of F(1) was mainly random coil, and more stable α-helix structure formed in longer molecular chain. - Highlights: • A non-repetitive domain and its multimers of silk fibroin were expressed by E. coli. • The corresponding target polypeptides F(1), F(4) and F(8) were cleaved clearly. • Their

  5. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  6. A New Revised DNA Cramp Tool Based Approach of Chopping DNA Repetitive and Non-Repetitive Genome Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Hari Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vogue tremendous amount of data generated day by day by the living organism of genetic sequences and its accumulation in database, their size is growing in an exponential manner. Due to excessive storage of DNA sequences in public databases like NCBI, EMBL and DDBJ archival maintenance is tedious task. Transmission of information from one place to another place in network management systems is also a critical task. So To improve the efficiency and to reduce the overhead of the database need of compression arises in database optimization. In this connection different techniques were bloomed, but achieved results are not bountiful. Many classical algorithms are fails to compress genetic sequences due to the specificity of text encoded in dna and few of the existing techniques achieved positive results. DNA is repetitive and non repetitive in nature. Our proposed technique DNACRAMP is applicable on repetitive and non repetitive sequences of dna and it yields better compression ratio in terms of bits per bases. This is compared with existing techniques and observed that our one is the optimum technique and compression results are on par with existing techniques.

  7. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  8. Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand edu Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind. While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  9. Adaptive ILC algorithms of nonlinear continuous systems with non-parametric uncertainties for non-repetitive trajectory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lv, Mang-Mang; Ho, John K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, two adaptive iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms are presented for nonlinear continuous systems with non-parametric uncertainties. Unlike general ILC techniques, the proposed adaptive ILC algorithms allow that both the initial error at each iteration and the reference trajectory are iteration-varying in the ILC process, and can achieve non-repetitive trajectory tracking beyond a small initial time interval. Compared to the neural network or fuzzy system-based adaptive ILC schemes and the classical ILC methods, in which the number of iterative variables is generally larger than or equal to the number of control inputs, the first adaptive ILC algorithm proposed in this paper uses just two iterative variables, while the second even uses a single iterative variable provided that some bound information on system dynamics is known. As a result, the memory space in real-time ILC implementations is greatly reduced.

  10. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  11. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in ..... determinants of high blood pressure in a group of urban Nigerians. J. Hum. ... Endurance exercise effects on quality of life and menopausal ...

  12. Patterns of thermal constraint on ectotherm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Leal, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Thermal activity constraints play a major role in many aspects of ectotherm ecology, including vulnerability to climate change. Therefore, there is strong interest in developing general models of the temperature dependence of activity. Several models have been put forth (explicitly or implicitly) to describe such constraints; nonetheless, tests of the predictive abilities of these models are lacking. In addition, most models consider activity as a threshold trait instead of considering continuous changes in the vigor of activity among individuals. Using field data for a tropical lizard (Anolis cristatellus) and simulations parameterized by our observations, we determine how well various threshold and continuous-activity models match observed activity patterns. No models accurately predicted activity under all of the thermal conditions that we considered. In addition, simulations showed that the performance of threshold models decreased as temperatures increased, which is a troubling finding given the threat of global climate change. We also find that activity rates are more sensitive to temperature than are the physiological traits often used as a proxy for fitness. We present a model of thermal constraint on activity that integrates aspects of both the threshold model and the continuous-activity model, the general features of which are supported by activity data from other species. Overall, our results demonstrate that greater attention should be given to fine-scale patterns of thermal constraint on activity.

  13. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  14. Universal activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, Marco; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new universal pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent's contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We show this universal behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one's environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns constrain future models of com...

  15. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  16. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  17. Discovering patterns of activity in unstructured incident reports at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    2015 Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh , PA 15213 Discovering patterns of activity...patterns of activity in incident reports • US-CERT receives incident reports from a diverse constituency. • Each ticket is an observation of...patterns of activity in incident reports Indicators across tickets Indicators occur with diverse patterns across tickets, reporters and time. Time on

  18. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  19. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  20. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  1. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  2. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  3. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  4. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  5. Dynamic Labyrinthine Pattern in an Active Liquid Film

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We report the generation of a dynamic labyrinthine pattern in an active alcohol film. A dynamic labyrinthine pattern is formed along the contact line of air/pentanol/aqueous three phases. The contact line shows a clear time-dependent change with regard to both perimeter and area of a domain. An autocorrelation analysis of time-development of the dynamics of the perimeter and area revealed a strong geometric correlation between neighboring patterns. The pattern showed autoregressive behavior. The behavior of the dynamic pattern is strikingly different from those of stationary labyrinthine patterns. The essential aspects of the observed dynamic pattern are reproduced by a diffusion-controlled geometric model.

  6. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...

  7. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330

  9. Correlates of US adult physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sydney A; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Evenson, Kelly R

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns may be differentially associated with socio-demographic and health measures. We explored correlates of day-to-day patterns over a week in accelerometer measured physical activity and sedentary behavior to inform intervention development. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adult participants (≥20 years) in 2003-2006 wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Accelerometer data from 7236 participants were used to derive latent classes describing day-to-day patterns over a week of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Correlates of each pattern were identified using multinomial logistic regression from 21 potential variables grouped into four domains: socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history. Older age, female sex, higher body mass index, and history of chronic disease were consistently associated with lower odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. In contrast, being employed, speaking Spanish at home, and having better self-rated health were associated with higher odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were identified from all domains (socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history). Most correlates that were positively associated with physical activity were negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns can inform interventions to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120 observations......An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  11. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  12. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  13. Muscle activation patterns in posttraumatic neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes

    2003-01-01

    As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in mus

  14. The physical activity patterns of children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although motor deficits are gaining attention in autism research much less attention has been paid to the physical activity patterns in this group of children. The participants in this study were a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 72 between the ages of 9-18 years. This cross-sectional study explored the physical activity patterns of seventy-two children with autism spectrum disorder as they aged. Findings Results indicated significant differences between the mean time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and the mean time spent in sedentary activity. Older children with autism spectrum disorder are significantly more physically inactive, compared to younger children. Conclusions Physical activity programs and interventions need to address this deficit, in physical activity. Children with autism have a similar trend in physical activity patterns compared to their peers without autism; associated benefits and future research will be discussed.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  16. Objectively measured activity patterns among adults in residential aged care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, Natasha; Eakin, Elizabeth; Henwood, Timothy; Keogh, Justin W L; Senior, Hugh E; Gardiner, Paul A; Winkler, Elisabeth; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    .... Ambulatory, older (≥60 years) residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns...

  17. Electrical activity patterns and the functional maturation of the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-11-01

    At the earliest developmental stages, sensory neocortical areas in various species reveal distinct patterns of spontaneous neuronal network activity. These activity patterns either propagate over large neocortical areas or synchronize local neuronal ensembles. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that these spontaneous activity patterns are generated from neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex, in subcortical structures or in the sensory periphery (retina, cochlea, whiskers). At early stages spontaneous periphery-driven and also sensory evoked activity is relayed to the developing cerebral cortex via the thalamus and the neocortical subplate, which amplifies the afferent sensory input. These early local and large-scale neuronal activity patterns influence a variety of developmental processes during corticogenesis, such as neurogenesis, apoptosis, neuronal migration, differentiation and network formation. The experimental data also indicate that disturbances in early neuronal patterns may have an impact on the development of cortical layers, columns and networks. In this article we review our current knowledge on the origin of early electrical activity patterns in neocortical sensory areas and their functional implications on shaping developing cortical networks.

  18. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  19. CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS IN SENSE OF LEBESGUE-p NORM OF DECENTRALIZED NON-REPETITIVE ITERATIVE LEARNING CONTROL FOR LINEAR LARGE-SCALE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoe RUAN; Huizhuo WU; Na LI; Baiwu WAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized iterative learning control strategy is embedded into the procedure of hierarchical steady-state optimization for a class of linear large-scale industrial processes which consists of a number of subsystems. The task of the learning controller for each subsystem is to iteratively generate a sequence of upgraded control inputs to take responsibilities of a sequential step functional control signals with distinct scales which are determined by the local decision-making units in the two-layer hierarchical steady-state optimization processing. The objective of the designated strategy is to consecutively improve the transient performance of the system. By means of the generalized Young inequality of convolution integral, the convergence of the learning algorithm is analyzed in the sense of Lebesgue-p norm. It is shown that the inherent feature of system such as the multi-dimensionality and the interaction may influence the convergence of the non-repetitive learning rule. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the validity of the conclusion.

  20. Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Susan G; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Grootswagers, Tijl; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Carlson, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    Perceptual similarity is a cognitive judgment that represents the end-stage of a complex cascade of hierarchical processing throughout visual cortex. Previous studies have shown a correspondence between the similarity of coarse-scale fMRI activation patterns and the perceived similarity of visual stimuli, suggesting that visual objects that appear similar also share similar underlying patterns of neural activation. Here we explore the temporal relationship between the human brain's time-varying representation of visual patterns and behavioral judgments of perceptual similarity. The visual stimuli were abstract patterns constructed from identical perceptual units (oriented Gabor patches) so that each pattern had a unique global form or perceptual 'Gestalt'. The visual stimuli were decodable from evoked neural activation patterns measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG), however, stimuli differed in the similarity of their neural representation as estimated by differences in decodability. Early after stimulus onset (from 50ms), a model based on retinotopic organization predicted the representational similarity of the visual stimuli. Following the peak correlation between the retinotopic model and neural data at 80ms, the neural representations quickly evolved so that retinotopy no longer provided a sufficient account of the brain's time-varying representation of the stimuli. Overall the strongest predictor of the brain's representation was a model based on human judgments of perceptual similarity, which reached the limits of the maximum correlation with the neural data defined by the 'noise ceiling'. Our results show that large-scale brain activation patterns contain a neural signature for the perceptual Gestalt of composite visual features, and demonstrate a strong correspondence between perception and complex patterns of brain activity.

  1. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain......Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity...... do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms...

  2. Activity Patterns in a Subterranean Social Rodent, Spalacopus cyanus (Octodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Sabine; Daan, S.; Burda, H.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Tomasi, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Daily patterns of activity were studied under laboratory conditions in 12 coruros, Spalacopus cyanus, subterranean social rodents originally from Chile. When able to burrow, coruros spent 90% of the total time underground, and surface activity occurred during the 1st hours of darkness. When prevente

  3. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  4. Oral Electromyography Activation Patterns for Speech Are Similar in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors determined whether basic patterns of muscle activation for speech were similar in preschool children who stutter and in their fluent peers. Method: Right and left lower lip muscle activity were recorded during conversational speech and sentence repetition in 64 preschool children diagnosed as stuttering (CWS)…

  5. Are muscle activation patterns altered during shod and barefoot running with a forefoot footfall pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-09-14

    This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.

  6. Finding discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Germain; Petitjean, François; Senin, Pavel; Riffaud, Laurent; Henaux, Pierre-Louis; Jannin, Pierre

    2017-09-21

    Surgery is one of the riskiest and most important medical acts that is performed today. Understanding the ways in which surgeries are similar or different from each other is of major interest to understand and analyze surgical behaviors. This article addresses the issue of identifying discriminative patterns of surgical practice from recordings of surgeries. These recordings are sequences of low-level surgical activities representing the actions performed by surgeons during surgeries. To discover patterns that are specific to a group of surgeries, we use the vector space model (VSM) which is originally an algebraic model for representing text documents. We split long sequences of surgical activities into subsequences of consecutive activities. We then compute the relative frequencies of these subsequences using the tf*idf framework and we use the Cosine similarity to classify the sequences. This process makes it possible to discover which patterns discriminate one set of surgeries recordings from another set. Experiments were performed on 40 neurosurgeries of anterior cervical discectomy (ACD). The results demonstrate that our method accurately identifies patterns that can discriminate between (1) locations where the surgery took place, (2) levels of expertise of surgeons (i.e., expert vs. intermediate) and even (3) individual surgeons who performed the intervention. We also show how the tf*idf weight vector can be used to both visualize the most interesting patterns and to highlight the parts of a given surgery that are the most interesting. Identifying patterns that discriminate groups of surgeon is a very important step in improving the understanding of surgical processes. The proposed method finds discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities. Our approach provides intuitive results, as it identifies automatically the set of patterns explaining the differences between the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Atypical epigenetic mark in an atypical location: cytosine methylation at asymmetric (CNN sites within the body of a non-repetitive tomato gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iusem Norberto D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic DNA methylation is one of the most studied epigenetic processes, as it results in a direct and heritable covalent modification triggered by external stimuli. In contrast to mammals, plant DNA methylation, which is stimulated by external cues exemplified by various abiotic types of stress, is often found not only at CG sites but also at CNG (N denoting A, C or T and CNN (asymmetric sites. A genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has shown that CNN methylation is preferentially concentrated in transposon genes and non-coding repetitive elements. We are particularly interested in investigating the epigenetics of plant species with larger and more complex genomes than Arabidopsis, particularly with regards to the associated alterations elicited by abiotic stress. Results We describe the existence of CNN-methylated epialleles that span Asr1, a non-transposon, protein-coding gene from tomato plants that lacks an orthologous counterpart in Arabidopsis. In addition, to test the hypothesis of a link between epigenetics modifications and the adaptation of crop plants to abiotic stress, we exhaustively explored the cytosine methylation status in leaf Asr1 DNA, a model gene in our system, resulting from water-deficit stress conditions imposed on tomato plants. We found that drought conditions brought about removal of methyl marks at approximately 75 of the 110 asymmetric (CNN sites analysed, concomitantly with a decrease of the repressive H3K27me3 epigenetic mark and a large induction of expression at the RNA level. When pinpointing those sites, we observed that demethylation occurred mostly in the intronic region. Conclusions These results demonstrate a novel genomic distribution of CNN methylation, namely in the transcribed region of a protein-coding, non-repetitive gene, and the changes in those epigenetic marks that are caused by water stress. These findings may represent a general mechanism for the

  8. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  9. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  10. Discovering urban activity patterns in cell phone data

    OpenAIRE

    Widhalm, Peter; Yang, Yingxiang; Ulm, Michael; Athavale, Shounak; Gonzalez, Marta C.

    2015-01-01

    Massive and passive data such as cell phone traces provide samples of the whereabouts and movements of individuals. These are a potential source of information for models of daily activities in a city. The main challenge is that phone traces have low spatial precision and are sparsely sampled in time, which requires a precise set of techniques for mining hidden valuable information they contain. Here we propose a method to reveal activity patterns that emerge from cell phone data by analyzing...

  11. Time activity patterns: a case of south Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available be insufficient to adequately represent the time-activity patterns of the south Durban population. Particular factors include, among others, the amount of time spent in varying microenvironments and the drivers for time spent in these microenvironments. Therefore...

  12. Activity Involvement in Aging Women: Career Pattern and Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole Kovalic

    Some research has found that women's retirement from the labor force produces significant changes in their lives and requires further investigation. The effects of career pattern and retirement on activity involvement and life satisfaction for women who had been in the work force was investigated. Subjects were members of the Terman Study of the…

  13. Muscle activation patterns in patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512

  14. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-05

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  15. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  16. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  17. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  18. Sleep-related electrodermal activity patterns in impotent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J C; Karacan, I; Salis, P J; Thornby, J; Hirshkowitz, M

    1984-01-01

    The etiology of erectile failure is not always clear despite the fact that recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) are used to detect patients with a significant organic component to their complaint. We recorded electrodermal activity in addition to NPT in 60 impotent patients. Normally more electrodermal activity occurs in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Despite a similar total amount of electrodermal activity, organically impotent patients tended to have less electrodermal activity in stage 2 and more in stage REM sleep than those with normal NPT. This difference was due to a subgroup of 15 organically impotent patients with less electrodermal activity in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Because of this difference in the pattern of electrodermal activity in relation to sleep stages, the results suggest a central nervous system change is related to impaired erectile capability and abnormal NPT in these cases.

  19. Circadian pattern and burstiness in human communication activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    The temporal pattern of human communication is inhomogeneous and bursty, as reflected by the heavy tail distribution of the inter-event times. For the origin of this behavior two main mechanisms have been suggested: a) Externally driven inhomogeneities due to the circadian and weekly activity patterns and b) intrinsic correlation based inhomogeneity rooted deeply in the task handling strategies of humans. Here we address this question by providing systematic de-seasoning methods to remove the circadian and weekly patterns from the time series of communication events. We find that the heavy tails of the inter-event time distributions are robust with respect to this procedure indicating that burstiness is mostly caused by the latter mechanism b). Moreover, we find that our de-seasoning procedure improves the scaling behavior of the distribution.

  20. Communities in Neuronal Complex Networks Revealed by Activation Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the communities in neuronal networks of the integrate-and-fire type can be identified by considering patterns containing the beginning times for each cell to receive the first non-zero activation. The received activity was integrated in order to facilitate the spiking of each neuron and to constrain the activation inside the communities, but no time decay of such activation was considered. The present article shows that, by taking into account exponential decays of the stored activation, it is possible to identify the communities also in terms of the patterns of activation along the initial steps of the transient dynamics. The potential of this method is illustrated with respect to complex neuronal networks involving four communities, each of a different type (Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'eny, Barab\\'asi-Albert, Watts-Strogatz as well as a simple geographical model). Though the consideration of activation decay has been found to enhance the communities separation, too intense decays tend to y...

  1. Persistent dynamic attractors in activity patterns of cultured neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Nadasdy, Zoltan; Potter, Steve M.

    2006-05-01

    Three remarkable features of the nervous system—complex spatiotemporal patterns, oscillations, and persistent activity—are fundamental to such diverse functions as stereotypical motor behavior, working memory, and awareness. Here we report that cultured cortical networks spontaneously generate a hierarchical structure of periodic activity with a strongly stereotyped population-wide spatiotemporal structure demonstrating all three fundamental properties in a recurring pattern. During these “superbursts,” the firing sequence of the culture periodically converges to a dynamic attractor orbit. Precursors of oscillations and persistent activity have previously been reported as intrinsic properties of the neurons. However, complex spatiotemporal patterns that are coordinated in a large population of neurons and persist over several hours—and thus are capable of representing and preserving information—cannot be explained by known oscillatory properties of isolated neurons. Instead, the complexity of the observed spatiotemporal patterns implies large-scale self-organization of neurons interacting in a precise temporal order even in vitro, in cultures usually considered to have random connectivity.

  2. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  3. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  4. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke eOztekin; David eBadre

    2011-01-01

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting Ilke Öztekin1* and David Badre2,3 1 Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA 3 Brown Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Proactive interference (PI), in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely...

  5. Obstetrician practice patterns and recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2010-09-01

    Many women do not attain minimum American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy. This study assessed the self-reported practice patterns and recommendations of 384 obstetricians working in Texas through a mailed survey on physical activity during pregnancy. The most common exercise elements routinely collected from pregnant women included types of exercise (81%), history of exercise before pregnancy (79%), and frequency of exercise (76%). Fewer obstetricians collected duration (68%) or intensity (69%) of exercise. The percentage of obstetricians recommending avoidance of nine household activities and exercises (including lifting groceries, starting a new exercise program, or participating in walking, jogging, or bicycling) was significantly higher with each successive trimester. Most obstetricians agreed that pregnant women would gain some benefit from mild exercise (99.5%), but fewer agreed that moderate (74%) or vigorous exercise (6%) would be beneficial. Sixty-two percent of obstetricians reported that women who have never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Almost all participants agreed that physical activity might make a woman feel more energetic (98%) and improve her labor and delivery (89%), but fewer agreed that exercise during pregnancy causes lower weight babies (23%) or could trigger labor (18%). Dissemination of current recommendations and discussion about the benefits and risks of physical activity during pregnancy, such as through continuing education, appear warranted. Future research could address the causes of disparities between self-reported practice patterns and current ACOG guidelines.

  6. Retrieving binary answers using whole-brain activity pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Eiji Nawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA has been successfully employed to advance our understanding of where and how information regarding different mental states is represented in the human brain, bringing new insights into how these states come to fruition, and providing a promising complement to the mass-univariate approach. Here, we employed MVPA to classify whole-brain activity patterns occurring in single fMRI scans, in order to retrieve binary answers from experiment participants. Five healthy volunteers performed two types of mental task while in the MRI scanner: counting down numbers and recalling positive autobiographical events. Data from these runs were used to train individual machine learning based classifiers that predicted which mental task was being performed based on the voxel-based brain activity patterns. On a different day, the same volunteers reentered the scanner and listened to six statements (e.g., the month you were born is an odd number, and were told to countdown numbers if the statement was true (yes or recall positive events otherwise (no. The previously trained classifiers were then used to assign labels (yes/no to the scans collected during the 24-second response periods following each one of the statements. Mean classification accuracies at the single scan level were in the range of 73.6% to 80.8%, significantly above chance for all participants. When applying a majority vote on the scans within each response period, i.e., the most frequent label (yes/no in the response period becomes the answer to the previous statement, 5.0 to 5.8 sentences, out of 6, were correctly classified in each one of the runs, on average. These results indicate that binary answers can be retrieved from whole-brain activity patterns, suggesting that MVPA provides an alternative way to establish basic communication with unresponsive patients when other techniques are not successful.

  7. Automatic Camera Calibration Using Active Displays of a Virtual Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Wang, Yaonan; Yu, Hongshan; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-03-27

    Camera calibration plays a critical role in 3D computer vision tasks. The most commonly used calibration method utilizes a planar checkerboard and can be done nearly fully automatically. However, it requires the user to move either the camera or the checkerboard during the capture step. This manual operation is time consuming and makes the calibration results unstable. In order to solve the above problems caused by manual operation, this paper presents a full-automatic camera calibration method using a virtual pattern instead of a physical one. The virtual pattern is actively transformed and displayed on a screen so that the control points of the pattern can be uniformly observed in the camera view. The proposed method estimates the camera parameters from point correspondences between 2D image points and the virtual pattern. The camera and the screen are fixed during the whole process; therefore, the proposed method does not require any manual operations. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated through experiments on both synthetic and real data. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve stable results and its accuracy is comparable to the standard method by Zhang.

  8. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  9. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  10. Environmental influences on activity patterns in altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weer, A-S; Da Ros, M; Berré, J; Mélot, C; Goldman, S; Peigneux, P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in disorders of consciousness (DOC) circadian variations in motor patterns and their possible synchronization with physiologically regulated light variations and/or a social environmental factor, i.e. presence and actions of other persons. Actimetric and ambient light levels recordings were obtained during 4-9 days in two patients with traumatic brain injury (TB1 and TB2) in a minimally conscious state (MCS), one MCS (AI1) and one comatose (AI2) anoxic-ischaemic patients. Environmental changes were automatically recorded using a video system. Minute light variations correlated with motor activity in all patients. However, motor activity was significantly higher during day than nighttime and correlated with social environmental changes, in patients TB1 and TB2 only. Night-day circadian variations in motor activity patterns and influence of social stimulations were observed in traumatic MCS patients only. Nonetheless, rapid light variations may temporarily promote increased arousal, and consequently motor activity, in all DOCs. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  11. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  12. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  13. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  14. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  15. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: a demographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (WP as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  16. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: A demographic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Kerétsz, János

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e. editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  17. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  19. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  20. Toward a taxonomy of autonomic sleep patterns with electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akane; Picard, Rosalind W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a first version of a taxonomy of automatic sleep patterns found with the Affectiva Q™ Sensor, a wireless, logging biosensor that measures skin conductance, skin temperature, and motion comfortably from the wrist. Several studies have examined electrodermal activity (EDA) during sleep, but they focused on an analysis of EDA for only a small number of nights. We quantitatively analyzed EDA during sleep in three study situations: (1) Comparing EDA with polysomnography (PSG) from seven subjects in a sleep lab, (2) Characterizing multiple nights of EDA in a sleep lab, in a hospital and at home from 24 subjects, and (3) Gathering long-term EDA (30-60 nights) patterns from three subjects during home sleep. After gathering this rich corpus of data, we characterized inter- and intra-individual differences of EDA features and the relation of EDA peaks to subjective sleep quality. Here we present results from the three studies in an effort to begin to characterize autonomic patterns found in natural sleep.

  1. Cortical Activity Patterns in ADHD during Arousal, Activation and Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Macion, James; Hanada, Grant; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study is to test whether there are Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-related differences in brain electrical activity patterns across arousal, activation and vigilance states. Method: The sample consists of 80 adults (38 with ADHD and 42 non-ADHD controls) who were recruited for a family study on…

  2. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  3. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  4. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  5. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  6. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  7. Microenvironmental time-activity patterns in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHAO; Shuxiao WANG; Gangcai CHEN; Fei WANG; Kristin AUNAN; Jiming HAO

    2009-01-01

    An investigation using recall questionnaires was conducted in winter and autumn 2006 to evaluate the time-activity patterns in Chongqing, China. The average time spent in seven microenvironments (MEs) including outdoors, transit, living room, bedroom, kitchen, classroom/office, and other indoors were found to be about 3.5,1.1, 2.5, 9.7, 1.4, 4.2, and 1.7 h per day, respectively.According to the results of a nonparametric test, the sampling period and day of week were significant for the variation of the time spent in all MEs except for transit and outdoors. The time budget was analyzed using a general linear model (GLM), which exhibited significant variability by demographic factors such as gender, age,residence, education, and household income.

  8. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Uspal, W E; Dietrich, S; Tasinkevych, M

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governi...

  9. Repeating Patterns in Kindergarten: Findings from Children's Enactments of Two Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther S.; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes kindergarten children's engagement with two patterning activities. The first activity includes two tasks in which children are asked to choose possible ways for extending two different repeating patterns and the second activity calls for comparing different pairs of repeating patterns. Children's recognition of the unit of…

  10. How Situational Context Impacts Empathic Responses and Brain Activation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawei; Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i.e., in a hospital or at home). Participants with longer hospital terms evaluated pain as less negative in valence and arousal when occurring in a hospital context, but not in a home context. Physical pain perceived in a hospital compared to a home context produced stronger activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). The reverse comparison resulted in an increased activity in the insula and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Mediation analysis indicated that reduced personal accomplishment, a symptom of burnout, breaks down the mediation effect of the putamen on context-dependent valence ratings. Overall, the study demonstrates how situational contexts significantly influence individuals' empathic processing, and that perceiving reward from patient care protects them from burnout. Highlights -Differences in behavior ratings and brain activations between medical practitioners perceiving others' pain in a hospital and at home.-Situational contexts significantly influence individual's empathic processing.-Perceiving rewards from patient care protects medical practitioners from burnout.-Empathy is a flexible phenomenon.

  11. How Situational Context Impacts Empathic Responses and Brain Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient’s experience and feelings from the patient’s perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i.e., in a hospital or at home. Participants with longer hospital terms evaluated pain as less negative in valence and arousal when occurring in a hospital context, but not in a home context. Physical pain perceived in a hospital compared to a home context produced stronger activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ. The reverse comparison resulted in an increased activity in the insula and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC. Mediation analysis indicated that reduced personal accomplishment, a symptom of burnout, breaks down the mediation effect of the putamen on context-dependent valence ratings. Overall, the study demonstrates how situational contexts significantly influence individuals’ empathic processing, and that perceiving reward from patient care protects them from burnout.Highlights-Differences in behavior ratings and brain activations between medical practitioners perceiving others’ pain in a hospital and at home.-Situational contexts significantly influence individual’s empathic processing.-Perceiving rewards from patient care protects medical practitioners from burnout.-Empathy is a flexible phenomenon.

  12. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  13. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  16. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  17. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed. The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  18. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2012-06-06

    Variability exists in children's activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed.The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  19. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH or low active (LOW depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P P  The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  20. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  1. Detection and identification of speech sounds using cortical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Sloan, A M; Reed, A C; Engineer, C T; Rennaker, R L; Kilgard, M P

    2014-01-31

    We have developed a classifier capable of locating and identifying speech sounds using activity from rat auditory cortex with an accuracy equivalent to behavioral performance and without the need to specify the onset time of the speech sounds. This classifier can identify speech sounds from a large speech set within 40 ms of stimulus presentation. To compare the temporal limits of the classifier to behavior, we developed a novel task that requires rats to identify individual consonant sounds from a stream of distracter consonants. The classifier successfully predicted the ability of rats to accurately identify speech sounds for syllable presentation rates up to 10 syllables per second (up to 17.9 ± 1.5 bits/s), which is comparable to human performance. Our results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal patterns generated in primary auditory cortex can be used to quickly and accurately identify consonant sounds from a continuous speech stream without prior knowledge of the stimulus onset times. Improved understanding of the neural mechanisms that support robust speech processing in difficult listening conditions could improve the identification and treatment of a variety of speech-processing disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  3. Patterns of Physical Activity Outside of School Time among Japanese Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is beneficial for adolescent health. The physical activity patterns of Japanese adolescents are relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current patterns of physical activity and to identify sex and grade differences among them. Methods: The participants comprised 714 Japanese adolescents aged…

  4. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Stoyanova, Irina; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods

  5. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  6. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  8. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  9. An investigation of patterns of children's sedentary and vigorous physical activity throughout the week

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Rebekah M; van Sluijs, Esther Mf; Sharp, Stephen J; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Participation in higher intensity activity (i.e. vigorous physical activity [VPA]) appears more consistently associated with lower adiposity, unfortunately little is known about the nature and patterns of VPA participation in children...

  10. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  11. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2013-12-01

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  12. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (pmuscles into activation patterns (pmuscles with different patterns react differently to treatment.

  13. Design and Analysis of a Silicon-Based Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna Employing an Active Element Pattern Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a silicon-based radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems (RF MEMS pattern reconfigurable antenna for a Ka-band application was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and measured. The proposed antenna can steer the beam among three radiating patterns (with main lobe directions of −20°, 0°, and +20° approximately at 35 GHz by switching RF MEMS operating modes. The antenna has a low profile with a small size of 3.7 mm × 4.4 mm × 0.4 mm, and consists of one driven patch, four parasitic patches, two assistant patches, and two RF MEMS switches. The active element pattern method integrated with signal flow diagram was employed to analyze the performances of the proposed antenna. Comparing the measured results with analytical and simulated ones, good agreements are obtained.

  14. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  15. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  16. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  17. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  18. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    subjective estimate of their activity level over the past week using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE).3 This instrument dealt with...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November

  19. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring daily activities of a person has many potential benefits in pervasive computing. These include providing proactive support for the elderly and monitoring anomalous behaviors. A typical approach in existing research on activity detection is to construct sequence-based models of low-leve...

  20. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  1. Disease activity patterns over time in patients with SLE: analysis of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györi, Noémi; Giannakou, Ioanna; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Magder, Laurence; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe SLE disease activity patterns in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. Methods Disease activity was studied in 1886 patients followed-up for 1–28 years. Disease activity patterns were defined using (1) Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and (2) modified SLE Disease Activity Index (M-SLEDAI) as follows: long quiescent (LQ), M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0 at all visits; relapsing-remitting (RR), periods of activity (M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0) interspersed with inactivity (M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0); chronic active (CA), M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0 at all visits. The pattern of first 3 consecutive follow-up years was determined in 916 patients as: persistent LQ (pLQ), persistent RR (pRR) and persistent CA (pCA), LQ, RR and CA pattern in each of the 3 years, respectively; mixed, at least two different pattern types were identified. Results The RR pattern accounted for the greatest proportion of follow-up time both by M-SLEDAI and PGA, representing 53.8% and 49.9% of total patient-years, respectively. The second most frequent pattern was LQ based on M-SLEDAI (30.7%) and CA based on PGA (40.4%). For the first 3-year intervals, the mixed pattern type was the most common (56.6%). The pRR was the second most frequent (M-SLEDAI 33.3%, PGA 26.5%), while pLQ (M-SLEDAI 6.4%, PGA 0.7%) and pCA were less frequent (M-SLEDAI 3.7%, PGA 16.3%). Conclusions The RR pattern was the most prevalent pattern. LQ was achieved in a subset of patients, using the M-SLEDAI. However, the PGA captured mild activity missed on the M-SLEDAI in these patients. Over a 3-year perspective, less than half of patients maintained their original pattern. PMID:28243457

  2. epSICAR: An Emerging Patterns based Approach to Sequential, Interleaved and Concurrent Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping;

    2009-01-01

    upon the training dataset for complex activities, we build our activity models by mining a set of Emerging Patterns from the sequential activity trace only and apply our models in recognizing sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities. We conduct our empirical studies in a real smart home...

  3. Activity patterns in latissimus dorsi and sternocleidomastoid in classical singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan H D; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical activity and mammographic parenchymal patterns among Greek postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmara, Eleni A; Papacharalambous, Xenofon N; Kouloulias, Vassilios E; Maridaki, D Maria; Baltopoulos, J Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    To examine whether physical activity during the last five years is related to later breast mammographic density in postmenopausal Greek women. We designed a cross-sectional study in 724 women, of ages 45-67 years. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on duration and intensity of recreational physical activity during five years preceding study recruitment. Mammograms were evaluated according to BIRADS classification and BIRADS score was also estimated. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between physical activity index and breast density according to the BIRADS classification methods. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of mammographic breast density measured by the BIRADS classification method and recreational exercise (OR=-0.10; 95% CI -0.018, -0.001; p=0.022). For one unit increase in physical activity as expressed by the MET-h/week score, the odds of lower versus higher breast density categories are 1.105 greater, given that all of the other variables in the model are held constant. A modifying effect by age at recruitment was evident among participants, with a stronger inverse association between recreational activity and mammographic breast density among older women (OR=-0.036; 95% CI -0.063, -0.009; p=0.009). An inverse association between physical activity and BIRADS score was evident, not reaching statistical significance (OR=0.00; 95% CI -0.009, 0.008; p=0.887). Mammographic breast area was lower in postmenopausal women who participated in sports/recreational physical activity compared to inactive controls. Increasing physical activity levels among postmenopausal women might be a reasonable approach to reduce mammographic density. However, until more physical activity and mammographic breast density studies are conducted that confirm our findings, they have to be interpreted with caution, due to the retrospective nature of our data and the possibility of

  5. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  6. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  7. Modelling the emergence of spatial patterns of economic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. A simple model was proposed by Simon, who assumed that firms grow at a rate proportional to their size, and that new divisions of firms with certain probabilities relocate to other firms or to new centres of economic activity. Simon's model produces realistic results in the sense that the sizes of economic centres follow a Zipf distribution, which is also observed in reality. It lacks realism in the sense that mechanisms such as cluster formation, congestion (defined as an overly high density of the same activities) and dependence on the spatial distribution of external parties (clients, labour markets) are ignored. The present paper proposed an extension of the Simon model that includes both centripetal and centrifugal forces. Centripetal forces are included in the sense that firm divisions are more likely to settle in locations that offer a higher accessibility to other fi...

  8. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  9. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo

    2014-01-01

    ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e., interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self...

  10. Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, H; Kentel, B; Tümer, S T; Korkusuz, F

    2003-02-01

    A contraction and relaxation strategy with regard to forearm muscles during the release of the bowstring has often been observed during archery, but has not well been described. The purpose of this study was to analyze this strategy in archers with different levels of expertise; elite, beginner and non-archers. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum were recorded at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz, together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap, for twelve shots by each subject. Raw EMG records, 1-s before and after the clicker pulse, were rectified, integrated and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for each group. All subjects including non-archers developed an active contraction of the M. extensor digitorum and a gradual relaxation of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis with the fall of the clicker. In elite archers release started about 100 ms after the fall of the clicker, whereas in beginners and non-archers release started after about 200 and 300 ms, respectively. Non-archers displayed a preparation phase involving extensive extensor activity before the release of the bowstring, which was not observed in elite and beginner archers. In conclusion, archers released the bowstring by active contraction of the forearm extensors, whereas a clear relaxation of the forearm flexors affecting the release movement was not observed.

  11. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, D; Rogosch, F A

    2001-01-01

    Cortisol regulation was investigated in a sample of school-aged maltreated (n = 175) and demographically comparable low-income nonmaltreated (n = 209) children in the context of a day camp research program. Overall group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were not found for average morning or average afternoon cortisol levels. However, significant variations were found that were based on the subtypes of maltreatment that the children had experienced. Maltreated children who had been both physically and sexually abused (as well as neglected or emotionally maltreated) exhibited substantial elevations in morning cortisol levels; children who had high (>1 SD) cortisol levels in both the morning and afternoon were also overrepresented in the multiple abuse group. Developmental timing of maltreatment did not account for these group differences, whereas the severity of sexual abuse was implicated. In contrast to the multiple abuse group, a subgroup of physically abused children showed evidence of a trend toward lower morning cortisol relative to nonmaltreated children with a significantly smaller decrease in cortisol levels from morning to afternoon. The findings are discussed in terms of the diversity of atypical cortisol regulation patterns that are exhibited among maltreated children.

  12. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  13. Homelessness, mental illness, and criminal activity: examining patterns over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sean N; Shinn, Marybeth; Shrout, Patrick; Tsemberis, Sam

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over time. Results indicated that homelessness both on the streets and in shelters and psychological symptom severity predicted increases in non-violent crime. Sheltered homelessness and symptom severity predicted increases in violent crime, although street homelessness did not. A separate mediational analysis with 181 participants showed that the relationship between diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and both non-violent and violent criminal activity was partially mediated through the severity of psychotic symptoms. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  14. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network. PMID:22956678

  15. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  16. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and middle cingulate cortex (MCC. Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP, the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P<0.005. Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  17. Adaptive intesration of local resion information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN ZongLei; TIAN Jie; ZHANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro-vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es-tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat-terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com-bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho-mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat-terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  18. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, LG; Strijkstra, AM; Hut, RA; Hoffmann, IE; Millesi, E

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Abov

  19. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  20. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  1. Pattern Discovery for the Design of Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Maria Francisca; Nussbaum, Miguel; Marshall, Guillermo; Lagos, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of discovering social action patterns in collaborative learning activities for use in improving activity design, and in particular for restructuring existing designs involving face-to-face social actions to enhance their social dynamics and thus better ensure the achievement of a specified aim. An activity in this…

  2. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  3. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  4. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  5. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE AVAILABILITY ON ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF CAROLLIA CASTANEA (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE) IN PANAMA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    2006-01-01

    ...) and abiotic (i.e., weather and lunar cycle) factors. We studied the influence of ambient light, rain, sex, and resource availability on the activity pattern of the neotropical chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea; Phyllostomidae...

  6. Notes on the activity patterns of 12 species of southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Otomys irroratus, en loop parallel met die ritme van die genus. Microtus. Dit word .... ('Buses' are wires carrying ..... pressures, may adopt similar patterns of activity beha- viour. .... Palmer in drawing many of the figures in the paper, and.

  7. Immature pattern of brain activity in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Friberg, L; Lou, H;

    1990-01-01

    69 mL/100 g per minute), and the flows in prefrontal and temporoparietal association regions of the telencephalon were markedly reduced, whereas the primary sensorimotor regions were relatively spared. The flow distribution in Rett syndrome is very similar to the distribution of brain metabolic...... activity in infants of a few months of age. The abnormal regional cerebral blood flow distribution most likely reflects the widespread functional disturbances in the brain of patients with Rett syndrome, whereas computed tomographic and neuropathologic examination only reveal slight changes when compared...

  8. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  9. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our......Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not only a single user, but also multiple users is essential to the development of practical context-aware applications in pervasive computing. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental problem of recognizing activities for multiple users from...

  10. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  11. Fractal patterns of neural activity exist within the suprachiasmatic nucleus and require extrinsic network interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Meijer, Johanna H; Shea, Steven A; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Houben, Thijs; van Oosterhout, Floor; Deboer, Tom; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central circadian pacemaker (the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) contains thousands of neurons that are coupled through a complex network of interactions. In addition to the established role of the SCN in generating rhythms of ~24 hours in many physiological functions, the SCN was recently shown to be necessary for normal self-similar/fractal organization of motor activity and heart rate over a wide range of time scales--from minutes to 24 hours. To test whether the neural network within the SCN is sufficient to generate such fractal patterns, we studied multi-unit neural activity of in vivo and in vitro SCNs in rodents. In vivo SCN-neural activity exhibited fractal patterns that are virtually identical in mice and rats and are similar to those in motor activity at time scales from minutes up to 10 hours. In addition, these patterns remained unchanged when the main afferent signal to the SCN, namely light, was removed. However, the fractal patterns of SCN-neural activity are not autonomous within the SCN as these patterns completely broke down in the isolated in vitro SCN despite persistence of circadian rhythmicity. Thus, SCN-neural activity is fractal in the intact organism and these fractal patterns require network interactions between the SCN and extra-SCN nodes. Such a fractal control network could underlie the fractal regulation observed in many physiological functions that involve the SCN, including motor control and heart rate regulation.

  12. Fibrinogen patterns and activity on substrates with tailored hydroxy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, José Carlos; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-08-11

    The influence of the surface fraction of OH groups on fibrinogen (FG) adsorption is investigated in copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethylacrylate. The amount of adsorbed FG, quantified by western-blotting combined with image analysis of the corresponding bands, decreases as the hydrophilicity of the substrate increases. The influence of substrate wettability on FG conformation and distribution is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most hydrophobic substrate promotes FG fibrillogenesis, which leads to a fibrin-like appearance in the absence of any thrombin. The degree of FG interconnection was quantified by calculating the fractal dimension of the adsorbed protein from image analysis of the AFM results. The biological activity of the adsorbed FG is correlated to cell adhesion on FG-coated substrates.

  13. Modelling spatial patterns of economic activity in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen; Van Oort, Frank; Visser, Evert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. Not only micro-simulation and agent-based model such as UrbanSim, ILUMAS and SIMFIRMS, but also Simon's model of hierarchical concentration have widely applied, for this purpose. These models, however, have limitations with respect to simulating structural changes in spatial economic systems and the impact of proximity. The present paper proposes a model of firm development that is based on behavioural rules such as growth, closure, spin-off and relocation. An important aspect of the model is that locational preferences of firms are based on agglomeration advantages, accessibility of markets and congestion, allowing for a proper description of concentration and deconcentration tendencies. By comparing the outcomes of the proposed model with real world data, we will calibrate the parameters and assess how well the model predicts existing spatial configurations and decide. The...

  14. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  15. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  16. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  17. Conformal Array Pattern Synthesis and Activated Elements Selection Strategy Based on PSOGSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern synthesis and activated element selection for conformal array is investigated based on hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (PSOGSA in this paper. With the introduction of PSOGSA algorithm which is a novel hybrid optimization technique, the element excitations are optimized to obtain the desired pattern for conformal array in the case of considering uncoupled and coupled element pattern. Numerical simulation and full-wave electromagnetic calculation verify the advantage and efficiency of our method. Then, a novel strategy of activated element selection based on PSOGSA algorithm is proposed for saving the energy consumption in conformal array.

  18. Temporal pattern of stimulation modulates reflex bladder activation by pudendal nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-11-01

    Reflex bladder activation and inhibition by electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve (PN) afferents is a promising approach to restore control of bladder function in persons with lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by disease or injury. The objective of this work was to determine whether bladder activation evoked by pudendal afferent stimulation was dependent on the temporal pattern of stimulation, and whether specific temporal patterns of stimulation produced larger bladder contractions than constant frequency stimulation. The mean and maximum contraction pressures evoked by different temporal patterns of stimulation of the dorsal genital branch of the pudendal nerve were measured under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anesthetized cats. A computational model of the spinal neural network mediating the pudendo-vesical reflex was used to understand the mechanisms of different bladder responses to patterned stimulation. The pattern of stimulation significantly affected the magnitude of evoked bladder contractions; several temporal patterns were as effective as regular stimulation, but no pattern evoked larger bladder contractions. Random patterns and patterns with pauses, burst-like activity, or high frequency components evoked significantly smaller bladder contractions, supporting the use of regular frequency stimulation in the development of neural prosthetic approaches for bladder control. These results reveal that the bladder response to pudendal afferent stimulation is dependent on the pattern, as well as the frequency, of stimulation. The computational model revealed that the effects of patterned pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by the dynamic properties of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:882-887, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  20. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into

  1. Variation in actigraphy-estimated rest-activity patterns by demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Quante, Mirja; Godbole, Suneeta; James, Peter; Hipp, J Aaron; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-06-26

    Rest-activity patterns provide an indication of circadian rhythmicity in the free-living setting. We aimed to describe the distributions of rest-activity patterns in a sample of adults and children across demographic variables. A sample of adults (N = 590) and children (N = 58) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days and nights. We generated rest-activity patterns from cosinor analysis (MESOR, acrophase and magnitude) and nonparametric circadian rhythm analysis (IS: interdaily stability; IV: intradaily variability; L5: least active 5-hour period; M10: most active 10-hour period; and RA: relative amplitude). Demographic variables included age, sex, race, education, marital status, and income. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for demographic differences in rest-activity patterns. Adolescents, compared to younger children, had (1) later M10 midpoints (β = 1.12 hours [95% CI: 0.43, 1.18] and lower M10 activity levels; (2) later L5 midpoints (β = 1.6 hours [95% CI: 0.9, 2.3]) and lower L5 activity levels; (3) less regular rest-activity patterns (lower IS and higher IV); and 4) lower magnitudes (β = -0.95 [95% CI: -1.28, -0.63]) and relative amplitudes (β = -0.1 [95% CI: -0.14, -0.06]). Mid-to-older adults, compared to younger adults (aged 18-29 years), had (1) earlier M10 midpoints (β = -1.0 hours [95% CI: -1.6, -0.4]; (2) earlier L5 midpoints (β = -0.7 hours [95% CI: -1.2, -0.2]); and (3) more regular rest-activity patterns (higher IS and lower IV). The magnitudes and relative amplitudes were similar across the adult age categories. Sex, race and education level rest-activity differences were also observed. Rest-activity patterns vary across the lifespan, and differ by race, sex and education. Understanding population variation in these patterns provides a foundation for further elucidating the health implications of rest-activity patterns across the lifespan.

  2. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  3. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  4. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A; Pierro, Louis J; Upholt, William B; Dealy, Caroline N

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or apical ectodermal ridge (AER), but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  5. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing human activities from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing due to its potential in many applications such as assistive living and healthcare. This task is particularly challenging because human activities are often performed in not only...... in real life because activities can be interleaved and performed concurrently in many different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative pattern...... that describes significant changes between classes of data—to identify sensor features for classifying activities. Different from existing learning-based approaches which require different training datasets for building activity models, our activity models are built upon the sequential activity trace only...

  6. Physical activity patterns of inner-city elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; McCoy, Tara A; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Mallya, Giridhar; Duffy, Meghan L; Foster, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to objectively measure the physical activity (PA) characteristics of a racially and ethnically diverse sample of inner-city elementary schoolchildren and to examine the influence of sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, and weight status on PA. A total of 470 students in grades 4-6 from six inner-city schools in Philadelphia wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL) for up to 7 d. The resultant data were uploaded to a customized Visual Basic EXCEL macro to determine the time spent in sedentary (SED), light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). On average, students accumulated 48 min of MVPA daily. Expressed as a percentage of monitoring time, students were sedentary for 63% of the time, in LPA 31% of the time, and in MVPA 6% of the time. Across all race/ethnicity and grade level groups, boys exhibited significantly higher levels of MVPA than girls did; fifth-grade boys exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and sixth-grade boys did, and sixth-grade girls exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and fifth-grade girls did. Hispanic children exhibited lower levels of MVPA than children from other racial/ethnic groups did, and overweight and obese children exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than children in the healthy weight range did. Across the entire sample, only 24.3% met the current public health guidelines for PA. Physical inactivity was significantly greater among females, Hispanics, and overweight and obese students. Fewer than one in four inner-city schoolchildren accumulated the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily. These findings highlight the need for effective and sustainable programs to promote PA in inner-city youth.

  7. Brain activation pattern depends on the strategy chosen by zebra finches to solve an orientation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to find food in one of four feeders on the floor of an aviary. This feeder was always in the same place during training and was additionally marked by a distinct pattern. In the test trial the distinctly patterned feeder was interchanged with one of the other feeders, so that the birds had to decide to use either the pattern or the original location for finding food. Half of the birds used one strategy and half used the other. According to the strategy applied, different brain areas were activated, as demonstrated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The hippocampus was activated when spatial cues were used, while in birds orienting using the pattern of the feeder, part of the collothalamic (tectofugal) visual system showed stronger activation. The visual wulst of the lemnothalamic (thalamofugal) visual system was activated with both strategies, indicating an involvement in both spatial and pattern-directed orientation. Because the experimental situation was the same for all zebra finches, the activation pattern was only dependent on the strategy that was voluntarily chosen by each of the birds.

  8. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  9. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  10. Patterns of physical activity in Spanish children: A descriptive pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Laín, Susana; Naylor, P. J.; Silva, Pedro; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita; Angulo, T.; Laguna, María; Lara, M. T.; López Chicharro, José

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Spanish adults and children do not engage in enough physical activity to be beneficial for health. There is a need for objective and accurate assessment of the proportion of children meeting the physical activity recommendation for health. Assessing patterns of physical activity both between days (during weekdays and weekend days) and within days is of interest to improve our understanding of the variation in Spanish children's physical activity and to provide efficient interv...

  11. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Pinto A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1,* Tobias Blumenstein,1,* Varvara Turova,1 Renée Lampe1,2 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Cerebral Palsy and Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics, Orthopaedic Department, Klinikum rechts der Isar, 2Markus Würth Professorship, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP. However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility.Methods: Electromyographic (EMG recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions.Results: Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation

  12. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  13. Activity pattern of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Mammalia: Ursidae in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We used information from systematic camera trapping surveys to study activity patterns of sloth bear (Melursus ursinus in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats during November 2009 to April 2010.Overall 61 independent photographs were obtained from 2600 trap nights. Sloth Bears showed bimodal peaks activities; late evening to midnight and small peak during sunrise. The mean activity time was 21:54 plus or minus 00:46 hrs. Although sloth bears were active throughout the day they exhibited reduced activity during the hottest hours of the day. Sloth Bears might have reduced their activity during the day to avoid the intense heat.Our data demonstrate that use of camera traps in documenting activity patterns can be an effective tool for identifying biological questions of sloth bear ecology for future studies.

  14. Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity among adolescents: correlates of eating disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Perry, C L; Leon, G R; Fulkerson, J A

    1994-06-01

    Food preferences, eating patterns, and physical activity patterns were examined in a cohort of adolescent females and males participating in a longitudinal study of the developmental antecedents of eating disorders. All adolescents (n = 1494) in grades seven through ten in an entire school district completed a survey about their dieting behaviors, eating, and exercise patterns. Principal components analysis showed similar factor structures for food preferences and eating patterns among males and females. Gender differences were present in physical activity patterns. Sports participation was correlated with healthy food preference and was a significant predictor of eating disorders symptoms. Junk food preference was marginally inversely related to eating disorders symptoms in females. Preference for other types of foods and reported intake of foods were not related to eating disorders symptoms. The percent of variance in risk score accounted for by dietary intake and physical activity patterns was small. Psychological and social/environmental variables may explain a larger proportion of the variance in eating disorders risk than the dietary and physical activity variables examined in this study. Implications for understanding the etiology and behavioral expression of eating disorders are discussed.

  15. Relation Between Muscle Activation Pattern and Pain : An Explorative Study in a Bassists Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldendorp, Kees H.; van de Werk, Pieter; Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Otten, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the muscle activation patterns in relation to pain complaints in bassists studied during a musical task. This study was based on the assumption that pain complaints are caused by increased muscle activation during playing or relaxation and/or faster onset of fatigue of muscles.

  16. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  17. Modern Standard Arabic and Rural Palestinian Dialect: Patterns of the Active Participle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Mohammed Mahmoud Talal

    2017-01-01

    This paper was mainly concerned with analyzing the processes of active participle formation in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It also aimed to examine the Rural Palestinian Dialect (RPD) in order to reveal the derivation of the active participle in this dialect and to describe any patterns that might vary from MSA. The study was based on the…

  18. Upper trapezius muscle activation patterns in neck–shoulder pain patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.; Hermens, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether patients with neck–shoulder complaints from different aetiologies (work-related musculo-skeletal disorders, WMSD; whiplash associated disorders, WAD) show comparable muscle activation patterns, characterised by higher activation and lower relaxation levels o

  19. Individual activity patterns and the meaning of residential environments for inter-ethnic contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aafke; Bolt, Gideon; Dijst, Martin; van Kempen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Past research has indicated that the ethnic composition of residential neighborhoods influences inter-ethnic contact. However, little attention has been paid to individual activity and travel patterns which encompass encounters with others at physical and virtual activity sites, such as sports clubs

  20. Relation Between Muscle Activation Pattern and Pain : An Explorative Study in a Bassists Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldendorp, Kees H.; van de Werk, Pieter; Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Otten, Egbert

    Objective: To explore the muscle activation patterns in relation to pain complaints in bassists studied during a musical task. This study was based on the assumption that pain complaints are caused by increased muscle activation during playing or relaxation and/or faster onset of fatigue of muscles.

  1. Friendship Characteristics and Activity Patterns of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one…

  2. Motives for Using Facebook, Patterns of Facebook Activities, and Late Adolescents' Social Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and…

  3. Daily physical activity patterns from hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiroma, Eric J; Schepps, M A; Harezlak, J

    2016-01-01

    .9 (5.5) years) were asked to wear accelerometers in a free-living environment for 7 d at three different wear locations; one on each wrist and one on the right hip. During waking hours, wrist-worn accelerometers consistently produced higher median activity counts, about 5 × higher, as well as wider...... variability compared to hip-worn monitors. However, the shape of the accrual pattern curve over the course of the day for the hip and wrist are similar; there is a spike in activity in the morning, with a prolonged tapering of activity level as the day progresses. The similar patterns of hip and wrist...

  4. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns.

  5. Neural Activity Patterns in the Human Brain Reflect Tactile Stickiness Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171

  6. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of

  7. Intra-session repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, Sylvain; Couturier, Antoine; Hug, François

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of intra-session repeatability of muscle activation pattern is of considerable relevance for research settings, especially when used to determine changes over time. However, the repeatability of lower limb muscles activation pattern during pedaling is not fully established. Thus, we tested the intra-session repeatability of the activation pattern of 10 lower limb muscles during a sub-maximal cycling exercise. Eleven triathletes participated to this study. The experimental session consisted in a reference sub-maximal cycling exercise (i.e. 150 W) performed before and after a 53-min simulated training session (mean power output=200+/-12 W). Repeatability of EMG patterns was assessed in terms of muscle activity level (i.e. RMS of the mean pedaling cycle and burst) and muscle activation timing (i.e. onset and offset of the EMG burst) for the 10 following lower limb muscles: gluteus maximus (GMax), semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medianus (GM) and lateralis (GL), soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA). No significant differences concerning the muscle activation level were found between test and retest for all the muscles investigated. Only VM, SOL and TA showed significant differences in muscle activation timing parameters. Whereas ICC and SEM values confirmed this weak repeatability, cross-correlation coefficients suggest a good repeatability of the activation timing parameters for all the studied muscles. Overall, the main finding of this work is the good repeatability of the EMG pattern during pedaling both in term of muscle activity level and muscle activation timing.

  8. Prediction of spatio-temporal patterns of neural activity from pairwise correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Marre, Olivier; Boustani, Sami El; Fregnac, Yves; Destexhe, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatio-temporal patterns significantly better than Ising models taking into acco...

  9. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  10. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  11. Experimental comparison of phase-shifting fringe projection and statistical pattern projection for active triangulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzke, Peter; Schaffer, Martin; Kühmstedt, Peter; Kowarschik, Richard; Notni, Gunther

    2013-04-01

    Active triangulation systems are widely used for precise and fast measurements. Many different coding strategies have been invented to solve the correspondence problem. The quality of the measurement results depends on the accuracy of the pixel assignments. The most established method uses phase shifted-patterns projected on the scene. This is compared to a method using statistical patterns. In both coding strategies, the number and the spatial frequency of the projected patterns is varied. The measurements and calculations for all presented results were done with exactly the same measurement setup in a narrow time window to avoid any changes and to guarantee identical technical preconditions as well as comparability.

  12. Sensory Patterns, Obesity, and Physical Activity Participation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lisa Mische; Foster, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern for the population in general and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. The purpose of this study was to understand relationships between sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity engagement of children with ASD (N = 77) sampled from a specialized community-based swimming program. This retrospective correlational study analyzed program data. Results show that almost half (42.2%) of the children were overweight or obese, and sensory avoiding behaviors were related to higher body mass index (BMI). Children participated in few formal and informal physically active recreation activities. Sensory seeking behaviors were associated with increased participation in informal activities, and higher BMI was associated with less participation in both formal and informal activities. Practitioners should consider sensory processing patterns and BMI when developing community-based programs to promote physical activity of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    motion. In the symptomatic shoulder, there was a significantly greater EMG activity during abduction in the supraspinatus and latissimus muscles and less activity in serratus anterior compared to the healthy subjects. During external rotation, there was significantly less activity of the infraspinatus...... and serratus anterior muscles on the symptomatic side compared to the healthy subjects. On the asymptomatic side, the groups showed different muscle activity during external rotation. Our findings of an altered shoulder muscle activity pattern on both the symptomatic and asymptomatic side in patients indicate...... in patients with SI. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the activity pattern of the shoulder muscles in subjects with and without SI. Twenty-one subjects with SI and 20 healthy controls were included. Electromyography (EMG) was assessed from eight shoulder muscles from both shoulders during...

  14. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC20....... A high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  15. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCichon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, firstly time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network silence were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts, which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts. Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g. during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  16. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  17. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus revealed by accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Ryan

    Full Text Available An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting and active (grooming, feeding and moving behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA] for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  18. Activity Patterns of Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Revealed by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle A.; Whisson, Desley A.; Holland, Greg J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species. PMID:24224050

  19. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) revealed by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle A; Whisson, Desley A; Holland, Greg J; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  20. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  1. [Typical Patterns of Neuronal Activity in Relay and Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetiarov, D A; Semenova, U N; Butiaeva, L I; Sedov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.

  2. Effects of the foot strike pattern on muscle activity and neuromuscular fatigue in downhill trail running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, M; Horvais, N; Rossi, J; Millet, G Y; Morin, J-B; Samozino, P

    2017-08-01

    Minimizing musculo-skeletal damage and fatigue is considered paramount for performance in trail running. Our purposes were to investigate the effects of the foot strike pattern and its variability on (a) muscle activity during a downhill trail run and (b) immediate and delayed neuromuscular fatigue. Twenty-three runners performed a 6.5-km run (1264 m of negative elevation change). Electromyographic activity of lower-limb muscles was recorded continuously. Heel and metatarsal accelerations were recorded to identify the running technique. Peripheral and central fatigue was assessed in knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) at Pre-, Post-, and 2 days post downhill run (Post2d). Anterior patterns were associated with (a) higher gastrocnemius lateralis activity and lower tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis activity during the run and (b) larger decreases in KE high-frequency stimulus-evoked torque Post and larger decrements in KE MVC Post2d. High patterns variability during the run was associated with (a) smaller decreases in KE Db100 Post and MVC Post2d and (b) smaller decreases in PF MVC Post and Post2d. Anterior patterns increase the severity of KE peripheral fatigue. However, high foot strike pattern variability during the run reduced acute and delayed neuromuscular fatigue in KE and PF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Ramadan major nutrient patterns are associated with anthropometric measurements and physical activity in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Akhoundan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During Ramadan fasting quantity and quality of dietary intake may change. There was no data on nutrient patterns in Ramadan fasting. The purpose of this study was to identify Ramadan major nutrient patterns among those who fast in Tehran, Iran. 510 fasting people aged 18-65 years and BMI 18.5-40 Kg/m2 were recruited in our study by 2-stage cluster sampling method in June-July 2014. Data on the socio-demographic and physical activity level were collected by questionnaire. Usual diet during Ramadan was estimated by valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. Three nutrient patterns derived by conducting principal component factor analysis on 30 major nutrients. Micronutrient and fiber pattern which characterized by high intake of vitamin K, total fiber, iron, manganese, magnesium, β-carotene, folate, vitamin B12, potassium and calcium was adversely associated with weight (b=-0.16, P= 0.004. High protein pattern had great loadings on protein, riboflavin, phosphorous and zinc which physical activity level was decreased by tertiles of this pattern (b=0.13, P=0.02. High carbohydrate pattern which presented high positive loadings on carbohydrate and thiamin and negative loading on total fat, poly unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with BMI (b= 0.12, P=0.03. Adherence to different Ramadan nutrient patterns is associated with weight, BMI and physical activity level. People on high in carbohydrate may have a higher BMI and low micronutrient density diet that should be considered in Ramadan fasting nutrition educational programs.

  4. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  5. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Thomas Mickala Bourobou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  6. Associations between physical activity and health-related fitness - volume versus pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaeps, Sara; Bourgois, Jan G; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Lefevre, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 3.2 million people die of non-communicable diseases (NCD) each year due to insufficient physical activity. Physical activity guidelines are possibly perceived as too demanding and might thus pose a barrier. We addressed the question if a more stable physical activity pattern is associated with higher levels of health-related fitness than one with high and low intensities, regardless of the physical activity level (PAL). Physical activity was objectively measured in 296 men and women (53.7 ± 8.94 years) with the SenseWear Pro Armband(®). Using this data, the PAL and a Gini index were calculated to report the physical activity pattern. Health-related fitness was expressed as a fitness index. PAL was weakly correlated to health-related fitness (r = 0.38, P fitness index (r = 0.23, P fitness than participants in quartile four, after adjustment for the Gini index. These results suggest that as long as the volume of physical activity is high, health-related fitness will be high as well, independent of the physical activity pattern or variability in intensities throughout the day.

  7. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-05-21

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  8. Developmental heterogeneity in DNA packaging patterns influences T-cell activation and transmigration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Gupta

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation programs are accompanied by large-scale changes in nuclear organization and gene expression. In this context, accompanying transitions in chromatin assembly that facilitates changes in gene expression and cell behavior in a developmental system are poorly understood. Here, we address this gap and map structural changes in chromatin organization during murine T-cell development, to describe an unusual heterogeneity in chromatin organization and associated functional correlates in T-cell lineage. Confocal imaging of DNA assembly in cells isolated from bone marrow, thymus and spleen reveal the emergence of heterogeneous patterns in DNA organization in mature T-cells following their exit from the thymus. The central DNA pattern dominated in immature precursor cells in the thymus whereas both central and peripheral DNA patterns were observed in naïve and memory cells in circulation. Naïve T-cells with central DNA patterns exhibited higher mechanical pliability in response to compressive loads in vitro and transmigration assays in vivo, and demonstrated accelerated expression of activation-induced marker CD69. T-cell activation was characterized by marked redistribution of DNA assembly to a central DNA pattern and increased nuclear size. Notably, heterogeneity in DNA patterns recovered in cells induced into quiescence in culture, suggesting an internal regulatory mechanism for chromatin reorganization. Taken together, our results uncover an important component of plasticity in nuclear organization, reflected in chromatin assembly, during T-cell development, differentiation and transmigration.

  9. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  10. Detection of recurrent activation patterns across focal seizures: Application to seizure onset zone identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Vidal, Manel; Principe, Alessandro; Ley, Miguel; Deco, Gustavo; Tauste Campo, Adrià; Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a method that quantifies the consistent involvement of intracranially monitored regions in recurrent focal seizures. We evaluated the consistency of two ictal spectral activation patterns (mean power change and power change onset time) in intracranial recordings across focal seizures from seven patients with clinically marked seizure onset zone (SOZ). We examined SOZ discrimination using both patterns in different frequency bands and periods of interest. Activation patterns were proved to be consistent across more than 80% of recurrent ictal epochs. In all patients, whole-seizure mean activations were significantly higher for SOZ than non-SOZ regions (Pseizure period while gamma band (20-70Hz) achieved the highest discrimination values between SOZ and non-SOZ sites near seizure onset (0-5s). Consistent spectral activation patterns in focal epilepsies discriminate the SOZ with high effect sizes upon appropriate selection of frequency bands and activation periods. The present method may be used to improve epileptogenic identification as well as pinpoint additional regions that are functionally altered during ictal events. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  12. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  13. Variations in adolescents' motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2017-08-17

    Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25) from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog), team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance). Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation) and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation). Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. This research offers a nuanced insight into the underlying type of activities that

  14. Normative EMG activation patterns of school-age children during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, V; Nascimbeni, A; Gaffuri, A; Imazio, P; Benedetti, M G; Knaflitz, M

    2010-07-01

    Gait analysis is widely used in clinics to study walking abnormalities for surgery planning, definition of rehabilitation protocols, and objective evaluation of clinical outcomes. Surface electromyography allows the study of muscle activity non-invasively and the evaluation of the timing of muscle activation during movement. The aim of this study was to present a normative dataset of muscle activation patterns obtained from a large number of strides in a population of 100 healthy children aged 6-11 years. The activity of Tibialis Anterior, Lateral head of Gastrocnemius, Vastus Medialis, Rectus Femoris and Lateral Hamstrings on both lower limbs was analyzed during a 2.5-min walk at free speed. More than 120 consecutive strides were analyzed for each child, resulting in approximately 28,000 strides. Onset and offset instants were reported for each observed muscle. The analysis of a high number of strides for each participant allowed us to obtain the most recurrent patterns of activation during gait, demonstrating that a subject uses a specific muscle with different activation modalities even in the same walk. The knowledge of the various activation patterns and of their statistics will be of help in clinical gait analysis and will serve as reference in the design of future gait studies.

  15. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hourani, H M; Atoum, M F

    2007-10-01

    Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and a lighter meal before sunrise. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns during Ramadan fasting. This study was carried out during Ramadan in October 2004. A total of 57 female subjects were recruited from The Hashemite University in Jordan. Body weight, fat percentage, muscle mass, and percentage body water content were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Estimated food records over a duration of three days were used to assess the intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sugars before and during Ramadan fasting. Physical activity patterns were determined from a three-day activity diary before and during Ramadan fasting; the amount of physical activity was expressed as the physical activity level. Body weight and BMI decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting. The mean energy and nutrients intake before Ramadan (energy; percent carbohydrates:protein:fat was 1,252; 56:12:33) and during Ramadan (1,171; 56:13:34) were not significantly different. The mean physical activity level was 1.54 before Ramadan and 1.51 during Ramadan, and this was also not significantly different. This study revealed that there was a significant weight loss during Ramadan. Estimates of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and sugar did not change, despite the reduction in the number of meals taken. The overall activity patterns remained similar.

  16. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet.

  17. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... for comparison. Interactions were used to investigate whether the age/vigorous-activity association differed by sex, weight status, ethnicity, maternal education and region. A 6.9% (95% CI 6.2, 7.5) relative reduction in mean vigorous-intensity activity with every year of age was observed; for moderate activity......-2010) providing ≥ 1 day accelerometer data (International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD)). Linear regression was used to investigate age-related patterns in vigorous-intensity activity; models included age (exposure), adjustments for monitor wear-time and study. Moderate-intensity activity was examined...

  18. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    the temporality of interrelations between interlinked variables and, as such, can be applied to a range of datasets. By providing a statistical analysis of the networks’ growth the proposed method allows for the modelling of complex patterns of activity. Throughout, the method is demonstrated with respect......The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises...... to a fully realised example of information seeking activity. The core contribution of the proposed method is in supporting the analysis of activity with respect to both macro and micro level temporal interactions between variables....

  19. Detecting stable phase structures in EEG signals to classify brain activity amplitude patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusely RUIZ; Guang LI; Walter J. FREEMAN; Eduardo GONZALEZ

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining an electrocorticograms (ECoG) signal requires an invasive procedure in which brain activity is recorded from the cortical surface. In contrast, obtaining electroencephalograms (EEG) recordings requires the non-invasive procedure of recording the brain activity from the scalp surface, which allows EEG recordings to be performed more easily on healthy humans. In this work, a technique previously used to study spatial-temporal patterns of brain activity on animal ECoG was adapted for use on EEG. The main issues are centered on solving the problems introduced by the increment on the interelectrode distance and the procedure to detect stable frames. The results showed that spatial patterns of beta and gamma activity can also be extracted from the EEG signal by using stable frames as time markers for feature extraction. This adapted technique makes it possible to take advantage of the cognitive and phenomenological awareness of a normal healthy subject.

  20. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  1. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  2. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  3. Nanoscale Patterning of Antigen on Silicon Substrate to Examine Mast Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Examine Mast Cell Activation DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE...Materials Research Society N4.3 Nanoscale Patterning of Antigen on Silicon Substrate to Examine Mast Cell Activation Reid N. Orth", Min Wu2 , Theodore G...nanometer scale to spatially control the stimulation of specific immunoreceptors on RBL mast cells . This work was motivated by previous research to

  4. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  5. Seasonal activity patterns and diet divergence of three sympatric Afrotropical tortoise species (genus Kinixys)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Three species of hinge-back tortoises ( (Kinixys belliana nogueyi, Kinixys erosa, Kinixys homeana) are found in simpatry in the rainforests of the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria (west Africa). The seasonal activity patterns and food habits of these tortoises are studied in the present paper. K. erosa

  6. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  7. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D; Mao, Jian-Bin; Hu, Dan; Kubota, Yasuo; Dreyer, Anna A; Stamoulis, Catherine; Brown, Emery N; Graybiel, Ann M

    2011-04-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of procedural task performance relative to the patterns found previously with midtask cueing. Remarkably, the largest increase in activity early during the T-maze runs was not associated with the instruction cues themselves, the earliest predictors of reward; instead, the highest peak of early activity was associated with the beginning of the motor period of the task. We suggest that the advance cueing, reducing midrun demands for decision making but adding a working-memory load, facilitated chunking of the maze runs as executable scripts anchored to sensorimotor aspects of the task and unencumbered by midtask decision-making demands. Our findings suggest that the acquisition of stronger task-bracketing patterns of striatal activity in the sensorimotor striatum could reflect this enhancement of behavioral chunking. Deficits in such representations of learned sequential behaviors could contribute to motor and cognitive problems in a range of neurological disorders affecting the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease.

  8. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  9. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  10. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  11. Changes in enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of soil microbial communities under cadmium pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Akmal; WANG Hai-zhen; WU Jian-jun; XU Jian-ming; XU De-fu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has received increasing attention in recent years mainly because of the public awareness of environmental issues. In this study we have evaluated the effect of cadmium(Cd) on enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of microbial communities in soil spiked with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg Cd, during 60 d of incubation at 25℃. Enzyme activities determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 d after heavy metal application(DAA) showed marked declines for various Cd treatments, and up to 60 DAA, 100 mg/kg Cd resulted in 50.1%, 47.4%, and 39.8 % decreases in soil urease, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities,respectively to control. At 60 DAA, substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities determined by inoculating Biolog ECO plates indicated that Cd addition had markedly inhibited the functional activity of soil microbial communities and multivariate analysis of sole carbon source utilization showed significantly different utilization patterns for 80 and 100 mg/kg Cd treatments. The structural diversity of soil microbial communities assessed by PCR-DGGE method at 60 DAA, illustrated that DGGE patterns in soil simplified with increasing Cd concentration, and clustering of DGGE profiles for various Cd treatments revealed that they had more than 50% difference with that of control.

  12. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  13. Centrally patterned rhythmic activity integrated by a peripheral circuit linking multiple oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John; Kueh, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The central pattern generator for heartbeat in the medicinal leech, Hirudo generates rhythmic activity conveyed by heart excitor motor neurons in segments 3-18 to coordinate the bilateral tubular hearts and side vessels. We focus on behavior and the influence of previously un-described peripheral nerve circuitry. Extracellular recordings from the valve junction (VJ) where afferent vessels join the heart tube were combined with optical recording of contractions. Action potential bursts at VJs occurred in advance of heart tube and afferent vessel contractions. Transections of nerves were performed to reduce the output of the central pattern generator reaching the heart tube. Muscle contractions persisted but with a less regular rhythm despite normal central pattern generator rhythmicity. With no connections between the central pattern generator and heart tube, a much slower rhythm became manifest. Heart excitor neuron recordings showed that peripheral activity might contribute to the disruption of centrally entrained contractions. In the model presented, peripheral activity would normally modify the activity actually reaching the muscle. We also propose that the fundamental efferent unit is not a single heart excitor neuron, but rather is a functionally defined unit of about three adjacent motor neurons and the peripheral assembly of coupled peripheral oscillators.

  14. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-06-12

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  15. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  16. The effect of walking aids on muscle activation patterns during walking in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Jaap; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Nene, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle activation patterns with respect to timing and amplitude that occur when subjects with stroke walk with and without a walking aid. This knowledge could help therapists in deciding whether or not patients should use a cane or quad stick w

  17. Effect of frustration on brain activation pattern in subjects with different temperament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eBierzynska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session, the subjects underwent two weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response (GSR and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  18. Developmental regulation of spatio-temporal patterns of cortical circuit activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Charles Griffen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are refined in an experience-dependent manner during early postnatal development. How development modulates the spatio-temporal propagation of activity through cortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we use voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSD to show that there are significant changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical signals in primary visual cortex from postnatal day 13 (P13, eye opening, to P28, the peak of the critical period for rodent visual cortical plasticity. Upon direct stimulation of layer 4 (L4, activity spreads to L2/3 and to L5 at all ages. However, while from eye opening to the peak of the critical period, the amplitude and persistence of the voltage signal decrease, peak activation is reached more quickly and the interlaminar gain increases with age. The lateral spread of activation within layers remains unchanged throughout the time window under analysis. These developmental changes in spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical circuit activation are mediated by differences in the contributions of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components. Our results demonstrate that after eye opening the circuit in primary visual cortex is refined through a progression of changes that shape the spatio-temporal patterns of circuit activation. Signals become more efficiently propagated across layers through developmentally regulated changes in interlaminar gain.

  19. Accelerometer Quantification of Physical Activity and Activity Patterns in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Population Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Simon; Boonen, Annelies; van der Heijde, Desiree; Heuft, Liesbeth; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Arends, Suzanne; Landewe, Robert; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the total amount of physical activity (TPA) and time spent in various activity intensities of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and population controls, and to explore factors related to physical activity (PA). Methods. Subjects were asked to wear a triaxial

  20. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  1. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  2. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  3. Patterns of Alcohol Policy Enforcement Activities among Local Law Enforcement Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains-underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol-and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality.

  4. Stochastically gating ion channels enable patterned spike firing through activity-dependent modulation of spike probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Dudman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of synaptic input into patterns of spike output is a fundamental operation that is determined by the particular complement of ion channels that a neuron expresses. Although it is well established that individual ion channel proteins make stochastic transitions between conducting and non-conducting states, most models of synaptic integration are deterministic, and relatively little is known about the functional consequences of interactions between stochastically gating ion channels. Here, we show that a model of stellate neurons from layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex implemented with either stochastic or deterministically gating ion channels can reproduce the resting membrane properties of stellate neurons, but only the stochastic version of the model can fully account for perithreshold membrane potential fluctuations and clustered patterns of spike output that are recorded from stellate neurons during depolarized states. We demonstrate that the stochastic model implements an example of a general mechanism for patterning of neuronal output through activity-dependent changes in the probability of spike firing. Unlike deterministic mechanisms that generate spike patterns through slow changes in the state of model parameters, this general stochastic mechanism does not require retention of information beyond the duration of a single spike and its associated afterhyperpolarization. Instead, clustered patterns of spikes emerge in the stochastic model of stellate neurons as a result of a transient increase in firing probability driven by activation of HCN channels during recovery from the spike afterhyperpolarization. Using this model, we infer conditions in which stochastic ion channel gating may influence firing patterns in vivo and predict consequences of modifications of HCN channel function for in vivo firing patterns.

  5. Association between facial growth pattern and facial muscle activity: A prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullah, Mohannad; Saltaji, Humam; Abou-Hamed, Hussein; Youssef, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between facial growth pattern and electromyography (EMG) of facial muscles: anterior temporalis, masseter, buccinators, orbicularis oris, mentalis and anterior digastric. The sample consisted of 77 subjects aged between 18-28 years (mean age 21.10±2.03), with dental Class I relationship, normal overjet and overbite, balanced facial profile, no signs of temporomandibular disorders, and no previous orthodontic treatment. Facial growth pattern was determined on the lateral cephalograms according to the Björk sum (sum of the N-S-Ar, S-Ar-Go, and Ar-Go-Me angles) dividing the sample into three groups: horizontal facial pattern group (24 subjects), normal facial pattern group (41 subjects), and vertical facial pattern group (12 subjects). The EMG of anterior temporalis, masseter, buccinator, orbicularis oris, mentalis and anterior digastric muscles were examined for each patient in the rest position and in functional positions (central maximum intercuspation, chewing on right side, chewing on left side and swallowing). Mean values and standard deviation of EMG were obtained and compared between the three groups. At rest, the EMG of the masseter, orbicularis oris and anterior digastric were higher in the vertical facial pattern group compared with the other two groups, with a moderate positive correlation between the EMG of these muscles and the Björk sum (Pmuscles (Pmuscle activity and facial growth pattern. The findings suggest that the activity of masticatory and perioral muscles could play a role in the direction of the facial growth. Copyright © 2015 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. An active poroelastic model for mechanochemical patterns in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Radszuweit

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent experimental studies, we derive and analyze a two-dimensional model for the contraction patterns observed in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum. The model couples a description of an active poroelastic two-phase medium with equations describing the spatiotemporal dynamics of the intracellular free calcium concentration. The poroelastic medium is assumed to consist of an active viscoelastic solid representing the cytoskeleton and a viscous fluid describing the cytosol. The equations for the poroelastic medium are obtained from continuum force balance and include the relevant mechanical fields and an incompressibility condition for the two-phase medium. The reaction-diffusion equations for the calcium dynamics in the protoplasm of Physarum are extended by advective transport due to the flow of the cytosol generated by mechanical stress. Moreover, we assume that the active tension in the solid cytoskeleton is regulated by the calcium concentration in the fluid phase at the same location, which introduces a mechanochemical coupling. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state without deformation and cytosolic flows exhibits an oscillatory Turing instability for a large enough mechanochemical coupling strength. Numerical simulations of the model equations reproduce a large variety of wave patterns, including traveling and standing waves, turbulent patterns, rotating spirals and antiphase oscillations in line with experimental observations of contraction patterns in the protoplasmic droplets.

  7. An active poroelastic model for mechanochemical patterns in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies, we derive and analyze a two-dimensional model for the contraction patterns observed in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum. The model couples a description of an active poroelastic two-phase medium with equations describing the spatiotemporal dynamics of the intracellular free calcium concentration. The poroelastic medium is assumed to consist of an active viscoelastic solid representing the cytoskeleton and a viscous fluid describing the cytosol. The equations for the poroelastic medium are obtained from continuum force balance and include the relevant mechanical fields and an incompressibility condition for the two-phase medium. The reaction-diffusion equations for the calcium dynamics in the protoplasm of Physarum are extended by advective transport due to the flow of the cytosol generated by mechanical stress. Moreover, we assume that the active tension in the solid cytoskeleton is regulated by the calcium concentration in the fluid phase at the same location, which introduces a mechanochemical coupling. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state without deformation and cytosolic flows exhibits an oscillatory Turing instability for a large enough mechanochemical coupling strength. Numerical simulations of the model equations reproduce a large variety of wave patterns, including traveling and standing waves, turbulent patterns, rotating spirals and antiphase oscillations in line with experimental observations of contraction patterns in the protoplasmic droplets.

  8. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of proced...

  9. Activity patterns elicited by airflow in the olfactory bulb and their possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yue; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Xu, Fuqiang

    2017-10-02

    Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) can sense both odorants and airflows. In the olfactory bulb (OB), the coding of odor information is well studied, but the coding of mechanical stimulation is rarely investigated. Unlike odor sensing, the functions of airflow sensing of OSNs are also largely unknown. Here, the activity patterns elicited by mechanical airflow in male rat OBs were mapped using fMRI and correlated with local field potential recordings. In an attempt to reveal possible functions of airflow sensing, the relationship between airflow patterns and physiological parameters was also examined. We found that: a) the activity pattern in the OB evoked by airflow in the nasal cavity was more broadly distributed, compared with those evoked by odors; b) the pattern intensity increases with total airflow, while the pattern topography is rather similar; and c) the heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate, and EEG power in β-band were reduced under regular mechanical airflow, compared with no airflow through the nasal cavity. The mapping results provide evidence that the signals elicited by mechanical airflow in OSNs are transmitted to the OB, and that the OB has the potential to code and process mechanical information. Our functional data indicate that airflow rhythm in the olfactory system is able to regulate the physiological and brain states, providing an explanation for the effects of breath controlling in meditation, yoga, and Taoism practices.Significant statementThe studies about presentation of odor information in the olfactory bulb is comprehensive, while that of breathing features is rare. Here we investigated the global activity patterns in the rat olfactory bulb elicited by airflow in the nasal cavity using BOLD-fMRI for the first time and found that the activity pattern elicited by airflow is broadly distributed, with increasing pattern intensity and similar topography under increasing total airflow. Further, heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate in

  10. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger throughout the Year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wassmer

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light, the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day.

  11. Effect of cadence regulation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    Cadence or stride frequency is an important parameter being controlled in gait training of neurologically impaired subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadence variation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted unimpaired gait using dynamic simulations. A twodimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed considering eight major muscle groups along with existing ground contact force (GCF) model. A 2-D model of a robotic orthosis was also developed which provides actuation to the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane to guide subjects limbs on reference trajectories. A custom inverse dynamics algorithm was used along with a quadratic minimization algorithm to obtain a feasible set of muscle activation patterns. Predicted patterns of muscle activations during slow, natural and fast cadence were compared and the mean muscle activations were found to be increasing with an increase in cadence. The proposed dynamic simulation provide important insight into the muscle activation variations with change in cadence during robot assisted gait and provide the basis for investigating the influence of cadence regulation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robot assisted gait.

  12. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  13. Summer movements and activity patterns of river otters in Northeastern Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Helon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand river otter (Lontra canadensis movement and activity patterns for successful management and reintroduction plans. As part of a river otter study conducted in the Killbuck Watershed, the largest wetland complex in Ohio, USA outside of the Lake Erie marshes, 11 river otters were radio-tagged and monitored for movements and activity patterns. Twenty-seven 24-hour monitoring surveys were conducted during summer months (June-July of 2002 and 2003. The mean movement distance of female river otters ( MEAN = 1.8 km, SE = 0.23 was less (P = 0.0012 than the mean movement distance of male river otters ( MEAN = 5.2 km, SE = 0.73. River otters were more active than inactive from 2201-0400 hrs (71% active, followed by 0401-1000 hrs (68% active, and 1601-2200 hrs (45% active; they were more inactive than active from 1001-1600 hrs (14% active. These results show that river otters can move long distances and it is important to manage not only wetland systems but riparian corridors that aid in dispersal of river otters to other wetland complexes and watersheds.

  14. Physical activity patterns and correlates among adults from a developing country: the Sri Lanka Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katulanda, Prasad; Jayawardena, Ranil; Jayawardana, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Rezvi Sheriff, M H; Matthews, David R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate patterns of physical activity (PA), the prevalence of physical inactivity and the relationships between PA and sociodemographic, clinical and biochemical parameters among Sri Lankan adults...

  15. Fusion analysis of functional MRI data for classification of individuals based on patterns of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Marble, Kris; Trang, Heather; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Classification of individuals based on patterns of brain activity observed in functional MRI contrasts may be helpful for diagnosis of neurological disorders. Prior work for classification based on these patterns have primarily focused on using a single contrast, which does not take advantage of complementary information that may be available in multiple contrasts. Where multiple contrasts are used, the objective has been only to identify the joint, distinct brain activity patterns that differ between groups of subjects; not to use the information to classify individuals. Here, we use joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) within a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method, and take advantage of the relative contribution of activation patterns generated from multiple fMRI contrasts to improve classification accuracy. Young (age: 19-26) and older (age: 57-73) adults (16 each) were scanned while listening to noise alone and to speech degraded with noise, half of which contained meaningful context that could be used to enhance intelligibility. Functional contrasts based on these conditions (and a silent baseline condition) were used within jICA to generate spatially independent joint activation sources and their corresponding modulation profiles. Modulation profiles were used within a non-linear SVM framework to classify individuals as young or older. Results demonstrate that a combination of activation maps across the multiple contrasts yielded an area under ROC curve of 0.86, superior to classification resulting from individual contrasts. Moreover, class separability, measured by a divergence criterion, was substantially higher when using the combination of activation maps.

  16. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  17. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  18. A case-control study of physical activity patterns and risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactive effects of different types of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk have not been fully considered in previous studies. We aimed to identify physical activity patterns that take into account combinations of physical activities and examine the association between derived physical activity patterns and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods We examined the relationship between physical activity patterns, identified by principal component analysis (PCA, and AMI risk in a case-control study of myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (N=4172, 1994-2004. The component scores derived from PCA and total METS were used in natural cubic spline models to assess the association between physical activity and AMI risk. Results Four physical activity patterns were retained from PCA that were characterized as the rest/sleep, agricultural job, light indoor activity, and manual labor job patterns. The light indoor activity and rest/sleep patterns showed an inverse linear relation (P for linearity=0.001 and a U-shaped association (P for non-linearity=0.03 with AMI risk, respectively. There was an inverse association between total activity-related energy expenditure and AMI risk but it reached a plateau at high levels of physical activity (P for non-linearity=0.01. Conclusions These data suggest that a light indoor activity pattern is associated with reduced AMI risk. PCA provides a new approach to investigate the relationship between physical activity and CVD risk.

  19. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  20. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  1. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  2. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  3. Diel Patterns of Activity for Insect Pollinators of Two Oil Palm Species (Arecales : Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffray, Thomas; Frérot, Brigitte; Poveda, Roberto; Louise, Claude; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E. guineensis, and Grasidius hybridus O'Brien and Beserra specialized on E. oleifera. The average timing of activity was studied by using passive interception traps. Then the pattern and the duration were refined by using aspiration trapping within the active period for each insect species at the male and female inflorescences. All the experiments were conducted in an Ecuadorian oil palm plantation, located close to Amazonian forest. El. kamerunicus and G. hybridus were found to be the pollinators of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, respectively. The two species differed in their diel pattern of activity: E. kamerunicus was active in the morning and G. hybridus during a short period at dusk. For both palm species, insect visits were synchronous on both male and female inflorescences. The synchronicity is discussed as a strategy to maintain the relation mutualistic between partners. These findings increase our understanding of the oil palm pollination system.

  4. SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY PATTERNS: THE RELEVANCE OF THE PA CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to characterize seasonal variation in the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior of Portuguese school youth, and understand the influence of activity choices and settings. The participants in this study were 24 students, aged 10-13 years. Accelerometers measured daily PA over 7 consecutive days, in different seasons May - June and January - February. In summer, boys accumulated more minutes in MVPA (928 minutes/week than girls (793 minutes/week. In winter the pattern was reversed with girls accumulating more activity than boys (736 minutes/week vs. 598 minutes/week. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects for season (F = 5.98, p = 0.023 and in- school vs. out-of-school (F = 6.53, p = 0.018. Youth were more active in the summer and activity levels were higher after school than in school. Summer season provided relevant contexts for youth physical activity accumulation. Winter season may have been a significant barrier to boy's preferred PA context. Differences in choices of outdoor or indoor PA, after school, explained the gender differences in seasonal activity patterns

  5. Cognitive and metacognitive activity in mathematical problem solving: prefrontal and parietal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2011-03-01

    Students were taught an algorithm for solving a new class of mathematical problems. Occasionally in the sequence of problems, they encountered exception problems that required that they extend the algorithm. Regular and exception problems were associated with different patterns of brain activation. Some regions showed a Cognitive pattern of being active only until the problem was solved and no difference between regular or exception problems. Other regions showed a Metacognitive pattern of greater activity for exception problems and activity that extended into the post-solution period, particularly when an error was made. The Cognitive regions included some of parietal and prefrontal regions associated with the triple-code theory of (Dehaene, S., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Cohen, L. (2003). Three parietal circuits for number processing. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20, 487-506) and associated with algebra equation solving in the ACT-R theory (Anderson, J. R. (2005). Human symbol manipulation within an 911 integrated cognitive architecture. Cognitive science, 29, 313-342. Metacognitive regions included the superior prefrontal gyrus, the angular gyrus of the triple-code theory, and frontopolar regions.

  6. Electromyographical Comparison of Muscle Activation Patterns Across Three Commonly Performed Kettlebell Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J; Tucker, W Steven; Wax, Ben; Hendrix, Russell C

    2017-09-01

    Lyons, BC, Mayo, JJ, Tucker, WS, Wax, B, and Hendrix, RC. Electromyographical comparison of muscle activation patterns across 3 commonly performed kettlebell exercises. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2363-2370, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation patterns of 3 different kettlebell (KB) exercises using electromyography (EMG). Fourteen resistance-trained subjects completed a 1-arm swing (Swing), 1-arm swing style snatch (Snatch), and a 1-arm clean (Clean) using a self-selected 8 to 10 repetition maximum load for each exercise. Trial sessions consisted of subjects performing 5 repetitions of each KB exercise. Mean EMG was used to assess the muscle activation of the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, erector spinae (ES), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, contralateral external oblique (EO), and gluteus maximus during each lift using surface electrodes. The mean EMG was normalized using maximal voluntary contractions obtained from manual muscle testing. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in the muscle activation patterns of the ES (Swing > Snatch), EO (Snatch, Clean > Swing), and VL (Swing > Clean) across the 3 KB exercises. We conclude that although the KB Swing, Snatch, and Clean are total body exercises, they place different demands on the ES, contralateral EO, and the VL. Therefore, KBs represent an authentic alternative for lifters, and the Swing, Snatch, and Clean are not redundant exercises.

  7. Distribution patterns of typical enzyme activities in tundra soils on the Fildes Peninsula of maritime Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; WANG Qing; ZHU Renbin; MA Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities can be used as indicators of microbial activity and soil fertility. In this paper, the activities of invertase (IA), phosphatase (PA) and urease (UA) were investigated in tundra soils collected from marine animal colonies, areas of human activity and background areas on Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica. Soil enzyme activities were in the range of 1.0–82.7 mg·kg-1·h-1 for IA, 0.2–8.2 mg·kg-1·h-1 for PA and 0.2–39.8 mg·kg-1·h-1 for UA. The spatial distribution patterns for soil enzyme activities corresponded strongly with marine animal activity and human activity. Significantly higher soil IA and PA activities occurred in penguin colony soils, whereas seal colony soils showed higher UA activity. Statistical analysis indicated that soil IA activity was controlled by the levels of soil nutrients (TOC, TN and TP), PA activity was closely related with TP, and UA activity was affected by the soil pH. Overall, the deposition amount of penguin guano or seal excreta could impact the distribution of enzyme activity in Antarctic tundra soils. Multiple stepwise regression models were established between the enzyme activities, soil physicochemical properties and heavy metals Cu and Zn ([IA]=0.7[TP]–0.2[Cu]+22.3[TN]+15.1, [PA]=0.3[TP]+0.03[Mc]+0.2, [UA]=16.7[pH]–0.5[Cu]+ 0.4[Zn]–72.6). These models could be used to predict enzyme activities in the tundra soils, which could be helpful to study the effects of marine animal activity and environmental change on tundra ecosystems in maritime Antarctica.

  8. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    , with passive (relax) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 2 min at two different work paces (low/high). Bipolar SEMG from four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. The relative rest time was higher for the lower parts compared with the upper......The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pactive pause compared with passive one (p

  9. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL, as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness, the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8, smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5, physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4, larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71; and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98. Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

  10. Modality-independent representations of small quantities based on brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-04-01

    Machine learning or MVPA (Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis) studies have shown that the neural representation of quantities of objects can be decoded from fMRI patterns, in cases where the quantities were visually displayed. Here we apply these techniques to investigate whether neural representations of quantities depicted in one modality (say, visual) can be decoded from brain activation patterns evoked by quantities depicted in the other modality (say, auditory). The main finding demonstrated, for the first time, that quantities of dots were decodable by a classifier that was trained on the neural patterns evoked by quantities of auditory tones, and vice-versa. The representations that were common across modalities were mainly right-lateralized in frontal and parietal regions. A second finding was that the neural patterns in parietal cortex that represent quantities were common across participants. These findings demonstrate a common neuronal foundation for the representation of quantities across sensory modalities and participants and provide insight into the role of parietal cortex in the representation of quantity information.

  11. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Jensen, O.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Bonnefond, M.

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography

  12. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A computational study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyali Ganguli; Saikat Chowdhury; Rupa Bhowmick; Ram Rup Sarkar

    2015-10-01

    Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell’s functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in these co-receptor signalling pathways may lead to an altered expression pattern of the effector molecules. To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published time series microarray expression data as inputs. After validating the model, the effect of in silico knock down of co-receptor molecules on the expression patterns of their downstream proteins is studied and simultaneously the changes in the phenotypic behaviours of the T-cell population are predicted, which shows significant variations among the proteins expression and the signalling routes through which the response is propagated in the cytoplasm. This integrative computational approach serves as a valuable technique to study the changes in protein expression patterns and helps to predict variations in the cellular behaviour.

  13. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  14. Timescales of multineuronal activity patterns reflect temporal structure of visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu F Jurjuţ

    Full Text Available The investigation of distributed coding across multiple neurons in the cortex remains to this date a challenge. Our current understanding of collective encoding of information and the relevant timescales is still limited. Most results are restricted to disparate timescales, focused on either very fast, e.g., spike-synchrony, or slow timescales, e.g., firing rate. Here, we investigated systematically multineuronal activity patterns evolving on different timescales, spanning the whole range from spike-synchrony to mean firing rate. Using multi-electrode recordings from cat visual cortex, we show that cortical responses can be described as trajectories in a high-dimensional pattern space. Patterns evolve on a continuum of coexisting timescales that strongly relate to the temporal properties of stimuli. Timescales consistent with the time constants of neuronal membranes and fast synaptic transmission (5-20 ms play a particularly salient role in encoding a large amount of stimulus-related information. Thus, to faithfully encode the properties of visual stimuli the brain engages multiple neurons into activity patterns evolving on multiple timescales.

  15. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  16. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation.

  17. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  18. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  19. Daily Physical Activity Patterns During the Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Watts, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that results in severe disability. Very few studies have explored changes in daily physical activity patterns during early stages of AD when components of physical function and mobility may be preserved. Our study explored differences in daily physical activity profiles, independent of the effects of non-cognitive factors including physical function and age, among individuals with mild AD compared to controls. Patients with mild AD and controls (n = 92) recruited from the University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Center Registry, wore the Actigraph GT3X+ for seven days, and provided objective physical function (VO2 max) and mobility data. Using multivariate linear regression, we explored whether individuals with mild AD had different daily average and diurnal physical activity patterns compared to controls independent of non-cognitive factors that may affect physical activity, including physical function and mobility. We found that mild AD was associated with less moderate-intensity physical activity (p testing time-of-day specific physical activity interventions targeting individuals in the early stages of AD, prior to significant declines in mobility and physical function.

  20. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  1. Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We study an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator that can be applied in photonic integrated circuits. The modulator is a metal-insulator-metal waveguide with an additional ultra-thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO). Bias is applied to the multilayer core by means of metal plates that serve...... several optimizations. We examine influence of the ITO permittivity on the modulator's performance and point out appropriate values. We analyze eigenmodes of the waveguide structure and specify the range for its efficient operation. We show that substituting the continuous active layer by a one......-dimension periodic stripes increases transmittance through the device and keeps the modulator's performance at the same level. The dependence on the pattern size and filling factor of the active material is analyzed and optimum parameters are found. Patterned ITO layers allow us to design a Bragg grating inside...

  2. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelopμental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying

  3. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Emerson M.; de Camargo, Nícholas F.; Colas, Paul F.; Ribeiro, Juliana F.; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2017-01-01

    The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates) this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites. PMID:28052077

  4. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  5. Patterns of Discrimination, Grievances and Political Activity Among Europe's Roma: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse in a large-n cross-sectional format the patterns of discrimination, grievances and political activity among European Roma (Gypsies using data from the Minority at Risk project. The model tested here is a two-step model positing that discrimination leads to grievance formation which in turn leads to protest and rebellion. The results show that the Roma, in general, conform to this model but differ in some important specifics.

  6. Mapping field-scale spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifier community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Laurent; Cuhel, Jiri; Saby, Nicolas P A; Chèneby, Dominique; Chronáková, Alicia; Bru, David; Arrouays, Dominique; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Simek, Miloslav

    2009-06-01

    There is ample evidence that microbial processes can exhibit large variations in activity on a field scale. However, very little is known about the spatial distribution of the microbial communities mediating these processes. Here we used geostatistical modelling to explore spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifying community, a functional guild involved in N-cycling, in a grassland field subjected to different cattle grazing regimes. We observed a non-random distribution pattern of the size of the denitrifier community estimated by quantification of the denitrification genes copy numbers with a macro-scale spatial dependence (6-16 m) and mapped the distribution of this functional guild in the field. The spatial patterns of soil properties, which were strongly affected by presence of cattle, imposed significant control on potential denitrification activity, potential N(2)O production and relative abundance of some denitrification genes but not on the size of the denitrifier community. Absolute abundance of most denitrification genes was not correlated with the distribution patterns of potential denitrification activity or potential N(2)O production. However, the relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene encoding the N(2)O reductase in the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N(2)O/(N(2) + N(2)O) ratio, which provides evidence for a relationship between bacterial community composition based on the relative abundance of denitrifiers in the total bacterial community and ecosystem processes. More generally, the presented geostatistical approach allows integrated mapping of microbial communities, and hence can facilitate our understanding of relationships between the ecology of microbial communities and microbial processes along environmental gradients.

  7. Exploring the Use of Activity Patterns for Smart Monitoring of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The world is at an inflection point where our ability to collect data now far outpaces our ability to make use of it. LANL has a number of efforts to help us pull more meaningful insights out of our data and target resources to where they will be most impactful. We are exploring an approach to recognizing activity patterns across disparate data streams for a more holistic view of nuclear facility monitoring.

  8. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  9. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  10. Objectively measured physical activity in two-year-old children - levels, patterns and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Svensson, Viktoria; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Nero, Håkan; Marcus, Claude

    2015-01-24

    The aim was to describe levels, patterns and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of Swedish children, two years of age, with normal weight, overweight and obese parents. Data from 123 children, 37 with normal-weight parents and 86 with overweight/obese parents, enrolled in the Early Stockholm Obesity Prevention Project study was used. Children wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for seven days. Average activity (counts per minute), number of steps and time spent in low and high-intensity physical activity and in sedentary was assessed. Differences between weekdays and weekend days were examined as were correlations with sex, body mass index (BMI), motor skills and family-related factors. Children were active at high intensity 11% of the day. On average 55% of the day was spent being sedentary. Number of steps and time in low-intensity physical activity differed between weekdays and weekend days: on weekdays, 363 more steps (p = 0.01) and six more minutes in low physical activity (p = 0.04). No differences were found for any physical activity or sedentary behavior variable by sex, BMI, motor skills or any family-related variable (p = 0.07 - 0.95). Two-year-old children have an intermittent activity pattern, that is almost similar on weekdays and they spend about half of the daytime active. The absence of any association with sex, BMI, motor skills or parental factors indicates that the individual variation in this age group is primarily due to endogenous factors. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01198847 .

  11. Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2008-06-01

    Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, observed hydrological patterns over northern Italy are significantly correlated, under periods of quiet sunspot activity, with parameters characterizing the Sun's orbital motion, specifically with the time derivative of the solar angular momentum (τ) which is thought to modulate the strength of the solar wind and sunspot dynamics under weak sunspot activity. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is detected as potential link between the Sun and Po River discharges, since it is significantly correlated with both solar activity and the decadal variability in the north Italian climate. In particular, positive (negative) NAO anomalies, which are associated with comparatively lower (higher) Po River discharges, are assessed to alternatively correlate at decadal timescales either with τ or with the Earth's geomagnetic activity (GA), which closely follows sunspot activity. This changing correlation seems to be regulated by the strength of sunspot activity: under periods of quiet sunspot activity, a weakening of the GA-NAO connection and a reinforcement of the τ-NAO connection is observed. In this sense, the strength of solar activity apparently modulates the connection between the NAO and Po River discharges.

  12. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  13. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  14. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  15. Deviations in daily physical activity patterns in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evering, R.M.H.; Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    Deviations in daily physical activity patterns may play an important role in the development and maintenance of fatigue in the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of this study is to gain insight into the objective daily physical activity pattern of patients with CFS in comparison with healthy

  16. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  17. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichi; Takeshita, Seiichiro; Kanai, Takashi; Takizawa, Mari; Yoshida, Yusuke; Tsujita, Yuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders (n = 89) and nonresponders (n = 31) with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4 ± 4.8 IU/L, P IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1 ± 4.7 IU/L, P IVIG responders (32.0 ± 2.8 IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  18. Daily energy intake, energy expenditure and activity patterns of selected Malaysian sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Wannudri, W; Zawiah, H

    1995-09-01

    Seventeen members of the national sepaktakraw squad undergoing centralised training participated in a comprehensive study to determine their daily food intake, activity patterns and energy requirements. Food intake was recorded as a mean of 3-days weighed food intake and the nutrient contents were calculated using a local food composition table. The energy cost of standardised activities was determined by indirect calorimetry while time and motion study was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure of each subject. The mean daily energy intake was 2784±373 kcal (11.6±1.6 MJ) while the mean daily energy expenditure was 3004±298 kcal (12.6±1.2 MJ), with a negative energy balance of 220 kcal ((0.9 MJ). Intake of other nutrients were adequate when compared with the Malaysian RDA, with the exception of niacin. The results of the activity pattern study indicated that the subjects spent about 80% of the day doing light activities while 20% of the day was devoted to their training programme comprising of moderate to heavy activities. This data set represents the first of its kind in Malaysia and should provide impetus for further research in this area which would help establish dietary guidelines for Malaysian sportsmen.

  19. Impacts of people and tigers on leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Carter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard population declines largely occur in areas where leopards and people frequently interact. Research on how leopards respond to human presence and competitors, like other predators, can provide important insights on leopard ecology and conservation in human-dominated regions; however, such research is lacking. Here we used data from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 to examine how human presence, prey, and tigers influence leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in and around Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. We found that leopards were adjusting their spatiotemporal activity patterns to both tigers and people, but by different mechanisms. Leopards spatially avoided tigers in 2010, but were generally active at the same times of day that tigers were. Despite pervasive human presence, people on foot and vehicles had no significant effect on leopard detection and space use, but leopard temporal activity was displaced from those periods of time with highest human activity. Temporal displacement from humans was especially pronounced outside the park, where there is a much greater prevalence of natural resource collection by local people. Continuing to evaluate the interconnections among leopards, tigers, prey, and people across different land management regimes is needed to develop robust landscape-scale conservation strategies.

  20. Relationship between massive chronic rotator cuff tear pattern and loss of active shoulder range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Philippe; Matsumura, Noboru; Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Walch, Gilles

    2014-08-01

    Management of massive chronic rotator cuff tears remains controversial, with no clearly defined clinical presentation as yet. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of tear size and location on active motion in patients with chronic and massive rotator cuff tears with severe muscle degeneration. One hundred patients with massive rotator cuff tears accompanied by muscle fatty infiltration beyond Goutallier stage 3 were prospectively included in this study. All patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of tear pattern (supraspinatus, superior subscapularis, inferior subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres minor). Active range of shoulder motion was assessed in each group and differences were analyzed. Active elevation was significantly decreased in patients with 3 tear patterns involved. Pseudoparalysis was found in 80% of the cases with supraspinatus and complete subscapularis tears and in 45% of the cases with tears involving the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and superior subscapularis. Loss of active external rotation was related to tears involving the infraspinatus and teres minor; loss of active internal rotation was related to tears of the subscapularis. This study revealed that dysfunction of the entire subscapularis and supraspinatus or 3 rotator cuff muscles is a risk factor for pseudoparalysis. For function to be preserved in patients with massive chronic rotator cuff tears, it may be important to avoid fatty infiltration with anterior extension into the lower subscapularis or involvement of more than 2 rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senaha M.L.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the concepts of cognitive neuropsychology, there are two principal routes of reading processing: a lexical route, in which global reading of words occurs and a phonological route, responsible for the conversion of the graphemes into their respective phonemes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to investigate the patterns of cerebral activation in lexical and phonological reading by 13 healthy women with a formal educational level greater than 11 years. Participants were submitted to a silent reading task containing three types of stimuli: real words (irregular and foreign words, nonwords and illegitimate graphic stimuli. An increased number of activated voxels were identified by fMRI in the word reading (lexical processing than in the nonword reading (phonological processing task. In word reading, activation was greater than for nonwords in the following areas: superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and the left precentral gyrus, as indicated by fMRI. In the reading of nonwords, the activation was predominant in the right cerebellum and in the left superior temporal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest the existence of differences in the patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading, with greater involvement of the right hemisphere in reading words than nonwords.

  2. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  3. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation.

  4. Auditory cerebral activation patterns of Chinese English learners by fMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Tong; HU Zi-cheng; LI Yong; ZHANG Yong; XIE Peng; LV Fa-jin; LUO Tian-you; MU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To identify the cerebral activation patterns associated with the processes that occur during viewing Chinese and English words in native Chinese English learners.Methods:12 right-handed Chinese English hamers were divided into two groups equally,namely English majors and non-English majors,and took semantic judgement tasks of both English and Chinese words,for whom the fMRI images were coUected.Results:To various degrees,all subjects demonstrated activation of associated cerebral regions in both hemispheres and the left hemisphere activation was more significant for most subjects.Except for elassieal regions involved in language processing,such as Wemicke areas and Broca areas,there were other activated cerebral regions,including cerebellum,limbic system and basal ganglia nucleus,etc.To sum up,there were apparent overlap for cerebral activation distribution and no specific processing areas for both tasks.The analysis of ROI(region of interest)suggested that subjects in specialized group were more dependent on right hemisphere to perform English words task.Conclus/on:Language cognition is dominated by left hemisphere,which is also shared by the right hemisphere to various degrees and thus two hemispheres work by ways of both dissociation and coordination.It is possible that working strategy of the right hemisphere in English task is related to proficiency of the second language.A variety of distinctions are shared by each subject for language cognitive patterns.

  5. Sociocultural factors relating to Tongans' and Indigenous Fijians' patterns of eating, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavoa, Helen M; McCabe, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews literature between 1974 and 2007 that addresses the impact of sociocultural factors on reported patterns of eating, physical activity (activity) and body size of Tongans and indigenous Fijians (Fijians) in their countries of origin. There have been changes in diet (more imported and fewer traditional foods), activity (reduced, especially in urban settings), residence (rural-urban shift) and body size (increased obesity and at a younger age). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in Tongans and Fijians has increased rapidly over the last two decades and remains among the highest in the world (>80% in Tonga; >40% in Fiji), with more females reported to be obese than males. The few studies that investigated sociocultural influences on patterns of eating, activity and/or body size in this population have examined the impact of hierarchical organisation, rank and status (sex, seniority), values (respect, care, co-operation) and/or role expectations. It is important to examine how sociocultural factors influence eating, activity and body size in order to i) establish factors that promote or protect against obesity, ii) inform culturally-appropriate interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and body size, and iii) halt the obesity epidemic, especially in cultural groups with a high prevalence of obesity. There is an urgent need for more systematic investigations of key sociocultural factors, whilst taking into account the complex interplay between sociocultural factors, behaviours and other influences (historical; socioeconomic; policy; external global influences; physical environment).

  6. Plasmonic Modulator Optimized by Patterning of Active Layer and Tuning Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E

    2012-01-01

    We study a metal-insulator-metal waveguide as a surface plasmon polariton modulator. A multilayered core consists of a silicon nitride layer and an ultrathin active layer sandwiched between two silver plates that serve as electrodes. A transparent conducting oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), as an ultrathin active layer with the varied carrier density is utilized. Under various anneal conditions different permittivity of ITO can be achieved, and we analyse it influence on the modulator efficiency. To advance the modulator design, namely to increase transmittance and enhance modulation depth, we propose to substitute the continuous active layer by a one-dimension periodic grating. The dependence on the pattern size and filling factor of the active material is analyzed for tuned permittivity of the ITO layer.

  7. Hippocampal activity during the transverse patterning task declines with cognitive competence but not with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leirer Vera M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hippocampus is a brain region that is particularly affected by age-related morphological changes. It is generally assumed that a loss in hippocampal volume results in functional deficits that contribute to age-related cognitive decline. In a combined cross-sectional behavioural and magnetoencephalography (MEG study we investigated whether hippocampal-associated neural current flow during a transverse patterning task - which requires learning relational associations between stimuli - correlates with age and whether it is modulated by cognitive competence. Results Better performance in several tests of verbal memory, verbal fluency and executive function was indeed associated with higher hippocampal neural activity. Age, however, was not related to the strength of hippocampal neural activity: elderly participants responded slower than younger individuals but on average produced the same neural mass activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that in non-pathological aging, hippocampal neural activity does not decrease with age but is rather related to cognitive competence.

  8. Differences in activation patterns in elbow flexor muscles during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T; Yano, H; Miyashita, M

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the relative activation of the synergistic muscles during three different types of muscle contraction, the electromyograms (EMG) of two elbow flexor muscles, the biceps brachii (BB) and the brachioradialis (BR), have been compared. To accomplish this eight healthy human subjects performed the following elbow flexions against the same load--concentric, eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90 degrees (0 degree equal to full extension). The EMG were recorded by bipolar surface electrodes, and the relative activation between the two muscles was evaluated as the quotient of mean EMG activities (BR/BB). For the isotonic elbow flexions, BR/BB were calculated at three angle divisions: 0-30 degrees, 30-60 degrees and 60-90 degrees. Results indicated that the relative activation of the BR during the concentric contractions was higher than that of the eccentric contraction, particularly at the extended elbow angles, i.e. the BR/BB of the concentric contractions for the elbow joint angles ranging from 0-30 degrees and 30-60 degrees were significantly greater (P contractions. During the isometric and eccentric contractions, the BR/BB at the flexed joint angles tended to be greater than those at the extended angles. In contrast, there were no angle-dependent BR/BB variations during the concentric elbow flexions. Further, changing patterns in the EMG power spectra due to the type of contraction were different between BB and BR. These results indicated that the activation pattern in the two elbow flexor muscles varied with the muscle contraction pattern.

  9. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoichi; Kanai, Takashi; Takizawa, Mari; Yoshida, Yusuke; Tsujita, Yuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders (n = 89) and nonresponders (n = 31) with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4 ± 4.8 IU/L, P < 0.05) and UTI patients (66.0 ± 8.0 IU/L, P < 0.01) than in VI patients (17.0 ± 6.2 IU/L). In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1 ± 4.7 IU/L, P < 0.05), especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P < 0.05), than IVIG responders (32.0 ± 2.8 IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients. PMID:28348604

  10. Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD. We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5 levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI, and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG responders (n=89 and nonresponders (n=31 with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD (35.4±4.8 IU/L, P<0.05 and UTI patients (66.0±8.0 IU/L, P<0.01 than in VI patients (17.0±6.2 IU/L. In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity (45.1±4.7 IU/L, P<0.05, especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (P<0.05, than IVIG responders (32.0±2.8 IU/L. KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.

  11. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P swimming activity remained unchanged for 48 h at sublethal concentrations of K2 Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Differential activity patterns in the masseter muscle under simulated clenching and grinding forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, H J; Türp, J C; Blaser, R; Lenz, J

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (i) whether the masseter muscle shows differential activation under experimental conditions which simulate force generation during clenching and grinding activities; and (ii) whether there are (a) preferentially active muscle regions or (b) force directions which show enhanced muscle activation. To answer these questions, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter muscle was recorded with five intramuscular electrodes placed in two deep muscle areas and in three surface regions. Intraoral force transfer and force measurement were achieved by a central bearing pin device equipped with three strain gauges (SG). The activity distribution in the muscle was recorded in four different mandibular positions (central, left, right, anterior). In each position, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was exerted in vertical, posterior, anterior, medial and lateral directions. The investigated muscle regions showed different amount of EMG activity. The relative intensity of the activation, with respect to other regions, changed depending on the task. In other words, the muscle regions demonstrated heterogeneous changes of the EMG pattern for the various motor tasks. The resultant force vectors demonstrated similar amounts in all horizontal bite directions. Protrusive force directions revealed the highest relative activation of the masseter muscle. The posterior deep muscle region seemed to be the most active compartment during the different motor tasks. The results indicate a heterogeneous activation of the masseter muscle under test conditions simulating force generation during clenching and grinding. Protrusively directed bite forces were accompanied by the highest activation in the muscle, with the posterior deep region as the most active area.

  13. Daily physical activity behavior patterns of Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo-Valentín, Alexander; Bush, Kimberly A; Hodge, Samuel R

    2014-08-01

    There is limited evidence on physical activity patterns among Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico. This restricts opportunities to implement effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity behaviors of adolescents attending middle and high schools in Puerto Rico based on a compendium of moderate to vigorous physical activities including walking, jogging or running, bicycling, sports and more. A secondary purpose was to examine group differences as a function of gender and school level. A cross-sectional survey research design was used. Students (N = 637) attending public middle and high schools completed a Visual 7-Day Physical Activity Recall survey. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe the sample and to determine group differences. Puerto Rican adolescents' levels of physical activity decreased throughout the week. Only a small proportion of them reached at least 60 minutes everyday of the week. Differences were found between middle and high school students' daily and weekly participation in physical activities. Most adolescents do not engage in sufficient physical activity. IMPLICATIONS of the results are discussed and recommendations are articulated for policy makers, educators, and other professionals.

  14. Body position effects on sternocleidomastoid and masseter EMG pattern activity in patients undergoing occlusal splint therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, G; Miralles, R; Santander, H; Casassus, R; Ferrer, P; Palazzi, C; Moya, H

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of body position on electromyographic (EMG) activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles, in 15 patients with myogenic cranio-cervical-mandibular dysfunction undergoing occlusal splint therapy. EMG activity was recorded by placing surface electrodes on the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles (contralateral to the habitual sleeping side of each patient). EMG activity at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching was recorded in the following body positions: standing, supine and lateral decubitus. In the sternocleidomastoid muscle significant higher EMG activities at rest and during swallowing were recorded in the lateral decubitus position, whereas during maximal voluntary clenching EMG activity did not change. In the masseter muscle significant higher EMG activity during maximal voluntary clenching in a standing position was observed, whereas EMG activity at rest and during swallowing did not change. The opposite pattern of EMG activity supports the idea that there may exist a differential modulation of the motor neuron pools of the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles, of peripheral and/or central origin. This suggests that the presence of parafunctional habits and body position could be closely correlated with the clinical symptomatology in these muscles in patients with myogenic craniomandibular dysfunction.

  15. Developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity.

  16. Activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: Evidence of cathemerality in Varecia and Lemur catta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Joel; Samson, David R; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-06-01

    Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments. Using MotionWatch 8 ® actigraphy data loggers, we studied 88 lemurs across seven species at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC). Six species were members of the family Lemuridae (Eulemur coronatus, E. flavifrons, E. mongoz, L. catta, V. rubra, V. variegata), while a seventh was strictly diurnal and included as an out-group (Propithecus coquereli). For each 24-hr cycle (N = 503), we generated two estimates of cathemerality: mean night (MN) activity and day/night (DN) activity ratio (day and night cutoffs were based on astronomical twilights). As expected, P. coquereli engaged in the least amount of nocturnal activity according to both measures; their activity was also outside the 95% confidence intervals of all three cathemeral Eulemur species, which exhibited the greatest evidence of cathemerality. By these estimates, Varecia activity was most similar to Eulemur and exhibited substantial deviations from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.22 ± SE 0.12; β (DN) = -0.21 ± SE 0.12). L. catta activity patterns also deviated from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.12 ± SE 0.11; β (DN) = -0.15 ± SE 0.12) but to a lesser degree than either Varecia or Eulemur. Overall, L. catta displayed an intermediate activity pattern between Eulemur and P. coquereli, which is somewhat consistent with wild studies. Regarding Varecia, although additional observations in more diverse wild habitats are needed, our findings support

  17. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

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    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  18. Quorum activation at a distance: spatiotemporal patterns of gene regulation from diffusion of an autoinducer signal

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    Dilanji, Gabriel; Langebrake, Jessica; Deleenheer, Patrick; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria in colonies coordinate gene regulation through the exchange of diffusible signal molecules known as autoinducers (AI). This ``quorum signaling'' often occurs in physically heterogeneous and spatially extended environments such as biofilms. Under these conditions the space and time scales for diffusion of the signal limit the range and timing of effective gene regulation. We expect that spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression will reflect physical environmental constraints as well as nonlinear transcriptional activation and feedback within the gene regulatory system. We have combined experiments and modeling to investigate how these spatiotemporal patterns develop. We embed engineered plasmid/GFP quorum sensor strains or wild type strains in a long narrow agar lane, and then introduce AI signal at one terminus of the lane. Diffusion of the AI initiates reporter expression along the length of the lane, extending to macroscopic distances of mm-cm. Resulting patterns are captured quantitatively by a mathematical model that incorporates logistic growth of the population, diffusion of AI, and nonlinear transcriptional activation. Our results show that a diffusing quorum signal can coordinate gene expression over distances of order 1cm on time scales of order 10 hrs.

  19. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

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    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  20. Analysis of Body Shapes and Physical Activity Dominant Patterns in a Coloring Books Collection

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    Vladimir Martínez Bello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum materials play an important role in the construction of the concept of the body to the extent that they are transmitters of knowledge, ideas and values. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the images in a collection of coloring books entitled The Boys´ Doodles Book and The girl´s Doodles Book show sexist stereotypes about body models and dominant patterns of physical activity. An independent observational group studied the images of the body through content analysis with a coding scheme using categories (gender, age, somatotype, space and type of physical activity previously adopted by experts. The Boys´ Doodles Book shows an adult man with different body types, while women are not represented. In both books, the bodies do not maintain a preferred location. The Girls´Doodles Book represents a higher percentage of girls with a slender body, while men, who were under-represented, assume different body types. The Girls´Doodles Book tends to represent women in physical activities or sports with an artistic component. In conclusion, the images in both coloring books, promote sexist body shapes and physical activities. It is a warning to parents and mothers, as well as publishing houses, libraries and government agencies to critically analyse underlying patterns on coloring books.

  1. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

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    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  2. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  3. Patterns of trunk muscle activation during walking and pole walking using statistical non-parametric mapping.

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    Zoffoli, Luca; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Federici, Ario; Lucertini, Francesco

    2017-09-09

    This study used surface electromyography (EMG) to investigate the regions and patterns of activity of the external oblique (EO), erector spinae longissimus (ES), multifidus (MU) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles during walking (W) and pole walking (PW) performed at different speeds and grades. Eighteen healthy adults undertook W and PW on a motorized treadmill at 60% and 100% of their walk-to-run preferred transition speed at 0% and 7% treadmill grade. The Teager-Kaiser energy operator was employed to improve the muscle activity detection and statistical non-parametric mapping based on paired t-tests was used to highlight statistical differences in the EMG patterns corresponding to different trials. The activation amplitude of all trunk muscles increased at high speed, while no differences were recorded at 7% treadmill grade. ES and MU appeared to support the upper body at the heel-strike during both W and PW, with the latter resulting in elevated recruitment of EO and RA as required to control for the longer stride and the push of the pole. Accordingly, the greater activity of the abdominal muscles and the comparable intervention of the spine extensors supports the use of poles by walkers seeking higher engagement of the lower trunk region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  5. Effects of active pause pattern of surface electromyographic activity among subjects performing monotonous tasks: A systematic review.

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    Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Moreira, Roberta de Fátima Carreira; Cid, Marina Machado; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Active pauses have shown potentially beneficial effects to increase the variability of the electrical activation pattern of muscles. However, there is a lack of consensus as to how to design and implement those pauses and the processing methods of surface electromyography (EMG) data when evaluating low-level monotonous tasks. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidences regarding the way which active pauses have been applied, and the methods used to investigate the related EMG changes. PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, Ebsco, and Scopus databases were searched. Two authors independently extracted data from the primary studies. The methodological quality was assessed using a list from van der Windt et al. (2000), and the level of evidence was synthesized through GRADE. The ISEK guideline for reporting EMG data was also applied as a checklist. Fifteen studies were included - 14 with high methodological quality. In general, active pauses were able to change the level of EMG activity in monotonous tasks. The level of evidence through GRADE was very low for all EMG processing methods, except RMS which was low. A vast heterogeneity concerning the methods applied to analyze EMG data contributed to decrease the quality of evidence synthesis, and the findings need to be carefully considered. The GRADE approach and the ISEK guideline contributed to identify important flaws in the literature. Future studies investigating active pauses in longitudinal studies and following the standard for recording and reporting EMG data care are warranted.

  6. Somatostatinergic modulation of firing pattern and calcium-activated potassium currents in medium spiny neostriatal neurons.

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    Galarraga, E; Vilchis, C; Tkatch, T; Salgado, H; Tecuapetla, F; Perez-Rosello, T; Perez-Garci, E; Hernandez-Echeagaray, E; Surmeier, D J; Bargas, J

    2007-05-11

    Somatostatin is synthesized and released by aspiny GABAergic interneurons of the neostriatum, some of them identified as low threshold spike generating neurons (LTS-interneurons). These neurons make synaptic contacts with spiny neostriatal projection neurons. However, very few somatostatin actions on projection neurons have been described. The present work reports that somatostatin modulates the Ca(2+) activated K(+) currents (K(Ca) currents) expressed by projection cells. These actions contribute in designing the firing pattern of the spiny projection neuron; which is the output of the neostriatum. Small conductance (SK) and large conductance (BK) K(Ca) currents represent between 30% and 50% of the sustained outward current in spiny cells. Somatostatin reduces SK-type K(+) currents and at the same time enhances BK-type K(+) currents. This dual effect enhances the fast component of the after hyperpolarizing potential while reducing the slow component. Somatostatin then modifies the firing pattern of spiny neurons which changed from a tonic regular pattern to an interrupted "stuttering"-like pattern. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tissue expression analysis of dorsal striatal somatostatinergic receptors (SSTR) mRNA revealed that all five SSTR mRNAs are present. However, single cell RT-PCR profiling suggests that the most probable receptor in charge of this modulation is the SSTR2 receptor. Interestingly, aspiny interneurons may exhibit a "stuttering"-like firing pattern. Therefore, somatostatin actions appear to be the entrainment of projection neurons to the rhythms generated by some interneurons. Somatostatin is then capable of modifying the processing and output of the neostriatum.

  7. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

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    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  8. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

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    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-05

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered.

  9. Short communication: Assessment of activity patterns of growing rabbits in a flux-controlled chamber

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    Irene Olivas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux-controlled and metabolic chambers are often used for nutritional and environmental studies. However, the potential alterations of animal behaviour and welfare are so far not fully understood. In consequence, this study had 2 main objectives: to assess potential alterations of animal activity pattern and time budget inside a flux chamber, and to assess the importance of the “rearing up” behaviour. To this end, 10 growing rabbits of different ages (from 1 to 5 wk of the growing period were housed inside a flux chamber. Their activity was continuously recorded and assessed, determining the frequency and duration of 8 different behaviours: lying, sleeping, sitting, eating, drinking, walking, rearing up and others. Nocturnal rabbit behaviour and time budget were not altered inside the chamber if compared to previously described rabbit activity under conventional cages. In addition, rabbits in this experiment presented a tendency to perform “rearing up” when housed inside the flux chamber.

  10. Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials.

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    Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-10-01

    For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators.

  11. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS AMONG TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Khushwant Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary driver of the epidemic of diabetes is the rapid epidemiological transition associated with changes in dietary patterns and decreased physical activity as evident from the higher prevalence of diabetes in urban population. Diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate in India. It is evident that physical activity (walking is beneficial in management of this disease. Walking can be effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist hip circumference, body fat, blood pressure and thus cholesterol, high density lipoproteins ratio and may be effective in improving mood and quality of life. The objective of the present study was measuring the normal physical activity in terms of step counts done by the type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and analyse the dietary pattern followed by T2DM. Methods: Eighty adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated for observation of their normal daily physical activity using pedometer for whole day which means starting from early morning get up till bedtime in night. The subjects had been asked to count their steps in a particular activity also. Results: The mean value of step count with standard deviation among females (n=31 was found to be 9173.23 ± 3862.025 which was lesser than that among males (n=49 that is 9695.49 ± 5221.291. After measuring step count in any particular activity task, the mean value 2583.35 ± 2562.08 was found to be more in males than females where mean value was found to be 2197.13 ± 1732.75. The mean step count among total sample (n=80 was 9493.11 ± 4721.626 and mean particular activity step count was 2433.69 ± 2272.541. Discussion: This study showed that some subjects were so aware of their disease that they were found to be highly active after knowing their disease and condition. On other hand, there were some subjects having sedentary lifestyle with their HbA1c at the high risk level. They thought it to be as it is for the rest of

  12. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

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    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  13. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC = 0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health

  14. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

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    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p physical activity (MVPA), and walking for travel (both p activity groups, but was associated with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. Total physical activity was inversely associated with fasting insulin, and physical activity in the work domain was associated with fat free soft tissue mass. The findings of this study show that the majority of urban dwelling black South African women are classified as physically active despite a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease risk factors. Sitting time had detrimental effects on both triglyceride levels and diastolic blood pressure whilst total physical activity attenuated fasting insulin levels. As walking for travel is a major

  15. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

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    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  16. Exploratory Data Analysis Using a Dedicated Visualization App: Looking for Patterns in Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.; Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present an App designed to visualize and identify patterns in volcanic activity during the last ten years. It visualizes VEI (volcanic explosivity index) levels, population size, frequency of activity, and geographic region, and is designed to address the issue of oversampling of data. Often times, it is difficult to access a large set of data that can be scattered at first glance and hard to digest without visual aid. This App serves as a model that solves this issue and can be applied to other data. To enable users to quickly assess the large data set it breaks down the apparently chaotic abundance of information into categories and graphic indicators: color is used to indicate the VEI level, size for population size within 5 km of a volcano, line thickness for frequency of activity, and a grid to pinpoint a volcano's latitude. The categories and layers within them can be turned on and off by the user, enabling them to scroll through and compare different layers of data. By visualising the data this way, patterns began to emerge. For example, certain geographic regions had more explosive eruptions than others. Another good example was that low frequency larger impact volcanic eruptions occurred more irregularly than smaller impact volcanic eruptions, which had a more stable frequencies. Although these findings are not unexpected, the easy to navigate App does showcase the potential of data visualization for the rapid appraisal of complex and abundant multi-dimensional geoscience data.

  17. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S K; Jack, H C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause-effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27-32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs.

  18. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  19. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail.

  20. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  1. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  2. Western and Mediterranean Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity and Fitness among Spanish Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess prevailing food patterns, and its association with physical activity and fitness among Spanish older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Spain, collecting data from a sample (n = 380; 54% female aged 55–80 years (men and 60–80 years (women with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Body weight, body fat and waist circumference were assessed. Physical activity performed was measured using the Minnesota Leisure-time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPA. Physical fitness was assessed using a validated physical fitness test battery. Food consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis identified two major dietary food patterns: “Western” (WDP and “Mediterranean” (MDP dietary patterns. Results: Participants in MDP’s fourth quartile were classified in the second (men and third (men and women tertile of LTPA. After adjusting for age, body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and METs, in both sexes, a negative significant association was found between 30-s Chair stand and 6-min walking test, a positive significant association was found between 30-m Gait speed and 8-foot Time Up-and-Go (except in men tests with WDP. The 30-m Gait speed test was negatively associated with MDP in men. Conclusions: MDP is associated with more time spent on LTPA, and this association was independent of body composition and a fast gait speed in men. WDP is associated with slower gait speed and lower body strength, agility and aerobic endurance. MDP has protective effect on healthy physical fitness, and WDP may be a contributor to frailty.

  3. The wiring of developing sensory circuits - from patterned spontaneous activity to mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Helen Leighton

    2016-09-01

    intend to outline the most recent descriptions of spontaneous activity patterns in rodent developing sensory areas, as well as the inferences we can make about the information content of those activity patterns and ideas about the plasticity rules that allow this activity to shape the young brain.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women’s perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. Results A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk-1) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Conclusions Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second trimester, in total, light and moderate intensity. Women spent most of their weekly time on domestic, occupational and leisure activities, except sport activities. There are some

  5. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  6. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  7. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  8. [Rest-activity rhythm, sleep pattern and quality of life in patients with restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju

    2009-06-01

    In this study rest-activity rhythm, sleep pattern and quality of life of patients with restless legs syndrome were compared with those of a normal group. The participants in this study were 36 patients with restless legs syndrome diagnosed by a neurologist and 36 participants in the normal group. An actigraph, sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scale were used as measurement tools for the study. Chi-square test, Lamda test, t-test and Kendall's correlation with SPSS 12.0 program were used to analyze the data. Patients with restless legs syndrome had a higher rest-activity rhythm curve of Least 5 hr's activity (L5) and Most 10 hr's activity (M10) than those of normal group and sleep problems included decreased sleep efficiency and increased sleep latency, wake time and number of awakenings. The scores for the subscales of quality of life in patients with restless legs syndrome were lower than the normal group for general health, physical functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems, role limitation due to physical problems, social functioning, bodily pain, vitality and mental health. The results suggest that further studies are needed to identify rest-activity rhythm according to symptom severity and to develop nursing interventions which consider rest-activity rhythm.

  9. Active Control Of Oscillation Patterns In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems And Their Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šutová Zuzana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the active control of oscillation patterns in nonlinear dynamical systems and its possible use. The purpose of the research is to prove the possibility of oscillations frequency control based on a change of value of singular perturbation parameter placed into a mathematical model of a nonlinear dynamical system at the highest derivative. This parameter is in singular perturbation theory often called small parameter, as ε → 0+. Oscillation frequency change caused by a different value of the parameter is verified by modelling the system in MATLAB.

  10. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stegeren, Anda H; Roozendaal, Benno; Kindt, Merel; Wolf, Oliver T; Joëls, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are usually well retained, an effect that depends on the release of adrenal stress hormones. Animal studies have shown that corticosterone and noradrenaline - representing the two main stress hormone systems - act in concert to enhance memory formation by actions involving the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we test whether interactions between these two stress hormone systems also affect human memory formation as well as the associated pattern of brain activation. To this end, forty-eight male human subjects received hydrocortisone, yohimbine or both before presentation of emotional and neutral pictures. Activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and PFC was monitored with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during encoding of these stimuli, when hormonal levels were elevated. Memory performance was tested 1 week later. We investigated whether an increased level of one of the two hormone systems would lead to differential effects compared to the combined application of the drugs on brain activation and memory performance. We report that the application of cortisol led to an overall enhancing effect on recognition memory, with no significant additional effect of yohimbine. However, during encoding the brain switched from amygdala/hippocampus activation with either hormone alone, to a strong deactivation of prefrontal areas under the influence of the combination of both exogenous hormones. Although we did not find evidence that exogenous stimulation of the noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems led to significant interaction effects on memory performance in this experiment, we conclude that stress hormone levels during encoding did differentially determine the activation pattern of the brain circuits here involved.

  11. Bidirectional regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation controls synaptic plasticity by decoding neuronal activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamphill, Patrick K; Farah, Carole A; Anadolu, Mina N; Hoque, Sanjida; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-03-11

    At the sensory-motor neuron synapse of Aplysia, either spaced or continuous (massed) exposure to serotonin (5-HT) induces a form of intermediate-term facilitation (ITF) that requires new protein synthesis but not gene transcription. However, spaced and massed ITF use distinct molecular mechanisms to maintain increased synaptic strength. Synapses activated by spaced applications of 5-HT generate an ITF that depends on persistent protein kinase A (PKA) activity, whereas an ITF produced by massed 5-HT depends on persistent protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In this study, we demonstrate that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which catalyzes the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome during protein synthesis, acts as a biochemical sensor that is tuned to the pattern of neuronal stimulation. Specifically, we find that massed training leads to a PKC-dependent increase in phosphorylation of eEF2, whereas spaced training results in a PKA-dependent decrease in phosphorylation of eEF2. Importantly, by using either pharmacological or dominant-negative strategies to inhibit eEF2 kinase (eEF2K), we were able to block massed 5-HT-dependent increases in eEF2 phosphorylation and subsequent PKC-dependent ITF. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of eEF2K during the longer period of time required for spaced training was sufficient to reduce eEF2 phosphorylation and induce ITF. Finally, we find that the massed 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength requires translation elongation, but not translation initiation, whereas the spaced 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength is partially dependent on translation initiation. Thus, bidirectional regulation of eEF2 is critical for decoding distinct activity patterns at synapses by activating distinct modes of translation regulation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354403-15$15.00/0.

  12. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  13. Longitudinal patterns of predominant asthma disease activity in pediatric patients enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A

    2008-08-01

    To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.

  14. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, pdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in order to gain health benefits. PMID:28245253

  15. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  16. Leisure-time physical activity patterns and correlates among pregnant women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Vamos, Cheryl A

    2013-04-01

    Physical activity significantly impacts public health as it reduces the risk of chronic diseases and provides numerous protective factors during pregnancy. Although Canadian guidelines recommend regular physical activity for healthy pregnant women, little is known about their leisure-time physical activity patterns. This study compared the physical activity levels of pregnant and non-pregnant women and examined socio-demographic and health correlates of physical activity during pregnancy. Canadian Community Health Survey data (2005-2008) from 623 pregnant women and 20,392 non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years in Ontario, Canada were examined. The prevalence of regular physical activity (15 or more minutes on at least 3 days of the week) was 58.3 % [95 % CI 52.9, 63.4], among pregnant women and 66.9 % [95 % CI 65.8, 68.0] among non-pregnant women. However, the prevalence of meeting Canadian guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy (30 or more minutes on at least 4 days of the week) was only 23.3 %, [95 % CI 19.4, 27.7] among pregnant women and 33.6 % [95 % CI 32.7, 34.6] among non-pregnant women. Pregnant women were less likely to be meeting guidelines if they were single, divorced, separated or widowed, a visible minority, had a household income between $20,000 and $79,999, and reported being in good or fair/poor health; when it came to education, women who had completed high school were more likely to be meeting guidelines. Few pregnant women in Ontario are meeting guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy. Results indicate that promoting physical activity during pregnancy should remain a public health priority.

  17. Temporal Analysis of Activity Patterns of Editors in Collaborative Mapping Project of OpenStreetMap

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Mashhadi, Afra

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years Wikis have become an attractive platform for social studies of the human behaviour. Containing millions records of edits across the globe, collaborative systems such as Wikipedia have allowed researchers to gain a better understanding of editors participation and their activity patterns. However, contributions made to Geo-wikis_wiki-based collaborative mapping projects_ differ from systems such as Wikipedia in a fundamental way due to spatial dimension of the content that limits the contributors to a set of those who posses local knowledge about a specific area and therefore cross-platform studies and comparisons are required to build a comprehensive image of online open collaboration phenomena. In this work, we study the temporal behavioural pattern of OpenStreetMap editors, a successful example of geo-wiki, for two European capital cities. We categorise different type of temporal patterns and report on the historical trend within a period of 7 years of the project age. We also draw a com...

  18. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response. PMID:27713693

  19. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Jacinto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC(PrL circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM. Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC, basolateral amygdala (BLA and prelimbic (PrL mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC, during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA and BLA-mPFC(PrL theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response.

  20. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  1. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding the context where adolescents' physical activity (PA takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents' PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA, and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12-18 years, 50.4% girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels with adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups.The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk, the least during active transportation (210 min/wk, and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001, active transportation (P<0.001, MVPA (P = 0.023 and total PA (P = 0.003 than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009, home-based PA (P<0.001 and light-intensity PA (P<0.001 than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024 and total PA (P = 0.049 were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009, less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048 and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013. High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.002, more MVPA (P = 0.047 and less active

  2. I can see where you would be: Patterns of fMRI activity reveal imagined landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Sulpizio, Valentina; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Galati, Gaspare

    2017-01-01

    Visual mental imagery arises when perceptual information is accessed from memory, originating the experience of "seeing with the mind's eye". Different content-dependent brain areas in the human ventral visual stream are activated during visual mental imagery, similarly to what happens during visual perception. The neural patterns within these regions, but not in the early visual cortex, are similar during imagery and perception, suggesting that, in the absence of perceptual stimulation, content-dependent brain areas are able to re-instantiate specific neural patterns allowing for mental imagery. However, it remains unknown whether these areas contain adequate neural representations that create mental images or need to interact with other regions in the brain, such as the hippocampus (HC), to access the necessary information from memory. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and both multivoxel pattern classification and psychophysiological interaction analyses. Participants were scanned while viewing or imagining scenes of familiar environments. We found that the identity of familiar places can be decoded from the neural patterns in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex/parieto-occipital sulcus (RSC/POS) and HC, during both imagery and perception, and that item-specific information from perceived places was re-instantiated during mental imagery of the same places and vice versa. Furthermore, the right PPA significantly interacted with the right HC and RSC/POS according to the performed task. Specifically, the functional coupling between PPA and HC was higher during mental imagery, whereas the functional coupling between PPA and RSC/POS was higher during perception. Our investigation provides an important contribution to the understanding of how the brain uses previously acquired knowledge to build a mental representation of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community of the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Galdino, C A; Cunha-Barros, M; Rocha, C F; Van Sluys, M

    2001-05-01

    We analyzed the thermal ecology and activity patterns of the lizard community from the Restinga of Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The broadest activity was that of Tropidurus torquatus, a sit-and-wait forager, while the active foraging teiid Cnemidophorus littoralis had the shortest activity. The nocturnal gekkonid Hemidactylus mabouia was found active during the day only during early morning and late afternoon, when environmental temperatures are low. Body temperature was highest for Cnemidophorus littoralis and lowest for the two Mabuya species. The patterns found here are discussed and compared to those of congeneric species in other habitats in Brazil.

  4. Eye-specific retinogeniculate segregation proceeds normally following disruption of patterned spontaneous retinal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Colenso M; Sun, Chao; Liets, Lauren C; Stafford, Ben K; Chapman, Barbara; Cheng, Hwai-Jong

    2014-11-07

    Spontaneous retinal activity (SRA) is important during eye-specific segregation within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), but the feature(s) of activity critical for retinogeniculate refinement are controversial. Pharmacologically or genetically manipulating cholinergic signaling during SRA perturbs correlated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spiking and disrupts eye-specific retinofugal refinement in vivo, consistent with an instructive role for SRA during visual system development. Paradoxically, ablating the starburst amacrine cells (SACs) that generate cholinergic spontaneous activity disrupts correlated RGC firing without impacting retinal activity levels or eye-specific segregation in the dLGN. Such experiments suggest that patterned SRA during retinal waves is not critical for eye-specific refinement and instead, normal activity levels are permissive for retinogeniculate development. Here we revisit the effects of ablating the cholinergic network during eye-specific segregation and show that SAC ablation disrupts, but does not eliminate, retinal waves with no concomitant impact on normal eye-specific segregation in the dLGN. We induced SAC ablation in postnatal ferret pups beginning at birth by intraocular injection of a novel immunotoxin selective for the ferret vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Ferret VAChT-Sap). Through dual-patch whole-cell and multi-electrode array recording we found that SAC ablation altered SRA patterns and led to significantly smaller retinal waves compared with controls. Despite these defects, eye-specific segregation was normal. Further, interocular competition for target territory in the dLGN proceeded in cases where SAC ablation was asymmetric in the two eyes. Our data demonstrate normal eye-specific retinogeniculate development despite significant abnormalities in patterned SRA. Comparing our current results with earlier studies suggests that defects in retinal wave size, absolute levels of SRA, correlations between RGC

  5. The Social Interaction and Activity Patterns of Children from Two San Groups Living as Refugees on a Namibian Military Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Christine

    1988-01-01

    Observation of the social interaction and activity patterns of young children from two San (or Bushman) groups (Sekele and Kwengo) who lived with their families in identical settlements on the same military base revealed marked intergroup differences, especially in patterns of social interaction among girls. Discusses influences of cultural…

  6. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-Based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student learning with sufficient flexibility and creativity. A set of pedagogical patterns for networked Second language (L2) learning, categorized and…

  7. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  8. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Perc, Matjaz; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-...

  9. Interaction patterns of brain activity across space, time and frequency. Part I: methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D

    2011-01-01

    We consider exploratory methods for the discovery of cortical functional connectivity. Typically, data for the i-th subject (i=1...NS) is represented as an NVxNT matrix Xi, corresponding to brain activity sampled at NT moments in time from NV cortical voxels. A widely used method of analysis first concatenates all subjects along the temporal dimension, and then performs an independent component analysis (ICA) for estimating the common cortical patterns of functional connectivity. There exist many other interesting variations of this technique, as reviewed in [Calhoun et al. 2009 Neuroimage 45: S163-172]. We present methods for the more general problem of discovering functional connectivity occurring at all possible time lags. For this purpose, brain activity is viewed as a function of space and time, which allows the use of the relatively new techniques of functional data analysis [Ramsay & Silverman 2005: Functional data analysis. New York: Springer]. In essence, our method first vectorizes the data from...

  10. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  11. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; McDonald, Craig G; Johnson, Luke R

    2011-01-12

    Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram) is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of rockfall activity - Drivers, precursors, kinetics and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael; Turowski, Jens; Hovius, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Rockfalls are key processes in steep alpine landscapes but hard to monitor by classic techniques under natural conditions due to their unpredictable and rapid evolution. In contrast, seismic methods allow rockfall event detection, localisation and tracking, describtion of the temporal evolution, of the precursor activity and of external triggers. To exploit these capabilities, a 700 m high, nearly vertical limestone cliff section in the Lauterbrunnen Valley, Bernese Oberland, Switzerland, was instrumented with six broadband seismometers for more than six months during two distinct campaigns: late summer/autumn 2014 and spring 2015. A total of 49 rockfalls events (17 in 2014 and 32 in 2015) were detected that occurred in the monitored cliff section. There were distinct spatial and temporal activity patterns at different observational scales: in summer/autumn rockfalls detached near the cliff base of the southern part, whereas in spring material was released at the upper and middle cliff parts from three activity hotspots - a downward annual vertical activity shift of 40-50 m/month. Rockfalls can be classified into three evolutionary types ("single impact", "multiple impact" and "avalanche-like") and showed seismic signals indicating precursor activity (e.g., crack propagation). Lag times for potential trigger mechanisms of 2-3 hours on average reveal that there is a tight temporal correlation of rockfall activity to rainfall and freeze-thaw transitions. Throughout the day, there are four distinct activity phases related to absolute temperature, temperature change rate and precipitation intensity. The contribution highlights the potential of environmental seismology to give profound and holistic insight into rockfall activity in a prototype landscape, representative for many other alpine catchments.

  13. The utility of the Digi-walker step counter to assess daily physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, G J; Differding, J A; Thompson, R W; Blair, S N; Dziura, J; Hart, P

    2000-09-01

    The Digi-Walker step counter is a promising and cost-effective tool to measure physical activity under free-living conditions. Two specific studies were conducted to evaluate the number of steps required to meet current physical activity guidelines. Thirty-one adults (17 men, 14 women) served as participants. In study 1, we determined the number of steps to complete a mile under two different conditions and three paces. In study 2, we conducted a field trial to examine the relationship between daily step counts and other indices of physical activity. Participants in this study wore a Digi-Walker for 2 consecutive weeks and completed the 7-d physical activity recall (PAR) after each week. In study 1, there were no differences in step counts by site, but steps were inversely related to pace, with values ranging from 1330 to 1996. Individual step counts at a specific pace were negatively correlated with height, weight, leg length, and stride length and were positively correlated with body fatness. In study 2, participants had average daily step counts of 11,603 when structured vigorous activity was included and 8265 when only light and moderate activity were measured. Modest correlations were found between step counts and estimated energy expenditure. Similar correlations were observed when step counts were related to minutes of activity per day and minutes of sitting per day. Pedometers provide a useful indicator of daily step counts but variability in activity patterns make it difficult to establish step count guidelines that correspond with other public health guidelines.

  14. Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin' s gulls in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean

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    Santi Mañosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Audouin´s gulls, Larus audouinii, breeding in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean were radio-tracked in 1998 to study their foraging behaviour and activity patterns. Some detrimental effects of tagging on the breeding success of the birds were detected, especially when both members of the pair were tagged. The results were actually constrained by the low number of locations due to natural breeding failure and failure in tag emission, as well as the adverse effect of tagging. However, through a combination of aircraft surveys at sea and a fixed station for automatic tracking of the presence of the birds at the colony, novel individual-based information of home ranges and activity patterns was obtained. Trawler fishing activity seemed to influence both the foraging range and habitat use: while trawlers operated, gulls overlapped their fishing grounds with vessels, probably to scavenge on discards. Very few locations were obtained during a trawling moratorium period, although they were all recorded in coastal bays and terrestrial habitats. During the trawling activity period, gulls ranged over a minimum convex polygon area of 2900 km2. Gulls were tracked up to 40 km from the colony, but some individuals were observed beyond 150 km while still breeding. Arrivals and departures from the colony were in accordance with the trawling timetable. However, most birds also showed some nocturnal foraging activity, probably linked to active fishing of clupeoids (following diel migrations or to the exploitation of purse-seine fishing activity. Foraging trips lasted on average 15 hours: males performed significantly shorter trips than females, which spent more time outside the colony. The proportion of nocturnal time involved in the foraging trips was the same for males and females, but whilst all males initiated their trips both during the day and at night, some females only initiated their trips during the day. Hatching success was found to be related to

  15. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajgovind Soni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs of T. ammi (1.94±30 mL/100 gm and M. fragrans (5.93±90 mL/100 gm were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (− bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028 and three Gram (+ bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412 by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  16. Changes in Cortical Activation Patterns in Language Areas following an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

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    Joe Nocera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that older adults who evidence increased right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG activity during language tasks show decreased sematic verbal fluency performance. The current study sought to evaluate if an aerobic exercise intervention can alter patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty-two community-dwelling, sedentary older adults were enrolled to a 12-week aerobic “Spin” exercise group or a 12-week nonaerobic exercise control condition (Balance. Thirty participants completed their assigned intervention (16 Spin; 14 Balance with pre- and postintervention assessments of a semantic verbal fluency task during fMRI and estimated VO2max testing. There was a significant increase in the change scores for estimated VO2max of the Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Semantic verbal fluency output within the scanner was also improved in the Spin group as compared to controls at postassessment. Group fMRI comparisons of IFG activity showed lower activity in the right IFG following the intervention in the aerobic Spin group when compared to the Balance group. Regression analysis of imaging data with change in both estimated VO2max and semantic verbal fluency was negatively correlated with activity in right IFG. The current work is registered as clinical trial with NCT01787292 and NCT02787655.

  17. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.

  18. Cultured Neural Networks: Optimization of Patterned Network Adhesiveness and Characterization of their Neural Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. C. Rutten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One type of future, improved neural interface is the “cultured probe”. It is a hybrid type of neural information transducer or prosthesis, for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity. It would consist of a microelectrode array (MEA on a planar substrate, each electrode being covered and surrounded by a local circularly confined network (“island” of cultured neurons. The main purpose of the local networks is that they act as biofriendly intermediates for collateral sprouts from the in vivo system, thus allowing for an effective and selective neuron–electrode interface. As a secondary purpose, one may envisage future information processing applications of these intermediary networks. In this paper, first, progress is shown on how substrates can be chemically modified to confine developing networks, cultured from dissociated rat cortex cells, to “islands” surrounding an electrode site. Additional coating of neurophobic, polyimide-coated substrate by triblock-copolymer coating enhances neurophilic-neurophobic adhesion contrast. Secondly, results are given on neuronal activity in patterned, unconnected and connected, circular “island” networks. For connected islands, the larger the island diameter (50, 100 or 150 μm, the more spontaneous activity is seen. Also, activity may show a very high degree of synchronization between two islands. For unconnected islands, activity may start at 22 days in vitro (DIV, which is two weeks later than in unpatterned networks.

  19. Muscle activation patterns in the Nordic hamstring exercise: Impact of prior strain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, M N; Opar, D A; Williams, M D; Al Najjar, A; Shield, A J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine: (a) the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE); (b) whether previously injured hamstrings display activation deficits during the NHE; and (c) whether previously injured hamstrings exhibit altered cross-sectional area (CSA). Ten healthy, recreationally active men with a history of unilateral hamstring strain injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging of their thighs before and after six sets of 10 repetitions of the NHE. Transverse (T2) relaxation times of all hamstring muscles [biceps femoris long head (BFlh); biceps femoris short head (BFsh); semitendinosus (ST); semimembranosus (SM)] were measured at rest and immediately after the NHE and CSA was measured at rest. For the uninjured limb, the ST's percentage increase in T2 with exercise was 16.8%, 15.8%, and 20.2% greater than the increases exhibited by the BFlh, BFsh, and SM, respectively (P < 0.002 for all). Previously injured hamstring muscles (n = 10) displayed significantly smaller increases in T2 post-exercise than the homonymous muscles in the uninjured contralateral limb (mean difference -7.2%, P = 0.001). No muscles displayed significant between-limb differences in CSA. During the NHE, the ST is preferentially activated and previously injured hamstring muscles display chronic activation deficits compared with uninjured contralateral muscles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  1. Effect of explosion-puffed coffee on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong Soo; Ahn, So Hyun; Noh, Dong Ouk; Hong, Ki-Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that the administration of explosion-puffed coffee, containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would be associated with a reduction of the caffeine effect on sleep behavior and behavioral patterns, which was investigated in a Drosophila model. The effects of feeding roasted coffee beans (RB), explosion-puffed coffee beans puffed at 0.75MPa and 0.9MPa (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0, respectively), or decaffeinated coffee beans (DeRB) on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns of Drosophila was analyzed. In the decreasing order, the total chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids, CQA) content was PB 7.5>PB 9.0>RB. PB content analysis showed high levels of GABA and 5-HTP, compared with that of RB, which corresponded with the sleep-wake behavior of Drosophila. The RB and PB (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0) groups were not significantly different with respect to an activity count during the subjective night and day period compared with the normal controls. Sleep bout numbers of the normal, PB, and DeRB groups showed significant differences as compared with the caffeine and RB groups (ptest; the average distance covered by the normal, PB 7.5, and DeRB groups was HTP with explosive puffing process carried out at 0.75MPa. Results of the underlying mechanism of the behavioral change patterns of explosive puffed with or without caffeine in Drosophila models, transcript level for the Dop1-R1 receptor in caffeine group was significantly higher than normal, PB, and DePB groups. Flies exposed to the caffeine had significantly decreased transcript levels for the GABA receptors. PB 7.5 and DePB showed higher level of GABA content than RB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Joint sparse representation of brain activity patterns in multi-task fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, M; Marble, K; Trang, H; Johnsrude, I S; Abolmaesumi, P

    2015-01-01

    A single-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment may only partially highlight alterations to functional brain networks affected by a particular disorder. Multivariate analysis across multiple fMRI tasks may increase the sensitivity of fMRI-based diagnosis. Prior research using multi-task analysis in fMRI, such as those that use joint independent component analysis (jICA), has mainly assumed that brain activity patterns evoked by different tasks are independent. This may not be valid in practice. Here, we use sparsity, which is a natural characteristic of fMRI data in the spatial domain, and propose a joint sparse representation analysis (jSRA) method to identify common information across different functional subtraction (contrast) images in data from a multi-task fMRI experiment. Sparse representation methods do not require independence, or that the brain activity patterns be nonoverlapping. We use functional subtraction images within the joint sparse representation analysis to generate joint activation sources and their corresponding sparse modulation profiles. We evaluate the use of sparse representation analysis to capture individual differences with simulated fMRI data and with experimental fMRI data. The experimental fMRI data was acquired from 16 young (age: 19-26) and 16 older (age: 57-73) adults obtained from multiple speech comprehension tasks within subjects, where an independent measure (namely, age in years) can be used to differentiate between groups. Simulation results show that this method yields greater sensitivity, precision, and higher Jaccard indexes (which measures similarity and diversity of the true and estimated brain activation sources) than does the jICA method. Moreover, superiority of the jSRA method in capturing individual differences was successfully demonstrated using experimental fMRI data.

  3. Breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises

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    G.M. Tomich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises: diaphragmatic breathing (DB, flow-oriented (Triflo II incentive spirometry and volume-oriented (Voldyne incentive spirometry. Seventeen healthy subjects (12 females, 5 males aged 23 ± 5 years (mean ± SD were studied. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to measure the following variables during rest (baseline and breathing exercises: tidal volume (Vt, respiratory frequency (f, rib cage contribution to Vt (RC/Vt, inspiratory duty cycle (Ti/Ttot, and phase angle (PhAng. Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was assessed by surface electromyography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. Comparisons between baseline and breathing exercise periods showed a significant increase of Vt and PhAng during all exercises, a significant decrease of f during DB and Voldyne, a significant increase of Ti/Ttot during Voldyne, and no significant difference in RC/Vt. Comparisons among exercises revealed higher f and sternocleidomastoid activity during Triflo II (P < 0.05 with respect to DB and Voldyne, without a significant difference in Vt, Ti/Ttot, PhAng, or RC/Vt. Exercises changed the breathing pattern and increased PhAng, a variable of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, compared to baseline. The only difference between DB and Voldyne was a significant increase of Ti/Ttot compared to baseline. Triflo II was associated with higher f values and electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid. In conclusion, DB and Voldyne showed similar results while Triflo II showed disadvantages compared to the other breathing exercises.

  4. Behavioural sampling techniques and activity pattern of Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata (Mammalia: Manidae in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mohapatra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on six Indian Pangolins Manis crassicaudata observed in captivity at the Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan, Odisha, India over 1377 hours of video recordings for each pangolin between 1500hr and 0800hr on 81 consecutive observational days. Video recordings were made through digital systems assisted by infrared enabled CCTV cameras. The data highlights patterns relate to 12 different behaviour and enclosure utilization. Different interval periods for sampling of instantaneous behaviour from video recordings have been evaluated to develop optimal study methods for the future. The activity budgets of pangolins displayed natural patterns of nocturnal activity with a peak between 20:00-21:00 hr. When out of their burrow, they spent about 59% of the time walking in the enclosure, and 14% of the time feeding. The repeatability of the behaviours has a significant negative correlation with the mean time spent in that behaviour. Focal behavioural samples significantly correlated with instantaneous samples up to 15 minutes interval. The correlation values gradually decreased with the increase in sampling interval. The results indicate that results obtained from focal sampling and instantaneous sampling with relatively shorter intervals (=5 minutes are about equally reliable. The study suggests use of focal sampling, instead of instantaneous sampling to record behaviour relating to social interactions.

  5. Diversity patterns and activity of uncultured marine heterotrophic flagellates unveiled with pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logares, Ramiro; Audic, Stephane; Santini, Sebastien; Pernice, Massimo C; de Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon

    2012-10-01

    Flagellated heterotrophic microeukaryotes have key roles for the functioning of marine ecosystems as they channel large amounts of organic carbon to the upper trophic levels and control the population sizes of bacteria and archaea. Still, we know very little on the diversity patterns of most groups constituting this evolutionary heterogeneous assemblage. Here, we investigate 11 groups of uncultured flagellates known as MArine STramenopiles (MASTs). MASTs are ecologically very important and branch at the base of stramenopiles. We explored the diversity patterns of MASTs using pyrosequencing (18S rDNA) in coastal European waters. We found that MAST groups range from highly to lowly diversified. Pyrosequencing (hereafter '454') allowed us to approach to the limits of taxonomic diversity for all MAST groups, which varied in one order of magnitude (tens to hundreds) in terms of operational taxonomic units (98% similarity). We did not evidence large differences in activity, as indicated by ratios of DNA:RNA-reads. Most groups were strictly planktonic, although we found some groups that were active in sediments and even in anoxic waters. The proportion of reads per size fraction indicated that most groups were composed of very small cells (∼2-5 μm). In addition, phylogenetically different assemblages appeared to be present in different size fractions, depths and geographic zones. Thus, MAST diversity seems to be highly partitioned in spatial scales. Altogether, our results shed light on these ecologically very important but poorly known groups of uncultured marine flagellates.

  6. A glasses-type wearable device for monitoring the patterns of food intake and facial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jungman; Chung, Jungmin; Oh, Wonjun; Yoo, Yongkyu; Lee, Won Gu; Bang, Hyunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Here we present a new method for automatic and objective monitoring of ingestive behaviors in comparison with other facial activities through load cells embedded in a pair of glasses, named GlasSense. Typically, activated by subtle contraction and relaxation of a temporalis muscle, there is a cyclic movement of the temporomandibular joint during mastication. However, such muscular signals are, in general, too weak to sense without amplification or an electromyographic analysis. To detect these oscillatory facial signals without any use of obtrusive device, we incorporated a load cell into each hinge which was used as a lever mechanism on both sides of the glasses. Thus, the signal measured at the load cells can detect the force amplified mechanically by the hinge. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept validation of the amplification by differentiating the force signals between the hinge and the temple. A pattern recognition was applied to extract statistical features and classify featured behavioral patterns, such as natural head movement, chewing, talking, and wink. The overall results showed that the average F1 score of the classification was about 94.0% and the accuracy above 89%. We believe this approach will be helpful for designing a non-intrusive and un-obtrusive eyewear-based ingestive behavior monitoring system.

  7. Pattern, growth, and aging in aggregation kinetics of a Vicsek-like active matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subir K.

    2017-01-01

    Via molecular dynamics simulations, we study kinetics in a Vicsek-like phase-separating active matter model. Quantitative results, for isotropic bicontinuous pattern, are presented on the structure, growth, and aging. These are obtained via the two-point equal-time density-density correlation function, the average domain length, and the two-time density autocorrelation function. Both the correlation functions exhibit basic scaling properties, implying self-similarity in the pattern dynamics, for which the average domain size exhibits a power-law growth in time. The equal-time correlation has a short distance behavior that provides reasonable agreement between the corresponding structure factor tail and the Porod law. The autocorrelation decay is a power-law in the average domain size. Apart from these basic similarities, the overall quantitative behavior of the above-mentioned observables is found to be vastly different from those of the corresponding passive limit of the model which also undergoes phase separation. The functional forms of these have been quantified. An exceptionally rapid growth in the active system occurs due to fast coherent motion of the particles, mean-squared-displacements of which exhibit multiple scaling regimes, including a long time ballistic one.

  8. Analysis on Residents’ Travel Activity Pattern in Historic Urban Areas: A Case Study of Historic Urban Area of Yangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel behaviors and activity patterns in the historic urban area of a city are expected to be different from the overall situations in the city area. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the residents’ travel activity patterns in historic urban area. Based on survey data conducted in the historic urban area of Yangzhou, the travel activities of local residents in a whole day were classified into five types of patterns. The multinomial logit (MNL model was developed to evaluate the impacts of explanatory variables on the choices of activity patterns. The results showed that the choice of activity pattern was significantly impacted by five contributing factors including the gender, age, occupation, car ownership, and number of electric bikes in household. The other variables, which were the family population, preschoolers, number of conventional bikes in household, motorcycle ownership, and income, were found to be not significantly related to the choice of activities. The results of this study from historic urban area were compared to findings of previous studies from overall urban area. The comparison showed that the impacts of factors on activity pattern in the historic urban area were different from those in the overall area. Findings of this study provide important suggestions for the policy makings to improve the traffic situations in historic urban areas of cities.

  9. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  10. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yun Wen; Chee-Kit Looi; Wenli Chen

    2012-01-01

      This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student...

  11. Patterns of Microglial Cell Activation in Alzheimer Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, Ricardo; Brochado, Paulo; Robinson, Andrew; Reis, Inês; Costa, Patrício; Mann, David M; Melo Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Microglia-driven neuroinflammation can play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we sought to characterize the distribution of microglial cell activation in 2 neurodegenerative dementias with distinct protein signatures, Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) of the TDP subtype, and to determine if there was an anatomical correlation with the phenotypes most commonly associated with these conditions. The distribution and extent of microglial cell activation was assessed semiquantitatively in the hippocampal formation, cortical gray matter, and subcortical white matter of CD68-immunostained sections of the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices from 15 pathologically confirmed cases of AD, 13 cases of FTLD, and 18 controls. Significantly higher levels of microglial cell activation occurred in the subiculum in AD and FTLD than in controls. Additionally, AD had higher microglial activation in the CA1 and FTLD in the hippocampal white matter than the controls. Microglial activation was greater in the dentate gyrus molecular layer in AD than in FTLD. In the cortical regions, the 2 pathological groups differed only in frontal white matter, with the FTLD group showing higher microglial scores. FTLD showed higher microglial activation in the white matter compared to the respective gray matter in the entorhinal, temporal, and frontal regions. Our work expands the knowledge of the distribution and magnitude of microglial activation in these disorders. Additionally, we found some microglial circuit-specific patterns that could help to explain some of the clinical overlap between AD and FTLD-TDP, namely in memory deficits. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  13. Integration of plasma-assisted surface chemical modification, soft lithography, and protein surface activation for single-cell patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2010-07-01

    Surface patterning for single-cell culture was accomplished by combining plasma-assisted surface chemical modification, soft lithography, and protein-induced surface activation. Hydrophilic patterns were produced on Parylene C films deposited on glass substrates by oxygen plasma treatment through the windows of polydimethylsiloxane shadow masks. After incubation first with Pluronic F108 solution and then serum medium overnight, surface seeding with mesenchymal stem cells in serum medium resulted in single-cell patterning. The present method provides a means of surface patterning with direct implications in single-cell culture.

  14. Metabolic patterns and biotransformation activities of resveratrol in human glioblastoma cells: relevance with therapeutic efficacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans-resveratrol rather than its biotransformed monosulfate metabolite exerts anti-medulloblastoma effects by suppressing STAT3 activation. Nevertheless, its effects on human glioblastoma cells are variable due to certain unknown reason(s. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Citing resveratrol-sensitive UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and primarily cultured rat brain cells/PBCs as controls, the effect of resveratrol on LN-18 human glioblastoma cells and its relevance with metabolic pattern(s, brain-associated sulfotransferase/SULT expression and the statuses of STAT3 signaling and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3 were elucidated by multiple experimental approaches. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of three SULTs (SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 in human glioblastoma tumors were profiled immunohistochemically. The results revealed that 100 µM resveratrol-treated LN-18 generated the same metabolites as UW228-3 cells, while additional metabolite in molecular weight of 403.0992 in negative ion mode was found in PBCs. Neither growth arrest nor apoptosis was found in resveratrol-treated LN-18 and PBC cells. Upon resveratrol treatment, the levels of SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 expression in LN-18 cells were more up-regulated than that expressed in UW228-3 cells and close to the levels in PBCs. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 42.0%, 27.1% and 19.6% of 149 glioblastoma cases produced similar SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 levels as that of tumor-surrounding tissues. Unlike the situation in UW228-3 cells, STAT3 signaling remained activated and its protein inhibitor PIAS3 was restricted in the cytosol of resveratrol-treated LN-18 cells. No nuclear translocation of STAT3 and PIAS3 was observed in resveratrol-treated PBCs. Treatment with STAT3 chemical inhibitor, AG490, committed majority of LN-18 and UW228-3 cells but not PBCs to apoptosis within 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LN-18 glioblastoma cells are insensitive to resveratrol due to the

  15. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  16. Representational similarity encoding for fMRI: Pattern-based synthesis to predict brain activity using stimulus-model-similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2016-03-01

    Patterns of neural activity are systematically elicited as the brain experiences categorical stimuli and a major challenge is to understand what these patterns represent. Two influential approaches, hitherto treated as separate analyses, have targeted this problem by using model-representations of stimuli to interpret the corresponding neural activity patterns. Stimulus-model-based-encoding synthesizes neural activity patterns by first training weights to map between stimulus-model features and voxels. This allows novel model-stimuli to be mapped into voxel space, and hence the strength of the model to be assessed by comparing predicted against observed neural activity. Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) assesses models by testing how well the grand structure of pattern-similarities measured between all pairs of model-stimuli aligns with the same structure computed from neural activity patterns. RSA does not require model fitting, but also does not allow synthesis of neural activity patterns, thereby limiting its applicability. We introduce a new approach, representational similarity-encoding, that builds on the strengths of RSA and robustly enables stimulus-model-based neural encoding without model fitting. The approach therefore sidesteps problems associated with overfitting that notoriously confront any approach requiring parameter estimation (and is consequently low cost computationally), and importantly enables encoding analyses to be incorporated within the wider Representational Similarity Analysis framework. We illustrate this new approach by using it to synthesize and decode fMRI patterns representing the meanings of words, and discuss its potential biological relevance to encoding in semantic memory. Our new similarity-based encoding approach unites the two previously disparate methods of encoding models and RSA, capturing the strengths of both, and enabling similarity-based synthesis of predicted fMRI patterns.

  17. Patterns of brain activation in foster children and nonmaltreated children during an inhibitory control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Graham, Alice M; Moore, William E; Peake, Shannon J; Mannering, Anne M

    2013-11-01

    Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control.

  18. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  19. The Daily Pattern of Main Activities in the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and analyse the main daily activities in the group of geladas kept in the Zlín Zoo. The experimental group was formed by three males (one of them was a dominant alfa male and four females who were in the reproductive cycle at the observation period. The behavioural study included five recurrent observations which took place in March 2014. The observations revealed that geladas spent most of the time feeding (44.1% and performing comfort behaviour (24.6%. About 7.7–10.4% of the total time the geladas spent moving, resting and observing the neighbourhoods. The settled and stable social hierarchy within the group prevented greater incidence (0.7% of aggressive behaviour. Occurrence of other types of activities was low – play (1.7%, climbing the trees (0.5% and sexual behaviour (2.3%. The work also studied how the incidence of a particular type of behaviour changed over time within the day. A certain pattern in behavioural activities was apparent because their incidence tended to be similar on all observation days. Foraging activities were the greatest (44.80 ± 3.64 observations between 15.00 and 16.00, resting (8.00–9.80 observations between 12.00 and 14.00 and comfort behaviour (23.20 ± 2.82 observations in the morning.

  20. The potential for the exploration of activity patterns in the urban landscape with GPS-positioning and electronic activity diaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    rythms affects the different parts of the city. GPS-based tracking has previously mainly been used to track vehicle movements, fx. in transportation surveys. The use of personal devices makes it foremost possible to place the individual respondents use of urban space in its context of transport routes......, other locations visited and the individuals total time budget. In the cross-disciplinary research project Space – Time – Flows currently being started at Aalborg University, the GPS/electronic diary technology is intended as a means to disclosure the imprint of information and communication technologies...... on the use of urban space. The core of the work will be an equal treatment of activities in the virtual as well as the physical world. Substitution effects between the virtual and the physical world will be in focus, together with differences between the spatio-temporal patterns of groups with different...

  1. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11‒18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29‒63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62‒81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (P<0.05. Under the same conditions, the force of elastomeric separators was greater than elastomeric ligatures of the same company. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  2. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Amir; Mahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek) were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11-18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29-63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62-81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (Pcompany. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  3. Dietary and Physical Activity Pattern in Fars Province, National Plan of Chronic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Farahmand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle, especially in different aspects of nutrition and physical activity, have been associated with change in the patterns of diseases, from contagious diseases to non-communicable diseases, and with the prevalence of chronic diseases. Accordingly, this study is carried out within the framework of National Plan to Care for Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases with the aim of comparing the dietary patterns and physical activity of people under study in Fars province during 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: Using the WHO Step-by-step Evaluation Model for Risky Factors, the present study determined fifty 20-person clusters, totally 1,000 people within the age group of 15-64 for each year as the research population. After identifying the applicable people, they were visited at their homes and the questionnaires were filled out for them. The necessary analysis was carried out using Version 6 of EPI-info and Version 10 of STATA software.Results: The findings of the present study indicated that men have more intense physical activity than women (p=0.001. The results also indicated a significant increase in consumption of fruit (p=0.01, vegetable (p=0.001, and fish (p=0.001 in 2007 as compared with 2006. The average number of the consumed vegetable units in women was higher than that of men (p=0.01.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the average number of daily consumed units of fruit and vegetable as well as the frequencies of fish consumption per week was lower than the recommended amounts.

  4. Formation and reverberation of sequential neural activity patterns evoked by sensory stimulation are enhanced during cortical desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez Contreras, Edgar J; Schjetnan, Andrea Gomez Palacio; Muhammad, Arif; Bartho, Peter; McNaughton, Bruce L; Kolb, Bryan; Gruber, Aaron J; Luczak, Artur

    2013-08-07

    Memory formation is hypothesized to involve the generation of event-specific neural activity patterns during learning and the subsequent spontaneous reactivation of these patterns. Here, we present evidence that these processes can also be observed in urethane-anesthetized rats and are enhanced by desynchronized brain state evoked by tail pinch, subcortical carbachol infusion, or systemic amphetamine administration. During desynchronization, we found that repeated tactile or auditory stimulation evoked unique sequential patterns of neural firing in somatosensory and auditory cortex and that these patterns then reoccurred during subsequent spontaneous activity, similar to what we have observed in awake animals. Furthermore, the formation of these patterns was blocked by an NMDA receptor antagonist, suggesting that the phenomenon depends on synaptic plasticity. These results suggest that anesthetized animals with a desynchronized brain state could serve as a convenient model for studying stimulus-induced plasticity to improve our understanding of memory formation and replay in the brain.

  5. Altered activation patterns by triceps surae stretch reflex pathways in acute and chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Johnson, Michael D; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-01

    Spinal reflexes are modified by spinal cord injury (SCI) due the loss of excitatory inputs from supraspinal structures and changes within the spinal cord. The stretch reflex is one of the simplest pathways of the central nervous system and was used presently to evaluate how inputs from primary and secondary muscle spindles interact with spinal circuits before and after spinal transection (i.e., spinalization) in 12 adult decerebrate cats. Seven cats were spinalized and allowed to recover for 1 mo (i.e., chronic spinal state), whereas 5 cats were evaluated before (i.e., intact state) and after acute spinalization (i.e., acute spinal state). Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae (TS) muscles. The force evoked by TS muscles was recorded along with the activity of several hindlimb muscles. Stretch reflexes were abolished in the acute spinal state due to an inability to activate TS muscles, such as soleus (Sol) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). In chronic spinal cats, reflex force had partly recovered but Sol and LG activity remained considerably depressed, despite the fact that injecting clonidine could recruit these muscles during locomotor-like activity. In contrast, other muscles not recruited in the intact state, most notably semitendinosus and sartorius, were strongly activated by stretching TS muscles in chronic spinal cats. Therefore, stretch reflex pathways from TS muscles to multiple hindlimb muscles undergo functional reorganization following spinalization, both acute and chronic. Altered activation patterns by stretch reflex pathways could explain some sensorimotor deficits observed during locomotion and postural corrections after SCI.

  6. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  7. Platelet activation patterns in platelet size sub-populations: differential responses to aspirin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalpally, Kiran Kumar R; Siqueiros-Garcia, Alan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Dong, Jing-Fei; Kleiman, Neal S; Guthikonda, Sasidhar

    2010-10-01

    Circulating platelets are heterogeneous in size and structure. Whether this translates into differences in platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. Hence, we decided to investigate the activation patterns among different platelet populations differentiated by size, and to compare the inhibitory effects of aspirin in these populations. Circulating platelets from 9 healthy volunteers were separated by size and stratified into the largest and smallest quintiles. Platelets were stimulated with 75 μM arachidonic acid (AA), 10 μM ADP or 25 μM TRAP. Alpha-granule protein secretion and expression (P-selectin, VWF, fibrinogen), surface-protein activation (activated integrin αIIbβ3) were assessed. Platelet thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) synthesis following AA stimulation was measured in vitro before and after incubation with 265 μM aspirin. Reticulated (juvenile) platelets were assessed using thiazole orange staining. A greater number of large platelets in the largest quintile were reticulated compared with the smallest quintile (6.1 ± 2.8% vs. 1.2 ± 1.5% respectively, p aspirin (1029 ± 190 pg/mL vs. 851 ± 159 pg/mL, respectively, p = 0.03). After stimulation with each agonist, a greater proportion of large platelets bound fibrinogen, VWF, P-selectin and activated integrin αIIbβ3 than small platelets both in the presence and in the absence of in vitro aspirin. In an in vitro setting, large platelets appear to be more active than small platelets and continue to be more active even after in vitro aspirin. Platelets exhibit heterogeneity in size and structure. Whether this translates into platelet function and efficacy of antiplatelet therapy is unclear. We evaluated platelet functional properties and the effects of aspirin on separated platelet subpopulations in an in vitro setting. Platelets were sorted into the largest and smallest size quintiles using flow cytometry forward scatter. Alpha-granule protein release, dense granule content

  8. Osteological evidence for the evolution of activity pattern and visual acuity in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R F; Kirk, E C

    2000-10-01

    Examination of orbit size and optic foramen size in living primates reveals two adaptive phenomena. First, as noted by many authors, orbit size is strongly correlated with activity pattern. Comparisons of large samples of extant primates consistently reveal that nocturnal species exhibit proportionately larger orbits than diurnal species. Furthermore, nocturnal haplorhines (Tarsius and Aotus) have considerably larger orbits than similar-sized nocturnal strepsirrhines. Orbital hypertrophy in Tarsius and Aotus accommodates the enormously enlarged eyes of these taxa. This extreme ocular hypertrophy seen in extant nocturnal haplorhines is an adaptation for both enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of low light intensity. Second, the relative size of the optic foramen is highly correlated with the degree of retinal summation and inferred visual acuity. Diurnal haplorhines exhibit proportionately larger optic foramina, less central retinal summation, and much higher visual acuity than do all other primates. Diurnal strepsirrhines exhibit a more subtle but significant parallel enlargement of the optic foramen and a decrease in retinal summation relative to the condition seen in nocturnal primates. These twin osteological variables of orbit size and optic foramen size may be used to draw inferences regarding the activity pattern, retinal anatomy, and visual acuity of fossil primates. Our measurements demonstrate that the omomyiforms Microchoerus, Necrolemur, Shoshonius, and Tetonius, adapiform Pronycticebus, and the possible lorisiform Plesiopithecus were likely nocturnal on the basis of orbit diameter. The adapiforms Leptadapis, Adapis, and Notharctus, the phylogenetically enigmatic Rooneyia, the early anthropoids Proteopithecus, Catopithecus, and Aegyptopithecus, and early platyrrhine Dolichocebus were likely diurnal. The activity pattern of the platyrrhine Tremacebus is obscure. Plesiopithecus, Pronycticebus, Microchoerus, and Necrolemur probably had

  9. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Breit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2, showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001. In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001, classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001. These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling

  10. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Verikas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each. The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG

  11. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Marc; Netzer, Michael; Weinberger, Klaus M; Baumgartner, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars) were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID) for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs) in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2), showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P modeling approach demonstrates high potential for dynamic biomarker identification and the investigation of kinetic mechanisms in disease or pharmacodynamics studies using MS data from longitudinal cohort studies.

  12. Different patterns of extracellular proteolytic activity in W303a and BY4742 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyński, Rafał; Wolna, Dorota; Kędzior, Mateusz; Gutowicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Protease secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures is a complex process, important for the application of this organism in the food industry and biotechnology. Previous studies provide rather quantitative data, yielding no information about the number of enzymes involved in proteolysis and their individual biochemical properties. Here we demonstrate that W303a and BY4742 S. cerevisiae strains reveal different patterns of spontaneous and gelatin-induced extracellular proteolytic activity. We applied the gelatin zymography assay to track changes of the proteolytic profile in time, finding the protease secretion dependent on the growth phase and the presence of the protein inducer. Detected enzymes were characterized regarding their substrate specificity, pH tolerance, and susceptibility to inhibitors. In case of the W303a strain, only one type of gelatin-degrading secretory protease (presumably metalloproteinase) was observed. However, the BY4742 strain secreted different proteases of the various catalytic types, depending on the substrate availability. Our study brings the evidence that S. cerevisiae strains secrete several kinds of proteases depending on the presence and type of the substrate. Protein induction may cause not only quantitative but also qualitative changes in the extracellular proteolytic patterns.

  13. Patterns of Activity in the Human Frontal and Parietal Cortex Differentiate Large and Small Saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Helene Grosbras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well established that in monkeys’ main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to scan participants while they performed saccades towards targets at either short (4 degrees or large (30 degrees eccentricity. A regional multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals that patterns of activity in the frontal (FEF and parietal eye fields discriminate between the execution of large or small saccades. This was not the case in the supplementary eye fields nor in the inferior precentral cortex. These findings provide the first evidence of a representation of saccadic eye movement size in the fronto-parietal occulomotor circuit. They shed light on the respective roles of the different cortical oculomotor regions with respect to space perception and exploration, as well as on the homology of eye movement control between human and non-human primates.

  14. Gene networks activated by specific patterns of action potentials in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Philip R.; Cohen, Jonathan E.; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Fields, R. Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks underlie the long-term changes in cell specification, growth of synaptic connections, and adaptation that occur throughout neonatal and postnatal life. Here we show that the transcriptional response in neurons is exquisitely sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential firing patterns. Neurons were electrically stimulated with the same number of action potentials, but with different inter-burst intervals. We found that these subtle alterations in the timing of action potential firing differentially regulates hundreds of genes, across many functional categories, through the activation or repression of distinct transcriptional networks. Our results demonstrate that the transcriptional response in neurons to environmental stimuli, coded in the pattern of action potential firing, can be very sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential delivery rather than the intensity of stimulation or the total number of action potentials delivered. These data identify temporal kinetics of action potential firing as critical components regulating intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression in neurons to extracellular cues during early development and throughout life. PMID:28256583

  15. Impact of lumbar spine posture on thoracic spine motion and muscle activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Brian C; Drake, Janessa D M

    2014-10-01

    Complex motion during standing is typical in daily living and requires movement of both the thoracic and lumbar spine; however, the effects of lumbar spine posture on thoracic spine motion patterns remain unclear. Thirteen males moved to six positions involving different lumbar (neutral and flexed) and thoracic (flexed and twisted) posture combinations. The thoracic spine was partitioned into three segments and the range of motion from each posture was calculated. Electromyographical data were collected from eight muscles bilaterally. Results showed that with a flexed lumbar spine, the lower-thoracic region had 14.83 ° and 15.6 1 ° more flexion than the upper- and mid-thoracic regions, respectively. A flexed lumbar spine significantly reduced the mid-thoracic axial twist angle by 5.21 ° compared to maximum twist in the mid-thoracic region. Functional differences emerged across muscles, as low back musculature was greatest in maintaining flexed lumbar postures, while thoracic erector spinae and abdominals showed bilateral differences with greater activations to the ipsilateral side. Combined postures have been previously identified as potential injury modulators and bilateral muscle patterns can have an effect on loading pathways. Overall, changes in thoracic motion were modified by lumbar spine posture, highlighting the importance of considering a multi-segmented approach when analyzing trunk motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Active dynamics of colloidal particles in time-varying laser speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Silvio; Pruner, Riccardo; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Maggi, Claudio; di Leonardo, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal particles immersed in a dynamic speckle pattern experience an optical force that fluctuates both in space and time. The resulting dynamics presents many interesting analogies with a broad class of non-equilibrium systems like: active colloids, self propelled microorganisms, transport in dynamical intracellular environments. Here we show that the use of a spatial light modulator allows to generate light fields that fluctuate with controllable space and time correlations and a prescribed average intensity profile. In particular we generate ring-shaped random patterns that can confine a colloidal particle over a quasi one-dimensional random energy landscape. We find a mean square displacement that is diffusive at both short and long times, while a superdiffusive or subdiffusive behavior is observed at intermediate times depending on the value of the speckles correlation time. We propose two alternative models for the mean square displacement in the two limiting cases of a short or long speckles correlation time. A simple interpolation formula is shown to account for the full phenomenology observed in the mean square displacement across the entire range from fast to slow fluctuating speckles.

  17. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Uchida, Kenta; Matsuura, Yukiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kaji, Koichi; Koizumi, Itsuro

    2016-01-01

    The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels), nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons), crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares), and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears). Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring–autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter–summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions. PMID:27732611

  18. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles. Methods A spontaneous pain pattern in FM was recorded in 30 FM patients and 30 healthy subjects served as controls. Local and referred pain patterns induced from active (patients) and latent (controls) MTPs were recorded following manual stimulation. The existence of MTPs was confirmed by intramuscular electromyographical registration of spontaneous electrical activity. Results Local and referred pain areas induced from key active MTPs in FM were larger than pain areas from latent MTPs in healthy controls (P 0.05). The induced pain area was positively associated with current spontaneous pain intensity in FM (P fibromyalgia pain is largely composed of pain arising from muscle pain and spasm. Targeting active MTPs and related perpetuating factors may be an important strategy in FM pain control. Trial registration ISRCTN ISRCTN43167547. PMID:21426569

  19. The relationship between the lizard eye and associated bony features: a cautionary note for interpreting fossil activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I

    2009-06-01

    Activity pattern, the time of day when an animal is active, is associated with ecology. There are two major activity patterns: diurnal (awake during the day in a photopic environment) and nocturnal (awake at night in a scotopic environment). Lizards exhibit characteristic eye shapes associated with activity pattern, with scotopic-adapted lizard eyes optimized for visual sensitivity with large corneal diameters relative to their eye axial lengths, and photopic-adapted lizards optimized for visual acuity, with larger axial lengths of the eye relative to their corneal diameters. This study: (1) quantifies the relationship between the lizard eye and its associated bony anatomy (the orbit, sclerotic ring, and associated skull widths); (2) investigates how activity pattern is reflected in that bony anatomy; and (3) determines if it is possible to reliably interpret activity pattern for a lizard that does not have the soft tissue available for study, specifically, for a fossil. Knowledge of extinct lizards' activity patterns would be useful in making paleoecological interpretations. Here, 96 scotopic- and photopic-adapted lizard species are analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Although there is a close relationship between the lepidosaur eye and associated bony anatomy, based on these data activity pattern cannot be reliably interpreted for bony-only specimens, such as a fossil, possibly because of the limited ossification of the lepidosaur skull. Caution should be exercised when utilizing lizard bony anatomy to interpret light-level adaptation, either for a fossil lizard or as part of an extant phylogenetic bracket to interpret other extinct animals with sclerotic rings, such as dinosaurs.

  20. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  1. Selenium Distribution Pattern, Antineoplastic and Immunostimulatory Activities of a Novel Organoselenium Compound Eb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun; DENGSheng-ju; KUANGBin; HEFei; LIUTao; ZENGHui-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution pattern, antineoplastic activity and immtmocompetence of a novel organeselenium compotmd Eb and investigate its in vivo antineoplastic potential. Methods Eb was administered to Kunming mice (dosage, 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) intragastrically for 7 successive days. The contents of selenium in heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, stomach, brain, muscle, and bone were determined by fluommetric method on the eighth day. MTT assay was used to study tumor growth inhibition of Eb in vitro, and lymphocyte transformation, hemolysin formation and phagocytosis assay were used to study its immunocompetence. Results After 7 days' administration of Eb, the tissue contents of selenium in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and bone of mice increased, especially those in liver and spleen increased significantly, compared with controls; but no significant changes of such contents were fotmd in muscle, heart, brain, and stomach. Eb demonstrated inhibitory effects on human Bel-7402, BGC-823, and Calu-3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Eb also showed ability to enhance lymphocyte transformation and serum hemolysin formation in v/tro and increase the phagocytosis of macrophages. Conclusion The validated antitumor and immtmostimulatory activities of Eb suggest a hypothesis that Eb may behave as a biological response modifier when used as an antitumor agent. Eb is worthy of further study in developing a new antineoplastic and immunity enhancing agent in the light of its antitumor activity, immtmocompetenee and specific distribution in liver, lungs, kidneys, bone, and spleen.

  2. Altered perirhinal cortex activity patterns during taste neophobia and their habituation in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, B; Morillas, E; Gallo, M

    2015-03-15

    Perirhinal cortex (PRh) pathology and chemosensory identification dysfunction are early signs of Alzheimer's disease. We have assessed the impact of normal aging on PRh activity during flavor recognition memory using c-Fos immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activity. Adult (5-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) Wistar male rats were exposed to a vinegar solution on a daily basis for a period of six days. Behavioral assessment indicated similar performance in both age groups but suggested slower attenuation of neophobia in aged rats. Regarding c-Fos immunoreactivity, an opposite pattern of PRh activity was found in adult and aged groups drinking the flavor solution during the first (Novel), second (Familiar I) or sixth (Familiar II) exposure as the flavor became familiar. While adult rats exhibited a higher number of PRh c-Fos-positive neurons during the presentation of the novel flavor than during the second and sixth presentation, in aged rats the number of PRh c-Fos-positive neurons was higher during the presentation of the familiar flavor in the last session than in the first and second. The results suggest that the role of the PRh changes during aging and can help to dissociate PRh dysfuntions induced by neurodegenerative diseases and normal aging.

  3. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...... to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 +/- 80 vs. 487 +/- 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 +/- 18.3 vs. 40.2 +/- 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar...

  4. Diversity and activity pattern of wildlife inhabiting catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adyla, M. N. Nurul; Ikhwan, Z.; Zuhairi, M.; Ngah, Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    A series of camera trapping surveys were conducted to study the diversity and distribution of wildlife within the catchment of Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Dam. A total of 124 camera traps were deployed at nine study sites, continuously from June 2014 until December 2015. The total effort of camera trap surveys from all the study sites during the 18-month sampling period was 29,128 night traps, from which a total of 32 species of wildlife representing nine Orders were recorded. The most common species were Eurasian Wild Pig (Sus scrofa), Barking Deer (Munticus muntjak), and Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus). Camera trap data on activity patterns show that Gallus gallus, Muntiacus muntjak and Sus scrofa are diurnal animals, whereas Tapirus indicus, Elephas maximus and Helarctos malayanus are nocturnal animals.

  5. Impact of Substrate Bias on Fixed-Pattern-Noise in Active Pixel Sensor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Mamoru

    2007-11-01

    The effect of substrate (body) bias on fixed-pattern-noise (FPN) in active pixel sensor (APS) cells is studied. Through measuring test devices consisting of two metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) connected in series with each of the transistors located in the same well region, it has been revealed that substrate bias, which is inevitably applied in a normal circuit configuration in conventional APS cells, worsens the characteristics fluctuation in source-follower amplifiers in APS cells, leading to FPN that cannot be mitigated by conventional correction methods such as correlated double sampling. In addition it has been confirmed that the current-voltage characteristics of logarithmic converters, each of which is realized using a MOSFET with gate and drain terminals connected together, are also affected by substrate bias, resulting in increased characteristics fluctuation as compared with the case with no substrate bias.

  6. Amplicon restriction patterns associated with nitrogenase activity of root nodules for selection of superior Myrica seedlings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mhathung Yanthan; Arvind K Misran

    2013-11-01

    Trees of Myrica sp. grow abundantly in the forests of Meghalaya, India. These trees are actinorhizal and harbour nitrogen-fixing Frankia in their root nodules and contribute positively towards the enhancement of nitrogen status of forest areas. They can be used in rejuvenation of mine spoils and nitrogen-depleted fallow lands generated due to slash and burn agriculture practiced in the area. We have studied the association of amplicon restriction patterns (ARPs) of Myrica ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and nitrogenase activity of its root nodules. We found that ARPs thus obtained could be used as markers for early screening of seedlings that could support strains of Frankia that fix atmospheric nitrogen more efficiently.

  7. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by Ganoderma formosanum stimulate macrophage activation via multiple pattern-recognition receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungus of Ganoderma is a traditional medicine in Asia with a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-cancer activities. We have purified an extracellular heteropolysaccharide fraction, PS-F2, from the submerged mycelia culture of G. formosanum and shown that PS-F2 exhibits immunostimulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of immunostimulation by PS-F2. Results PS-F2-stimulated TNF-α production in macrophages was significantly reduced in the presence of blocking antibodies for Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 (CR3, laminarin, or piceatannol (a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting that PS-F2 recognition by macrophages is mediated by Dectin-1 and CR3 receptors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of PS-F2 was attenuated in the bone marrow-derived macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. PS-F2 stimulation triggered the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, p38, and ERK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which all played essential roles in activating TNF-α expression. Conclusions Our results indicate that the extracellular polysaccharides produced by G. formosanum stimulate macrophages via the engagement of multiple pattern-recognition receptors including Dectin-1, CR3 and TLR4, resulting in the activation of Syk, JNK, p38, ERK, and NK-κB and the production of TNF-α.

  8. The spatiotemporal pattern of Src activation at lipid rafts revealed by diffusion-corrected FRET imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Lu

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET have been widely applied to visualize the molecular activity in live cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, the rapid diffusion of biosensor proteins hinders a precise reconstruction of the actual molecular activation map. Based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments, we have developed a finite element (FE method to analyze, simulate, and subtract the diffusion effect of mobile biosensors. This method has been applied to analyze the mobility of Src FRET biosensors engineered to reside at different subcompartments in live cells. The results indicate that the Src biosensor located in the cytoplasm moves 4-8 folds faster (0.93+/-0.06 microm(2/sec than those anchored on different compartments in plasma membrane (at lipid raft: 0.11+/-0.01 microm(2/sec and outside: 0.18+/-0.02 microm(2/sec. The mobility of biosensor at lipid rafts is slower than that outside of lipid rafts and is dominated by two-dimensional diffusion. When this diffusion effect was subtracted from the FRET ratio images, high Src activity at lipid rafts was observed at clustered regions proximal to the cell periphery, which remained relatively stationary upon epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulation. This result suggests that EGF induced a Src activation at lipid rafts with well-coordinated spatiotemporal patterns. Our FE-based method also provides an integrated platform of image analysis for studying molecular mobility and reconstructing the spatiotemporal activation maps of signaling molecules in live cells.

  9. Muscle activation patterns and gait biomechanics in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caliri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS may experience a progressive spinal kyphosis, which induces a forward and downward displacement of the centre of mass (COM of the trunk with consequent use of mechanisms to compensate for the displacement of the trunk. The analysis of patterns of movement gives an important opportunity for follow-up of patients and is an useful tool to plan a therapeutic and rehabilitative program. Objective: The aim of our study was to contribute to the description of abnormalities of gait biomechanics in patients with AS and to individualize, if existing, a typical pattern of these patients. Methods: Five patients with AS (3 men, 2 women were evaluated by gait analysis. Each patient was assessed with dynamic electromyography, with survey of phases of gait cycle and 3D video-analysis of gait related to data of platform (Digivec ® which allows to display real time the force vector of reaction foot-ground overlapping the screen image of patient. Results: The dynamometric platform located the following problems: increasing of the medium-lateral component of the reaction force on the ground in the mild and terminal stance. The anterior-posterior reaction force is diminished in both the initial and the terminal component. The timing of activation of the tibialis anterior results prolonged while the timing of activation of the gastrocnemius medialis results delayed. Conclusion: The patients with AS prefer therefore an eccentric contraction of the tibial anterior in comparison to a concentric contraction of the gastrocnemius medialis, “opting” for a gait strategy that confers greater stability but limited power.

  10. Analysis of the access patterns at GSFC distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore; Bedet, Jean-Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational for more than two years. Its mission is to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) concepts. Over 550,000 files and documents have been archived, and more than six Terabytes have been distributed to the scientific community. Information about user request and file access patterns, and their impact on system loading, is needed to optimize current operations and to plan for future archives. To facilitate the management of daily activities, the GSFC DAAC has developed a data base system to track correspondence, requests, ingestion and distribution. In addition, several log files which record transactions on Unitree are maintained and periodically examined. This study identifies some of the users' requests and file access patterns at the GSFC DAAC during 1995. The analysis is limited to the subset of orders for which the data files are under the control of the Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) Unitree. The results show that most of the data volume ordered was for two data products. The volume was also mostly made up of level 3 and 4 data and most of the volume was distributed on 8 mm and 4 mm tapes. In addition, most of the volume ordered was for deliveries in North America although there was a significant world-wide use. There was a wide range of request sizes in terms of volume and number of files ordered. On an average 78.6 files were ordered per request. Using the data managed by Unitree, several caching algorithms have been evaluated for both hit rate and the overhead ('cost') associated with the movement of data from near-line devices to disks. The algorithm called LRU/2 bin was found to be the best for this workload, but the STbin algorithm also worked well.

  11. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  12. Bystanders' Behavior in Cyberbullying Episodes: Active and Passive Patterns in the Context of Personal-Socio-Emotional Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored bystanders' behavior in cyberbullying (CB) episodes among children and youth, focusing on active and passive behavior patterns. The study examined prevalence and characteristics of bystanders' behavior following CB episodes, and their active-passive intervention patterns in relation to personal (age, gender) and socio-emotional (self-efficacy, social support, sense of loneliness) factors. Of the 1,094 participants (ages 9-18), 497 (46.4%) reported they were bystanders to CB episodes. Of the bystanders, 55.4% were identified as having a passive pattern of behavior-they did not provide any help to cyber-victims, whereas 44.6% were identified as having an active pattern-helping the cyber-victim. In line with the "bystanders' effect," only 35.6% of the bystanders offered direct help to cyber-victims after witnessing CB. When studying the personal-socio-emotional differences between active and passive bystanders, it was found that the "active bystanders" are more often girls, older, have more social support from significant others, and have lower levels of emotional loneliness than bystanders in the passive group. Differences within the passive and active patterns were studied as well. A logistic regression revealed the unique contribution of each predictor to the probability of being an active bystander. It was found that gender and age predicted the probability of being an active bystander: Girls are more likely than boys, and older bystanders are more likely than younger ones, to choose an active pattern and provide help to cyber-victims. In addition, implications for CB prevention and intervention involvement programs to encourage bystanders to help cyber-victims are discussed.

  13. Homology to peptide pattern for annotation of carbohydrate-active enzymes and prediction of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busk, P K; Pilgaard, B; Lezyk, M J; Meyer, A S; Lange, L

    2017-04-12

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes are found in all organisms and participate in key biological processes. These enzymes are classified in 274 families in the CAZy database but the sequence diversity within each family makes it a major task to identify new family members and to provide basis for prediction of enzyme function. A fast and reliable method for de novo annotation of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes is to identify conserved peptides in the curated enzyme families followed by matching of the conserved peptides to the sequence of interest as demonstrated for the glycosyl hydrolase and the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase families. This approach not only assigns the enzymes to families but also provides functional prediction of the enzymes with high accuracy. We identified conserved peptides for all enzyme families in the CAZy database with Peptide Pattern Recognition. The conserved peptides were matched to protein sequence for de novo annotation and functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes with the Hotpep method. Annotation of protein sequences from 12 bacterial and 16 fungal genomes to families with Hotpep had an accuracy of 0.84 (measured as F1-score) compared to semiautomatic annotation by the CAZy database whereas the dbCAN HMM-based method had an accuracy of 0.77 with optimized parameters. Furthermore, Hotpep provided a functional prediction with 86% accuracy for the annotated genes. Hotpep is available as a stand-alone application for MS Windows. Hotpep is a state-of-the-art method for automatic annotation and functional prediction of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

  14. Generation, language, body mass index, and activity patterns in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno, Sharon E; Rollins, Brandi Y; Francis, Lori A

    2010-02-01

    The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children's relative weight and activity patterns. To investigate associations among generation and language with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (i.e., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Participants included 2012 Hispanic children aged 6-11 years from the cross-sectional 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (first, second, or third), and the primary language spoken in the home (English versus non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Compared to third-generation, English speakers, first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were more than two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, first-generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to second- and third-generation, English speakers. Overall, non-English-speaking groups reported less screen time compared to third-generation, English speakers. The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  16. A Health Probe in College Students Living in Los Angeles and in Taiwan: Dietary Pattern, Physical Activity and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine differences of dietary pattern, physical activity and energy balance in 240 college students with 137 of them enrolled in California State University, Los Angeles (LA) and the other 93 enrolled in China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan (TW). A three-day dietary record and a 24-hour physical activity journal were…

  17. Parents' dietary patterns are significantly correlated: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; Campbell, Karen J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify dietary patterns independently in first-time mothers and fathers, and to examine whether these patterns were correlated within families. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program using a validated FFQ in 454 pairs of first-time mothers and fathers. Education level was reported in associated questionnaires. Principal components analyses included frequencies of fifty-five food groups and were performed independently in mothers and fathers. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to assess associations between dietary pattern scores. A total of four dietary patterns were identified in mothers and fathers. Of these, three dietary patterns had similar characteristics between these two populations, namely 'Fruits and vegetables', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in mothers; and 'Fruits', 'High-energy snack and processed foods', 'High-fat foods' in fathers. The following two additional patterns were identified: 'Cereals and sweet foods' in mothers and 'Potatoes and vegetables' in fathers. Patterns incorporating healthier food items were found to be positively associated with parent education. An inverse association with education was found for the 'High-fat foods' and 'High-energy snack and processed foods' dietary patterns. Qualitatively similar patterns between corresponding mothers and fathers were the most strongly correlated (ρ = 0·34-0·45, P dietary patterns between mothers and fathers, suggesting that it is worth deriving patterns separately when considering couples, and more generally between men and women. Exploring how these various patterns correlate within households provides important insights to guide the development and implementation of family-based interventions.

  18. Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curnow Fiona

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess relationships between characteristics of the home environment and preschool children's physical activity and dietary patterns. Methods Homes of 280 preschool children were visited and information obtained by direct observation and parent interview regarding physical and nutritional characteristics of the home environment. Children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns were measured using standardised parent-report questionnaires. Associations were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation. Results Parental physical activity (p = 0.03–0.008, size of backyard (p = 0.001 and amount of outdoor play equipment (p = 0.003 were associated with more outdoor play. Fewer rules about television viewing (p Conclusion Physical attributes of the home environment and parental behaviours are associated with preschool children's physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary patterns. Many of these variables are modifiable and could be targeted in childhood obesity prevention and management.

  19. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-08-19

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency.

  20. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Tse Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder, based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency.

  1. Neural activation patterns of successful episodic encoding: Reorganization during childhood, maintenance in old age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lee Shing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-component framework of episodic memory (EM development posits that the contributions of medial temporal lobe (MTL and prefrontal cortex (PFC to successful encoding differ across the lifespan. To test the framework’s hypotheses, we compared subsequent memory effects (SME of 10–12 year-old children, younger adults, and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Memory was probed by cued recall, and SME were defined as regional activation differences during encoding between subsequently correctly recalled versus omitted items. In MTL areas, children’s SME did not differ in magnitude from those of younger and older adults. In contrast, children’s SME in PFC were weaker than the corresponding SME in younger and older adults, in line with the hypothesis that PFC contributes less to successful encoding in childhood. Differences in SME between younger and older adults were negligible. The present results suggest that, among individuals with high memory functioning, the neural circuitry contributing to successful episodic encoding is reorganized from middle childhood to adulthood. Successful episodic encoding in later adulthood, however, is characterized by the ability to maintain the activation patterns that emerged in young adulthood.

  2. Distinct patterns of brain activity in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Roxana G; Ofori, Edward; Shukla, Priyank; Planetta, Peggy J; Snyder, Amy F; Li, Hong; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Vaillancourt, David E

    2015-08-01

    The basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuits are important for motor control. Whether their functioning is affected in a similar or different way by progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is not clear. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) force production paradigm and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess differences in brain activity and macrostructural volumes between PSP, PD, and healthy age-matched controls. We found that PSP and PD share reduced functional activity of the basal ganglia and cortical motor areas, but this is more pronounced in PSP than in PD. In PSP the frontal regions are underactive, whereas the posterior parietal and occipital regions are overactive as compared with controls and PD. Furthermore, lobules I through IV, V, and VI of the cerebellum are hypoactive in PSP and PD, whereas Crus I and lobule IX are hyperactive in PSP only. Reductions in gray and white matter volume are specific to PSP. Finally, the functional status of the caudate as well as the volume of the superior frontal gyrus predict clinical gait and posture measures in PSP. PSP and PD share hypoactivity of the basal ganglia, motor cortex, and anterior cerebellum. These patients also display a unique pattern, such that anterior regions of the cortex are hypoactive and posterior regions of the cortex and cerebellum are hyperactive. Together, these findings suggest that specific structures within the basal ganglia, cortex, and cerebellum are affected differently in PSP relative to PD.

  3. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation.

  4. Influence of the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern on Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Moon, Il-Ju

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of Western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and large-scale environments according to the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern in summer. In the positive WP phase, an anomalous cyclone and an anomalous anticyclone develop in the low and middle latitudes of the East Asia area, respectively. As a result, southeasterlies are reinforced in the northeast area of East Asia (including Korea and Japan), which facilitates the movement of TC to this area, whereas northwesterlies are reinforced in the southwest area of East Asia (including southern China and the Indochina Peninsula) which blocks the movement of TC to that area. Due to the spatial distribution of this reinforced pressure system, TCs that develop during the positive WP phase move and turn more to the northeast of the WNP than TCs which develop during the negative WP phase. The characteristics of this TC activity during the positive WP phase are associated with the upper tropospheric jet being located farther to the northeast. TCs during the negative WP phase mainly move to the west from the Philippines toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Due to the terrain effect caused by the passage of TCs in mainland China, the intensity of TCs during the negative WP phase is weaker than those during the positive WP phase.

  5. Patterns of proliferative activity in the colonic crypt determine crypt stability and rates of somatic evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells in the colon are arranged in cylindrical structures called crypts in which cellular proliferation and migration are tightly regulated. We hypothesized that the proliferation patterns of cells may determine the stability of crypts as well as the rates of somatic evolution towards colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, we propose a linear process model of colonic epithelial cells that explicitly takes into account the proliferation kinetics of cells as a function of cell position within the crypt. Our results indicate that proliferation kinetics has significant influence on the speed of cell movement, kinetics of mutation propagation, and sensitivity of the system to selective effects of mutated cells. We found that, of all proliferation curves tested, those with mitotic activities concentrated near the stem cell, including the actual proliferation kinetics determined in in vivo labeling experiments, have a greater ability of delaying the rate of mutation accumulation in colonic stem cells compared to hypothetical proliferation curves with mitotic activities focused near the top of the crypt column. Our model can be used to investigate the dynamics of proliferation and mutation accumulation in spatially arranged tissues.

  6. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-03-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-degree defectors, who are hence unable to utilize on their inherent evolutionary advantage. Between cascading failures, the fraction of cooperators is therefore higher than usual, which lastly balances out the asymmetric dynamic instabilities that emerge due to intermittent blackouts of cooperative hubs.

  7. Association between heart rate variability, blood pressure and autonomic activity in cyclic alternating pattern during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideaki; Ozone, Motohiro; Ohki, Noboru; Sagawa, Yohei; Yamamichi, Keiichirou; Fukuju, Mitsuki; Yoshida, Takeshi; Nishi, Chikako; Kawasaki, Akiko; Mori, Kaori; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Izumi, Motomori; Hishikawa, Yasuo; Nishino, Seiji; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is frequently followed by changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), but the sequential associations between CAP and autonomic nerve activity have not been studied. The study aimed to reveal the precise changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during phase A of the CAP cycle. Polysomnography was recorded according to the CAP Atlas (Terzano, 2002), and BP and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. The complex demodulation method was used for analysis of HRV and evaluation of autonomic nerve activity. Academic sleep laboratory. Ten healthy males. The increase in HR (median [first quartile - third quartile]) for each subtype was as follows: A1, 0.64 (-0.30 to 1.69), A2, 1.44 (0.02 to 3.79), and A3, 6.24 (2.53 to 10.76) bpm (A1 vs. A2 P heart rate variability, and the largest heart rate variability was seen in subtype A3, while a tendency for less heart rate variability was seen in subtype A1.

  8. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology.

  9. Electricity forecasting on the individual household level enhanced based on activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajowniczek, Krzysztof; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Leveraging smart metering solutions to support energy efficiency on the individual household level poses novel research challenges in monitoring usage and providing accurate load forecasting. Forecasting electricity usage is an especially important component that can provide intelligence to smart meters. In this paper, we propose an enhanced approach for load forecasting at the household level. The impacts of residents' daily activities and appliance usages on the power consumption of the entire household are incorporated to improve the accuracy of the forecasting model. The contributions of this paper are threefold: (1) we addressed short-term electricity load forecasting for 24 hours ahead, not on the aggregate but on the individual household level, which fits into the Residential Power Load Forecasting (RPLF) methods; (2) for the forecasting, we utilized a household specific dataset of behaviors that influence power consumption, which was derived using segmentation and sequence mining algorithms; and (3) an extensive load forecasting study using different forecasting algorithms enhanced by the household activity patterns was undertaken.

  10. Neural activation patterns of successful episodic encoding: Reorganization during childhood, maintenance in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brehmer, Yvonne; Heekeren, Hauke R; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2016-08-01

    The two-component framework of episodic memory (EM) development posits that the contributions of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) to successful encoding differ across the lifespan. To test the framework's hypotheses, we compared subsequent memory effects (SME) of 10-12 year-old children, younger adults, and older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Memory was probed by cued recall, and SME were defined as regional activation differences during encoding between subsequently correctly recalled versus omitted items. In MTL areas, children's SME did not differ in magnitude from those of younger and older adults. In contrast, children's SME in PFC were weaker than the corresponding SME in younger and older adults, in line with the hypothesis that PFC contributes less to successful encoding in childhood. Differences in SME between younger and older adults were negligible. The present results suggest that, among individuals with high memory functioning, the neural circuitry contributing to successful episodic encoding is reorganized from middle childhood to adulthood. Successful episodic encoding in later adulthood, however, is characterized by the ability to maintain the activation patterns that emerged in young adulthood.

  11. Cloud — Aerosol interaction during lightning activity over land and ocean: Precipitation pattern assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanti; Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Chowdhury, Arumita Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Tanuka

    2016-06-01

    The present study attempts to identify the land - ocean contrast in cloud - aerosol relation during lightning and non-lightning days and its effect on subsequent precipitation pattern. The thermal hypothesis in view of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) behind the land - ocean contrast is observed to be insignificant in the present study region. The result shows that the lightning activities are significantly and positively correlated with aerosols over both land and ocean in case of low aerosol loading whereas for high aerosol loading the correlation is significant but, only over land. The study attempts to comprehend the mechanism through which the aerosol and lightning interact using the concept of aerosol indirect effect that includes the study of cloud effective radius, cloud fraction and precipitation rate. The result shows that the increase in lightning activity over ocean might have been caused due to the first aerosol indirect effect, while over land the aerosol indirect effect might have been suppressed due to lightning. Thus, depending on the region and relation between cloud parameters it is observed that the precipitation rate decreases (increases) over ocean during lightning (non-lightning) days. On the other hand during non-lightning days, the precipitation rate decreases over land.

  12. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rotating waves during human sleep spindles organize global patterns of activity that repeat precisely through the night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-01-01

    During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17267.001 PMID:27855061

  14. Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, M-ficolin and H-ficolin are all complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with recognition domains linked to collagen-like regions. All four may form complexes with four structurally related proteins, the three MBL-associated serine...... proteases (MASPs), MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, and a smaller MBL-associated protein (MAp19). The four recognition molecules recognize patterns of carbohydrate or acetyl-group containing ligands. After binding to the relevant targets all four are able to activate the complement system. We thus have a system...... where four different and/or overlapping patterns of microbial origin or patterns of altered-self may be recognized, but in all cases the signalling molecules, the MASPs, are shared. MASP-1 and MASP-3 are formed from one gene, MASP1/3, by alternative splicing generating two different mRNAs from a single...

  15. Differences in patterns of participation in leisure activities in Swedish children with and without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullenhag, Anna; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Granlund, Mats; Almqvist, Lena

    2014-01-01

    that focus on activities that are determined by the child based on their interests and desires. Age and gender influenced the variance in the diversity and enjoyment outcome and the presence of disability was associated with the intensity outcome. Age, gender, parental educational level, and disability only explain a small proportion of the variance in leisure participation patterns. Thus, client-centred and individually tailored interventions are needed that are based on the individual's unique situation.

  16. Cytokinin panel in rheumatoid arthritis and correlation with histological patterns of synovitis -- active type of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrămescu, Carmen; Vere, C C; Mărgăritescu, Cl; Turculeanu, Adriana; Bălăşoiu, Maria; Rogoz, Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronically inflammatory disease of the articular synovial, with severe, progressive and irreversible articular destruction. RA pathogeny implies an autoimmune mechanism, the role of cytokines resulting from the exaggerated production of some cytokines that act as pro-inflammatory agents, being directly responsible of certain symptoms and articular destructions, and/or inadequate inhibition of certain cytokines that act as anti-inflammatory agents. We want to determine certain pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumoral-alpha -- TNF-alpha necrosis factor, interleukin-6 - IL-6, interleukin-8 - IL-8), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10 - IL-10) and immunomodulators (interleukin-2 - IL-2) in some RA patients serum at the active stage of the disease and correlation with histological patterns of synovitis -- active type of disease. The 37 patients have been grouped in stage I (9 patients), II (15 patients) and III (13 patients) according to the anatomical staging of the ARA (American Rheumatism Association), the serum levels of the cytokines being determined by ELISA technique. From the 37 patients clinical investigated only 12 were histopathological examined. The serum levels of IL-2 have been found low in patients with RA in the active stage of the disease, the lowest values having been determined at the patients in the 3rd stage of the disease, who also have the highest values of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the case of IL-10 the lowest values have been found at patients in the advanced stages of the disease. In the serum of RA patients with follicular synovitis TNF-alpha was a dominant cytokine compared to patients with diffuse disease, but the greatest serum level was found in patient with granulomatous synovitis. Concentrations of IL-6 and IL-2 were highest in the serum of RA patients with follicular synovitis in comparison to patients with diffuse synovitis and could distinguish RA patients with these two histological variants of

  17. The Influence of verbalization on the pattern of cortical activation during mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnhofer Sabrina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study at 3 T was to investigate the influence of the verbal-visual cognitive style on cerebral activation patterns during mental arithmetic. In the domain of arithmetic, a visual style might for example mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate results, and a verbal style might mean, that numbers and (intermediate results are verbally repeated. In this study, we investigated, first, whether verbalizers show activations in areas for language processing, and whether visualizers show activations in areas for visual processing during mental arithmetic. Some researchers have proposed that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the left angular gyrus (AG, two areas involved in number processing, show some domain or modality specificity. That is, verbal for the left AG, and visual for the left and right IPS. We investigated, second, whether the activation in these areas implied in number processing depended on an individual's cognitive style. Methods 42 young healthy adults participated in the fMRI study. The study comprised two functional sessions. In the first session, subtraction and multiplication problems were presented in an event-related design, and in the second functional session, multiplications were presented in two formats, as Arabic numerals and as written number words, in an event-related design. The individual's habitual use of visualization and verbalization during mental arithmetic was assessed by a short self-report assessment. Results We observed in both functional sessions that the use of verbalization predicts activation in brain areas associated with language (supramarginal gyrus and auditory processing (Heschl's gyrus, Rolandic operculum. However, we found no modulation of activation in the left AG as a function of verbalization. Conclusions Our results confirm that strong verbalizers use mental speech as a form of mental

  18. Transcultural differences in brain activation patterns during theory of mind (ToM) task performance in Japanese and Caucasian participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, Katja; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Kawada, Ryousaku; Miyata, Jun; Saze, Teruyasu; Ubukata, Shiho; Itakura, Shoji; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Pedersen, Anya; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) functioning develops during certain phases of childhood. Factors such as language development and educational style seem to influence its development. Some studies that have focused on transcultural aspects of ToM development have found differences between Asian and Western cultures. To date, however, little is known about transcultural differences in neural activation patterns as they relate to ToM functioning. The aim of our study was to observe ToM functioning and differences in brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This study included a sample of 18 healthy Japanese and 15 healthy Caucasian subjects living in Japan. We presented a ToM task depicting geometrical shapes moving in social patterns. We also administered questionnaires to examine empathy abilities and cultural background factors. Behavioral data showed no significant group differences in the subjects' post-scan descriptions of the movies. The imaging results displayed stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in the Caucasian sample during the presentation of ToM videos. Furthermore, the task-associated activation of the MPFC was positively correlated with autistic and alexithymic features in the Japanese sample. In summary, our results showed evidence of culturally dependent sociobehavioral trait patterns, which suggests that they have an impact on brain activation patterns during information processing involving ToM.

  19. Lifestyle counseling in overweight truck and bus drivers - Effects on dietary patterns and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Aittasalo, Minna; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Kärmeniemi, Paula; Sallinen, Mikael; Olkkonen, Seppo; Tokola, Kari; Ojala, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    We studied dietary patterns, physical activity (PA), and monthly goal setting in a weight reduction intervention in long-distance professional drivers. The study was conducted in Finland in 2009-2012. Male drivers with waist circumference > 100 cm were randomized to a lifestyle counseling (LIFE, N = 55) and a reference (REF, N = 58) group. During 12 months, LIFE participated in 6 face-to-face and 7 telephone counseling sessions on diet and PA. Dietary patterns were assessed using an index combining food diary and counselor interview, and PA with the number of daily steps using a pedometer. Monthly lifestyle goals, perceived facilitators and barriers, and adverse effects of PA in the LIFE participants were monitored using counselors' log books. Forty-seven (85%) LIFE participants completed the 12-month program. After 12 months, the mean dietary index score improved by 12% (p = 0.002, N = 24), and the number of daily steps increased by 1811 steps (median; p = 0.01, N = 22). The most frequent dietary goals dealt with meal frequency, plate model, and intake of vegetables, fruits, and berries. The most common PA mode was walking. Typical facilitators to reach monthly lifestyle goals were support from family and friends and ailment prevention; typical barriers were working schedules and ailments. Adverse effects, most commonly musculoskeletal pain, occurred among 83% of the LIFE participants. Positive changes in lifestyle habits were observed during counseling. Monthly lifestyle counseling combining face-to-face and phone contacts seemed appropriate to long-distance drivers. Barriers for reaching lifestyle changes, and adverse effects of PA were common and need to be addressed when planning counseling. Clinical Trials NCT00893646.

  20. Magnitudes of gluteus medius muscle activation during standing hip joint movements in spiral-diagonal patterns using elastic tubing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Steiner, Meghan M; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify electromyographic (EMG) activation levels (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) within the gluteus medius muscles on both moving and stance limbs across the performance of four proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) spiral-diagonal patterns in standing using resistance provided by elastic tubing. Differential EMG activity was recorded from the gluteus medius muscle of 26 healthy participants. EMG signals were collected with surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz during three consecutive repetitions of each spiral-diagonal movement pattern. Significant differences existed among the four-spiral-diagonal movement patterns (F3,75 = 19.8; p < 0.001). The diagonal two flexion [D2F] pattern produced significantly more gluteus medius muscle recruitment (50 SD 29.3% MVIC) than any of the other three patterns and the diagonal one extension [D1E] (39 SD 37% MVIC) and diagonal two extension [D2E] (35 SD 29% MVIC) patterns generated more gluteus medius muscle recruitment than diagonal one flexion [D1F] (22 SD 21% MVIC). From a clinical efficiency standpoint, a fitness professional using the spiral-diagonal movement pattern of D2F and elastic tubing with an average peak tension of about 9% body mass may be able to concurrently strengthen the gluteus medius muscle on both stance and moving lower limbs.

  1. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  2. Investigation of Travel and Activity Patterns Using Location-based Social Network Data: A Case Study of Active Mobile Social Media Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relatively high availability and low cost, location-based social network (LBSN (e.g., Foursquare data (a popular type of volunteered geographic information seem to be an alternative or complement to survey data in the study of travel behavior and activity analysis. Illustrating this situation, recently, a number of studies attempted to use LBSN data (e.g., Foursquare check-ins to investigate patterns of human travel and activity. Of particular note is that compared to other individual-level characteristics of users, such as age, profession, education, income and so forth, gender is relatively highly available in the profiles of Foursquare users. Moreover, considering gender differences in travel and activity analysis is a popular research topic and is helpful in better understanding the changes in women’s roles in family, labor force participation, society and so forth. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates how gender influences the travel and activity patterns of active local Foursquare users in New York City. Empirical investigations of gender differences in travel and activity patterns are conducted at both the individual and aggregate level. The empirical results reveal that there are gender differences in the travel and activity patterns of active local users in New York City at both the individual and aggregate level. Finally, the results of the empirical study and the extent to which LBSN data can be exploited to produce travel diary data are discussed.

  3. Characterizing Longitudinal Patterns of Physical Activity in Mid-Adulthood Using Latent Class Analysis: Results From a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silverwood, RJ; Nitsch, D.; Pierce, M; Kuh, D; Mishra, GD

    2011-01-01

    : The authors aimed to describe how longitudinal patterns of physical activity during mid-adulthood (ages 31-53 years) can be characterized using latent class analysis in a population-based birth cohort study, the Medical Research Council's 1946 National Survey of Health and Development. Three different types of physical activity-walking, cycling, and leisure-time physical activity-were analyzed separately using self-reported data collected from questionnaires between 1977 and 1999; 3,847 stu...

  4. Patterns of physical activity in free-living adults in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, M S; Acra, S; Majchrzak, K M; Sun, M; Chen, K Y

    2004-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the amount and patterns of physical activity (PA), body fatness, and age in a heterogeneous adult population in the free living. Cross-sectional study of the amount of PA over a 1-week period. The amount of body movements during PA (PA counts*10(3)) and time spent on various PA intensity categories were calculated from a triaxial accelerometer and compared with subject characteristics, including body fat from hydrodensitometry. Adult healthy men (n=48) and women (n=72) were recruited from the Nashville, Tennessee area and their PA was monitored in their free-living environment. The average weekday PA counts (176.5+/-60.3, P=0.002, r(2)=0.294), PA counts day-to-day variability (47.3+/-32.7, P=0.002, r(2)=0.286), daily maximum PA counts (241.9+/-89.2, P=0.001, r(2)=0.327), minute-to-minute variability on weekdays (0.281+/-0.091, P=0.001, r(2)=0.362), and the difference between maximum and minimum daily PA counts (130.6+/-78.3, P=0.008, r(2)=0.243) were significantly and negatively correlated with body fatness. During awake time, both men and women spent 10-12 h on low intensity (1.0-2.9 metabolic equivalents (METs)) PA, approximately 1 h on moderate (3.0-5.9 MET), and less than 10 min on vigorous (>6.0 MET) PA each day. On weekends, men and women spent more time at rest (1 MET), less time on low-intensity PA, and men spent more time on moderate PA than on weekdays. In adults living in the Southern US the amount of free-living PA was negatively correlated with body fatness. Both men and women spent the majority of active time on low and moderate PA. PA patterns on weekends were different than on weekdays and were related to sex and age, but not to body fatness. National Institutes of Health, US.

  5. Cyclic patterns of incidence rate for skin malignant melanoma:association with heliogeophysical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Borislav D. DIMITROV; Mariana I. RACHKOVA; Penka A. ATANASSOVA

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our previous studies revealed cyclicity in the incidence rate of skin malignant melanoma (SMM; ICD9, Dx: 172) in the Czech Republic (period T=7.50~7.63 years), UK (T=11.00 years) and Bulgaria (T=12.20 years). Incidences com-pared with the sunspot index Rz (lag-period dT=+2, +4, +6, +10 or +12 years) have indicated that maximal rates are most likely to appear on descending slopes of the 11-year solar cycle, i.e., out of phase. We summarized and explored more deeply these cyclic variations and discussed their possible associations with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) components exhibiting similar cyclicity. Methods: Annual incidences of SMM from 5 countries (Czech Republic, UK, Bulgaria, USA and Canada) over various time spans during the years 1964~1992 were analyzed and their correlations with cyclic Rz (sunspot number) and aa (planetary geomagnetic activity) indices were summarized. Periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation and phase-correlation analysis were applied. Results: Previous findings on SMM for the Czech Republic, UK and Bulgaria have been validated, and cyclic patterns have been revealed for USA (T=8.63 years, P<0.05) and Canada (Ontario, T=9.91 years, P<0.10). Also, various 'hypercycles' were established (T=45.5, 42.0, 48.25, 34.5 and 26.5 years, respectively) describing long-term cyclic incidence patterns. The association of SMM for USA and Canada with Rz (dT=+6 and +7 years, respectively) and aa (dT=-10 and +9 years, respectively) was described. Possible interactions of cyclic non-photic influences (UV irradiation, Schumann resonance signal, low-frequency geomagnetic fluctuations) with brain waves absorbance, neuronal calcium dynamics, neuro-endocrine axis modulation, melatonin/serotonin disbalance and skin neuro-immunity impairment as likely causal pathways in melanoma appearance, were also discussed. Conclusion: The above findings on cyclicity and temporal association of SMM with cyclic environmental factors

  6. Actigraphic registration of motor activity reveals a more structured behavioural pattern in schizophrenia than in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oedegaard Ketil J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in motor activity pattern are seen in both schizophrenia and depression. However, this activity has rarely been studied objectively. The purpose of the present study has been to study the complexity of motor activity patterns in these patients by using actigraphy. Findings Motor activity was recorded using wrist-worn actigraphs for periods of 2 weeks in patients with schizophrenia and major depression and compare them to healthy controls. Average motor activity was recorded and three non-parametric variables, interdaily stability (IS, intradaily variability (IV, and relative amplitude (RA were calculated on the basis of these data. The motor activity was significantly lower both in patients with schizophrenia (153 ± 61, mean ± SD, p Conclusions Motor activity was significantly reduced in both schizophrenic and depressed patients. However, schizophrenic patients differed from both depressed patients and controls, demonstrating motor activity patterns marked by less complexity and more structured behaviour. These findings may indicate that disturbances in motor activity reflect different pathophysiological mechanisms in schizophrenia compared to major depression.

  7. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  8. The Effects of Abdominal Hollowing in Lower-limb PNF Pattern Training on the Activation of Contralateral Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungho; Park, Hankyu; Heo, Kwangjin; Lee, Joongsook; Lee, Jaeseok; Oh, Taeyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of abdominal hollowing during lower-limb proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on the activation of contralateral muscles. [Subjects] Twenty male college students without symptoms or signs of muscular or nervous disease participated in this experiment after signing a consent form. [Methods] All the subjects were measured with electromyography (EMG) in a muscle activation test before and after abdominal hollowing. In the PNF program, the lower-limb pattern of PNF training, was maintained for 5 seconds, followed by a 2-minute break. This was repeated three times. The resting time between sets was 30 minutes. Surface EMG (Keypoint, Medtronic Inc., USA) was used for the measurements, and the highest value of three measurements was used in the analysis. [Result] The results revealed a significant change in the muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs. The muscular activations of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the abdominal hollowing. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that abdominal hollowing in PNF pattern training can be effective at promoting muscular activation of the contralateral muscles. To promote muscular activation of the opposite side in lower-limb PNF pattern training, abdominal hollowing should be considered to improve the effect of PNF pattern training.

  9. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  10. Patterns of habitual physical activity in youth with and without Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Diobel M; Tucker, Jared M; Wilson, Kathleen S; Rubin, Daniela A

    2014-11-01

    Children classified as overweight or obese and those with disabilities are at a greater risk of not meeting the minimum recommendation of 60 min a day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA). Youth with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) appear to participate in less PA compared to nonsyndromal children, likely due to syndrome-related factors. However, description of PA patterns in youth with PWS is lacking. The purpose of this study was to characterize PA in youth with PWS and to compare it to PA in children with nonsyndromal obesity. Twenty-four youth with PWS (ages 8-16 years) and 40 obese children without PWS (OB) (ages 8-11 years) wore accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Data were screened for compliance and classified into PA intensities: sedentary behavior (SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate plus vigorous (MVPA). Youth with PWS spent 19.4% less time in weekly LPA (p=0.007) and 29.8% less time in weekly VPA compared to OB controls (p=0.036). All other intensities were similar between groups. In addition, PWS participated in less LPA and VPA during the weekends compared to OB, and less LPA on weekdays when compared to OB. There was also a trend towards PWS participating in less MVPA during the weekends and less VPA during the weekends than OB controls. There was a trend towards PWS participating in less VPA on weekends compared to weekdays, while OB participated similarly in VPA on weekdays and weekend days. On average, neither PWS nor OB children met minimum MVPA recommendations. The results suggest there is a need to design exercise programs for PWS youth that focus on integrating vigorous intensity activities, especially during the weekends when structured PA may not be available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement preparation and execution: differential functional activation patterns after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (Un