WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-renewable fuel sources

  1. Non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources: friends and foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranes, Edmond; JACQMIN, Julien; Jean-Christophe POUDOU

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the links between non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources in the production of electricity. Using U.S. state-level data from 1998 to 2015, we find that the relationship between the price of natural gas and investments in solar and wind capacity is non-linear and can be represented by an inverted U-shape. Hence, for relatively low natural gas prices, the two modes of production are substitutes. After a price threshold is reached, the two ...

  2. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  3. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  4. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  5. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  6. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  7. Thermodynamic performance comparison of some renewable and non-renewable hydrogen production processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolga Balta, M.; Hepbasli, Arif [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dincer, Ibrahim [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology (UOIT), Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper compares thermodynamic performance, through energy and exergy efficiencies, of the some renewable-based (e.g. geothermal) and non-renewable-based hydrogen production processes, namely: (1) steam methane reforming (SMR), (2) hybrid copper- chlorine (Cu-Cl) supplied by geothermal heat and electricity from a geothermal power plant, (3) high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) supplied by geothermal heat and electricity from a geothermal power plant. These processes are essentially driven by two different sources such as fossil fuel and geothermal. The results show that energy and exergy efficiencies during hydrogen production range from 65-89% and 63-80% for the SMR. The efficiencies of geothermal-based hydrogen production processes seem to be a bit lower than that of SMR. However, these processes can drastically reduce the GHG emissions compared to non-renewable energy based ones, e.g., SMR process. (orig.)

  8. Equilibrium Transitions from Non Renewable Energy to Renewable Energy under Capacity Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We study the transition between non renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  9. Equilibrium transitions from non-renewable energy to renewable energy under capacity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Moreaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We study the transition between non-renewable and renewable energy sources with adjustment costs over the production capacity of renewable energy. Assuming constant variable marginal costs for both energy sources, convex adjustment costs and a more expensive renewable energy, we show the following. With sufficiently abundant non-renewable energy endowments, the dynamic equilibrium path is composed of a first time phase of only non-renewable energy use followed by a transition phase substituti...

  10. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...... on general equilibrium considerations-and against the general view in the newer literature on taxes and endogenous growth which ignores the role of non-renewable resources in the "growth engine"......We contrast effects of taxing non-renewable resources with the effects of traditional capital taxes and investment subsidies in an endogenous growth model. In a simple framework we demonstrate that when non-renewable resources are a necessary input in the sector where growth is ultimately generated...

  11. The Mass Flux of Non-renewable Energy for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Edwin

    The global energy supply relies on non-renewable energy sources, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, along with nuclear power from uranium and these finite resources are located within the upper few kilometers of the Earth's crust. The total quantity of non-renewable energy resources consumed relative to the total quantity available is an essential question facing humanity. Analyses of energy consumption was conducted for the period 1800--2014 using data from the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and World Energy Production, 1800--1985 to determine the balance between non-renewable energy resources consumed and ultimately recoverable reserves. Annual energy consumption was plotted for each non-renewable resource followed by analyses to determine annual growth rates of consumption. Results indicated total energy consumption grew approximately exponentially 3.6% per year from 1800--1975 and was linear from 1975--2014. The ultimately recoverable reserves (URR) plus the total quantity consumed to date equals the total energy resource reserve prior to exploitation (7.15 x 1018 grams). Knowing the original resource quantity and the annual consumption and growth rates, we can forecast the duration of remaining resources using different scenarios. Alternatively, we can use population growth models and consumption trends to determine the per capita allocation trends and model that into the future. Alternative modeling of future resource allocation on a per capita bases suggests that resource lifetime may be significantly less than that predicted from consumption and production dynamics alone.

  12. Risk management of non-renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Muruva, Hari Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic concepts of risk and reliability with detailed descriptions of the different levels of probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants (both internal and external). The book also maximizes readers insights into time dependent risk analysis through several case studies, whilst risk management with respect to non renewable energy sources is also explained. With several advanced reactors utilizing the concept of passive systems, the reliability estimation of these systems are explained in detail with the book providing a reliability estimation of components through mechanistic model approach. This book is useful for advanced undergraduate and post graduate students in nuclear engineering, aerospace engineering, industrial engineering, reliability and safety engineering, systems engineering and applied probability and statistics. This book is also suitable for one-semester graduate courses on risk management of non renewable energy systems in all conventional engineering bran...

  13. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  14. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  15. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  16. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    about policy-induced changes on NRR markets. The properties of restricted and unrestricted supply functions are characterized for Hotelling (homogeneous) as well as Ricardian (non homogeneous) reserves, for a single deposit as well as for several deposits that endogenously come into production or cease......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...

  17. Natural Non-Renewable Resources in Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Alexandra Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Non-renewable resources can doubtlessly be regarded as the backbone of our modern society. However, most of economists have ignored the impact of non-renewable resources on the environment by dissociating the economy from the ecological network it is fundamentally linked to. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to highlight a literature overview of the most important opinions regarding non-renewable natural resources.

  18. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  19. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  20. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  1. Micro-fuel cell power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. [Center for Meso, Micro, and Nano Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-222, Livermore, CA 94550, (United States)

    2007-01-19

    This paper presents a review and discussion of micro-fuel cell technologies, providing insight into the innovations that have been made to date. Discussion of concepts and results leading towards increased levels of integration and performance for micro-fuel cell systems will elucidate the potential of thin film and microfabrication methods in meeting the challenges and requirements necessary for consumer applications. While the amount of literature in this area is substantial, a representative sampling of key developments will be presented in this paper, in order to gain a sense of the design methodologies being implemented for micro-fuel cell power sources. (Author)

  2. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity....... We discuss the main approaches within this literature and consider questions like: How is the new literature related to the wave of resource economics of the 1970s? What light is thrown on the limits-to-growth issue? Does the existence of non-renewable resources have implications...

  3. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  4. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  5. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  6. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: Midwest, Rocky Mountains, and Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Dam, Margaret; Packard, Abbot L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principal survey results from three regions of the US (Midwest, Rocky Mountains, & Southeast) were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical procedures, while significance was tested applying a…

  7. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  8. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  9. Green Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; DeLaRee, Ana B.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark; Hensel, Joseph D.; Kimble, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to produce green aerospace propellants from nonpetroleum sources are outlined. The paper begins with an overview of feedstock processing and relevant small molecule or C1 chemistry. Gas-to-liquid technologies, notably Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (CO and H2), are being optimized to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to aviation (and other transportation) fuels at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Efforts to produce optimized catalysts are described. Given the high cost of space launch, the recycling of human metabolic and plastic wastes to reduce the need to transport consumables to orbit to support the crew of a space station has long been recognized as a high priority. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon or beyond are taken into account, the importance of developing waste recycling systems becomes still more imperative. One promising way to transform organic waste products into useful gases is steam reformation; this well-known technology is currently being optimized by a Colorado company for exploration and planetary surface operations. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. A technology that has successfully demonstrated production of fuels and related chemicals from waste plastics developed in Northeast Ohio is described. Technologies being developed by a Massachusetts company to remove sulfur impurities are highlighted. Common issues and concerns for nonpetroleum fuel production are emphasized. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether a terrestrial operation or on the lunar (or Martian) surface; the term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of grid-energy usage. For space exploration, energy efficiency can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing

  10. OPTIMARKT. Reduction of the global warming potential (GWP) and saving of non renewable energy sources (PE{sub ne}) of food retail supermarkets within Austria; Optimarkt. Energieverbrauch und Treibhauspotenzial von Supermaerkten. Reduktion des Treibhauspotenzials (GWP) und Einsparung von nicht erneuerbarer Primaerenergie (PE{sub ne}) in Supermaerkten des Lebensmitteleinzelhandels in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Gerald [Hauser GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    This article shows how integrated building engineering on a supermarket works. With analysing of two reference supermarkets as a definition of the standard in Austria, will be made an identification of parameters for energy and ecology. After that a benchmarking with an optimised building called OPTIMARKT will take place. Due optimising of the building shell, illumination, refrigerated cabinets and system, ventilation, heating and cooling system of the building the consumption of non renewable energy and global warming. (orig.)

  11. Energy Efficient Optical Networks with Minimized Non-Renewable Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Dong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the Information and Communication Technology (ICT industry is responsible for about 2% of the global emission of CO2 and this percentage is expected to increase as the internet expands in bandwidth and reach. In this paper we propose a hybrid-power IP over WDM network where renewable energy is used to reduce the CO2 emission of IP over WDM networks. A Linear Programming (LP model and a novel heuristic are developed to minimize the non-renewable power consumption in the “hybrid-power” IP over WDM network. The performance of the network is studied considering two topologies, the NSFNET and the USNET. Compared with routing in the electronic layer, the results show that routing in the optical layer coupled with using renewable energy significantly reduces the CO2 emissions of the IP over WDM network by up to 73% for the NSFNET and 69% for the USNET, and the proposed heuristic has little impact on the QoS. We also develop an LP model to identify the impact of the location of nodes employing renewable energy on the non-renewable power consumption of the network. The results show that the optimum location of nodes employing renewable energy is determined according to the output power of the renewable energy sources and the power consumption of the nodes.

  12. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Armstrong, Claire W.

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  13. Non-renewable but inexhaustible: Resources in an endogenous growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Stürmer, Martin; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an endogenous growth model with an essential non-renewable resource, where economic growth enables firms to invest in innovation in the extraction technology and to allocate more capital to resource extraction. Innovation in the extraction technology offsets the deterioration of ore qualities and keeps the production costs of the non-renewable resource constant. Aggregate output as well as production and use of the non-renewable resource increase exponentially. Our model e...

  14. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  15. Cost of non-renewable energy in production of wood pellets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changbo WANG; Lixiao ZHANG; Jie LIU

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials.Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)—from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users—the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1.35 J/J,of which only 0.09 J was derived from NE,indicating that only 0.09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable.Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46.21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40.69%),during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used,respectively.Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly.Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel.

  16. Cost of non-renewable energy in production of wood pellets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Liu, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials. Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)—from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users—the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1.35 J/J, of which only 0.09 J was derived from NE, indicating that only 0.09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable. Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46.21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40.69%), during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly. Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel.

  17. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  18. Estimating Source Terms for Diverse Spent Nuclear Fuel Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Layne Pincock

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is responsible for developing a defensible methodology for determining the radionuclide inventory for the DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be dispositioned at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. SNF owned by DOE includes diverse fuels from various experimental, research, and production reactors. These fuels currently reside at several DOE sites, universities, and foreign research reactor sites. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these fuels will require radiological source terms as inputs to safety analyses that support design and licensing of the necessary equipment and facilities. This paper summarizes the methodology developed for estimating radionuclide inventories associated with DOE-owned SNF. The results will support development of design and administrative controls to manage radiological risks and may later be used to demonstrate conformance with repository acceptance criteria.

  19. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  20. Analysis of fuel management in the KIPT neutron source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Zhaopeng, E-mail: zzhong@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Fuel management of KIPT ADS was analyzed. > Core arrangement was shuffled in stage wise. > New fuel assemblies was added into core periodically. > Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life. - Abstract: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility consisting of an electron accelerator driven sub-critical assembly. The neutron source driving the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The sub-critical assembly surrounding the target is fueled with low enriched WWR-M2 type hexagonal fuel assemblies. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel material is <20%. The facility will be utilized for basic and applied research, producing medical isotopes, and training young specialists. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is {approx}360 kW including the fission power of {approx}260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products continuously reduce the system reactivity during the operation, decrease the neutron flux level, and consequently impact the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, the fuel assemblies should be added and shuffled for compensating the lost reactivity caused by burnup. Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life time in the sub-critical core. This paper studies the fuel cycles and shuffling schemes of the fuel assemblies of the sub-critical assembly to preserve the system reactivity and the neutron flux level during the operation.

  1. Ecological and legal consequences in the use of propulsion fuels for decreasing sulfur content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Primorac

    2016-05-01

    With comprehensive analysis problems of practical application of marine fuel with reduced sulfur content it was considered the effect of harmonization with european environmental requirements to increase the cost of sea transport. The author emphasizes the unsustainability of transport system due to many years of 90% strength dependence of the maritime transport on oil, i.e. a non-renewable energy source and points to the use of alternative fuels.

  2. The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Barahona, Agustin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind that is energy efficiency.

  3. New fuel cell plants and power sources for submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, B.; Sokolov, V. [CDB ME ' ' Rubin' ' (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The existing storage batteries for submarines have been analyzed, the quality of their design has been estimated and a power plant with electrochemical generators (fuel cells) has been suggested as an electric energy source. The history and the status of power plant design in Russia have been reflected. (authors)

  4. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Indrani B. Das

    2013-10-01

    Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

  6. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  7. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  8. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and...

  9. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Membrez, Yves; Bucheli, Olivier

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2 Mtoe). SOFCs could improve and promote the exploitation of biogas on manifold generation sites as small combined heat and power (5-50 kW el), especially for farm and sewage installations, raising the electrical conversion efficiency on such reduced and variable power level. Larger module packs of the high temperature ceramic converter would also be capable of operating on contaminated fuel of low heating value (less than 40% that of natural gas) which can emanate from landfill sites (MW-size). Landfill gas delivers 80% of current world biogas production. This document compiles and estimates biogas data on actual production and future potential and presents the thermodynamics of the biogas reforming and electrochemical conversion processes. A case study is reported of the energy balance of a small SOFC co-generator operated with agricultural biogas, the largest potential source.

  10. The influence of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and real income on CO2 emissions in the USA: evidence from structural break tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2017-03-14

    The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the real income (GDP), renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the United States of America (USA) in the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the period 1980-2014. The Zivot-Andrews unit root test with a structural break and the Clemente-Montanes-Reyes unit root test with a structural break report that the analyzed variables become stationary at first-differences. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test with a structural break and the bounds testing for cointegration in the presence of a structural break show CO2 emissions, the real income, the quadratic real income, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption are cointegrated. The long-run estimates obtained from the ARDL model indicate that increases in renewable energy consumption mitigate environmental degradation whereas increases in non-renewable energy consumption contribute to CO2 emissions. In addition, the EKC hypothesis is not valid for the USA. Since we use time-series econometric approaches that account for structural break in the data, findings of this study are robust, reliable and accurate. The US government is advised to put more weights on renewable sources in energy mix, to support and encourage the use and adoption of renewable energy and clean technologies, and to increase the public awareness of renewable energy for lower levels of emissions.

  11. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  12. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T. [FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  13. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  14. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  15. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); National Taiwan University (China); Chen, C.Y.; Liou, D.H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents a novel fuel sensor-less control scheme for a liquid feed fuel cell system that operates under dynamic loading conditions and is suitable for portable power sources. The proposed technique utilizes the operating characteristics of a fuel cell, such as voltage, current and power, to control the supply of liquid fuel and regulate its concentration. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme controls effectively the supply of fuel under dynamic loading conditions and pushes the system toward higher power output. The primary features and advantages of sensor-less fuel control are as follows. When the fuel concentration sensor is excluded, the cost of a liquid feed fuel cell system is decreased and system volume and weight are reduced, thereby increasing specific energy density and design simplicity, and shortening system response time. Notably, temperature compensation for measurement data is unnecessary. With a decreased number of components, the control scheme improves durability and reliability of liquid feed fuel cells. These advantages will help commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells as portable power sources. (author)

  16. Heat sources in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramousse, Julien; Lottin, Olivier; Didierjean, Sophie; Maillet, Denis

    In order to model accurately heat transfer in PEM fuel cell, a particular attention had to be paid to the assessment of heat sources in the cell. Although the total amount of heat released is easily computed from its voltage, local heat sources quantification and localization are not simple. This paper is thus a discussion about heat sources/sinks distribution in a single cell, for which many bold assumptions are encountered in the literature. The heat sources or sinks under consideration are: (1) half-reactions entropy, (2) electrochemical activation, (3) water sorption/desorption at the GDL/membrane interfaces, (4) Joule effect in the membrane and (5) water phase change in the GDL. A detailed thermodynamic study leads to the conclusion that the anodic half-reaction is exothermic (Δ Sr ev a = - 226 J mo l-1 K-1) , instead of being athermic as supposed in most of the thermal studies. As a consequence, the cathodic half-reaction is endothermic (Δ Sr ev c = + 62.8 J mo l-1 K-1) , which results in a heat sink at the cathode side, proportional to the current. In the same way, depending on the water flux through the membrane, sorption can create a large heat sink at one electrode and an equivalent heat source at the other. Water phase change in the GDL - condensation/evaporation - results in heat sources/sinks that should also be taken into account. All these issues are addressed in order to properly set the basis of heat transfer modeling in the cell.

  17. Isotope hydrology of deep groundwater in Syria: renewable and non-renewable groundwater and paleoclimate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Kattaa, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Regional Deep Cretaceous Aquifer (RDCA) is the principal groundwater resource in Syria. Isotope and hydrochemical data have been used to evaluate the geographic zones in terms of renewable and non-renewable groundwater and the inter-relation between current and past recharge. The chemical and isotopic character of groundwater together with radiometric 14C data reflect the existence of three different groundwater groups: (1) renewable groundwater, in RDCA outcropping areas, in western Syria along the Coastal and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The mean δ18O value (-7.2 ‰) is similar to modern precipitation with higher 14C values (up to 60-80 pmc), implying younger groundwater (recent recharge); (2) semi-renewable groundwater, which is located in the unconfined section of the RDCA and parallel to the first zone. The mean δ18O value (-7.0 ‰) is also similar to modern precipitation with a 14C range of 15-45 pmc; (3) non-renewable groundwater found in most of the Syrian interior, where the RDCA becomes confined. A considerable depletion in δ18O (-8.0 ‰) relative to the modern rainfall and low values of 14C (<15 pmc) suggest that the large masses of deep groundwater are non-renewable and related to an older recharge period. The wide scatter of all data points around the two meteoric lines in the δ18O-δ2H diagram indicates considerable variation in recharge conditions. There is limited renewable groundwater in the mountain area, and most of the stored deep groundwater in the RDCA is non-renewable, with corrected 14C ages varying between 10 and 35 Kyr BP.

  18. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  19. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  20. On the causal dynamics between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in developed and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [University of Piraeus, Department of Banking and Financial Management, Piraeus, Attiki (Greece); Payne, James E. [University of South Florida Polytechnic, Lakeland, FL (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study extends recent work on the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth to the case of developed and developing countries over the period 1990-2007. Heterogeneous panel cointegration procedures show a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient estimates positive and statistically significant for developed and developing country panels. The results from the panel error correction models reveal bidirectional causality between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run for each country panel. (orig.)

  1. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  2. Portable fuel cell power sources for various applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, Mark; Kenyon, Ken; Jackson, Greg [Enable Fuel Cell Corporation, Middleton, WI 53562 (US)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    The Enable Fuel Cell Corporation is developing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells ranging in size from a fraction of a Watt to several kilowatts. Our goal is to develop efficient, reliable and cost effective fuel cells, suitable for meeting the day-to-day needs of users in the industrial and consumer power markets. In this paper we present results of testing and initial field deployment of several different fuel cell systems. (author)

  3. 5.0. Depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SCALE’s general depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms analysis capabilities are enabled through a family of modules related to the main ORIGEN depletion/irradiation/decay solver. The nuclide tracking in ORIGEN is based on the principle of explicitly modeling all available nuclides and transitions in the current fundamental nuclear data for decay and neutron-induced transmutation and relies on fundamental cross section and decay data in ENDF/B VII. Cross section data for materials and reaction processes not available in ENDF/B-VII are obtained from the JEFF-3.0/A special purpose European activation library containing 774 materials and 23 reaction channels with 12,617 neutron-induced reactions below 20 MeV. Resonance cross section corrections in the resolved and unresolved range are performed using a continuous-energy treatment by data modules in SCALE. All nuclear decay data, fission product yields, and gamma-ray emission data are developed from ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations. Decay data include all ground and metastable state nuclides with half-lives greater than 1 millisecond. Using these data sources, ORIGEN currently tracks 174 actinides, 1149 fission products, and 974 activation products. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the stand-alone capabilities and underlying methodology of ORIGEN—as opposed to the integrated depletion capability it provides in all coupled neutron transport/depletion sequences in SCALE, as described in other chapters.

  4. Control strategy of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Raeel, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (INPL), GREEN, CNRS (UMR 7037) 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-14

    This paper presents a control principle for utilizing PEM fuel cell as main power source and supercapacitors as auxiliary power source for electric vehicle applications. The strategy is based on dc link voltage regulation, and fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to minimize the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Supercapacitors are functioning during transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. To authenticate control algorithms, the system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). The experimental results with a 500W PEM fuel cell point out the fuel cell starvation problem when operating with dynamic load, and also confirm that the supercapacitor can improve system performance for hybrid power sources. (author)

  5. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  6. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... 45K). The inflation adjustment factor and reference price are used to determine the credit allowable.... DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and reference price... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit...

  7. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  8. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  9. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  10. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems....

  11. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  12. An examination of the elastic structural response of the Advanced Neutron Source fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinson, W.F.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-09-01

    Procedures for evaluating the elastic structural response of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) fuel plates to coolant flow and to temperature variations are presented in this report. Calculations are made that predict the maximum deflection and the maximum stress for a representative plate from the upper and from the lower fuel elements.

  13. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  14. Spent Fuel Source Term Calculation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Zhi-long; WAN; Hai-xia; LI; Long; WU; Xiao-chun; SHAO; Jing; LIU; Li-li; ZHANG; Jing

    2013-01-01

    The spent fuel of nuclear power plant should be transported to reprocessing plant for reprocessing after reserving for a period of time.Before that,safety analysis and environmental impact assessment should be carried on to the transportation process,which need radioactive source term calculation and analysis.The task of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel source term calculation includes estimation of

  15. Reference Spent Fuel and Its Source Terms for a Design of Deep Geological Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun

    2005-12-15

    In this study, current status and future trend of domestic spent fuels were analyzed to propose reference spent nuclear fuel. And then, source terms needed for design of a deep geological disposal system were calculated using ORIGEN-ARP. The reference spent fuels selected based on assembly physical dimension, inventory projection, trend of initial enrichment of 235U, discharge burnup are as follows; The 17x17 Korean Optimized Fuel Assembly with initial enrichment of 4.0 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 45 GWD/MTU was adopted as a low-burnup representative fuel. For the high-burnup representative fuel, 16x16 Korean Standard Fuel Assembly with initial enrichment of 4.5 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 55 GWD/MTU was chosen. CANDU fuel with initial enrichment of 0.711 wt.% 235U and discharge burnup of 7.5 GWD/MTU was also considered. For these reference fuels, decay heat, radiation intensity and spectrum, nuclide concentration, and individual nuclide radioactivity were calculated using ORIGEN-ARP for a disposal system design. It is expected that the source terms estimated in this study will be applied to the disposal system development in the future.

  16. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  17. Fuel-Cell Power Source Based on Onboard Rocket Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Narayan, Sri

    2010-01-01

    The use of onboard rocket propellants (dense liquids at room temperature) in place of conventional cryogenic fuel-cell reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) eliminates the mass penalties associated with cryocooling and boil-off. The high energy content and density of the rocket propellants will also require no additional chemical processing. For a 30-day mission on the Moon that requires a continuous 100 watts of power, the reactant mass and volume would be reduced by 15 and 50 percent, respectively, even without accounting for boiloff losses. The savings increase further with increasing transit times. A high-temperature, solid oxide, electrolyte-based fuel-cell configuration, that can rapidly combine rocket propellants - both monopropellant system with hydrazine and bi-propellant systems such as monomethyl hydrazine/ unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (MMH/UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) to produce electrical energy - overcomes the severe drawbacks of earlier attempts in 1963-1967 of using fuel reforming and aqueous media. The electrical energy available from such a fuel cell operating at 60-percent efficiency is estimated to be 1,500 Wh/kg of reactants. The proposed use of zirconia-based oxide electrolyte at 800-1,000 C will permit continuous operation, very high power densities, and substantially increased efficiency of conversion over any of the earlier attempts. The solid oxide fuel cell is also tolerant to a wide range of environmental temperatures. Such a system is built for easy refueling for exploration missions and for the ability to turn on after several years of transit. Specific examples of future missions are in-situ landers on Europa and Titan that will face extreme radiation and temperature environments, flyby missions to Saturn, and landed missions on the Moon with 14 day/night cycles.

  18. Economical process for growing seaweed as biomass fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagovskiy, V.

    1985-10-10

    Calculations made by researchers of Moscow State University have shown that the Aral Sea is capable of providing energy for almost the entire country. An experimental unit called Biosolar, for growing such energy already exists. Up to 40 liters of fuel gas a day can be gathered from a single square meter of plant beds. Seaweed yields biomass, which is placed in special vats. There it is eaten by bacteria, which release methane.

  19. 22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.7 Section 9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.7 Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) If the Director...

  20. 22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Department of State press building passes. 9b.6 Section 9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.6 Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. In consultation with the Bureau...

  1. Biodiesel: Fuel properties, its “Design” and a source of “Designer” fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel properties of biodiesel, a biogenic alternative to petrodiesel, are largely determined by its component fatty acid alkyl esters, most commonly methyl esters. These esters have vastly different properties. The properties of biodiesel are an aggregate of the properties of its components and t...

  2. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  4. Particulate matter chemical component concentrations and sources in settings of household solid fuel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, Matthew H; Schauer, James J; Carter, Ellison; Baumgartner, Jill

    2017-04-12

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution derives from combustion and non-combustion sources and consists of various chemical species that may differentially impact human health and climate. Previous reviews of PM chemical component concentrations and sources focus on high-income urban settings, which likely differ from the low- and middle-income settings where solid fuel (i.e., coal, biomass) is commonly burned for cooking and heating. We aimed to summarize the concentrations of PM chemical components and their contributing sources in settings where solid fuel is burned. We searched the literature for studies that reported PM component concentrations from homes, personal exposures, and direct stove emissions under uncontrolled, real-world conditions. We calculated weighted mean daily concentrations for select PM components and compared sources of PM determined by source apportionment. Our search criteria yielded 48 studies conducted in 12 countries. Weighted mean daily cooking area concentrations of elemental carbon, organic carbon, and benzo(a)pyrene were 18.8 μg m(-3) , 74.0 μg m(-3) , and 155 ng m(-3) , respectively. Solid fuel combustion explained 29% to 48% of principal component / factor analysis variance and 41% to 87% of PM mass determined by positive matrix factorization. Several indoor and outdoor sources impact PM concentrations and composition in these settings, including solid fuel burning, mobile emissions, dust, and solid waste burning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  6. A new topology of fuel cell hybrid power source for efficient operation and high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes a new fuel cell Hybrid Power Source (HPS) topology having the feature to mitigate the current ripple of the fuel cell inverter system. In the operation of the inverter system that is grid connected or supplies AC motors in vehicle application, the current ripple normally appears at the DC port of the fuel cell HPS. Consequently, if mitigation measures are not applied, this ripple is back propagated to the fuel cell stack. Other features of the proposed fuel cell HPS are the Maximum Power Point (MPP) tracking, high reliability in operation under sharp power pulses and improved energy efficiency in high power applications. This topology uses an inverter system directly powered from the appropriate fuel cell stack and a controlled buck current source as low power source used for ripple mitigation. The low frequency ripple mitigation is based on active control. The anti-ripple current is injected in HPS output node and this has the LF power spectrum almost the same with the inverter ripple. Consequently, the fuel cell current ripple is mitigated by the designed active control. The ripple mitigation performances are evaluated by indicators that are defined to measure the mitigation ratio of the low frequency harmonics. In this paper it is shown that good performances are obtained by using the hysteretic current control, but better if a dedicated nonlinear controller is used. Two ways to design the nonlinear control law are proposed. First is based on simulation trials that help to draw the characteristic of ripple mitigation ratio vs. fuel cell current ripple. The second is based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The ripple factor is up to 1% in both cases.

  7. Global Inventory of Gas Geochemistry Data from Fossil Fuel, Microbial and Burning Sources, version 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Arling, Victoria A.; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has more than doubled over the industrial era. To help constrain global and regional CH4 budgets, inverse (top-down) models incorporate data on the concentration and stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic ratios of atmospheric CH4. These models depend on accurate δ13C and δ2H end-member source signatures for each of the main emissions categories. Compared with meticulous measurement and calibration of isotopic CH4 in the atmosphere, there has been relatively less effort to characterize globally representative isotopic source signatures, particularly for fossil fuel sources. Most global CH4 budget models have so far relied on outdated source signature values derived from globally nonrepresentative data. To correct this deficiency, we present a comprehensive, globally representative end-member database of the δ13C and δ2H of CH4 from fossil fuel (conventional natural gas, shale gas, and coal), modern microbial (wetlands, rice paddies, ruminants, termites, and landfills and/or waste) and biomass burning sources. Gas molecular compositional data for fossil fuel categories are also included with the database. The database comprises 10 706 samples (8734 fossil fuel, 1972 non-fossil) from 190 published references. Mean (unweighted) δ13C signatures for fossil fuel CH4 are significantly lighter than values commonly used in CH4 budget models, thus highlighting potential underestimation of fossil fuel CH4 emissions in previous CH4 budget models. This living database will be updated every 2-3 years to provide the atmospheric modeling community with the most complete CH4 source signature data possible. Database digital object identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.15138/G3201T.

  8. Solar-fuel generation: Towards practical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-02-01

    Limiting reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels inevitably depends on a more efficient utilization of solar energy. Materials scientists discuss the most viable approaches to produce high-energy-density fuels from sunlight that can be implemented in existing infrastructures.

  9. Solar-fuel generation: Towards practical implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    Limiting reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels inevitably depends on a more efficient utilization of solar energy. Materials scientists discuss the most viable approaches to produce high-energy-density fuels from sunlight that can be implemented in existing infrastructures....

  10. Microbial fuel cells as discontinuous portable power sources: syntropic interactions with anode-respiring bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaohuan; An, Junyeong; Ryu, Hodon; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2014-04-01

    For microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to work as portable power sources used in a discontinuous manner, anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) should survive for at least several days in the absence of exogenous electron donors, and immediately generate current upon addition of an electron donor. Here, we proved that biopolymer-accumulating bacteria provide substrate (fuel) for ARB to generate current in lack of exogenous electron donor in 4 days, which allows MFCs to be used as portable power sources. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electricity generation from wastewaters with starch as carbon source using a mediatorless microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernandez, E; Smith, T J; Akid, R

    2013-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells represent a new method for producing electricity from the oxidation of organic matter. A mediatorless microbial fuel cell was developed using Escherichia coli as the active bacterial component with synthetic wastewater of potato extract as the energy source. The two-chamber fuel cell, with a relation of volume between anode and cathode chamber of 8:1, was operated in batch mode. The response was similar to that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source. The performance characteristics of the fuel cell were evaluated with two different anode and cathode shapes, platinised titanium strip or mesh; the highest maximum power density (502mWm(-2)) was achieved in the microbial fuel cell with mesh electrodes. In addition to electricity generation, the MFC exhibited efficient treatment of wastewater so that significant reduction of initial oxygen demand of wastewater by 61% was observed. These results demonstrate that potato starch can be used for power generation in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell with high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand.

  12. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores.

  13. People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

  14. Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques to examine the causal relationship between output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and international trade for a sample of 69 countries during the period 1980-2007. In the short-run, Granger causality tests show that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and trade (exports or imports), a one way causality running from renewable energy consumption to trade, and a bidirectional feedback causality between non-...

  15. Chilean Euphorbiaceae species as sources of fuels and raw chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnecco, S.; Bartulin, J.; Marticorena, C.; Ramirez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The potential of some species of Chilean Euphorbiaceae as sources of hydrocarbon-like materials was evaluated. Samples of plants excluding roots, were analyzed for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ extractives, resins and hydrocarbons. The presence of waxes and natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) was confirmed using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. C/H values for representative fractions were calculated and extracted samples from selected species analyzed for apparent protein contents. Results suggested that at least two species, Euphorbia lactiflua and Euphorbia copiapina might have an industrial potential.

  16. Dating and sourcing fuel ash residues from Cladh Hallan, South Uist, Scotland, using magnetic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.; Batt, C. M.

    Mineral magnetic and archaeomagnetic measurements have been carried out on fire ash deposits from a central hearth within a circular dwelling at the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age settlement site of Cladh Hallan on South Uist, Scotland. Archaeomagnetic methods date the hearths to 560-700 BC and 650-850 BC, the earliest archaeomagnetic dates produced for the Western Isles of Scotland. A range of mineral magnetic measurements have been carried out on a continually sampled profile through the hearths/ash build-ups displaying differences between the two main ash build-ups and floors. The mineral magnetic results have also been used to assess fuel sources through the application of techniques based on modern ash residues. The results show a marked change in fuel source from well-humified peat to a more mixed fuel, with a high proportion of fibrous-upper peat/peat turf.

  17. Estimating methane emissions from biological and fossil-fuel sources in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Cui, Xinguang; Blake, Donald R.; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Stephen A.; Andrews, Arlyn; Guha, Abhinav; Martien, Philip; Bambha, Ray P.; LaFranchi, Brian; Michelsen, Hope A.; Clements, Craig B.; Glaize, Pierre; Fischer, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September - December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166-289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3-2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from landfill. Including the VOCs, 82 ± 27% of total posterior median CH4 emissions are biological and 17 ± 3% fossil fuel, where landfill and natural gas dominate the biological and fossil-fuel CH4 of prior emissions, respectively.

  18. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  19. Review of NO/sub x/ emission factors for stationary fossil fuel combustion sources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, R.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Wasilewski, J.; Kuby, W.C.

    1979-09-01

    A review of recent NOx test data was performed, and summaries of emission factors presented for various types of stationary source combustion and for various fossil fuels. The effects of combustion modifications on NOx emissions are quantified. Background data are given to help the user determine the reliability of each factor in particular applications.

  20. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  1. Development of integrated fuel cell hybrid power source for electric forklift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, T. M.; Karimäki, H.; Viitakangas, J.; Vallet, J.; Ihonen, J.; Hyötylä, P.; Uusalo, H.; Tingelöf, T.

    A hybrid drivetrain comprising a 16 kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, ultracapacitor modules and a lead-acid battery was constructed and experimentally tested in a real counterweight forklift application. A scaled-down version of the hybrid system was assembled and tested in a controlled laboratory environment using a controllable resistive load. The control loops were operating in an in-house developed embedded system. The software is designed for building generic control applications, and the source code has been released as open source and made available on the internet. The hybrid drivetrain supplied the required 50 kW peak power in a typical forklift work cycle consisting of both loaded and unloaded driving, and lifting of a 2.4 tonne load. Load variations seen by the fuel cell were a fraction of the total current drawn by the forklift, with the average fuel cell power being 55% of nominal rating. A simple fuel cell hybrid model was also developed to further study the effects of energy storage dimensioning. Simulation results indicate that while a battery alone significantly reduces the load variations of the fuel cell, an ultracapacitor reduces them even further. Furthermore, a relatively small ultracapacitor is enough to achieve most of the potential benefit.

  2. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  3. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel, renewa...

  4. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  5. Tokamak D T fusion neutron source requirements for closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2007-03-01

    This paper summarizes a series of conceptual design studies conducted with the purpose of determining if tokamak fusion neutron sources based on ITER physics and technology could meet the neutron source requirements for sub-critical fast-spectrum nuclear reactors that would help to close the nuclear fuel cycle by transmuting the transuranics in spent nuclear fuel. The studies were constrained to nuclear reactor and materials technologies under consideration in the US nuclear programme. Fuel cycle studies indicate that fusion neutron sources in the range ~200-500 MW would meet the needs of transmutation reactors, depending on other constraints such as materials damage to the nuclear fuel. A tokamak with R = 3.75 m, a = 1.1 m, B = 5.7-5.9 T, q95 = 3.00-4.0, I = 8.3-10 MA, βN = 2.0-2.85, HIPB98 = 1.0-1.06, γcd = 0.6 A Wm-2 would meet these requirements.

  6. Nuclear Forensics Attributing the Source of Spent Fuel Used in an RDD Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mark Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An RDD attack against the U.S. is something America needs to prepare against. If such an event occurs the ability to quickly identify the source of the radiological material used in an RDD would aid investigators in identifying the perpetrators. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel burnup, age from discharge, reactor type, and initial fuel enrichment. It is shown that by analyzing the post-event material, these attributes can be determined with enough accuracy to be useful for investigators. The burnup can be found within a 5% accuracy, enrichment with a 2% accuracy, and age with a 10% accuracy. Reactor type can be determined if specific nuclides are measured. The methodology developed was implemented into a code call NEMASYS. NEMASYS is easy to use and it takes a minimum amount of time to learn its basic functions. It will process data within a few minutes and provide detailed information about the results and conclusions.

  7. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  8. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  9. Non-Renewable Energy and Macroeconomic Efficiency of Seven Major Oil Producing Economies in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awodumi Olabanji Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted two-stage DEA to estimate the technical efficiency scores and assess the impact of the two most important components of fossil fuel associated with oil production on macroeconomic efficiency of Seven oil producing African countries during 2005-2012. Our results showed that increasing the consumption of natural gas would improve technical efficiency. Furthermore, increasing the share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption has negative effect on the efficiency of the economies of the top African oil producers. Also, we found that increasing the consumption of primary energy improves efficiency in these economies. We therefore, recommend that governments and other stakeholders in the energy industry should adopt inclusive strategies that will promote the use of natural gas in the short term. However, in the long-run, efforts should be geared towards increasing the use of primary energy, thereby reducing the percentage share of fossil fuel in total energy consumption.

  10. A practical eco-environmental distribution network planning model including fuel cells and non-renewable distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroudi, Alireza [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Ehsan, Mehdi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Center of Excellence in Power System Management and Control, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Zareipour, Hamidreza [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a long-term dynamic multi-objective planning model for distribution network expansion along with distributed energy options. The proposed model optimizes two objectives, namely costs and emissions and determines the optimal schemes of sizing, placement and specially the dynamics (i.e., timing) of investments on distributed generation units and network reinforcements over the planning period. An efficient two-stage heuristic method is proposed to solve the formulated planning problem. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated by applying it to a distribution network and comparing the simulation results with other methods and models. (author)

  11. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  13. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  14. Open-source computational model of a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Steven B.; Choi, Hae-Won; Pharoah, Jon G.; Roth, Helmut K.; Jasak, Hrvoje; Jeon, Dong Hyup

    2016-03-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell is an electro-chemical device which converts chemical energy into electricity and heat. To compete in today's market, design improvements, in terms of performance and life cycle, are required. Numerical prototypes can accelerate design and development progress. In this programme of research, a three-dimensional solid oxide fuel cell prototype, openFuelCell, based on open-source computational fluid dynamics software was developed and applied to a single cell. Transport phenomena, combined with the solution to the local Nernst equation for the open-circuit potential, as well as the Kirchhoff-Ohm relationship for the local current density, allow local electro-chemistry, fluid flow, multi-component species transport, and multi-region thermal analysis to be considered. The underlying physicochemical hydrodynamics, including porous-electrode and electro-chemical effects are described in detail. The openFuelCell program is developed in an object-oriented open-source C++ library. The code is available at

  15. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  16. Coated Particles Fuel Compact-General Purpose Heat Source for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Coated Particles Fuel Compacts (CPFC) have recently been shown to offer performance advantage for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and design flexibility for integrating at high thermal efficiency with Stirling Engine converters, currently being considered for 100 We. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS). The particles in the compact consist of 238PuO2 fuel kernels with 5-μm thick PyC inner coating and a strong ZrC outer coating, whose thickness depends on the maximum fuel temperature during reentry, the fuel kernel diameter, and the fraction of helium gas released from the kernels and fully contained by the ZrC coating. In addition to containing the helium generated by radioactive decay of 238Pu for up to 10 years before launch and 10-15 years mission lifetime, the kernels are intentionally sized (>= 300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects on reentry. This paper investigates the advantage of replacing the four iridium-clad 238PuO2 fuel pellets, the two floating graphite membranes, and the two graphite impact shells in current State-Of-The-Art (SOA) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with CPFC. The total mass, thermal power, and specific power of the CPFC-GPHS are calculated as functions of the helium release fraction from the fuel kernels and maximum fuel temperature during reentry from 1500 K to 2400 K. For the same total mass and volume as SOA GPHS, the generated thermal power by single-size particles CPFC-GPHS is 260 W at Beginning-Of-Mission (BOM), versus 231 W for the GPHS. For an additional 10% increase in total mass, the CPFC-GPHS could generate 340 W BOM; 48% higher than SOA GPHS. The corresponding specific thermal power is 214 W/kg, versus 160 W/kg for SOA GPHS; a 34% increase. Therefore, for the same thermal power, the CPFC-GPHS is lighter than SOA GPHS, while it uses the same amount of 238PuO2 fuel and same aeroshell. For the same helium release fraction and fuel temperature, binary-size particles CPFC-GPHS could

  17. Modeling Ozone in the Eastern United States Using a Fuel-Based Mobile Source Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Ahmadov, R.; McKeen, S. A.; Kim, S. W.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    A fuel-based mobile source emissions inventory of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) is developed for the continental US. Emissions are mapped for the year 2013, including emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles, and off-road engines. We find that mobile source emissions of NOx in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 (NEI11) are 50-60% higher than results from this study; mobile sources contribute around half of total US anthropogenic NOx emissions. We model chemistry and transport of emissions from the NEI11 and our fuel-based inventory during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) Study period in the summer of 2013, using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. In the Eastern US, there is a consistent over-prediction of tropospheric ozone (O3) levels when simulating emissions from the NEI11, with the largest biases located in the Southeastern US. Using our fuel-based inventory, we test O3 sensitivity to lower NOx emissions. We highlight results in the Southeast, a region with significant interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of ozone precursors. Model results of NOy, CO, and O3 are compared with aircraft measurements made during SENEX.

  18. Solid Waste from Swine Wastewater as a Fuel Source for Heat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Ho Park

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was to evaluate the feasibility of recycling the solids separated from swine wastewater treatment process as a fuel source for heat production and to provide a data set on the gas emissions and combustion properties. Also, in this study, the heavy metals in ash content were analyzed for its possible use as a fertilizer. Proximate analysis of the solid recovered from the swine wastewater after flocculation with organic polymer showed high calorific (5,330.50 kcal/kg and low moisture (15.38% content, indicating that the solid separated from swine wastewater can be used as an alternative fuel source. CO and NOx emissions were found to increase with increasing temperature. Combustion efficiency of the solids was found to be stable (95 to 98% with varied temperatures. Thermogravimetry (TG and differential thermal analysis (DTA showed five thermal effects (four exothermic and one endothermic, and these effects were distinguished in three stages, water evaporation, heterogeneous combustion of hydrocarbons and decomposition reaction. Based on the calorific value and combustion stability results, solid separated from swine manure can be used as an alternative source of fuel, however further research is still warranted regarding regulation of CO and NOx emissions. Furthermore, the heavy metal content in ash was below the legal limits required for its usage as fertilizer.

  19. Literature review on metallic fuel source term for sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Nam Duk; Bae, Moo Hoon; Shin, An Dong; Huh, Chang Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Source term is defined as the release of radionuclides from the fuel and coolant into the containment, and subsequently to the environment, following a severe accident where a significant portion of the reactor core has melted. Of the many issues associated with the development and deployment of SFRs, one of high regulatory importance is the source term to be used in the siting of the reactor. Apart from assessing the radiological consequences for siting, it is also important for designing filtering systems and even reactor components. Overly conservative source term for light water reactor, TID 14844 demands for very fast closure of main steam isolation valves, rapid startup of emergency diesels, and safety systems designed to mitigate gaseous iodine. In spite of this importance, most of the knowledge we have for SFR source term comes from the research performed before 1980s. Moreover, majority of the work on metallic fuels was done during the late 1950's through the 1960's. This paper reviews and summarizes the main characteristics of SFR source terms based on the available literatures.

  20. Prices and costs of energy sources; Les prix et les couts des sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO{sub 2} emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  1. Design of an hybrid source with fuel cell and super-capacitors; Conception d'une source hybride utilisant une pile a combustible et des supercondensateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Ph.

    2005-12-15

    The design and testing of a purely super-capacitor energy storage device as auxiliary power source in electrical vehicle applications having a PEM fuel cell as main source are presented. The two control strategies are explained. The control algorithms are that fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to lessen the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Super-capacitors are functioning during absence of energy from fuel cell, transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. The system utilizes two modules of SAFT super-capacitive storage device. This device is connected to a 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant dc/dc converter, and fuel cell is connected to the dc bus by a boost converter. The system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital control (dSPACE) for voltage loops and estimation algorithms. Experimental results with a 500 W PEM fuel cell point out the slow dynamics naturally of fuel cell because of thermodynamic and mechanical operation, and also substantiate that the super-capacitors can improve dynamics and power conditioning for automotive electrical system. (author)

  2. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  3. Special Section: ;Microbial fuel cells: From fundamentals to applications;: Guest Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Erable, Benjamin; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    Water scarcity and production of non-renewable energy are among the most serious challenges faced by humankind at present. Water-related problems such as insufficient freshwater for drinking or irrigation or, even worse, unavailability of freshwater exist in many parts of the world. Over a billion people lack access to clean water, and approximately two million people die every year because of inadequate water sanitation. Fossil fuel combustion has also become problematic because of the depletion of fossil fuels, which are finite energy sources. This together with the emissions of greenhouse gases has increased the CO2 concentration in atmosphere to an unprecedented level of >400 ppm. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify new renewable energy sources and more efficient ways of energy consumption and hybridization with existing technologies.

  4. Lipids in the heart: a source of fuel and a source of toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Sik; Yamashita, Haruyo; Blaner, William S; Goldberg, Ira J

    2007-06-01

    How do lipids arrive in the heart and other tissues? This review focuses on new information on pathways of lipid uptake into the heart. Fatty acids, the major cardiac fuel, are obtained from either lipoproteins or free fatty acids associated with albumin. The heart is the tissue with the most robust expression of lipoprotein lipase, and recent data attest to the importance of this enzyme in supplying optimal amounts of fatty acids for the heart. Genetic deletion of CD36 also shows that this transporter is important for cardiac uptake of lipids. Retinoid acquisition by the heart involves pathways parallel to those used for fatty acid uptake: a pathway for acquisition of core lipoprotein retinyl ester and another for nonlipoprotein retinol. Dilated lipotoxic cardiomyopathy is the consequence of excess lipid uptake. Genetic modifications that affect lipid uptake, oxidation, and storage are being exploited to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiomyopathies and to discover how lipids relate to heart failure in humans with obesity and diabetes mellitus. This information is likely to lead to new diagnostic categories of cardiomyopathy and more pathophysiologically appropriate treatments.

  5. Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Various Fossil-fuel Combustion Nitrogen Oxide Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, W.; Michalski, G. M.; Fang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are important trace gases that impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. In order to help constrain NOx source contributions, the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of NOx (δ15N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning. However, despite anthropogenic emissions being the most prevalent source of NOx, there is still large uncertainty in the δ15N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources. To this end, this study provides a detailed analysis of several fossil-fuel combustion NOx sources and their δ15N-NOx values. To accomplish this, exhaust or flue samples from several fossil-fuel combustion sources were sampled and analyzed for their δ15N-NOx that included airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a catalytic converter, gasoline-powered lawn tools and utility vehicles, diesel-electric buses, diesel semi-trucks, and natural gas-burning home furnace and power plant. A relatively large range of δ15N-NOx values were measured from -28.1 to 0.3‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples with cold started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the lowest δ15N-NOx values at -20.9‰, and warm-started diesel-electric buses contributing on average the highest values of -1.7‰. The NOx sources analyzed in this study primarily originated from the "thermal production" of NOx and generally emitted negative δ15N-NOx values, likely due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with its production. It was found that there is a negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ15N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with catalytic NOx reduction technology, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx may have an influence on δ15N-NOx values. Based on the δ15N-NOx values reported in this study and in previous studies, a δ15N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous United States. The constructed isoscape demonstrates the seasonal importance of various

  6. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L.; Chen, C.Y.; Liou, D.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Cha, H.C. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars. (author)

  7. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  8. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  9. Ambient measurements and source apportionment of fossil fuel and biomass burning black carbon in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sofowote, U.; Su, Y.; Debosz, J.; Noble, M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wang, J. M.; Hilker, N.; Evans, G. J.; Doerksen, G.; Jones, K.; Munoz, A.

    2017-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is of significant interest from a human exposure perspective but also due to its impacts as a short-lived climate pollutant. In this study, sources of BC influencing air quality in Ontario, Canada were investigated using nine concurrent Aethalometer datasets collected between June 2015 and May 2016. The sampling sites represent a mix of background and near-road locations. An optical model was used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning to ambient concentrations of BC at every site. The highest annual mean BC concentration was observed at a Toronto highway site, where vehicular traffic was found to be the dominant source. Fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor to ambient BC at all sites in every season, while the highest seasonal biomass burning mass contribution (35%) was observed in the winter at a background site with minimal traffic contributions. The mass absorption cross-section of BC was also investigated at two sites, where concurrent thermal/optical elemental carbon data were available, and was found to be similar at both locations. These results are expected to be useful for comparing the optical properties of BC at other near-road environments globally. A strong seasonal dependence was observed for fossil fuel BC at every Ontario site, with mean summer mass concentrations higher than their respective mean winter mass concentrations by up to a factor of two. An increased influence from transboundary fossil fuel BC emissions originating in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York was identified for the summer months. The findings reported here indicate that BC should not be considered as an exclusively local pollutant in future air quality policy decisions. The highest seasonal difference was observed at the highway site, however, suggesting that changes in fuel composition may also play an important role in the seasonality of BC mass concentrations in the near-road environment

  10. Dual-Carbon sources fuel the OCS deep-reef Community, a stable isotope investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Berg, J.; Randall, Michael; Dennis, George D.; Brooks, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis that phytoplankton is the sole carbon source for the OCS deep-reef community (>60 m) was tested. Trophic structure for NE Gulf of Mexico deep reefs was analyzed via carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Carbon signatures for 114 entities (carbon sources, sediment, fishes, and invertebrates) supported surface phytoplankton as the primary fuel for the deep reef. However, a second carbon source, the macroalga Sargassum, with its epiphytic macroalgal associate, Cladophora liniformis, was also identified. Macroalgal carbon signatures were detected among 23 consumer entities. Most notably, macroalgae contributed 45 % of total carbon to the 13C isotopic spectrum of the particulate-feeding reef-crest gorgonian Nicella. The discontinuous spatial distribution of some sessile deep-reef invertebrates utilizing pelagic macroalgal carbon may be trophically tied to the contagious distribution of Sargassum biomass along major ocean surface features.

  11. Source Term Analysis for Reactor Coolant System with Consideration of Fuel Burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Jong; Ahn, Joon Gi; Hwang, Hae Ryong [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The radiation source terms in reactor coolant system (RCS) of pressurized water reactor (PWR) are basic design information for ALARA design such as radiation protection and shielding. Usually engineering companies own self-developed computer codes to estimate the source terms in RCS. DAMSAM and FIPCO are the codes developed by engineering companies. KEPCO E and C has developed computer code, RadSTAR, for use in the Radiation Source Term Analysis for Reactor coolant system during normal operation. The characteristics of RadSTAR are as follows. (1) RadSTAR uses fuel inventory data calculated by ORIGEN, such as ORIGEN2 or ORIGEN-S to consider effects of the fuel burnup. (2) RadSTAR estimates fission products by using finite differential method and analytic method to minimize numerical error. (3) RadSTAR enhances flexibility by adding the function to build the nuclide data library (production pathway library) for user-defined nuclides from ORIGEN data library. (4) RadSTAR consists of two modules. RadSTAR-BL is to build the nuclide data library. RadSTAR-ST is to perform numerical analysis on source terms. This paper includes descriptions on the numerical model, the buildup of nuclide data library, and the sensitivity analysis and verification of RadSTAR. KEPCO E and C developed RadSTAR to calculate source terms in RCS during normal operation. Sensitivity analysis and accuracy verification showed that RadSTAR keeps stability at Δt of 0.1 day and gives more accurate results in comparison with DAMSAM. After development, RadSTAR will replace DAMSAM. The areas, necessary to further development of RadSTAR, are addition of source term calculations for activation products and for shutdown operation.

  12. Grid Connected Fuel Cell Powered System Using Cascaded Quasi Z Source Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Pavithradevi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cascaded quasi-Z-source network based step up DC/DC converter for fuel powered system reduces the component stresses and size of the converter. This network provides voltage boost and buck functions in single stage without any additional switches by the introduction of special switching strategy. Presence of this strategy provides continuous input current on the primary side of the inverter. A voltage doubler is designed for increasing the transformer secondary side voltage. To provide the stable output voltage under the condition of changing input voltage a closed loop response of PI controller is designed. However with the response of PI controller the VDR output is not stable. To stabilize the VDR output ANN technique is used. To maintain the grid voltage and current magnitude at constant value a three phase average model based voltage source inverter is designed. The cascaded quasi-Z-source network based fuel cell powered system is analyzed by Matlab Simulink environment.

  13. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. CryoFuel gas : capture and purification of methane at source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R. [CFS Alternative Fuels Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The mandate of CFS Alternative Fuels Incorporated, located in Victoria, British Columbia, which came into operation in 1995, is the installation and operation of gas purification and liquefaction systems using the patented small-scale cryogenic technologies which were designed by an affiliate, CryoFuel Systems Incorporated in Monroe, Washington. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) at 97 per cent is produced using gas processing systems from a variety of gases such as unutilized sources like stranded gas wells and coalbed methane. Waste gases like flares, landfills and bio-digesters, as well as pipeline natural gas are also used to produce LNG. The recovery of carbon dioxide at 99.8 per cent purity is possible from landfill and biogas streams. No new emissions are generated by the autonomous, modular, skid-mounted cryofuel plants. Additionally, no external utilities are required. Some of the applications of LNG are the replacement of conventional fuels in the transportation sector and in commercial and industrial applications. The technology's core design and process capabilities were verified in a one-year demonstration project. Firm orders for eight full-scale systems have been received as of April 2002.

  15. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  16. Mutagenicity and Pollutant Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison with Other Combustion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Warren, Sarah H.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Schmid, Judith E.; Dye, Janice A.; Linak, William P.; Gilmour, M. Ian; Jetter, James J.; Higuchi, Mark; DeMarini, David M.

    2016-01-01

    JJ, Higuchi M, DeMarini DM. 2016. Mutagenicity and pollutant emission factors of solid-fuel cookstoves: comparison with other combustion sources. Environ Health Perspect 124:974–982; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509852 PMID:26895221

  17. Feasibility of fissile mass assay of spent nuclear fuel using {sup 252}Cf-source-driven frequency-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    The feasibility was evaluated using MCNP-DSP, an analog Monte Carlo transport cod to simulate source-driven measurements. Models of an isolated Westinghouse 17x17 PWR fuel assembly in a 1500-ppM borated water storage pool were used. In the models, the fuel burnup profile was represented using seven axial burnup zones, each with isotopics estimated by the PDQ code. Four different fuel assemblies with average burnups from fresh to 32 GWd/MTU were modeled and analyzed. Analysis of the fuel assemblies was simulated by inducing fission in the fuel using a {sup 252}Cf source adjacent to the assembly and correlating source fissions with the response of a bank of {sup 3}He detectors adjacent to the assembly opposite the source. This analysis was performed at 7 different axial positions on each of the 4 assemblies, and the source-detector cross-spectrum signature was calculated for each of these 28 simulated measurements. The magnitude of the cross-spectrum signature follows a smooth upward trend with increasing fissile material ({sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu) content, and the signature is independent of the concentration of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (e.g., {sup 244}Cm) and ({alpha},n) sources. Furthermore, the cross-spectrum signature is highly sensitive to changes in fissile material content. This feasibility study indicated that the signature would increase {similar_to}100% in response to an increase of only 0.1 g/cm{sup 3} of fissile material.

  18. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salay, Michael (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.); Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  19. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  20. ORIGAMI Automator Primer. Automated ORIGEN Source Terms and Spent Fuel Storage Pool Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Source terms and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pool decay heat load analyses for operating nuclear power plants require a large number of Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) calculations. SNF source term calculations also require a significant amount of bookkeeping to track quantities such as core and assembly operating histories, spent fuel pool (SFP) residence times, heavy metal masses, and enrichments. The ORIGEN Assembly Isotopics (ORIGAMI) module in the SCALE code system provides a simple scheme for entering these data. However, given the large scope of the analysis, extensive scripting is necessary to convert formats and process data to create thousands of ORIGAMI input files (one per assembly) and to process the results into formats readily usable by follow-on analysis tools. This primer describes a project within the SCALE Fulcrum graphical user interface (GUI) called ORIGAMI Automator that was developed to automate the scripting and bookkeeping in large-scale source term analyses. The ORIGAMI Automator enables the analyst to (1) easily create, view, and edit the reactor site and assembly information, (2) automatically create and run ORIGAMI inputs, and (3) analyze the results from ORIGAMI. ORIGAMI Automator uses the standard ORIGEN binary concentrations files produced by ORIGAMI, with concentrations available at all time points in each assembly’s life. The GUI plots results such as mass, concentration, activity, and decay heat using a powerful new ORIGEN Post-Processing Utility for SCALE (OPUS) GUI component. This document includes a description and user guide for the GUI, a step-by-step tutorial for a simplified scenario, and appendices that document the file structures used.

  1. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  2. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  3. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, als

  4. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  5. Micro solid oxide fuel cells: a new generation of micro-power sources for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrera, Francesco; Garbayo, Iñigo; Alayo, Nerea; Tarancón, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Portable electronic devices are already an indispensable part of our daily life; and their increasing number and demand for higher performance is becoming a challenge for the research community. In particular, a major concern is the way to efficiently power these energy-demanding devices, assuring long grid independency with high efficiency, sustainability and cheap production. In this context, technologies beyond Li-ion are receiving increasing attention, among which the development of micro solid oxide fuel cells (μSOFC) stands out. In particular, μSOFC provides a high energy density, high efficiency and opens the possibility to the use of different fuels, such as hydrocarbons. Yet, its high operating temperature has typically hindered its application as miniaturized portable device. Recent advances have however set a completely new range of lower operating temperatures, i.e. 350-450°C, as compared to the typical <900°C needed for classical bulk SOFC systems. In this work, a comprehensive review of the status of the technology is presented. The main achievements, as well as the most important challenges still pending are discussed, regarding (i.) the cell design and microfabrication, and (ii.) the integration of functional electrolyte and electrode materials. To conclude, the different strategies foreseen for a wide deployment of the technology as new portable power source are underlined.

  6. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  7. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  8. A Mechanistic Source Term Calculation for a Metal Fuel Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2017-06-26

    A mechanistic source term (MST) calculation attempts to realistically assess the transport and release of radionuclides from a reactor system to the environment during a specific accident sequence. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has repeatedly stated its expectation that advanced reactor vendors will utilize an MST during the U.S. reactor licensing process. As part of a project to examine possible impediments to sodium fast reactor (SFR) licensing in the U.S., an analysis was conducted regarding the current capabilities to perform an MST for a metal fuel SFR. The purpose of the project was to identify and prioritize any gaps in current computational tools, and the associated database, for the accurate assessment of an MST. The results of the study demonstrate that an SFR MST is possible with current tools and data, but several gaps exist that may lead to possibly unacceptable levels of uncertainty, depending on the goals of the MST analysis.

  9. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and

  10. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  11. Prospect of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja in Bangladesh: A Sustainable Source of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Halder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the basic requirement for the existence of human being in today’s digital world. Indigenous energy of Bangladesh (especially natural gas and diesel is basically used in power generation and depleting hastily to meet the increasing power demand. Therefore, special emphasis has been given to produce alternative liquid fuel worldwide to overcome the crisis of diesel. Pongamia pinnata (karanja may be an emerging option for providing biooil for biodiesel production. Although karanja biooil has been used as a source of traditional medicines in Bangladesh, it can also be used for rural illumination. This paper outlines the medical and energy aspects of Pongamia pinnata. It has been assessed that Bangladesh can utilize about 128.95 PJ through Pongamia cultivation in unused lands. The paper reviews the potentiality of Pongamia pinnata as a source of biodiesel and its benefits in Bangladesh. The paper also revives that, about 0.52 million tons of biodiesel can be produced only utilizing the unused lands per year in sustainable basis as it reduces CO2, CO, HC, and NOx emission compared to pure diesel.

  12. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Model predictive control of hybrid fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor power sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.; Trilaksono, B.R.; Sasongko, A.; Rohman, A.S.; Dronkers, C.J.; Ortega, R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fuel cell as future energy for vehicle application is very promising due to its environmentally friendly, efficient, and flexible properties. When applied to the vehicle, one drawback of fuel cells is that it is unable to supply sudden load changes since the dynamics of fuel cells is slow

  14. Model Predictive Control of hybrid fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor power sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.; Trilaksono, B.R.; Sasongko, A.; Rohman, A.S.; Dronkers, C.J.; Ortega, R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fuel cell as future energy for vehicle application is very promising due to its environmentally friendly, efficient, and flexible properties. When applied to the vehicle, one drawback of fuel cells is that it is unable to supply sudden load changes since the dynamics of fuel cells is slow

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  16. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  17. Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J; Liu, Zhen Y; Dumesic, James A

    2007-06-21

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming indicate that sustainable sources of energy are needed in the near future. For fuels to be useful in the transportation sector, they must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage and combustion; these properties are currently fulfilled by non-renewable petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Ethanol, the only renewable liquid fuel currently produced in large quantities, suffers from several limitations, including low energy density, high volatility, and contamination by the absorption of water from the atmosphere. Here we present a catalytic strategy for the production of 2,5-dimethylfuran from fructose (a carbohydrate obtained directly from biomass or by the isomerization of glucose) for use as a liquid transportation fuel. Compared to ethanol, 2,5-dimethylfuran has a higher energy density (by 40 per cent), a higher boiling point (by 20 K), and is not soluble in water. This catalytic strategy creates a route for transforming abundant renewable biomass resources into a liquid fuel suitable for the transportation sector, and may diminish our reliance on petroleum.

  18. Independent evaluation of point source fossil fuel CO2 emissions to better than 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn Christine; Keller, Elizabeth D; Norris, Margaret W; Wiltshire, Rachael M

    2016-09-13

    Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates are known only from self-reported data. Atmospheric observations have the potential to meet the need for independent evaluation, but useful results from this method have been elusive, due to challenges in distinguishing CO2ff emissions from the large and varying CO2 background and in relating atmospheric observations to emission flux rates with high accuracy. Here we use time-integrated observations of the radiocarbon content of CO2 ((14)CO2) to quantify the recently added CO2ff mole fraction at surface sites surrounding a point source. We demonstrate that both fast-growing plant material (grass) and CO2 collected by absorption into sodium hydroxide solution provide excellent time-integrated records of atmospheric (14)CO2 These time-integrated samples allow us to evaluate emissions over a period of days to weeks with only a modest number of measurements. Applying the same time integration in an atmospheric transport model eliminates the need to resolve highly variable short-term turbulence. Together these techniques allow us to independently evaluate point source CO2ff emission rates from atmospheric observations with uncertainties of better than 10%. This uncertainty represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over current bottom-up inventory estimates and previous atmospheric observation estimates and allows reliable independent evaluation of emissions.

  19. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  1. Review of Technical Issues Related to Predicting Isotopic Compositions and Source Terms for High-Burnup LWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I. C.; Parks, C. V.

    2000-12-11

    This report has been prepared to review the technical issues important to the prediction of isotopic compositions and source terms for high-burnup, light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel as utilized in the licensing of spent fuel transport and storage systems. The current trend towards higher initial 235U enrichments, more complex assembly designs, and more efficient fuel management schemes has resulted in higher spent fuel burnups than seen in the past. This trend has led to a situation where high-burnup assemblies from operating LWRs now extend beyond the area where available experimental data can be used to validate the computational methods employed to calculate spent fuel inventories and source terms. This report provides a brief review of currently available validation data, including isotopic assays, decay heat measurements, and shielded dose-rate measurements. Potential new sources of experimental data available in the near term are identified. A review of the background issues important to isotopic predictions and some of the perceived technical challenges that high-burnup fuel presents to the current computational methods are discussed. Based on the review, the phenomena that need to be investigated further and the technical issues that require resolution are presented. The methods and data development that may be required to address the possible shortcomings of physics and depletion methods in the high-burnup and high-enrichment regime are also discussed. Finally, a sensitivity analysis methodology is presented. This methodology is currently being investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a computational tool to better understand the changing relative significance of the underlying nuclear data in the different enrichment and burnup regimes and to identify the processes that are dominant in the high-burnup regime. The potential application of the sensitivity analysis methodology to help establish a range of applicability for experimental

  2. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  3. Compositional evolution of the emplaced fuel source in the vadose zone field experiment at airbase Vaerlose, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Christophersen, Mette; Maier, U.;

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was performed in a sandy vadose zone, studying the fate of an emplaced fuel-NAPL source, composed of 13 hydrocarbons and a tracer. The UNIFAC model was used to test the nonideal behavior of the source, and the numerical model MIN3P was used for assessing the effect of biodegrad......A field experiment was performed in a sandy vadose zone, studying the fate of an emplaced fuel-NAPL source, composed of 13 hydrocarbons and a tracer. The UNIFAC model was used to test the nonideal behavior of the source, and the numerical model MIN3P was used for assessing the effect...... of biodegradation on source evolution. The diffusive loss to the surrounding vadose zone and the atmosphere created temporary gradients in mole fractions of the individual compounds within the source NAPL. The evolution of the source composition corresponded in general with expectations based on Raoult's Law....... Positive deviations were calculated for the aromatic compounds. The effect of biodegradation on source depletion, evaluated by numerical modeling, was greater for the aromatic as compared to the aliphatic compounds. Hence, the faster depletion of the aromatic relative to aliphatic compounds of similar...

  4. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  5. LMFBR source term experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrykowski, J.C.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) aerosol through liquid sodium was studied in a series of ten experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The experiments were designed to provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the radiological source term associated with a postulated, energetic core disruptive accident (CDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Aerosol was generated by capacitor discharge vaporization of UO/sub 2/ pellets which were submerged in a sodium pool under an argon cover gas. Measurements of the pool and cover gas pressures were used to study the transport of aerosol contained by vapor bubbles within the pool. Samples of cover gas were filtered to determine the quantity of aerosol released from the pool. The depth at which the aerosol was generated was found to be the most critical parameter affecting release. The largest release was observed in the baseline experiment where the sample was vaporized above the sodium pool. In the nine ''undersodium'' experiments aerosol was generated beneath the surface of the pool at depths varying from 30 to 1060 mm. The mass of aerosol released from the pool was found to be a very small fraction of the original specimen. It appears that the bulk of aerosol was contained by bubbles which collapsed within the pool. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Optimal operation management of fuel cell/wind/photovoltaic power sources connected to distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Taher; Kavousifard, Abdollah; Tabatabaei, Sajad; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a new multiobjective modified honey bee mating optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is presented to investigate the distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) problem considering renewable energy sources (RESs) (photovoltaics, fuel cell and wind energy) connected to the distribution network. The objective functions of the problem to be minimized are the electrical active power losses, the voltage deviations, the total electrical energy costs and the total emissions of RESs and substations. During the optimization process, the proposed algorithm finds a set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions which are stored in an external memory called repository. Since the objective functions investigated are not the same, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is utilized to handle the size of the repository in the specified limits. Moreover, a fuzzy-based decision maker is adopted to select the 'best' compromised solution among the non-dominated optimal solutions of multiobjective optimization problem. In order to see the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two standard distribution test systems are used as case studies.

  7. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  8. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that

  9. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  10. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.

  11. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  12. Highly selective condensation of biomass-derived methyl ketones as a source of aviation fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacia, Eric R; Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Deaner, Matthew H; Goulas, Konstantinos A; Toste, F Dean; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-05-22

    Aviation fuel (i.e., jet fuel) requires a mixture of C9 -C16 hydrocarbons having both a high energy density and a low freezing point. While jet fuel is currently produced from petroleum, increasing concern with the release of CO2 into the atmosphere from the combustion of petroleum-based fuels has led to policy changes mandating the inclusion of biomass-based fuels into the fuel pool. Here we report a novel way to produce a mixture of branched cyclohexane derivatives in very high yield (>94 %) that match or exceed many required properties of jet fuel. As starting materials, we use a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and their derivatives obtained from biomass. These synthons are condensed into trimers via base-catalyzed aldol condensation and Michael addition. Hydrodeoxygenation of these products yields mixtures of C12 -C21 branched, cyclic alkanes. Using models for predicting the carbon number distribution obtained from a mixture of n-alkyl methyl ketones and for predicting the boiling point distribution of the final mixture of cyclic alkanes, we show that it is possible to define the mixture of synthons that will closely reproduce the distillation curve of traditional jet fuel.

  13. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

      Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint...

  14. Effects of inoculation sources on the enrichment and performance of anode bacterial consortia in sensor typed microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells are a recently emerging technology that promises a number of applications in energy recovery, environmental treatment and monitoring. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating sources on the enrichment of electrochemically active bacterial consortia in sensor-typed microbial fuel cells (MFCs. Several MFCs were constructed, operated with modified artificial wastewater and inoculated with different microbial sources from natural soil, natural mud, activated sludge, wastewater and a mixture of those sources. After enrichment, the MFCs inoculated with the natural soil source generated higher and more stable currents (0.53±0.03 mA, in comparisons with the MFCs inoculated with the other sources. The results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE showed that there were significant changes in bacterial composition from the original inocula to the enriched consortia. Even more interestingly, Pseudomonas sp. was found dominant in the natural soil source and also in the corresponding enriched consortium. The interactions between Pseudomonas sp. and other species in such a community are probably the key for the effective and stable performance of the MFCs.

  15. Fuel from Wastewater - Harnessing a Potential Energy Source in Canada through the Co-location of Algae Biofuel Production to Sources of Effluent, Heat and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Roach, J. D.; Passell, H. D.; Moreland, B. D.; O'Leary, S. J.; Pienkos, P. T.; Whalen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the “production” footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada’s NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  16. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  17. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  18. Operation of molten carbonate fuel cells with different biogas sources: A challenging approach for field trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, S. [Profactor Produktionsforschungs GmbH, Im Stadtgut A2, A-4407 Steyr/Gleink (Austria); Hoffmann, J. [MTU CFC Solutions GmbH (Germany); Daza Bertrand, L. [CIEMAT (Spain)

    2005-08-18

    In the past years research in the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) area has been focusing its efforts on the utilisation of natural gas as fuel (S. Geitmann, Wasserstoff- & Brennstoffzellen-Projekte, 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3280-1). In order to increase the advantages of this technology, an international consortium has worked on the utilisation of biogas as fuel in MCFC. During the 4 years lasting RTD project EFFECTIVE two different gas upgrading systems have been developed and constructed together with two mobile MCFC test beds which were operated at different locations for approximately 2.000-5.000h in each run with biogas from different origins and quality. The large variety of test locations has enabled to gather a large database for assessing the effect of the different biogas qualities on the complete system consisting of the upgrading and the fuel cell systems. The findings are challenging. This article also aims at giving an overview of the advantages of using biogas as fuel for fuel cells. (author)

  19. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  20. Characterization and fingerprinting of soil and groundwater contamination sources around a fuel distribution station in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Macías, Felipe; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. For this purpose, top and subsoil (up to 6.4 m) and groundwater were sampled around the station, approximately in a 60-m radius. Samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS to identify and quantify volatile fuel organic compounds (VFOC) (MTBE, ETBE and BTEX) and diesel range organics (DRO). Analysis and fingerprinting data suggested that the contamination of soil and groundwater was provoked by a fuel leak from underground storage tanks. This was reflected by hydrocarbon indices and principal component analysis, which discriminated a direct source of contamination of the subsoil samples around the station. The contaminants probably migrated from tank nearby soils to surrounding soils and leached to groundwater, following a SW direction. Irrigation with contaminated groundwater provoked a severe contamination of topsoils, which were enriched with the lightest components of gasoline and diesel. Fingerprinting also revealed the continuity of the leak, reflected by the presence of volatiles in some samples, which principally appeared in fresh leaks. MTBE was detected in a very high concentration in groundwater samples (up to 690 μg L(-1)), but it was not detected in fresh gasoline. This also evidenced an old source of contamination, probably starting in the mid-1990s, when the use of MTBE in gasoline was regulated.

  1. On the potential of third generation biofuels as a sustainable fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckermann, Wilhelm A. [Hochschule Esslingen (Germany). Faculty of Natural Sciences

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other alternative transportation fuels, such as hydrogen or electricity, biofuels have the advantage of high energy density and easy handling. This means that they can be used in a comparable way and with the same logistic systems as classic fossil fuels. Furthermore, it is expected that their utilisation will provide a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, driven by environmental and energy-political ambitions, biofuels will attain increasing importance in the future. Some forecasts see a portion of up to 50% which these fuels might contribute to the global fuel demand by the middle of the century. In contrast to those of the first and second generation, third generation biofuels, which are based on specifically cultivated plants and micro-organisms, are not in competition with the provision of food and have distinctly lower requirements for agricultural land use. This contribution will outline the aspects of availability and sustainability of this kind of biogenic fuels and will analyse in particular which role third generation biofuels might play. (orig.)

  2. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  3. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.

    1982-11-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This second volume includes the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Japan to Yugoslavia. Information on international agencies and associations, particularly the IAEA, NEA, and CEC, is provided also.

  4. Tracing Gas and Particle Phase Oxidation From Engine Sources as a Function of Fuel Type, Load, and Photochemical Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B.; Farmer, D.; Jathar, S.; Galang, A.; Fulgham, R.; Link, M.; Brophy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are an important source of anthropogenic gases and particles in the atmosphere. To study the gas and particle phase emissions, an HR-TOF-AMS and HR-TOF-CIMS were deployed at the CSU Engines Lab, along with an oxidative flow reactor, to measure emissions from a 4.5 L John Deere engine, which ran either diesel or biodiesel fuel. Concurrent gas-phase and particle-phase measurements allowed determination of the gas-phase and particle-phase oxidation properties as a function of fuel type, fuel load, and photochemical age. The impacts of particulate filers on composition and oxidation state were also assessed. While aerosol composition and associated oxidation properties for the biodiesel and diesel fuel types were similar, differences in photochemical production existed for the amount of load, or efficiency of the engine. The mean particulate oxygen to carbon ratios (O:C) and mean hydrogen to carbon ratios (H:C) moved from an initial 0.1 and 2 to a final 0.55 and 1.6, respectively, upon idle biodiesel and diesel engine exhaust exposure to approximately 7 days of OH exposure. The more efficient higher load biodiesel and diesel engine exhaust experienced less changes in the mean O:C and H:C values (an initial 0.1 and 2 to a final 0.3 and 1.7, respectively) with approximately the same amount of OH exposure. Despite largely scrubbing the majority of particles from the engine exhaust, experiments with engine particulate filters still showed photochemical production of oxidized particle-phase species at high photochemical ages, similar to that of idle engine exhaust without any particulate filters. Bulk gas-phase data was compared to bulk aerosol data in Van Krevelen space in order to understand how particle-phase oxidation traces gas-phase oxidation as a function of fuel type, engine load, and photochemical age.

  5. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: non-renewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seungdo Kim; Dale, B.E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2005-05-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg{sup -1}). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and N{sub 2}O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO{sub 2eq}. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km{sup -1} driven, compared to gasoline-fuelled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions. (author)

  6. Adaptive Passivity-Based Control of PEM Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Source for Stand-Alone Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALANTAR, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a DC hybrid power source composed of PEM fuel cell as main source, Li-ion battery storage as transient power source and their power electronic interfacing is modelled based on Euler-Lagrange framework. Subsequently, adaptive passivity-based controllers are synthesized using the energy shaping and damping injection technique. Local asymptotic stability is insured as well. In addition, the power management system is designed in order to manage power flow between components. Evaluation of the proposed system and simulation of the hybrid system are accomplished using MATLAB/Simulink. Afterwards, linear PI controllers are provided for the purpose of comparison with proposed controllers responses. The results show that the outputs of hybrid system based on adaptive passivity-based controllers have a good tracking response, low overshoot, short settling time and zero steady-state error. The comparison of results demonstrates the robustness of the proposed controllers for reference DC voltage and resistive load changes.

  7. UKRAINIAN FUEL AND ENERGY SECTOR: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Azarenkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis of Ukrainian fuel and energy sector (FES. The number of risks that threaten the stable supply of energy sources is growing. A high proportion of the energy intensity of developing economies in conjunction with their growing GDP leads to increased competition on world primary energy markets and causes significant fluctuations in energy prices, which negatively affect the global economy. There is also an important issue for world energy - limited use of non-renewable energy resources. Considering the prospects of development of Ukrainian FES, it is important to pay attention to patterns and trends of the global and national power. We have studied the basic trends of Ukrainian FES. It is the most important sector of the economy, and therefore its reform for market economy creation, price liberalization is a very important process. The current task of the energy sector of Ukraine is to be able to consistently produce and use energy to promote economic growth and improve quality of life.

  8. Bi-fuel conversion a key to tapping into hidden power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, K.

    2004-07-01

    A solution to bridge the ever-widening gap between electricity supply and demand is discussed. The solution proposed involves bi-fuel conversion of diesel generators using natural gas. The system is claimed to play a key role in preserving resources and reducing the burden on electrical systems. Benefits of the system include reduced emissions, reduced operating costs, extended run time for stored diesel fuel, high efficiency electric grid support, reliable operation of equipment for peak sharing/shaving, and higher return on investment as a result of higher utilization of capitalized equipment. The system works with all grades of diesel fuel and with all methane gas types. It can be manually returned to 100 per cent diesel operation, or it can be set to automatically return in the event of any fault condition. The system consists of three integrated major sub-systems, namely the gas control sub-system, the diesel control sub-system, and the electronic control and monitoring sub-system. Operating principles and each of these sub-systems are described, followed by an explanation of how the environmental benefits and economic savings are generated. A typical example for a 500 kW bi-fuel peak-shaving project is provided to further illustrate potential cost savings. 1 fig.

  9. Development of an Advanced Flameless Combustion Heat Source Utilizing Heavy Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the flame holder was red hot on the inner surface. ● CDI has experience with kerosene burner systems that do not exhibit flashback unless the fuel...determine the pressure drop properties of each. For each material, a thin disc was cemented into one end of a Pyrex tube, and compressed air at a known flow

  10. Analyzing Carbohydrate-Based Regenerative Fuel Cells as a Power Source for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    different researchers. As an example, one fuel cell was reported to have a 95% efficiency [ Weibel and Dodge, 1975] however, upon closer inspection...implants, in 19th IEEE International Conference on Mi- cro Electro Mechanical Systems, vol. 2006, pp. 934–937. Weibel , M. K., and C. Dodge (1975

  11. Business cycles and the financial performance of fuel cell companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Schulich School of Business

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in a hydrogen powered world. They will provide power to homes, modes of transportation and appliances. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature, but it must be extracted in order to be usable. It can be produced from oil, natural gas and coal or from renewable sources such as biomass, thermal or nuclear reactions. Fuel cells running on hydrogen extracted from non renewable resources have an efficiency of 30 per cent, which is twice as efficient as an internal combustion engine. The greatest barrier to mass commercialization is the cost of making hydrogen-powered auto engines. Also, an infrastructure must be developed to refill hydrogen cars. One solution is to build a hydrogen highway using the existing natural gas grid to produce hydrogen and sell it at existing filling stations. The cost of building 12,000 refueling pumps in urban areas which will provide access to 70 per cent of America's population is estimated at $10 to $15 billion. This paper described the vector autoregression (VAR) model which empirically examines the relationship between financial performance of fuel cell companies and business cycles. It was used to measure how sensitive the financial performance of fuel cell companies are to changes in macroeconomic activity. A four variable VAR model was developed to examine the relationship between stock prices, oil prices and interest rates. It was shown that the stock prices of fuel cell companies are affected by shocks to technology stock prices and oil prices, with the former having a longer lasting impact. These results add to the growing literature that oil price movements are not as important as once thought. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  13. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...

  14. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  15. Heat Source Characterization In A TREAT Fuel Particle Using Coupled Neutronics Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Schwen, Daniel; Ghassemi, Pedram; Baker, Benjamin; Zabriskie, Adam; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a multi-physics, multi-scale approach to modeling the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) currently prepared for restart at the Idaho National Laboratory. TREAT fuel is made up of microscopic fuel grains (r ˜ 20µm) dispersed in a graphite matrix. The novelty of this work is in coupling a binary collision Monte-Carlo (BCMC) model to the Finite Element based code Moose for solving a microsopic heat-conduction problem whose driving source is provided by the BCMC model tracking fission fragment energy deposition. This microscopic model is driven by a transient, engineering scale neutronics model coupled to an adiabatic heating model. The macroscopic model provides local power densities and neutron energy spectra to the microscpic model. Currently, no feedback from the microscopic to the macroscopic model is considered. TREAT transient 15 is used to exemplify the capabilities of the multi-physics, multi-scale model, and it is found that the average fuel grain temperature differs from the average graphite temperature by 80 K despite the low-power transient. The large temperature difference has strong implications on the Doppler feedback a potential LEU TREAT core would see, and it underpins the need for multi-physics, multi-scale modeling of a TREAT LEU core.

  16. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  17. Electrochemical Characterization of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that Utilizes cow Manure as Energy Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, M.; Prenafeta, F.; Flotats, X.; Gerritse, J.

    2009-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells are new types of bioreactors that convert the chemical energy encountered in organic matter directly to electricity. The efficiency of this energy conversion is potentially higher than described in other environmental technologies focused on energy production from organic wastes, such as biogas utilization. A MFC reactor utilizes microorganisms as catalysts to transfer electrons from the biological oxidation of the organic matter to an electrode (anode) in anaerobic conditions. (Author)

  18. Particulate emission factors for mobile fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Chen, L-W Antony; Lowenthal, Douglas H; Fujita, Eric M; Kuhns, Hampden D; Sodeman, David A; Campbell, David E; Moosmüller, Hans; Zhu, Dongzi; Motallebi, Nehzat

    2011-05-15

    PM emission factors (EFs) for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles and biomass combustion were measured in several recent studies. In the Gas/Diesel Split Study (GD-Split), PM(2.5) EFs for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) ranged from 0.2 to ~2 g/mile and increased with vehicle age. EFs for HDDV estimated with the U.S. EPA MOBILE 6.2 and California Air Resources Board (ARB) EMFAC2007 models correlated well with measured values. PM(2.5) EFs measured for gasoline vehicles were ~two orders of magnitude lower than those for HDDV and did not correlate with model estimates. In the Kansas City Study, PM(2.5) EFs for gasoline-powered vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks) were generally fuel, corresponding to 0.3 and 2 g/mile, respectively. These values are comparable to those of on-road HDDV. EFs for biomass burning measured during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment (FLAME) were compared with EFs from the ARB Emission Estimation System (EES) model. The highest PM(2.5) EFs (76.8±37.5 g/kg) were measured for wet (>50% moisture content) Ponderosa Pine needles. EFs were generally fuels with low moisture content but underestimated measured EFs for fuel with moisture content >40%. Average EFs for dry chamise, rice straw, and dry grass were within a factor of three of values adopted by ARB in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Discrepancies between measured and modeled emission factors suggest that there may be important uncertainties in current PM(2.5) emission inventories.

  19. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  20. Microfluidic fuel cells for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, M; Jänis, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-08-07

    Sustainable energy generation is of recent interest due to a growing energy demand across the globe and increasing environmental issues caused by conventional non-renewable means of power generation. In the context of microsystems, portable electronics and lab-on-a-chip based (bio)chemical sensors would essentially require fully integrated, reliable means of power generation. Microfluidic-based fuel cells can offer unique advantages compared to conventional fuel cells such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, ease of integration, cost effectiveness and portability. Here, we summarize recent developments which utilize the potential of microfluidic devices for energy generation.

  1. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  2. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...... that of coal but worse than natural gas. In order to investigate the question of whether and how a reduction in the single score per kW h of electricity produced from straw is feasible, we perform a scenario analysis where we consider two approaches. The first one is a potential significant reduction......This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...

  3. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  4. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  5. Logging slash from regeneration cuttings as a source of fuel; Paeaetehakkuualojen hakkuutaehde polttoainelaehteenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Asikainen, A. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland); Nurmi, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Logging slash from regeneration areas is the major reserve of forest biomass for the production of renewable energy in Finland. Typically, about 52 m{sup 3} of unmerchantable stemwood and crown mass per hectare is left in a clear-cutting area of Scots pine, and 116 m{sup 3} per hectare in a clear-cutting area of Norway spruce. These figures correspond to 9,6 and 22,4 tons of oil equivalent per hectare. In addition to the abundant availability, logging slash is made attractive from the utilization point of view by moderate costs of recovery. This paper reviews the studies carried out by Project 114 of the national Bioenergy Research Program in 1995. The following aspects were included: The effect of the recovery of logging slash for fuel on the work techniques and productivity of one-grip harvesters in clear-cutting of Norway spruce; off-road transport of logging slash with a forwarder equipped with an enlarged load space; chipping of logging slash; and outside storage of fuel crushed from fresh logging slash. The participating research organizations are the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu

  6. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varese Giovanna C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. Results In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms on Diesel (G1 and HiQ Diesel (G2, respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30°C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20°C for several months. Conclusions ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia

  7. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...

  8. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  9. Consumption and Use of Non-Renewable Mineral and Energy Raw Materials from an Economic Geology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Steinbach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We outline a path to sustainable development that would give future generations the chance to be as well-off as their predecessors without running out of natural resources, especially metals. To this end, we have to consider three key resources: (1 the geosphere or primary resources, (2 the technosphere or secondary resources, which can be recycled and (3 human ingenuity and creativity. We have two resource extremes: natural resources which are completely consumed (fossil fuels versus natural resources (metals which are wholly recyclable and can be used again. Metals survive use and are merely transferred from the geosphere to the technosphere. There will, however, always be a need for contributions from the geosphere to offset inevitable metal losses in the technosphere. But we do have a choice. We do not need raw materials as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables it to fulfil a function. At the time when consumption starts to level off, chances improve of obtaining most of the material for our industrial requirements from the technosphere. Then a favorable supply equilibrium can emerge. Essential conditions for taking advantage of this opportunity: affordable energy and ingenuity to find new solutions for functions, to optimize processes and to minimize losses in the technosphere.

  10. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  11. Sliding mode control of an autonomous parallel fuel cell-super capacitor power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Jeronimo J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Lab. de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion], Email: jmore@ing.unlp.edu.ar; Puleston, Paul F. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kunusch, Cristian; Colomer, Jordi Riera I. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRII)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) based systems emerge as one promising renewable alternative to fossil fuel systems in automotive and residential applications. However, their output dynamic response is relatively slow, mostly due to water and reactant gases dynamics. To overcome this limitation, FC-super capacitors (SCs) topologies can be used. The latter is capable of managing very fast power variations, presenting in addition high power density, long life cycle and good charge/discharge efficiency. In this work, a FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system for residential applications is considered. The FC and SCs are connected in parallel, through two separate DC/DC converters, to a DC bus. Under steady state conditions, the FC must deliver the load power requirement, while maintaining the SCs voltage regulated to the desired value. Under sudden load variations, the FC current rate must be limited to assure a safe transition to the new point of operation. During this current rate limitation mode, the SCs must deliver or absorb the power difference. To this end, a sliding mode strategy is proposed to satisfy to control objectives. The main one is the robust regulation of the DC bus voltage, even in the presence of system uncertainties and disturbances, such as load changes and FC voltage variations. Additionally, a second control objective is attained, namely to guarantee the adequate level of charge in the SCs, once the FC reaches the new steady state operation point. In this way, the system can meet the load power demand, even under sudden changes, and it can also satisfy a power demand higher than the nominal FC power, during short periods. The proposed control strategy is evaluated exhaustively by computer simulation considering fast load variations. The results presented in this work, corresponds to the first stage of a R and D collaboration project for the design and development of a novel FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system. In the next phase, the proposed

  12. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  13. Source attribution of fossil-fuel emissions at the urban scale using stable isotopologues of carbon-dioxide (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Roth, M.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2013-12-01

    Can atmospheric measurements be used to constrain estimates of sector-specific CO2 emissions at the urban scale? In a pilot-study in the Vancouver Metropolitan Region, BC, Canada, we explored the potential of using time-series of the stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 in the urban atmosphere to identify and separate fossil-fuel (FF) emission sources. For extended periods in winter, spring and summer of 2012/13, total CO2 concentration, δ13C and δ18O in CO2 was measured in the urban atmosphere over the Vancouver Metropolitan Region using a tunable diode laser absorption system (TGA 200, Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT, USA). The system continuously sampled outdoor air and was calibrated against NOAA standard gases with a precision of 0.1 per mil and 0.4 per mil for δ13C and δ18O in CO2, respectively. Time series are analyzed in combination with meteorological data (mixed layer height, wind direction). Data conditionally sampled for selected wind direction was used to determine intercepts using Keeling-plots, assuming that the urban boundary layer is well mixed and the two dominant FF sources are natural gas and gasoline. Source attributions based on those atmospheric measurements are compared to the Community Energy and Emissions Inventory (CEEI) for Metro Vancouver 2010 which is based on an fuel-consumption and bottom-up modeling approach and distributed using traffic counts, utility data and building energy modeling on a monthly scale. The emission source attribution using isotopologues is promising, in particular given that the measurements are made at a single site - likely because the Vancouver Metropolitan Region is an isolated urbanized region commonly experiencing background-air inflow from the Pacific. In January, the isotopologue approach proposes that 53% of the CO2 emissions in the urban boundary layer originate from natural gas, the primary fuel for home heating, which matches relatively well the distributed CEEI data for the same month (58

  14. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L.; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  15. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M.; Gavira D, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  16. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiuping [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E., E-mail: blogan@psu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A new type of electro-Fenton system was developed for wastewater treatment. ► Degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. ► Operation cost was greatly reduced compared to other microbial fuel cell designs. -- Abstract: Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and Fe{sup 2+} release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants.

  17. GHGfrack: An Open-Source Model for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Combustion of Fuel during Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam

    2016-07-19

    This paper introduces GHGfrack, an open-source engineering-based model that estimates energy consumption and associated GHG emissions from drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations. We describe verification and calibration of GHGfrack against field data for energy and fuel consumption. We run GHGfrack using data from 6927 wells in Eagle Ford and 4431 wells in Bakken oil fields. The average estimated energy consumption in Eagle Ford wells using lateral hole diameters of 8 (3)/4 and 6 (1)/8 in. are 2.25 and 2.73 TJ/well, respectively. The average estimated energy consumption in Bakken wells using hole diameters of 6 in. for horizontal section is 2.16 TJ/well. We estimate average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 419 and 510 tonne of equivalent CO2 per well (tonne of CO2 eq/well) for the two aforementioned assumed geometries in Eagle Ford, respectively, and 417 tonne of CO2 eq/well for the case of Bakken. These estimates are limited only to GHG emissions from combustion of diesel fuel to supply energy only for rotation of drill string, drilling mud circulation, and fracturing pumps. Sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the top three key variables in driving energy intensity in drilling are the lateral hole diameter, drill pipe internal diameter, and mud flow rate. In hydraulic fracturing, the top three are lateral casing diameter, fracturing fluid volume, and length of the lateral.

  18. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  19. Production and Comparartive Study of Pellets from Maize Cobs and Groundnut Shell as Fuels for Domestic Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyauta E. E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of any nation is unavoidably a prerequisite of the amount of energy available for its consumption. The need to develop alternative energy sources for fossil fuel is clear due to its scarcity, persistent increase in price and non renewability. The development of energy from biomass is one area among the various energy alternatives that has considerable promise and is receiving attention. This paper handles the production and comparative study of solid fuels from agricultural waste (i.e. maize cobs and groundnut shell that can serve as alternative energy sources for domestic use, using the densification process. The material were grounded and sieved to particle sizes of 0.425mm and below and was compressed into pellets of 12.5mm diameter and 13mm length at a minimum pressure of 275 bars. The characteristics of the pellets determined were moisture content, ash content, combustion rate and calorific value. The result showed that groundnut shell pellets attained a higher temperature than maize cobs. The temperatures attained by 100g of each type of fuel were 7560C and 6000C for ground nut and maize cob pellets respectively. The result of the net calorific value test for maize cob was found to be 13.8MJ/kg while that of groundnut shell pellets was 13.9MJ/kg. These results showed that the pellets are capable of generating heat that is sufficient for domestic use if appropriate appliances are used.

  20. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  1. Comment on ''A strategy of estimating fuel concentration in a direct liquid-feed fuel cell system'' [Y.J. Chiu, H.C. Lien, Journal of Power Sources 159 (2006) 1162-1168

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rongrong; Xie, Xiaofeng; Li, Chunwen [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-01

    The strategy for estimating the methanol concentration provided by Chiu and Lien [Y.J. Chiu, H.C. Lien, Journal of Power Sources 159 (2006) 1162-1168] overlooks the performance degradation (PD) of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In addition, the method may not be suitable in practice. (author)

  2. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  3. Emergy analysis of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Wang, Honglin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Emergy analysis considers both energy quality and energy used in the past, and compensates for the inability of money to value non-market inputs in an objective manner. Its common unit allows all resources to be compared on a fair basis. As feedstock for fuel ethanol, cassava has some advantages over other feedstocks. The production system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) was evaluated by emergy analysis. The emergy indices for the system of cassava-based fuel ethanol (CFE) are as follows: transformity is 1.10 E + 5 sej/J, EYR is 1.07, ELR is 2.55, RER is 0.28, and ESI is 0.42. Compared with the emergy indices of wheat ethanol and corn ethanol, CFE is the most sustainable. CFE is a good alternative to substitute for oil in China. Non-renewable purchased emergy accounts for 71.15% of the whole input emergy. The dependence on non-renewable energy increases environmental degradation, making the system less sustainable relative to systems more dependent on renewable energies. For sustainable development, it is vital to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy in the production of CFE. (author)

  4. Equalisation of Transient Temperature Profile Within the Fuel Pin of a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR During Total Loss of Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Amevi Adjei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient temperature distributions in cylindrical fuel element of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1 Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR following sudden total loss of cooling have been investigated. The loss of cooling in the reactor core resulting from a blockage of the inner orifice of coolant flow channels was assumed to occur during normal operations and led to sudden shut dow n of the reactor. The objective was to analyse the transient behaviour by solving analytically the heat transfer equation using Bessel functions and also develop from first principle the transient temperature equations for the fuel element. Results obtained during a sudden total lost of cooling showed a high transient temperature distribution at the centre of the fuel element, with the surface of the fuel clad recording the least temperature. The transient temperature distribution decreased from the centre of the fuel element to the surface of the fuel clad and followed a parabolic decay pattern which after increase in tim e follow ed an equalisation pattern. During sudden shut down, since there w as no heat generated and decay heat , the rate at which the fuel elem ent was cooled w as directly proportional to time.

  5. Discrimination of source reactor type by multivariate statistical analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopic concentrations in unknown irradiated nuclear fuel material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Martin; Kristo, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The problem of identifying the provenance of unknown nuclear material in the environment by multivariate statistical analysis of its uranium and/or plutonium isotopic composition is considered. Such material can be introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear accidents, inadvertent processing losses, illegal dumping of waste, or deliberate trafficking in nuclear materials. Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition were analyzed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) of the concentrations of nine U and Pu isotopes in fuel as a function of burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of (234)U and (236)U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was incorporated. The U and Pu were also analyzed separately, with results that suggest that, even after reprocessing or environmental fractionation, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the source reactor type and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination.

  6. Fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Srivastava

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state of development of fuel cells as potential power sources is reviewed. Applications in special fields with particular reference to military requirements are pointed out.

  7. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance.

  8. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  9. An Analysis of the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    a need to reduce water consumption whenever possible. Congress issued the initial guidelines for flow control in various plumbing products via the...SVSIMI Electronic stall regulation with redundant relay SWitch control Cut-In Wind Speed 8 mph (3.6 m/s) Ra’-«1 Wind Speed 29 mph(13 mls) u- eontrol...audits on seventeen FVSU buildings. Overall, the audits included electricity, natural gas, and water consumption . Systems evaluated included lighting

  10. Applicablitiy Determinations on the PSD 100 tpy Major Source Threshold Catergory for Fossil Fuel Boilers Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  12. Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Robert Huggins

    1999-12-31

    Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

  13. Economic evaluation and optimization of a photovoltaic-fuel cell-batteries hybrid system for use in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio B. [Federal Institute of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins 77021-090 (Brazil); De Oliveira, Marco A.G.; Severino, Mauro M. [GSEP - Group of Electric Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, DF 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electric power in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon region has become one of the barriers to economic and social development. Currently, the main technologies that provide electric power to these communities are diesel generators. This non-renewable energy source, besides causing serious problems to the environment and human health, have high maintenance and operational costs. This paper presents a study on the use of photovoltaic and fuel cells for continuous supply of electric power. The paper outlines the technical and costs characteristics of a pilot project set up in an environmental protection area, located in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. The pilot project uses solar energy as the primary electric power production source. Surplus energy stored in the hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water is later transformed into electric power by the fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. A comparative study between the technologies and potential configurations meeting the needs of isolated communities in the Amazon through simulations based on HOMER software are presented. As result, this paper outlines some policies to promote the use of renewable energy sources in isolated areas in Brazil derived from the pilot project. (author)

  14. EvoBot: An Open-Source, Modular Liquid Handling Robot for Nurturing Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad; Støy, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Liquid handling robots are rarely used in the domain of artificial life. In this field, transitory behaviours of non-equilibrium man-made systems are studied and need an automatic monitoring and logging of results. In addition, artificial life experiments are dynamic with frequent changes, which...... makes it difficult to apply conventional liquid handling robots as they are designed to automate a predefined task. In order to address these issues, we have developed an open source liquid handling robot, EvoBot. It uses a modular approach, which gives us the possibility to reconfigure the robot...... for different experiments and make it possible for users to add functionality by just developing a function specific module. In addition, it provides sensors and extra functionality for monitoring an experiment, which allows researchers to perform interactive experiments with the aim of prolonging non-equilibrium...

  15. Fueling Open-Source Drug Discovery: 177 Small-Molecule Leads against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballell, Lluís; Bates, Robert H; Young, Rob J; Alvarez-Gomez, Daniel; Alvarez-Ruiz, Emilio; Barroso, Vanessa; Blanco, Delia; Crespo, Benigno; Escribano, Jaime; González, Rubén; Lozano, Sonia; Huss, Sophie; Santos-Villarejo, Angel; Martín-Plaza, José Julio; Mendoza, Alfonso; Rebollo-Lopez, María José; Remuiñan-Blanco, Modesto; Lavandera, José Luis; Pérez-Herran, Esther; Gamo-Benito, Francisco Javier; García-Bustos, José Francisco; Barros, David; Castro, Julia P; Cammack, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of fuelling open-source, translational, early-stage drug discovery activities, the results of the recently completed antimycobacterial phenotypic screening campaign against Mycobacterium bovis BCG with hit confirmation in M. tuberculosis H37Rv were made publicly accessible. A set of 177 potent non-cytotoxic H37Rv hits was identified and will be made available to maximize the potential impact of the compounds toward a chemical genetics/proteomics exercise, while at the same time providing a plethora of potential starting points for new synthetic lead-generation activities. Two additional drug-discovery-relevant datasets are included: a) a drug-like property analysis reflecting the latest lead-like guidelines and b) an early lead-generation package of the most promising hits within the clusters identified. PMID:23307663

  16. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  17. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  18. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  19. Comparative analysis between two systems to generate electric energy for isolated community in the interior of the Amazon state: fuel cells with natural gas reformer versus diesel generation; Analise comparativa entre dois sistemas de geracao de energia eletrica para a comunidade isolada no interior do estado do Amazonas: celula a combustivel com reformador para gas natural versus gerador diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Paula Duarte; Bergamini, Cristiane Peres; Camargo, Joao Carlos; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Esteves, Gheisa Roberta Telles [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas e Estudos Ambientais; Silva, Ennio Peres da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2004-07-01

    Although great part of the domestic territory is already supplied with electric energy, still there are many regions where the system is precarious or nonexistent, generically called isolated communities. In the majority of the cases these communities are supplied with Diesel oil generators and the substitution of this fuel for available alternative energy in the localities has been object of study of some institutions of research spread throughout the country. Currently, the use of fuel cells has been strongly argued in the generation of electric energy associated with the local energy necessity, from the use of a regional fuel and this is due to the high efficiency of allied energy conversion to the low ambient impacts that this equipment offers. Most of the different types of fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel to produce electricity, and it is extracted from renewable or non-renewable sources of energy. Then, the article has the objective of comparing in first analysis the energy efficiency and the cost between the two systems: the ones used currently in the great majority of the isolated communities, constituted of a Diesel engine-generator system, with Natural Gas Reformer System/ Purifier of Hydrogen/ Fuel Cell/ and to analyze if such project presents characteristics that qualifies it to get the carbon credits proposed in the Mechanism of Clean Development. (author)

  20. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-15

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Electricity Generated by Soil in Microbial Fuel Cells and the Isolation of Soil Source Exoelectrogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Bin Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 d period. The Fe(III-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically. Their exoelectrogenic ability was evaluated by polarization measurement. The results showed that soils with higher organic carbon content but lower soil pH generated higher peak voltage and charge. The sequencing of Fe(III-reducing bacteria showed that Clostridia were dominant in all soil samples. At the family level, Clostridiales Family XI. incertae sedis were dominant in soils with lower organic carbon content but higher pH (>8, while Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Planococcaceae were dominant in soils with higher organic carbon content but lower pH. The isolated culturable strains were allied phylogenetically to fifteen different species, of which eleven were Clostridium. The others were Robinsoniella peoriensis, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, Eubacterium contortum and Oscillibacter ruminantium. The maximum power density generated by the isolates in the MFCs ranged from 16.4 to 28.6 mW m-2. We concluded that soil organic carbon content had the most important effect on power generation and that the Clostridiaceae were the dominant exoelectrogenic bacterial group in soil. This study might lead to the discovery of more soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria species.

  3. Non-Renewable Resources Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document is designed to help teachers and administrators in Alaska develop secondary and postsecondary training in nonrenewable natural resources. Its competencies reflect those needed for entry-level employment in the following industries as identified by international businesses surveyed in Alaska: gas and petroleum, coal, placer, and…

  4. An open-source library for the numerical modeling of mass-transfer in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaresio, Valerio; García-Camprubí, María; Izquierdo, Salvador; Asinari, Pietro; Fueyo, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    The generation of direct current electricity using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) involves several interplaying transport phenomena. Their simulation is crucial for the design and optimization of reliable and competitive equipment, and for the eventual market deployment of this technology. An open-source library for the computational modeling of mass-transport phenomena in SOFCs is presented in this article. It includes several multicomponent mass-transport models ( i.e. Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and Dusty Gas Model), which can be applied both within porous media and in porosity-free domains, and several diffusivity models for gases. The library has been developed for its use with OpenFOAM ®, a widespread open-source code for fluid and continuum mechanics. The library can be used to model any fluid flow configuration involving multicomponent transport phenomena and it is validated in this paper against the analytical solution of one-dimensional test cases. In addition, it is applied for the simulation of a real SOFC and further validated using experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: multiSpeciesTransportModels Catalogue identifier: AEKB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 140 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 64 285 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:: C++ Computer: Any x86 (the instructions reported in the paper consider only the 64 bit case for the sake of simplicity) Operating system: Generic Linux (the instructions reported in the paper consider only the open-source Ubuntu distribution for the sake of simplicity) Classification: 12 External routines: OpenFOAM® (version 1.6-ext) ( http://www.extend-project.de) Nature of problem: This software provides a library of models for

  5. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  6. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories

  7. Novel design of a compacted micro-structured air-breathing PEM fuel cell as a power source for mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems for application in portable electronic devices. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. There are many new miniaturized applications which can only be realized if a higher energy density power source is available compared to button cells and other small batteries. In small-scale applications, the fuel cell should be exceptionally small and have highest energy density. One way to achieve these requirements is to reduce the thickness of the cell (compacted-design for increasing the volumetric power density of a fuel cell power supply. A novel, simple to construct, air-breathing micro-structured PEM fuel cell which work in still or slowly moving air has been developed. The novel geometry enables optimum air access to the cathode without the need for pumps, fans or similar devices. In addition, the new design can achieve much higher active area to volume ratios, and hence higher volumetric power densities. Three-dimensional, multi-phase, non-isothermal CFD model of this novel design has been developed. This comprehensive model account for the major transport phenomena in an air-breathing micro-structured PEM fuel cell: convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields. The model is shown to understand the many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Fully three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analyzed with a focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding. They can provide a solid basis for optimizing the geometry of the PEM micro fuel cell stack running with a passive mode.

  8. Fuel Cells and Other Emerging Manportable Power Technologies for the NATO Warfighter. Part 1: Power Sources for Manportable/Manwearable Applications (Piles a combustible et autres technologies portatives d’alimentation en energie pour les combattants de l’OTAN - Partie 1: Sources d’alimentation pour les applications transportables/portables par l’homme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    safe and oil -independent energy sources. The major appeal of the Li-air battery is the extremely high energy density, a measure of the amount of energy...improved fuel processing and clean-up, especially for fuel-flexible operation and operation on biofuels , are needed to improve durability and reduce...Evaluation and Testing of Soldier and Man- Portable Fuel Cell Power Sources’ (presented at the Fuel Cell Seminar & Expo, Palm Springs CA, 2009). STO-TR-SET

  9. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  10. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  11. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  12. Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turn, S. Q.; Jenkins, B. M.; Chow, J. C.; Pritchett, L. C.; Campbell, D.; Cahill, T.; Whalen, S. A.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter emitted from wind tunnel simulations of biomass burning for five herbaceous crop residues (rice, wheat and barley straws, corn stover, and sugar cane trash) and four wood fuels (walnut and almond prunings and ponderosa pine and Douglas fir slash) was collected and analyzed for major elements and water soluble species. Primary constituents of the particulate matter were C, K, Cl, and S. Carbon accounted for roughly 50% of the herbaceous fuel PM and about 70% for the wood fuels. For the herbaceous fuels, particulate matter from rice straw in the size range below 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) had the highest concentrations of both K (24%) and Cl, (17%) and barley straw PM10 contained the highest sulfur content (4%). K, Cl, and S were present in the PM of the wood fuels at reduced levels with maximum concentrations of 6.5% (almond prunings), 3% (walnut prunings), and 2% (almond prunings), respectively. Analysis of water soluble species indicated that ionic forms of K, Cl, and S made up the majority of these elements from all fuels. Element balances showed K, Cl, S, and N to have the highest recovery factors (fraction of fuel element found in the particulate matter) in the PM of the elements analyzed. In general, chlorine was the most efficiently recovered element for the herbaceous fuels (10 to 35%), whereas sulfur recovery was greatest for the wood fuels (25 to 45%). Unique potassium to elemental carbon ratios of 0.20 and 0.95 were computed for particulate matter (PM10 K/C(e)) from herbaceous and wood fuels, respectively. Similarly, in the size class below 2.5 μm, high-temperature elemental carbon to bromine (PM2.5 C(eht)/Br) ratios of ˜7.5, 43, and 150 were found for the herbaceous fuels, orchard prunings, and forest slash, respectively. The molar ratios of particulate phase bromine to gas phase CO2 (PM10 Br/CO2) are of the same order of magnitude as gas phase CH3Br/CO2 reported by others.

  13. Year-round Source Contributions of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion to Elemental Carbon on the North Slope Alaska Utilizing Radiocarbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Winiger, P.; Moffett, C.; Back, J.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that the Arctic has undergone rapid warming at an alarming rate over the past century. Black carbon (BC) affects the radiative balance of the Arctic directly and indirectly through the absorption of incoming solar radiation and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Among atmospheric aerosols, BC is the most efficient absorber of light in the visible spectrum. The solar absorbing efficiency of BC is amplified when it is internally mixed with sulfates. Furthermore, BC plumes that are fossil fuel dominated have been shown to be approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass burning dominated plumes. The renewal of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Arctic, specifically in the Chukchi Sea, will introduce new BC sources to the region. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources to atmospheric elemental carbon (EC) during a year-long sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from July 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed for EC and sulfate concentrations combined with radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the EC fraction. Radiocarbon analysis distinguishes fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions based on large differences in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. To perform isotope analysis on EC, it must be separated from the organic carbon fraction of the sample. Separation was achieved by trapping evolved CO2 produced during EC combustion in a cryo-trap utilizing liquid nitrogen. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 85% to atmospheric EC, with individual samples ranging from 47% to 95%. Source apportionment results will be combined with back trajectory (BT) analysis to assess geographic source region impacts on the EC burden in the western Arctic.

  14. The Source Term Calculation and Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel%压水堆乏燃料源项计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏卓; 邹树梁; 于涛; 谢金森

    2011-01-01

    In spent fuel reprocessing plant,the highly radioactive environment will have a certain radiation damage on monitoring equipments.Therefore,the using life of the equipments will be affected and the system reliability reduced.In this article,we use ORIGEN2 program to calculate the components of PWR fuel,and obtain a group of data about the important radionuclides in spent fuel components,such like radioactivity,photon energy spectra etc.The calculated results are accurate and credible,and it can provide initial source term data for shield design of electronic monitoring equipment in the first-side processing of spent fuel.%乏燃料后处理车间的高放射性环境会对监测设备产生一定的辐照损伤,影响其使用寿命,降低系统可靠性.本文使用ORIGEN2程序对压水堆燃料组件进行计算,得出一组乏燃料组件中重要核素的放射性活度、光子能谱等数据,计算结果准确可信,可为乏燃料首端处理中电子监测设备的屏蔽设计提供初始源项数据.

  15. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U-Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction 232+233+234U and 231Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile 235U to 233U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most "protected" in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of 231Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future nuclear power industry of the Russian

  16. The marine isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y shows specific adaptation to use the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notomista, Eugenio; Pennacchio, Francesca; Cafaro, Valeria; Smaldone, Giovanni; Izzo, Viviana; Troncone, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Di Donato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from a closed bay in the harbour of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy), uses fuels as its sole carbon and energy source. Like some other Sphingomonads, this strain can grow as either planktonic free cells or sessile-aggregated flocks. In addition, this strain was found to grow as biofilm on several types of solid and liquid hydrophobic surfaces including polystyrene, polypropylene and diesel oil. Strain PP1Y is not able to grow on pure alkanes or alkane mixtures but is able to grow on a surprisingly wide range of aromatic compounds including mono, bi, tri and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. During growth on diesel oil, the organic layer is emulsified resulting in the formation of small biofilm-coated drops, whereas during growth on aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in paraffin the oil layer is emulsified but the drops are coated only if the mixtures contain selected aromatic compounds, like pyrene, propylbenzene, tetrahydronaphthalene and heterocyclic compounds. These peculiar characteristics suggest strain PP1Y has adapted to efficiently grow at the water/fuel interface using the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

  17. The Efficient Use of the Productive Potential of Technical Plant Cultures With the Purpose of Providing an Alternative Energetic Fuel Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of secure, non-polluting and renewable sources of biofuel, as an alternative to the fossil fuel, which are finite in time, constituted a concern of scientists long before the energetic crisis of 1973. According to Directive 2003/30/CE, the European Union policy considers the decrease of dependency and of the energetic import, as well as the decrease of gas emissions. By 2020, EU Member States, need to replace gasoline and diesel at a rate of 20%, with renewable fuels. In our country, in order to obtain biodiesel from vegetable oils researches are made on some crops such as sunflower, soybean, apeseed. In Mures County, have done research on the composition and production of oil of rapeseed cultivation for autumn and spring. As a mean value for the three years, varieties Bolero (spring and Digger (autumn accumulated the highest oil content.

  18. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  19. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  20. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.; Zhang, Gong

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  1. Protective Coatings in the Power Boilers Used to Incinerate Waste – Fuel Characteristics of Waste as the Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słania J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A general characteristics of waste management was presented. Municipal waste was characterised and its fuel properties were provided. Numerous thermal processes of waste utilisation were described such as an incinerating process, free-oxygen technology - pyrolysis, technology with oxygen deficiency - gasification and the plasma technology.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis-gc/ms of spirulina: evaluation of a highly proteinaceous biomass source for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of microalgae offers a pathway towards the production of compounds derived from the thermal decomposition of triglycerides, proteins as well as lignocelluloses and their combinations thereof. When catalytically induced, this could lead to the production of fuels and chemicals including aro...

  3. Estimates of helium gas release in 238PuO 2 fuel particles for radioisotope heat sources and heater units

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2000-06-01

    Release data of noble gases (Xe and Kr) from small-grain (7-40 μm), large-grain (⩾300 μm), and monocrystal UO 2 fuel particles, during isothermal irradiation up to 6.4 at.% and 2030 K are reviewed and their applicability to estimate helium release from 238PuO 2 fuel particles (⩾300 μm in diameter) is examined. Coated 238PuO 2 particles have recently been proposed for use in radioisotope power systems and heater units employed in planetary exploration missions. These fuel particles are intentionally sized and designed to prevent any adverse radiological effect and retain the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of 238Pu, a desired feature for some planetary missions. Results suggest that helium release from large-grain (⩾300 μm) particles of K could be 80% but less than 7% at 1042 K, which is in general agreement with the experiments conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory more than two decades ago. In these experiments, the helium gas release from small-grain (7-40 μm) 238PuO 2 fuel pellets has been measured during steady-state heating at temperatures up to 1886 K and ramp heating to 1723 K.

  4. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  5. Materials for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sossina M Haile

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cells are attractive for their modular and distributed nature, and zero noise pollution. They will also play an essential role in any future hydrogen fuel economy.

  6. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  7. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  8. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. ANALISYS OF THE EFFICENCY OF THE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC AND THERMAL ENERGY IN VIEW OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the evaluation of specific energy consumption of the primary fuel for electricity and heat for the various types of power plants is designed. Method of reduction electrical energy to a thermal unit is offered. Analysis of changes specific energy consumption for different shares of electric and heat energy in the total production of energy is held. Advantages of combined cycle power plants are shown.

  10. Controlled Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Oxidant Source with a Microreactor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    microchannel reactor for hydrogen peroxide decomposition is being developed for integration with fuel cell systems that can power undersea vehicles...the subunits of a microchemical reactor system. The basis of the present model is a microchannel reactor . The model description, governing equations...the 2007 COMSOL Users Conference Boston, 4-6 Oct, Newton. MA 14. ABSTRACT A microchannel reactor for hydrogen peroxide decomposition is being

  11. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  12. The effect of federal fuel sulfur regulations on in-use fleets: on-road heavy-duty source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jason P; Kittelson, David B; Watts, Winthrop F

    2009-07-15

    From 2002 to 2007 fuel sulfur content in the Minneapolis/St Paul area decreased from about 325 ppm S to vehicles were measured to be 9.1 +/- 6.6 x 10(15) and 3.2 +/- 2.8 x 10(15) particles/kg of fuel burned, in 2006 and 2007, respectively, a reduction of 65%. In an earlier study in 2002 particle number emissions for the in-use HD fleet were 4.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(15) particles/km compared to the current measurements of 2.8 +/- 2.1 x 10(15) and 9.9 +/- 8.7 x 10(14) particles/km in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The HD particle mass emission standard remained unchanged from 1994 through 2006 and few 2007 HD vehicles were on the road at the time of this study so the decreases in number observed emissions are more likely due to reductions in the sulfur content of the fuel than to changes in engine and aftertreatment design.

  13. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  14. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; H. Heilmeier; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of s...

  15. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-06-30

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO.

  16. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  17. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  18. Uso racional de recursos naturais não-renováveis: aspectos biológicos, econômicos e ambientais Rational use of non renewable natural resources: biological, economical and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Devido à limitação de novas terras para a agricultura, o seu desenvolvimento tem ocorrido com base em aumento de índices de produtividade na produção animal e de plantas. Entretanto, efeitos negativos têm emergido, como a excessiva utilização de recursos naturais não renováveis e a poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar a possibilidade do uso de modelos de saturação cinética na agricultura (produção de plantas e produção animal para melhorar a eficiência do uso dos recursos naturais não renováveis, evitar a completa depleção dos mesmos e minimizar os problemas relacionados à poluição ambiental.Due to limitations of new land areas for agriculture, its development has being based on increase in productive indexes in animal and plant production. However, negative effects have being emerged, as excessive utilization of non renewable natural resources and environmental pollution. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of use of models of saturation kinetics in agriculture (plant and animal production to improve efficiency of use of non renewable natural resources, avoid complete depletion of them and minimize the problems related to environmental pollution.

  19. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  20. Mutagenic components of alternate energy sources. [Assay for mutagenesis/carcinogenesis of components of synthetic fuel technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using short-term mutagenicity assays to predict the potential biohazard of various crude and complex test materials has been examined in a coupled chemical and biological approach. The principal focus of the research has been preliminary chemical characterization and preparation for bioassay, followed by testing in the Salmonella histidine reversion assay described by Ames. The mutagenicity tests are intended to (a) act as predictors of profound long-range health effects such as mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis, (b) act as a mechanism to rapidly isolate and identify a hazardous biological agent in a complex mixture, and (c) function as a measure of biological activity correlating base line data with changes in process conditions. Since complex mixtures can be fractionated and approached in these short-term assays, information reflection on the actual compounds responsible for the biological effect may be accumulated. Thus, mutagenicity tests will also (d) aid in identifying the specific hazardous compounds involved and in establishing priorities for further validative testing, testing in whole animals, and more definitive chemical analysis and monitoring. This work has emphasized test materials available from the developing synthetic fuel technologies. However, the procedures are applicable to a wide variety of industrial and natural products, environmental effluents, and body fluids. The general applicability of microbial test systems has already been demonstrated, for example, by the use of the assay as a prescreen for potential genetic hazards of complex environmental effluents or products, e.g., tobacco smoke condensates, natural products, hair dyes, soot from city air, fly ash, and (in our work with synthetic fuel technologies) oils and aqueous wastes.

  1. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  2. Investigation of chemical modifiers for sulfur determination in diesel fuel samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry using direct analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Charles S. [Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense, Câmpus Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Química, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B., E-mail: mbdessuy@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry has been applied for sulfur determination in diesel fuel. The sharp rotational lines of the carbon monosulfide molecule (formed during the vaporization step) were used to measure the absorbance. The analytical line at 258.056 nm was monitored using the sum of three pixels. Different chemical modifiers were investigated and the mixture of palladium and magnesium was used as chemical modifier in combination with iridium as permanent modifier. L-Cysteine was chosen as sulfur standard and the calibration was done against aqueous standard solutions. The proposed method was applied for the analyses of four diesel samples: two S10 samples and two S500 samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of sulfur in diesel fuel (NIST 2724b). Accurate results, for samples and CRM, were achieved after a dilution with propan-1-ol. The following figures of merit were obtained: characteristic mass of 17 ± 3 ng, limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.4 mg kg{sup −1} and 4.7 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Ir, Ru and Zr were investigated as permanent modifiers. • Ca, Mg, Pd and Pd/Mg were investigated as modifiers in solution. • Indirect determination of sulfur monitoring the molecular absorbance of the CS • Direct analysis of diesel samples using a dilution in propan-1-ol.

  3. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.

  4. A High-Gain Three-Port Power Converter with Fuel Cell, Battery Sources and Stacked Output for Hybrid Electric Vehicles and DC-Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel high-gain three-port power converter with fuel cell (FC, battery sources and stacked output for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV connected to a dc-microgrid. In the proposed power converter, the load power can be flexibly distributed between the input sources. Moreover, the charging or discharging of the battery storage device can be controlled effectively using the FC source. The proposed converter has several outputs in series to achieve a high-voltage output, which makes it suitable for interfacing with the HEV and dc-microgrid. On the basis of the charging and discharging states of the battery storage device, two power operation modes are defined. The proposed power converter comprises only one boost inductor integrated with a flyback transformer; the boost and flyback circuit output terminals are stacked to increase the output voltage gain and reduce the voltage stress on the power devices. This paper presents the circuit configuration, operating principle, and steady-state analysis of the proposed converter, and experiments conducted on a laboratory prototype are presented to verify its effectiveness.

  5. Implications from the Use of Non-timber Forest Products on the Consumption of Wood as a Fuel Source in Human-Dominated Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Maria Clara B. T.; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Araújo, Elcida L.; Albuquerque, Ulysses P.

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about what possible effects on wood resources might be caused by non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Here, we assessed the patterns of fuelwood consumption related to an NTFP ( Caryocar coriaceum) oil extraction and how this non-domestic activity can indirectly increase the use pressure on fuelwood species in a protected area, semiarid of Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in situ inventories, phytosociological surveys, and analyses of wood quality to identify the set of woody plants used in oil production. Householders use large volumes of dry wood and a set of woody species, which are highly exploited. Additionally, many preferred species have low fuel potential and suffer much use pressure. The best fuelwood species are underused, what requires management strategies to improve their potential as a source of energy. As a result, we suggest some conservation and management actions of fuelwood resources related to the use of NTFPs.

  6. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirov, R. Kh., E-mail: ravus46@yandex.ru; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  7. U.S. Army CERDEC Field Evaluation and Testing of Soldier and Man-Portable Fuel Cell Power Sources. CERDEC C2D Army Power Division, Power Sources Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-19

    60W SOFC Developed with CERDEC and DARPA Rated 60W continuous (100 W Peak) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) Fuel: Commercial Propane Canisters Dimensions...Technology Current Efforts Protonex P-125a SOFC Developed with CERDEC & ARO Rated 100W continuous Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) Fuel: 100% Pure Propane

  8. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  9. Control of power sourced from a microbial fuel cell reduces its start-up time and increases bioelectrochemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C; Kim, Jung Rae; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J; Premier, Giuliano C

    2013-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance depends on the selective development of an electrogenic biofilm at an electrode. Controlled biofilm enrichment may reduce start-up time and improve subsequent power performance. The anode potential is known to affect start-up and subsequent performance in electrogenic bio-catalytic consortia. Control strategies varying electrical load through gradient based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and transient poised anode potential followed by MPPT are compared to static ohmic loading. Three replicate H-type MFCs were used to investigate start-up strategies: (1) application of an MPPT algorithm preceded by poised-potential at the anode (+0.645 V vs Ag/AgCl); (2) MFC connected to MPPT-only; (3) static external load of 1 kΩ and 500 Ω. Active control showed a significant reduction in start-up time from 42 to 22 days, along with 3.5-fold increase in biocatalytic activity after start-up. Such active control may improve applicability by accelerating start-up and enhancing MFC power and bio-catalytic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: Part 2--Gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Glenn C; Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Chang, M C Oliver; Loos, Karl R; Hidy, George M

    2007-01-01

    With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self-consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Such data are necessary for health assessment and air quality modeling. To address this need, emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented here, using dilution sampling as the reference. The dilution method allows for collection of emitted particles under conditions simulating cooling and dilution during entry from the stack into the air. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO2 nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH3 is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual-fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of approximately 10(-4) lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with approximately 5 x 10(-3) lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of approximately 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are quite low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas-fired combustor particles are low in concentration, similar in concentration to ambient particles. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon (mainly organic carbon) is found on the

  11. The land of black gold, corruption, poverty and sabotage: Overcoming the Niger Delta’s problems through the establishment of a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund (NNRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through statistics published by the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC, the paper explores why oilfield sabotage from 2009 to 2015 remains a problem in the Niger Delta, despite the 2009 amnesty programme. It explains why some of these incidents are a direct result of the failure to implement socio-economic development in successive state agencies due to corruption, a consequence of the natural resource curse. The article then explores why and how a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund overseen by the United Nations Development Programme should be established which would not only manage a portion of oil revenue funds from the Niger Delta but also initiate valid social and economic projects in order to help reduce the prevalence of sabotage and instability in the region.

  12. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  13. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  14. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...University of North Dakota EERC – UOP – General Electric (GE) – Swedish Biofuels AB • Cellulosic and algal feedstocks that are non- competitive with

  15. On The Substitution of Energy Sources: The Effect of Flex Fuel Vehicles in the Brazilian Light Road Transportation Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Kamimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available e substitution process resultant of the competition between two energy sources for the same market based on dynamic forecasting model derived from biomathematics, previously applied by authors in the Brazilian gasoline/hydrated ethanol consumption market is analyzed. The hydrated ethanol restriction supply due to decreasing production as a consequence of international price of sugar increasing was the prevailing motive of the forecast breaking. Again the stop and go process adopted by sugarcane private sector was the main reason of hydrated ethanol decreasing production

  16. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-02

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments.

  17. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  18. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  19. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  20. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  1. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  2. 运输类飞机燃油系统点火源防护相关适航限制研究%Airworthiness Limitation Study of Fuel System ’ s Ignition Source Prevention for Transport Category Airplane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛文懿; 李涛; 贾洪

    2016-01-01

    燃油箱爆炸对航空安全构成持续不断的严重威胁。通过对运输类飞机燃油系统点火源防护的适航限制相关条款要求、咨询通告的分析、研究,梳理了燃油系统点火源防护相关适航限制的制定流程、考虑;并对典型机型的燃油系统点火源防护相关适航限制进行了分析。可为运输类飞机燃油系统点火源防护相关适航限制的制定提供参考。%Fuel tank explosions have been a constant serious threat with aviation safety. Based on the analysis and study of the requirements of regulation and advisory circular which are about the airworthiness limitation for trans-port category airplane fuel system’ s ignition source prevention, this paper has given the flow chart on how to estab-lish the airworthiness limitation. The paper also analyzes the airworthiness limitation for an typical transport airplane fuel system’ s ignition source prevention. The research can provide guidance for establishing the airworthiness limi-tation for transport category airplane fuel system’ s ignition source prevention.

  3. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Glarborg; A.D. Jensen; J.E. Johnsson [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. There are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NOx control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. Results on biomass combustion are also discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. 247 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Preparation of Pt-Re/Vulcan carbon nanocomposites using a single-source molecular precursor and relative performance as a direct methanol fuel cell electrooxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Angela D; Deluga, Gregg A; Moore, Joshua T; Vergne, Matthew J; Hercules, David M; Kenik, Edward A; Lukehart, C M

    2004-09-01

    Pt-Re/Vulcan carbon powder nanocomposites have been prepared with total metal loadings of 18 wt.% and 40 wt.% using a new non-cluster (1:1)-PtRe bimetallic precursor as the source of metal. Pt-Re nanoparticles having an average diameter of ca. 6 nm and atomic stoichiometry near 1:1 are formed. TEM, on-particle HR-EDS, and powder XRD data are consistent with the formation of Pt-Re alloy nanoparticles having a hexagonal unit cell with cell constants of a = 2.77 A and c = 4.47 A. A nanocomposite prepared at higher total metal loading under more rigorous thermal treatment also contains Pt-Re alloy nanoparticles having a fcc unit cell structure (a = 3.95 A). The precise dependence of Pt-Re nanocrystal structure on the thermal history of the nanocomposite specimen has not been investigated in detail. While these Pt-Re/carbon nanocomposites are active as anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells, the measured performance is less than that of commercial Pt-Ru/carbon catalysts and has marginal practical importance.

  5. Isolation and bioelectrochemical characterization of novel fungal sources with oxidasic activity applied in situ for the cathodic oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Kyriale Vasconcelos; da Silva, Paulo Henrique; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Hernández, Camilo Enrique La Rotta

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian filamentous fungi Rhizopus sp. (SIS-31), Aspergillus sp. (SIS-18) and Penicillium sp. (SIS-21), sources of oxidases were isolated from Caatinga's soils and applied during the in situ cathodic oxygen reduction in fuel cells. All strains were cultivated in submerged cultures using an optimized saline medium enriched with 10 g L(-1) of glucose, 3.0 g L(-1) of peptone and 0.0005 g L(-1) of CuSO4 as enzyme inducer. Parameters of oxidase activity, glucose consumption and microbial growth were evaluated. In-cell experiments evaluated by chronoamperometry were performed and two different electrode compositions were also compared. Maximum current densities of 125.7, 98.7 and 11.5 μA cm(-2) were observed before 24 h and coulombic efficiencies of 56.5, 46.5 and 23.8% were obtained for SIS-31, SIS-21 and SIS-18, respectively. Conversely, maximum power outputs of 328.73, 288.80 and 197.77 mW m(-3) were observed for SIS-18, SIS-21 and SIS-31, respectively. This work provides the primary experimental evidences that fungi isolated from the Caatinga region in Brazil can serve as efficient biocatalysts during the oxygen reduction in air-cathodes to improve electricity generation in MFCs.

  6. Pilot Study on the Impact of Biogas as a Fuel Source on Respiratory Health of Women on Rural Kenyan Smallholder Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; Guernsey, Judith Read; Critchley, Kimberley; VanLeeuwen, John

    2012-01-01

    Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which generate biogas for cooking, versus traditional fuel sources on the respiratory health of nonsmoking Kenyan farmwomen. Women from 31 farms with biogas digesters were compared to age-matched women from 31 biomass-reliant farms, in June 2010. Only 43% of the biogas group reported any breathing problems, compared to 71% in the referent group (P = 0.03). Referent women self-reported higher rates of shortness of breath (52% versus 30%), difficulty breathing (42% versus 23%), and chest pain while breathing (35% versus 17%) during the last 6 months (P = 0.09 to 0.12) compared to biogas women. Biogas women demonstrated slightly better spirometry results but differences were not statistically significant, likely due to limited latency between biogas digester installation and spirometry testing. Most biogas women reported improved personal respiratory health (87%) and improved children's health (72%) since biogas digester installation. These findings suggest that using biogas in cookhouses improves respiratory symptoms but long-term impacts on lung function are unclear. PMID:22969815

  7. Effects of various organic carbon sources on simultaneous V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liting; Zhang, Baogang; Cheng, Ming; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-02-01

    Four ordinary carbon sources affecting V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Acetate supported highest maximum power density of 589.1mW/m(2), with highest V(V) removal efficiency of 77.6% during 12h operation, compared with glucose, citrate and soluble starch. Exorbitant initial V(V) concentration led to lower V(V) removal efficiencies and power outputs. Extra addition of organics had little effect on the improvement of MFCs performance. V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation were enhanced and then suppressed by the increase of conductivity. The larger the external resistance, the higher the V(V) removal efficiencies and voltage outputs. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis implied the accumulation of Enterobacter which had the capabilities of V(V) reduction, electrochemical activity and fermentation, accompanied with other functional species as Pseudomonas, Spirochaeta, Sedimentibacter and Dysgonomonas. This study steps forward to remediate V(V) contaminated environment based on MFC technology.

  8. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  9. Identifying the hotspots of non-renewable water use using HiGW-MAT: A new land surface model coupled with human interventions and ground water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Yeh, P. J.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules (Hanasaki et al., 2008), such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in crop lands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model called MATSIRO (Takata et al., 2003), to form a new model, MAT-HI (Pokhrel et al., 2011). Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. The results showed MAT-HI has an advantage estimating TWS particularly in arid river basins compared with H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008). MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations (Yeh et al., 2005), and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops as Hanasaki et al. (2010). Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation

  10. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may be a ......). Systematic recycling and use of local resources may play a pivotal role in reducing the dependence on non-renewable resources in Ghanaian farming,ensuring long-term soil fertility and stemming the current deforestation of wood reserves....

  11. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2017-07-14

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  13. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  14. HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves for the catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels: nano-ZSM-5 zeolites as the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yu; Jiao, Qingze; Li, Hansheng; Wu, Qin; Zhao, Yun; Sun, Kening

    2014-12-01

    A series of HZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieves (HZM-Ns ( x)) were prepared by employing nano-ZSM-5 zeolites with the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios ( x) of 50, 100 and 150 as the source. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic cracking of endothermic hydrocarbon fuels over the HZM-Ns with n-decane as model was evaluated at atmospheric pressure and 500 °C. The effect of the parent zeolite, mesopore and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure, acidity, and catalytic performance of HZM-Ns was investigated. The HZM-Ns exhibited a skeletal matrix with nano-sized HZSM-5 particles (200-300 nm) with a controllable acidity well dispersed in and microporous-mesoporous hierarchical pores. The mesoporous structure improved the diffusion of the reactants and products in the pores, and the HZSM-5 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the MCM-41 matrix supplied a proper acidity, shorter channels, and a higher specific surface area for reaction. These resulted in a high catalytic activity, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime for n-decane catalytic cracking. The HZM-N (150) exhibited the excellent conversion, a high selectivity to light olefins and a long lifetime due to low diffusion resistance, high specific surface area, and appropriate acid distribution and strength, with the increasing SiO2/Al2O3 ratio.

  15. Enhancing the growth of renewable energy sources. Pt. 2. The fossil fuel economy is meeting a turning point; Das Wachstum der Erneuerbaren beschleunigen. T. 2. Die fossile Energiewirtschaft vor dem Scheitelpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-04-15

    The first part of this article was published in SBZ 7/09; it described the dramatic shortage of fossil fuels. The second part presents analyses and forecasts of the potential and rate of development of renewable energy sources. The central statement is that development can be faster and at lower investments than often assumed, but there are still massive obstacles. Also, the faster the conversion to renewables, the less costly it will be. (orig.)

  16. Calculation of source term in spent PWR fuel assemblies for dry storage and shipping cask design; Calculo de los terminos fuente de combustibles irradiados PWR para el diseno de contenedores de almacenamiento y transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J. L.; Lopez, J.

    1986-07-01

    Using the ORIGEN-2 Coda, the decay heat and neutron and photon sources for an irradiated PWR fuel element have been calculated. Also, parametric studies on the behaviour of the magnitudes with the burn-up, linear heat power and irradiation and cooling times were performed. Finally, a comparison between our results and other design calculations shows a good agreement and confirms the validity of the used method. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. The Impact of Pollution Charges, Ash Handling and Carbon Dioxide on the Cost Competitiveness of the Fuel Sources Used for Energy Production in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisov, Eduard; Kleesmaa, Juri; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of pollution charges, ash handling and of the carbon dioxide quota trade on the competitiveness of natural gas, oil shale, peat and wood chips in Estonia for 2010 and 2015. The pollution charges and levels are calculated based on the Environmental Charges Act, and Regulations No 99/2004 and No 94/2004 of the Estonian Minister of the Environment. The calculations show a considerable change in the cost competitiveness of fuels. Fuel related costs of the fossil fuels with high CO2 emission factors and other environmental impacts may be doubled.

  18. Assessment of automotive fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, G.

    Energy demand all over the world increases steadily and, within the next decades, is almost completely met by fossil fuels. This poses increasing pressure on oil supply and reserves. Concomitant is the concern about environmental pollution, especially by carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, with the risk of global warming. Environmental well-being requires a modified mix of energy sources to emit less carbon dioxide, starting with a move to natural gas and ending with the market penetration of renewable energies. Efforts should focus on advanced oil and gas production and processing technologies and on regeneratively produced fuels like hydrogen or bio-fuels as well. Within the framework of an industrial initiative in Germany, a process of defining one or two alternative fuels was started, to bring them into the market within the next years.

  19. Analysis of a nuclear accident: fission and activation product releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility as remote indicators of source identification, extent of release, and state of damaged spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Jon M; Orton, Christopher R; Clark, Richard A

    2012-08-21

    Researchers evaluated radionuclide measurements of environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Co. Website following the 2011 tsunami-initiated catastrophe. This effort identified Units 1 and 3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil near the facility. Radionuclide trends identified in the soils suggested that: (1) chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the vented reactors' primary containment vessels dictated the extent of release of radiation; (2) all coolant had likely evaporated by the time of venting; and (3) physical migration through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall were minimally effective at containing volatile species, suggesting damage to fuel bundles was extensive. Plutonium isotopic ratios and their distance from the source indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of plutonium to surface soil at the source, decreasing rapidly with distance from the facility. Two independent evaluations estimated the fraction of the total plutonium inventory released to the environment relative to cesium from venting Units 1 and 3 to be ∼0.002-0.004%. This study suggests significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting, but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples, as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site. The majority of the reactor inventories of isotopes of less volatile elements like Pu, Nb, and Sr were likely contained within the damaged reactors during venting.

  20. Hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

  1. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  2. Analysis and simulation of straw fuel logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Straw is a renewable biomass that has a considerable potential to be used as fuel in rural districts. This bulky fuel is, however, produced over large areas and must be collected during a limited amount of days and taken to the storages before being ultimately transported to heating plants. Thus, a well thought-out and cost-effective harvesting and handling system is necessary to provide a satisfactory fuel at competitive costs. Moreover, high-quality non-renewable fuels are used in these operations. To be sustainable, the energy content of these fuels should not exceed the energy extracted from the straw. The objective of this study is to analyze straw as fuel in district heating plants with respect to environmental and energy aspects, and to improve the performance and reduce the costs of straw handling. Energy, exergy and emergy analyses were used to assess straw as fuel from an energy point of view. The energy analysis showed that the energy balance is 12:1 when direct and indirect energy requirements are considered. The exergy analysis demonstrated that the conversion step is ineffective, whereas the emergy analysis indicated that large amounts of energy have been used in the past to form the straw fuel (the net emergy yield ratio is 1.1). A dynamic simulation model, called SHAM (Straw HAndling Model), has also been developed to investigate handling of straw from the fields to the plant. The primary aim is to analyze the performance of various machinery chains and management strategies in order to reduce the handling costs and energy needs. The model, which is based on discrete event simulation, takes both weather and geographical conditions into account. The model has been applied to three regions in Sweden (Svaloev, Vara and Enkoeping) in order to investigate the prerequisites for straw harvest at these locations. The simulations showed that straw has the best chances to become a competitive fuel in south Sweden. It was also demonstrated that costs can be

  3. Corrigendum to "Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct menthol fuel cells via a film coating process" [J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kang, Myeongsoon; Choi, Yeong Suk; Kim, Hae Kyung; Lee, Wonmok; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung

    The author regrets that the above paper was printed with an error in the title. The correct title reads: "Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells via a film coating process".

  4. Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and ‘endless’ resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involv...

  5. Non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion: the source of CO2 emissions affects the global carbon cycle and climate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-04-01

    Non-deforestation fire - i.e., fire that is typically followed by the recovery of natural vegetation - is arguably the most influential disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems, thereby playing a major role in carbon exchanges and affecting many climatic processes. The radiative effect from a given atmospheric CO2 perturbation is the same for fire and fossil fuel combustion. However, major differences exist per unit of CO2 emitted between the effects of non-deforestation fire vs. fossil fuel combustion on the global carbon cycle and climate, because (1) fossil fuel combustion implies a net transfer of carbon from geological reservoirs to the atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial pools, whereas fire occurring in terrestrial ecosystems does not; (2) the average lifetime of the atmospheric CO2 increase is longer when originating from fossil fuel combustion compared to fire, due to the strong vegetation regrowth following fire disturbances in terrestrial ecosystems; and (3) other impacts, for example on land surface albedo, also differ between fire and fossil fuel combustion. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the consequences from these fundamental differences between fossil fuel combustion and non-deforestation fires using 1000-year simulations of a coupled climate-carbon model with interactive vegetation. We assessed emissions from both pulse and stable fire regime changes, considering both the gross (carbon released from combustion) and net (fire-caused change in land carbon, also accounting for vegetation decomposition and regrowth, as well as climate-carbon feedbacks) fire CO2 emissions. In all cases, we found substantial differences from equivalent amounts of emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion. These findings suggest that side-by-side comparisons of non-deforestation fire and fossil fuel CO2 emissions - implicitly implying that they have similar effects per unit of CO2 emitted - should therefore be avoided, particularly when these comparisons

  6. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  7. 中国不可再生能源消耗效率的关键影响因素研究%A Study of the Key Influencing Factors on Consumption Efficiency of China's Non-Renewable Energy Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春友; 赵奥; 王晓岭

    2012-01-01

    随着中国工业化和城市化进程的加快,不可再生能源消耗在急剧增长,经济发展对能源供给与环境约束的压力已经濒临可持续发展平衡底线。无论从国家能源安全还是能源、经济、环境系统的和谐发展角度出发,提高不可再生能源消耗效率都是必然选择。在此背景下,基于C^2B—DEA、超效率DEA模型,测算出1990-2009年间中国不可再生能源消耗效率值,选定产业结构、对外开放程度、城市化进程、技术进步以及不可再生能源消耗结构等五大影响因素与效率值进行影响因素回归模型的实证分析。研究结果表明:第三产业比重、对外贸易进出口总额比重、城市化率以及不可再生能源消耗构成中煤炭消耗比重与不可再生能源消耗效率呈负相关,科技研发经费投入比重与不可再生能源消耗效率呈显著正相关。现阶段内,技术改造及创新与煤炭消耗比重的降低是提高我国不可再生能源消耗效率的重要途径。%With the acceleration of China's industrialization and urbanization, the consumption of non-renewable energy resources has been increasing rapidly; the pressure posed by economic develop- ment on energy supply and environment restriction has been on the verge of the bottom-line of the balanced sustainable development. No matter in terms of the national energy safety or harmonious de- velopment of the energy-economy-environment system, to improve the consumption efficiency of the non-renewable energy resources is an inevitable choice. Under this background, this article calculates the consumption efficiency of the non-renewable energy resources in China during 1990-2009 based on CZB-DEA and super-efficiency DEA model and makes an empirical analysis with the regression model of influencing factors, namely the five major factors of industrial structure, degree of openness, urbanization process, technical progress and non-renewable

  8. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krings

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now being the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. LT and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat has the potential to verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9% and a random error of less than ~6.7% for 50% of all the power plants. For 90% of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4% and the random error was less than ~13%. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other

  9. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerilowski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now as the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat can verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9 % for 50 % of all the power plants. For 90 % of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4 %. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other configuration samples the targets five times at two-hour intervals approximately every 6th day but

  10. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  11. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  12. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  13. Good chances. Hydrogen as a source of energy and fuel of the future; Gute Aussichten. Wasserstoff als Energietraeger und Kraftstoff der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen and renewable energies are an ideal ''team''. The power generation from wind farms and photovoltaic systems fluctuates due to different weather conditions. With the help of electricity produced at peak times, hydrogen (H{sub 2}) can be produced from water. Thus, energy may be stored. The chemical energy storage H{sub 2} subsequently is used as fuel in fuel cell vehicles as well as process gas in industrial plants. If necessary, again hydrogen can - directly or fed into natural gas networks - supply electricity and additional heat by means of gas turbines or combined heat and power generation units.

  14. The Impact of Pollution Charges, Ash Handling and Carbon Dioxide on the Cost Competitiveness of the Fuel Sources Used for Energy Production in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Latisov, E; Kleesmaa, J; A. Siirde

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to estimate the effects of pollution charges, ash handling and of the carbon dioxide quota trade on the competitiveness of natural gas, oil shale, peat and wood chips in Estonia for 2010 and 2015. The pollution charges and levels are calculated based on the Environmental Charges Act, and Regulations No 99/2004 and No 94/2004 of the Estonian Minister of the Environment. The calculations show a considerable change in the cost competitiveness of fuels. Fuel relat...

  15. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  16. A novel method to characterize bacterial communities affected by carbon source and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using stable isotope probing and Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Xiao, Li; Jayamani, Indumathy; He, Zhen; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope probing and high throughput sequencing were used to characterize the microbial communities involved in carbon uptake in microbial fuel cells at two levels of electricity generation. With acetate, the dominant phylotypes involved in carbon uptake included Geobacter and Rhodocyclaceae. With glucose, both Enterobacteriaceae and Geobacter were dominant.

  17. Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Jensen, A.D.; Johnsson, J.E. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. Even though this area has been the subject of extensive research over the last three decades, there are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NO{sub x} control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing mostly combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. However, also results on biomass combustion is discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N{sub 2} is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N{sub 2}, but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames. (author)

  18. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    is scaled up to produce power in the MW range. Values needed for these systems are temperatures of 92+ °C and flow rates of 140-1000 gpm. In a detailed analysis of the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin, we used heat flow, bottom-hole temperatures, and measured temperature gradients to calculate the energy contained within specific formations having temperatures in the range of 100 °C to 150 °C. We find that at a 2% recovery factor, approximately 4500 MW/hr can be recovered at depths of 3-4 km. North Dakota currently produces approximately 3100 MW/hr from non-renewable sources such as coal and petroleum. We conclude that the geothermal resource in the Williston Basin could completely replace fossil fuels as an electrical power supply for North Dakota.

  19. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  20. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7829 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US...ARL-TR-7829 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled

  1. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  3. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  4. Nalco Fuel Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Nalco Fuel Tech with its seat at Naperville (near Chicago), Illinois, is an engineering company working in the field of technology and equipment for environmental protection. A major portion of NALCO products constitute chemical materials and additives used in environmental protection technologies (waste-water treatment plants, water treatment, fuel modifiers, etc.). Basing in part on the experience, laboratories and RD potential of the mother company, the Nalco Fuel Tech Company developed and implemented in the power industry a series of technologies aimed at the reduction of environment-polluting products of fuel combustion. The engineering solution of Nalco Fuel Tech belong to a new generation of environmental protection techniques developed in the USA. They consist in actions focused on the sources of pollutants, i.e., in upgrading the combustion chambers of power engineering plants, e.g., boilers or communal and/or industrial waste combustion units. The Nalco Fuel Tech development and research group cooperates with leading US investigation and research institutes.

  5. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  6. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  7. 无人水下航行器外热源热机用无气体产生燃料%No-gas Generation Fuel Used in External Heat Source Engine of Unmanned Underwear Vehicle(UUV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宏; 赵熙; 倪亚菲; 邵明臣; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    无人水下航行器(UUV)在军事领域正得到愈发广泛的应用,动力装置是其技术难点之一.无人水下航行器采用外热源热机,在续航力和航速上,都优于其他类型动力装置,且使用无气体产生燃料,可从根本上解决水下气体排放问题,提高航行隐蔽性,具有良好的军事应用前景.本文根据无人水下航行器的使用条件和技术要求,对适用于无人水下航行器外热源热机的无气体产生燃料进行了广泛考察,给出了可用于无人水下航行器外热源热机的无气体产生燃料和氧化剂的组合.%Unmanned underwater vehicle(UUV) is applied to the military field more and more widely, of which power plant is one of its technical difficulties. External heat source engine is better than the other types of UUV's power plants by the characters of continuous navigation capacity and navigation velocity. Employment of no-gas generation fuel for the UUV can resolve the problem of gas exhaust underwater and improve navigation stealth. According to technical requirements and working conditions of the UUV, no-gas generation fuels that can be used in the external heat source engine of the UUV are investigated, and used no-gas generation fuels and theirs oxidizers are given in this thesis.

  8. Near-Earth water sources: Ethics and fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2016-08-01

    There is a small finite upper bound on the amount of easily accessible water in near-Earth space, including water from C-type NEAs and permanently shadowed lunar craters. Recent estimates put this total at about 3.7 ×1012kg . Given the non-renewable nature of this resource, we should begin thinking carefully about the regulation of near-Earth water sources (NEWS). This paper discusses this issue from an ethical vantage point, and argues that for the foreseeable future, the scientific use of NEWS should be prioritized over other potential uses of NEWS.

  9. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  10. Cold-starting portable microenergy system. Autonomous fuel cell system using sodium borohydride as an energy source; Kaltstartfaehiges portables Mikroenergiesystem. Autarkes BZ-System mit Natriumborhydrid als Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groos, Ulf; Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    A project consortium led by Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE developed an autonomous micro energy system (AMES) with an output of 100 W{sub el} as a charging station for applications in emergency medicine. The system is designed for a wide temperature range of -15 to +50 degC during startup, operation, and shutoff. The cold starting fuel cell system is in accordance with current standards and is suited for serial production. It can be operated with common hydrogen stores, e.g. gas flasks or metal hydrides, or else with a specially developed hydrogen generator based on sodium borohydride. (orig.)

  11. Fuel cells: State of the Art and Future Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, H.; Cremers, C.; Stimming, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physik-Department E19

    2004-07-01

    Providing electricity and heats is one key issue of our civilization today and in the future. Conserving non-renewable resources and reducing emissions become more and more important in the development of energy converters. Fuel cells are one possibility. They convert energy with high efficiency and extremely low mission of pollutants. In this paper construction and operation of fuel cells are explained briefly. Applications for high (SOFC) and low (PEM) temperature fuel cells are shown by means of several existing prototypes. The main issues inhibiting higher power densities are discussed and a possible solution by an structure of the catalysis is presented. (orig.) [German] Die Bereitstellung von Elektrizitaet und Waerme ist und bleibt eine wesentliche technologische Aufgabe der zivilisatorischen Gesellschaft. Resourcenschonung und Minimierung der Schadstoffemissionen gewinnen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Brennstoffzellen sind Energiewandler, die mit hoher Effizienz bei extrem geringen Schadstoffemissionen arbeiten. Aufbau und Funktionsweise von Brennstoffzellen werden kurz vorgestellt. Es werden Anwendungsbeispiele fuer Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen (z. B. SOFC) fuer die stationaere Erzeugung von Elektrizitaet und Waerme aus Erdgas und fuer Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzellen (z. B. PEMFC) mit fluessigen Energietraegern im Fahrzeugbereich gegeben. Fuer die Entwicklung geeigneter Brennstoffzellensysteme muss die Peripherie, insbesondere die Gasaufbereitung, so gestaltet werden, dass der hohe elektrische Wirkungsgrad und die Schadstoffarmut erhalten bleiben. Die mikroskopischen Prozesse in Brennstoffzellen werden beleuchtet, und es wird, anhand einer potentiell deutlich verbesserten Katalysatorstruktur, ein moeglicher Weg zur Ueberwindung momentaner Schwierigkeiten bei der Entwicklung von Brennstoffzellen diskutiert. (orig.)

  12. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  13. Microfabrication of Microchannels for Fuel Cell Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Su Jang; Dong Sam Park

    2009-01-01

    Portable electronic devices such as notebook computers, PDAs, cellular phones, etc., are being widely used, and they increasingly need cheap, efficient, and lightweight power sources. Fuel cells have been proposed as possible power sources to address issues that involve energy production and the environment. In particular, a small type of fuel-cell system is known to be suitable for portable electronic devices. The development of micro fuel cell systems can be achieved by the application of m...

  14. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  15. Modelling and simulation of the fuel cell energy source for the Hydro-Gen vehicle; Modelisation et simulation de la source d'energie a pile a combustible du vehicule Hydro-Gen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, P.; Baurens, P. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. d' Etudes des Materiaux, DEM, 38 (France); Poirot, J.Ph. [PSA/DRIA/SEE, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2000-07-01

    A fuel cell generating set is a complex system in which the interactions between the different elements are chemical, hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and electric. The implementation and the optimization of such a system cannot be limited to the study of each element; the system analysis and then the modelling and the dynamical simulation are necessarily required. The bond-graphs theory is particularly well adapted to the multiplicity of the involved phenomena. In this article is presented the modelling used for the generating set of the Hydro-Gen plan. Some representative examples are given as well as the first qualitative results of the simulations. (O.M.)

  16. Bioprospecting--fuels from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary Allan

    2015-05-01

    The world has a continuing demand and utility for liquid fuels to power its societies. The utilization of crude oil based fuels is leading to a dramatic increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere which is being related to a dangerously warming earth. Having liquid fuels that are derived from biological sources is one solution to this growing problem since the carbon being utilized is only from recycled sources. Presently, the microbes, having the greatest impact on the world's economies, producing liquid fuel are various yeasts producing ethanol. Other microbial sources need to be sought since ethanol is not the most desirable fuel and yeasts require simple sugars to carry out the fermentation processes. Recently, several endophytic fungi have been described that make hydrocarbons with fuel potential (Mycodiesel). Among others the compounds found in the volatile phases of these cultures include alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclohexanes, cyclopentanes, and alkyl alcohols/ketones, benzenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Most importantly, generally these organisms make hydrocarbons while utilizing complex carbohydrates found in all plant-based agricultural wastes. Also discussed in this review is a rationale for finding hydrocarbon producing endophytes as well as examples of other promising hydrocarbon producers-Nodulisporium spp. which make 1,8-cineole and families of other hydrocarbons. Extremely favorable results of engine and fuel testing experiments recently completed on cineole and other products of Nodulisporium sp. are also presented. Finally, there is a brief discussion on the main limiting steps in the domestication of these fungi.

  17. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil and nucl......A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  18. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  19. The potential of vegetable oila s an alternate source of liquid fuel for agriculture in the Pacific Northwest - V: Final report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, D.L.; Davis, J.B.; Feldman, M.E.; Hall, M.C.; Hawley, K.N.; Korus, R.A.; Magenis, B.R.; Mahler, K.A.; Melville, D.E.; Mosgrove, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    This research was conducted to develop the technology necessary to produce, process, and utilize vegetable oil as a diesel fuel substitute for agricultural production in the Pacific Northwest. Additional studies were conducted to determine the economic threshold, to derive energy budgets for various crop production regions and to insure that expeller extracted meals would make acceptable animal feeds. This research was conducted by an integrated team of scientists from the University of Idaho which initiated efforts in this field in December of 1979. Experiments were conducted by agronomists, agricultural engineers, animal nutritionists, chemical engineers, and agricultural economists. This report summarizes data accumulated from April 1986 to May 1987 as part of USDA/ARS Research Agreement No. 58-7B30-2-402. Copies for this report can be obtained from the Director of the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843.

  20. Three-color vibrational CARS thermometry of fuel-rich ethylene/air flames using a potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman-active crystal as a source of narrowband probe radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Christian; Tröger, Johannes W; Kozlov, Dimitrii N; Beyrau, Frank; Seeger, Thomas

    2017-04-10

    Three-color broadband vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) temperature measurements were carried out in laminar fuel-rich sooting ethylene/air flames. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a picosecond pump laser pulse in a Raman-active potassium gadolinium tungstate [KGd(WO4)2] crystal was employed as a source of narrowband probe radiation. In the three-color CARS experiment, this wavelength-shifted radiation enables N2-based vibrational CARS temperature measurements in sooting flames free of the signal interference with the absorption/emission bands of the flame intermediate radicals C2. Spatial temperature profiles for different fuel-rich atmospheric pressure ethylene/air flames are presented in comparison with the results of two-color broadband vibrational and dual-broadband pure rotational CARS temperature measurements. The comparison shows the suitability of the three-color CARS measurement technique employing the KGd(WO4)2 crystal for accurate, C2 interference-free, temperature measurements in sooting flames.

  1. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Mupondwa, Edmund

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive.

  2. Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Storage Devices, Fuel Management, Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch, Syngas , Hubberts’s Peak UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UU 80 Dr. Sujata Millick (703) 696...prices ever higher, and perhaps lead to intermittent fuel shortages as production fluctuates. Clearly, this competition for resources also provides oil...producers multiple options for selling their products, and raises the possibility that the US could face shortages resulting from shifts in

  3. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  4. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  5. Simulation of a hybrid fuel cell electric powered vehicle; intermediary elements of power storage; Simulation d'un vehicule electrique a source hybridee pile a combustible; elements intermediaires de stockage de la puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candusso, D.; Rulliere, E.; Yonnet, J.P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Baurens, P. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. d' Etudes des Materiaux, DEM, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Studies carried out by the LEG ('Laboratoire Electrotechnique de Grenoble') on the modelling of the different elements of the traction chains of batteries electric powered vehicles (motors, electric converters..) and on the coupling batteries - super-capacitors by a converter allowing to manage the energy exchanges between these different storage elements are basic works for the future studies of fuel cells vehicles. In this article is shown that the electric size range of each components of the traction chain is strongly conditioned by those of its neighbours and that a global simulation of the chain is a precious tool of decision assistance. The interest to combine the energy source is presented too. (O.M.)

  6. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  7. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kuenen, J.; Kranenburg, R.; Scholz, Y.; Schaap, M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on ch

  8. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kuenen, J.; Kranenburg, R.; Scholz, Y.; Schaap, M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on ch

  9. Workshop on the source term for radionuclide migration from high-level waste or spent nuclear fuel under realistic repository conditions: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, T.O.; Muller, A.B. (eds.)

    1985-07-01

    Sixteen papers were presented at the workshop. The fourteen full-length papers included in the proceedings were processed separately. Only abstracts were included for the following two papers: Data Requirements Based on Performance Assessment Analyses of Conceptual Waste Packages in Salt Repositories, and The Potential Effects of Radiation on the Source Term in a Salt Repository. (LM)

  10. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  11. Modeling of Proton-Conducting Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fueled with Syngas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with proton conducting electrolyte (H-SOFCs) are promising power sources for stationary applications. Compared with other types of fuel cells, one distinct feature of SOFC is their fuel flexibility. In this study, a 2D model is developed to investigate the transport and reaction in an H-SOFC fueled with syngas, which can be produced from conventional natural gas or renewable biomass. The model fully considers the fluid flow, mass transfer, heat transfer and r...

  12. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  13. Influence of the Ambient Temperature, to the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOVICI Ovidiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reversible fuel cell can be used to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is further the chemical energy source to produce electrical energy using the fuel cell. The ambient temperature will influence theparameters of the hydrogen fuel cell.

  14. Carbon-neutral fuels and energy carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, Nazim Z

    2011-01-01

    Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, ca

  15. Predicting Ship Fuel Consumption: Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    ship propulsion fuel consumption as a function of ship speed for U.S. Navy combatant and auxiliary ships. Prediction is based on fitting an analytic function to published ship class speed-fuel use data using nonlinear regression. The form of the analytic function fitted is motivated by the literature on ship powering and resistance. The report discusses data sources and data issues, and the impact of ship propulsion plant configuration on fuel use. The regression coefficients of the exponential function fitted, tabular numerical comparison of

  16. Melvin Calvin: Fuels from Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.E.; Otvos, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A logical extension of his early work on the path of carbon during photosynthesis, Calvin's studies on the production of hydrocarbons by plants introduced many in the scientific and agricultural worlds to the potential of renewable fuel and chemical feedstocks. He and his co-workers identified numerous candidate compounds from plants found in tropical and temperate climates from around the world. His travels and lectures concerning the development of alternative fuel supplies inspired laboratories worldwide to take up the investigation of plant-derived energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels.

  17. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  18. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Agnieszka; Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Tic, Wilhelm Jan

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides). The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  19. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  1. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  2. Olive Mill Wastewater: From a Pollutant to Green Fuels, Agricultural Water Source and Bio-Fertilizer—Part 1. The Drying Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Jeguirim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW treatment is considered to be one of the main challenges that Mediterranean countries face. Although several procedures and technologies are mentioned in the literature, these techniques have several disadvantages or have been limited to laboratory pilot validation without posterior industrial projection. Recently, an advanced environmental friendly strategy for the recovery of OMWW was established involving the impregnation of OMWW on dry biomasses, drying of these impregnated samples, and finally green fuels and biochar production. This established strategy revealed that the drying step is crucial for the success of the entire recovery process. Hence, two impregnated samples were prepared through OMWW impregnation on sawdust (IS and olive mill solid waste (ISW. The drying kinetics of OMWW and impregnated samples (IS and ISW were examined in a convective dryer (air velocity range from 0.7–1.3 m/s and the temperature from 40–60 °C. The experimental results indicated that the drying of the impregnated samples occurred twice as fast as for the OMWW sample. Such behavior was attributed to the remaining thin layer of oil on the OMWW surface Furthermore, the Henderson and Pabis model showed the suitable fit of the drying curves with a determination coefficient R2 above 0.97. The drying rates were extracted from the mathematical models and the drying process was analyzed. The coefficient of effective diffusivity varied between 2.8 and 11.7 × 10−10 m2/s. In addition, the activation energy values ranged between 28.7 and 44.9 kJ/mol. These values were in the same range as those obtained during the drying of other agrifood byproducts. The final results could be very helpful to engineers aiming to improve and optimize the OMWW drying process.

  3. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  4. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  5. Evaluation of indigenous fresh water microalga Scenedesmus obtusus for feed and fuel applications: Effect of carbon dioxide, light and nutrient sources on growth and biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarat Chandra, T; Deepak, R S; Maneesh Kumar, M; Mukherji, S; Chauhan, V S; Sarada, R; Mudliar, S N

    2016-05-01

    Scenedesmus obtusus, a freshwater microalga, was evaluated for its growth and biochemical characteristics under various culture conditions. S. obtusus was tolerant at all tested CO2 concentrations up to 20%. Among the different nitrogen sources, urea showed enhanced biomass productivities up to 2-fold compared to control, where the nitrogen source was sodium nitrate. Light intensity and photoperiod had a significant effect on growth rate and biomass productivity. The growth rate was observed maximum under continuous light exposure at the light intensities, 30μmolm(-2)sec(-1) and 60μmolm(-2)sec(-1) The species was able to tolerate the salinity levels up to 25mM NaCl, where, the increase in the concentration of NaCl suppressed the growth. Ammonium acetate and glycine showed better growth rate and biomass productivity indicating mixotrophic ability of S. obtusus. Supplementation of acetate and bicarbonate significantly enhanced the biomass productivity. Biodiesel properties of S. obtusus cultivated at various culture conditions were estimated.

  6. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Medi-Caps Institute of Technology and Management, Pigdamber, Rau, Indore (M.P.) (India); Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) (India)

    2010-12-15

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  7. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  8. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Bushnell, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, aviation alone uses 85 to 95 billion gallons of nonrenewable fossil fuel per year (2008). General transportation fueling can accommodate several different fuels; however, aviation fuels have very specific requirements. Biofuels have been flight demonstrated, are considered renewable, have the capacity to become "drop-in" replacements for Jet-A fuel, and solve the CO2 climate change problem. The major issue is cost; current biomass biofuels are not economically competitive. Biofuel feedstock sources being researched are halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, weeds-to-crops, wastes with contingent restraints on use of crop land, freshwater, and climate change. There are five major renewable energy sources: solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, drilled geothermal and biomass, each of which have an order of magnitude greater capacity to meet all energy needs. All five address aspects of climate change; biomass has massive potential as an energy fuel feedstock.

  9. Fiber optic Cerenkov radiation sensor system to estimate burn-up of spent fuel: characteristic evaluation of the system using Co-60 source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S. H.; Jang, K. W.; Jeon, D.; Hong, S.; Kim, S. G.; Sim, H. I.; Yoo, W. J.; Park, B. G.; Lee, B.

    2013-09-01

    Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, the Cerenkov light also can be generated due to their dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, to measure the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma-rays, we have fabricated the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor system using silica optical fibers, plastic optical fibers, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes, and a scanning system. To characterize the Cerenkov radiation generated in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the silica and plastic optical fibers were measured. Also, the intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma-rays generated from a cylindrical Co-60 source with or without lead shielding were measured using the fiberoptic Cerenkov radiation sensor system.

  10. Optimal design of a hybrid photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation system, to supply isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon; Dimensionamento otimo de sistemas hibridos, com geracao fotovoltaica e celula a combustivel, para atendimento a comunidades isoladas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Batista da

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electricity in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon has become one of the greatest barrier for the development of the region. Currently, the main technologies that provide electricity to these communities are diesel generators, batteries and dry cells. These non-renewable energy sources may pose serious problems to the environment and human health and have high maintenance and operational costs. Therefore, the search for renewable energy sources, such as water and sunlight, which are highly abundant in the region, has become a great challenge. This thesis presents the studies on application of solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) technologies to supply electric power in an uninterrupted manner. Outlined are the technical and cost issues of a pilot project set up in an environmentally protected area, next to Bananal island, located in the Southwestern region of the state of Tocantins. The pilot project relies on PV solar power as the primary source of energy for the production of electricity. The surplus energy is stored in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of the water supplied locally, which is reconverted into electric power by fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. In this context, the aim of the study was to propose a sizing of a hybrid distributed generation system (HDGS), comprised of a PV system, FC and batteries, that optimizes implementation and operational costs, as a potential source of energy for isolated communities in the Amazon. The work was carried out with the help of simulation software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Simulations and a comparative study were carried out of the technologies and potential configurations that meet the needs of these isolated communities. The results showed an optimal solution of HGDS PV-FC batteries with a reduction in the initial cost of the project in about 60% compared to

  11. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...... to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...

  12. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  13. FORESTS: BETWEEN ENERGY DEMAND AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES. AN EMERGY ASSESSMENT OF FORESTRY STOCKS AS THE MAIN SOURCE OF THERMAL FUEL IN THE MARA RIVER WATERSHED, MARAMUREȘ COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu BUMBAK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature builds resilience through storages of energy and one of the most iconic elements encompassing this capacity is represented by forests. Biomass in general and forests in particular are known to be one of the vast global reservoirs of carbon and energy and are described as forms of renewable natural capital that managed until the second half of the ninetieth century to globally sustain human communities as the major source of energy. Forests actively contribute to the functionality of a territorial system through a series of attributes such as water retention capacity, soil and slope stability, primary production capacity, all termed ecosystem services, benefits that communities take for granted. In more remote rural areas around the world, such as the Carpathian Mara River watershed, local communities still rely on forestry wood as the main supplier of thermal energy. The dependency relation also represents the community’s level of perception towards natural resources, the landmarks and image of the entire Land of Maramureș as „the wood civilisation”, for example, being a cultural construct build through this energetic resource. In a time of pressure over energetic resources and following the premises of Emergy Theory and methodology, in this paper we propose an alternative approach in assessing natural resources in order to better understand that the exploitable energetic value of forests comes second when compared with the value of the provided ecosystem services.

  14. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Technical Databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1998-10-23

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Technical Databook is developed for use as a common authoritative source of fuel behavior and material parameters in support of the Hanford SNF Project. The Technical Databook will be revised as necessary to add parameters as their Databook submittals become available.

  16. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  17. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a station

  18. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells - Degradation and Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon

    A harmonious mix of renewable and alternative energy sources, including fuel cells is necessary to mitigate problems associated with the current fossil fuel based energy system, like air pollution, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, and economic dependence on oil, and therefore on unstable areas...... of the globe. Fuel cells can harness the excess energy from other renewable sources, such as the big players in the renewable energy market, Photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines, which inherently suffer from intermittency problems. The excess energy can be used to produce hydrogen from water or can...... be stored in liquid alcohols such as methanol, which can be sources of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. In addition, fuel cells unlike other technologies can use a variety of other fuels that can provide a source of hydrogen, such as biogas, methane, butane, etc. More fuel flexibility combined...

  19. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  20. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Likelihood estimations of vegetative alteration near known or proposed sources of air pollution. 1st annual progress report. [Computer simulation of effects on plants of SO/sub 2/ from fossil-fuel power plants sited in rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.

    1978-08-01

    There is an increasing trend to locate fossil-fuel electric generating stations in rural areas. These stations emit large quantities of air pollutants capable of causing serious alterations to the surrounding environment. The major phytotoxic air pollutant emitted is sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). The best way to predict the potential impact of new or expanded sources in rural areas would be to develop a computer model to simulate and predict SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation. The proposed simulator would provide valuable input information for tasks such as site selection and compilation of environmental impact statements. Such a model would also provide data to management operators for the regulation of emissions. The model would also aid in our basic understanding of the complex interactions which influence plant susceptibility to air pollution. Input to the model would consist of biological and physical data and the output would include the probability of SO/sub 2/ injuring vegetation near existing or proposed sites. The model would be validated using a field situation. This report presents the results obtained during the first year of the project (August 1, 1977 to July 31, 1978).

  2. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  3. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Technologies Program eere.energy.gov BMW Manufacturing site. Courtesy of Waste Management World ona power supp y 9 Additional vehicle fuel source...commercial demand • HEB, Whole Foods, Coca Cola, Sysco Nestle FedEx BMW etc , , , , ¾DLA Demonstrations helped enable Codes and Standard approval of

  4. Thorium and the Third Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    This booklet discusses energy sources for nuclear power plants. Uranium-235 by itself will not be able to handle the energy needs. The two man-made supplements that can be used for nuclear power plants energy sources are plutonium and uranium-233. Uranium-233 is an isotope that appears as a result of radioactive decay after neutrons have been absorbed in thorium-232. This uranium-233 is called the third fuel.

  5. Thorium and the Third Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    This booklet discusses energy sources for nuclear power plants. Uranium-235 by itself will not be able to handle the energy needs. The two man-made supplements that can be used for nuclear power plants energy sources are plutonium and uranium-233. Uranium-233 is an isotope that appears as a result of radioactive decay after neutrons have been absorbed in thorium-232. This uranium-233 is called the third fuel.

  6. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  7. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  8. Catalytic routes from biomass to fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The carbon-based chemicals and fuels that are necessary to meet the energy demand for our society originate presently almost exclusively from inexpensive fossil resources – coal, oil and natural gas. The forecast of diminishing and more expensive petroleum reserves has, however, engaged...... chain unaffected. This presentation will survey the status of biofuels production from different sources, and discuss the sustainability of making transportation fuels from biomass. Furthermore, recently developed chemocatalytic technologies that allow efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass...... components into transportation fuels and fuel additives will be highlighted....

  9. PEM fuel cell testing and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiujun

    2013-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Testing and Diagnosis covers the recent advances in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems, focusing on instruments and techniques for testing and diagnosis, and the application of diagnostic techniques in practical tests and operation. This book is a unique source of electrochemical techniques for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of fuel cells. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are currently considered the most promising clean energy-converting devices for stationary, transportation, and micro-power applications due to their

  10. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  11. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Mustafa Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  12. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 29.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard...) Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel must be located as far...

  13. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 27.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard...) Separation of fuel and ignition sources. To provide maximum crash resistance, fuel must be located as far...

  14. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank ignition prevention. 25.981 Section 25.981 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... ignition prevention. (a) No ignition source may be present at each point in the fuel tank or fuel...

  15. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  16. Fuels from microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Many species of aquatic plants can provide a source of renewable energy. Some species of microalgae, in particular, produce lipids -- oils that can be extracted and converted to a diesel fuel substitute or to gasoline. Since 1979 the Aquatic Species Program element of the Biofuels Program, has supported fundamental and applied research to develop the technology for using this renewable energy resource. This document, produced by the Solar Technical Information Program, provides an overview of the DOE/SERI Aquatic Species Program element. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the program and to the microalgae. Chapter 2 is an overview of the general principles involved in making fuels from microalgae. It also outlines the technical challenges to producing economic, high-energy transportation fuels. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the Algal Production and Economic Model (APEM). This model was developed by researchers within the program to identify aspects of the process critical to performance with the greatest potential to reduce costs. The analysis using this model has helped direct research sponsored by the program. Finally, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the Aquatic Species Program and describes current research. 28 refs., 17 figs.

  17. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    diesel engine and truck idling with fuel cell auxiliary power unit system. The customized nozzle used for fuel vaporization and mixing achieved homogenous atomization of input hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel blend, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel), and improved the performance of fuel catalytic reformation. Given the same operating condition (reforming temperature, total oxygen content, water input flow, and gas hourly space velocity), the hydrocarbon reforming performance follows the trend of diesel > biodiesel-ethanol-diesel > diesel-biodiesel blend > biodiesel (i.e., diesel catalytic reformation has the highest hydrogen production, lowest risk of carbon formation, and least possibility of hot spot occurrence). These results provide important new insight into the use of bio-fuels and bio-fuel blends as a primary fuel source for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

  18. Aviation fuels outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  19. Regenerative Fuel Cells for Space Power and Energy Conversion (NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cell Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Miley, George H.; Luo, Nie; Burton, Rodney; Mather, Joseph; Hawkins, Glenn; Byrd, Ethan; Gu, Lifeng; Shrestha, Prajakti Joshi

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing hydrogen peroxide and sodium borohydride development is shown. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 4) MEA Optimization; 5) 500-Watt Stack Testing; 6) System Modeling: Fuel Cell Power Source for Lunar Rovers; and 7) Conclusions

  20. Strategy for Used Fuel Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Marschman; Chris Rusch

    2013-09-01

    prototypical of how used nuclear fuel is prepared for dry storage; these fuels are not subjected to the same vacuum drying conditions that can lead to changes in hydride morphology that will affect the mechanical properties of the fuel. It is recognized that sources of used high burnup fuel that can be handled in a manner consistent with how fuel is readied for dry storage is essential to the mission of the UFDC. This report documents what types of fuel are of interest to the campaign, and how those fuels could be acquired and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for incorporation into the campaign R&D mission. It also identifies any gaps in INL capabilities that might preclude working with one fuel type or another.

  1. Soldier System Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    squad level, with the fundamental goal of reducing the total mass of the electric power sources carried by a Marine in the Expeditionary Forces while...still meeting all of his electric power demands. To achieve that goal, this work investigated the effectiveness of hybrid power sources composed...variously of batteries, fuel cells, and super capacitors, it developed control algorithms for those hybrid power sources , it assessed the value of

  2. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  3. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels. Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food co...

  4. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy.

  5. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  6. Economics of marketing wood fuel in south western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OLUGBIRE O.O.; OPUTE O.H.; AREMU F.J.; OJEDOKUN C.A.; ADISA A.

    2016-01-01

    Marketing of fuel wood is an important source of livelihood for most parts of Nigeria. The study examined the economics of marketing of wood fuel in south western Nigeria with a view to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers, the profitability of marketing wood fuel, the market structure and constraints to profitability. Data for the study were obtained from a total sample of 100 randomly selected wood fuel marketers through interviews schedules and application of struc...

  7. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  8. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  9. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  10. Fuel cells: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  11. 75 FR 43522 - Notice of Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of fuel pathways such as ethanol from corn starch or biodiesel from soybean oil our reference case... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel... assumed that the co- product glycerin would displace residual oil as a fuel source on an energy...

  12. Future aviation fuels overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The outlook for aviation fuels through the turn of the century is briefly discussed and the general objectives of the NASA Lewis Alternative Aviation Fuels Research Project are outlined. The NASA program involves the evaluation of potential characteristics of future jet aircraft fuels, the determination of the effects of those fuels on engine and fuel system components, and the development of a component technology to use those fuels.

  13. Local Fuel Rod Crud Prediction Tool Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammen, Michael A.; Karoutas, Zeses E.; Wang, Guoqiang; Young, Michael Y

    2009-06-15

    response to two CILC fuel failures observed in a reactor plant where fuel rod crudding was not initially of concern due to negligible predicted fuel rod steaming on a fuel assembly sub-channel scale. The fuel rod crud observed in the reactor cycle with the fuel rod CILC failures was very localized, but was heaviest on those fuel rods with relatively higher fuel rod duty. These indications led to development of the more locally detailed predictive capability. And, based on the observed behavior, guideline limits have been established by benchmarking the methodology to the fuel rod crud induced fuel failures. The guideline limits are used in designing fuel managements. Application of these tools in subsequent fuel management design for later reactor cycles in both the plant where the CILC fuel failures occurred and in its sister plant with similar operating characteristics have avoided a recurrence of the CILC fuel failure. These tools were also used when a new fuel design with mixing vane grids was introduced in two plants previously fueled with non-mixing vane grids. The predictive tools account for the thermal hydraulic transition core effects. Interestingly, the plant with the generally higher fuel duty, a plant that had experienced Crud Induced Power Shift (CIPS) in earlier cycles, is predicted to easily meet the CIPS and CILC guidelines for the transition and following cycle. While the other plant, which has not experienced CIPS in earlier cycles, is predicted to be operating close to the CILC guideline limits in the transition cycle. The higher duty plant is predicted to have appreciable fuel rod surface area that is steaming over the reactor cycle, while the lower duty plant is predicted to have relatively little fuel rod surface area in steaming. The interpretation is that with a relatively similar crud source in the coolant, a smaller steaming surface area may act as a stronger sink for the available crud, resulting in locally thicker crud. This is a similar

  14. Multi-Fuel oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Model anodes and system studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    With the evolution of renewable energy technologies it has become necessary that a balance is found between power production with conventional energy sources and other long term solutions. SOFCs offer an alternative for utilising conventional fossil fuels as well as sustainable biomass derived fuels

  15. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  16. Bio-, recycling- and waste fuels. How does the transition to renewable energy-sources affect the Swedish power and heat preparedness; Bio-, retur- och avfallsbraenslen. Hur oevergaangen till foernybara energikaellor paaverkar Sveriges el- och vaermeberedskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The total energy supply in Sweden amounted to 600 TWh in 2000. Close to 100 TWh of these were Bio-, recycling- and waste-fuels (BRW), which means that the use of these fuels has tripled during the last decade. BRW stand for half the energy supply to district heating in Sweden. A large number of heat and power plants built for fossil fuels have been converted to BRW, and several new plants designed for biofuels have been taken into operation. Upgraded biofuels (briquets, pellets and powders) have substituted fuel oil in households and small heating networks. These developments make it important to study issues about safety of supply and emergency planning. In difference to fossil fuels there is no obligation to set up emergency stocks of BRW in Sweden. In combination with an increased dependence on logistics this means that the preparedness in short time emergency situations has deteriorated. For short periods, fuel oil and coal can however be used as replacement fuels. The increased know-how on producing, handling, transport and combustion of BRW is, on the other hand, a great asset for Sweden both in normal and emergency situations.

  17. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  18. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  19. Extending the world's uranium resources through advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vuono, Tony; Yee, Frank; Aleyaseen, Val; Kuran, Sermet; Cottrell, Catherine

    2010-09-15

    The growing demand for nuclear power will encourage many countries to undertake initiatives to ensure a self-reliant fuel source supply. Uranium is currently the only fuel utilized in nuclear reactors. There are increasing concerns that primary uranium sources will not be enough to meet future needs. AECL has developed a fuel cycle vision that incorporates other sources of advanced fuels to be adaptable to its CANDU technology.

  20. POWER SOURCES FOR ELECTRIC CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extrapolation, based on extensive experience with battery and fuel cell power sources during various Army programs, is made into the future world...of the electric car and speculates on the power sources most suited as the electrical energy source. The conclusion is that both the battery and the

  1. Intercode Advanced Fuels and Cladding Comparison Using BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI Fuel Performance Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Aaren

    As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) campaign, new cladding designs and fuel types are being studied in order to help make nuclear energy a safer and more affordable source for power. This study focuses on the implementation and analysis of the SiC cladding and UN, UC, and U3Si2 fuels into three specific nuclear fuel performance codes: BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI. These fuels boast a higher thermal conductivity and uranium density than traditional UO2 fuel which could help lead to longer times in a reactor environment. The SiC cladding has been studied for its reduced production of hydrogen gas during an accident scenario, however the SiC cladding is a known brittle and unyielding material that may fracture during PCMI (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction). This work focuses on steady-state operation with advanced fuel and cladding combinations. By implementing and performing analysis work with these materials, it is possible to better understand some of the mechanical interactions that could be seen as limiting factors. In addition to the analysis of the materials themselves, a further analysis is done on the effects of using a fuel creep model in combination with the SiC cladding. While fuel creep is commonly ignored in the traditional UO2 fuel and Zircaloy cladding systems, fuel creep can be a significant factor in PCMI with SiC.

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  3. Simulation and Optimization of the logistics of biomass fuel collection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Jogems, M.A.H.; Beek, van P.; Gigler, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Biomass fuel costs depend for a great part on the logistics of biomass fuel collection. The logistics, including pre-treatments, from source locations to energy plant can be modelled by means of a network structure. Nodes correspond to source locations, collection sites, trans-shipment sites,

  4. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  5. BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS CO-FEEDSTOCKS FOR PRODUCTION OF FUEL FOR FUEL-CELL VEHICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of an examination of prospects for utilizing renewable energy crops as a source of liquid fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources and reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Fuel cells would provide an optimum vehicle technology fo...

  6. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  7. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  8. Technical benchmarking of fossil energy sources to regenerative substitute fuels for medium speed for-stroke diesel engines; Technisches Benchmark fossiler Energietraeger zu regenerativen Substitutbrennstoffen fuer mittelschnelllaufende 4-Takt Dieselgeneratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillings, Hubert

    2010-07-01

    Diesel engines were actually designed for fossil fuels. For this reason an operation with substitute fuels poses a special challenge. For example native oils/fats are elements comprising a range of more than 5000 chemically different substances. Each of these has individual characteristics which have to be considered during operation. Hence, an adapted operation is necessary. Typical damages include: 1. Cavitation pitting in the fuel injection system. 2. Precipitation of combustion residues in inlet and outlet. 3. Engine damages caused by lube oil dilution. 4. Engine damages caused by agglutination of lube oil. 5. Plugging of fuel conduit and filter systems caused by polymerization reactions. Practice has shown that the operational mode of engines are not generally reproducible. It is a fact that engines of the same type and manufacturer show a different operating performance. This is due to catalytic effects which can be traced back to the consistence of the material grade. Traditionally the material grades of these engines are designed for basic fuels. In contrast to that most of the substitute fuels (oils/fats) have distinctive acidic characteristics. The question in how far the catalytically active surfaces boost or avoid polymerization is part of current researches. (orig.)

  9. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740/sup 0/C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-/sup 233/U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized.

  10. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  11. Fuel preheater for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossett, J.J.; Crossett, M.C.

    1987-10-13

    A unit for preheating fuel for diesel engines is described having an engine coolant system and a lubrication system utilizing a flowable lubricant. The unit comprises a housing providing a fluid-tight enclosure, a heat exchange coil positioned in and spaced above the bottom of the enclosure and having loops providing a continuous path for the flow of the fuel to be heated. The heat exchange coil has at least one foot of length for each 25 cubic inches of volume of the enclosure and a diesel fuel outlet in the housing connected to one end of the heat exchange coil, a diesel fuel outlet in the housing and connected to the other end of the heat exchange coil, an inlet in the housing for connection of the interior of the enclosure surrounding the coil to a source of a hot heat exchange medium in a diesel engine so as to provide a source of heat for heating the heat exchange coil. An outlet near the top of the housing provides for return of the heat exchange medium to a diesel engine, and spray tube means extend horizontally from the inlet for the heat exchange medium and along the bottom of the housing beneath substantially the entire length of the heat exchange coil. The means have upwardly directed openings to provide for discharge of the heat exchange medium toward the coil and agitation of the heat exchange medium in the enclosure around and over the heat exchange coil.

  12. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  13. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  14. Selection of Power Sources for Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, S.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    New power sources emerge very quickly. Implementation of hybrid power sources for portable electronics depends on the knowledge of industrial designers. For now this group has little understanding of fuel cells and especially fuel-cell hybrids. This slows down implementation and increases the chance

  15. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  17. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-03-31

    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-09-30

    Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

  19. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  20. Design requirements of ACR-1000 fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossain, D.; Reid, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The design process for ACR-1000 fuel bundle is being undertaken in accordance with the CSA standard N286.2. As an element of the process, the design requirements were established early in the design phase and compiled in the ACR-1000 Fuel Design Requirements (DR) document. The ACR-1000 fuel bundle design is being developed to meet these requirements. This paper discusses the sources for the requirements such as the ACR project requirements, the plant specifications and regulatory requirements. It also discusses considerations of reactor design decisions and operational decisions in establishing functional, performance, safety and other design requirements for the fuel bundle. The design requirements for the ACR-1000 fuel bundle are summarized and the relationship of the requirements to the plant states of Normal Operation, Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs) and Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are discussed. Structure of the document to capture all the requirements in addition to functional, performance and safety requirements is presented. (author)

  1. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Jatila; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  2. Recent Advances in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic fuel cells convert the chemical energy of biofuels into electrical energy. Unlike traditional fuel cell types, which are mainly based on metal catalysts, the enzymatic fuel cells employ enzymes as catalysts. This fuel cell type can be used as an implantable power source for a variety of medical devices used in modern medicine to administer drugs, treat ailments and monitor bodily functions. Some advantages in comparison to conventional fuel cells include a simple fuel cell design and lower cost of the main fuel cell components, however they suffer from severe kinetic limitations mainly due to inefficiency in electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. In this review article, the major research activities concerned with the enzymatic fuel cells (anode and cathode development, system design, modeling by highlighting the current problems (low cell voltage, low current density, stability will be presented.

  3. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power......, whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental...

  4. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled, integrated technology options: integrated food and household-scale biogas production (HH Biogas, integrated food and village-scale biogas production (Village Biogas, and integrated food and wood fuel production (Agroforestry. Integrated approaches are able to eliminate the import of wood fuel, reduce synthetic fertilizer use by 24%, 35% and 44% and soil loss by 15%, 20% and 87%, respectively, compared to present practice. An Emergy Assessment (EmA shows that integrated approaches are relevant substitutes to present practice considering biophysical efficiency indicated by Unit Emergy Value (in solar emjoules (sej per J of output and dependence on renewable inputs indicated by the Global Renewability Fraction (in %: 2.6–3.0 × 105 sej/J and 38%–48% (PP, 2.5–2.8 × 105 sej/J and 41%–46% (HH Biogas, 2.4–2.6 × 105 sej/J and 45%–47% (Village Biogas, 1.7–2.4 × 105 sej/J and 49%–66% (Agroforestry. Systematic recycling and use of local resources may play a pivotal role in reducing the dependence on non-renewable resources in Ghanaian farming, ensuring long-term soil fertility and stemming the current deforestation of wood reserves.

  5. Opportunities for portable Ballard Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, H.H.; Huff, J.R. [Ballard Power Systems Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of portable electronic devices in both commercial and military markets, the need has arisen for small, lightweight power supplies that can provide increased operating life over those presently available. A solution to this power problem is the development of portable Ballard Fuel Cell power systems that operate with a hydrogen fuel source and air. Ballard has developed PEM fuel cell stacks and power systems in the 25 to 100 watt range for both of these markets. For military use, Ballard has teamed with Ball Corporation and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. and has provided the Ballard Fuel Cell stack for an ambient PEM fuel cell power system for the DoD. The system provides power from idle to I 00 watts and has the capability of delivering overloads of 125 watts for short periods of time. The system is designed to operate over a wide range of temperature, relative humidity and altitude. Hydrogen is supplied as a compressed gas, metal hydride or chemical hydride packaged in a unit that is mated to the power/control unit. The hydrogen sources provide 1.5, 5 and 15 kWh of operation, respectively. The design of the fuel cell power system enables the unit to operate at 12 volts or 24 volts depending upon the equipment being used. For commercial applications, as with the military, fuel cell power sources in the 25 to 500 watt range will be competing with advanced batteries. Ambient PEM fuel cell designs and demonstrators are being developed at 25 watts and other low power levels. Goals are minimum stack volume and weight and greatly enhanced operating life with reasonable system weight and volume. This paper will discuss ambient PEM fuel cell designs and performance and operating parameters for a number of power levels in the multiwatt range.

  6. Opportunities for Alternative Fuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    fuels derived from a mixture of coal and biomass. It is highly uncertain whether appreciable amounts of hydrotreated renewable oils can be...affordably and cleanly produced within the United States or abroad. Hydrotreated renewable oils are produced by processing animal fats or vegetable oils...possible source of oil for hydrotreatment. Fifty-fifty blends of hydrotreated oils have already been successfully demonstrated in flight tests sponsored by

  7. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  8. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remain the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do—at least the ones we are studying—massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  9. Development and optimization of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, D.; Vigues, N.; Sanchez, O.; Garrido, L.; Tomas, N.; Mas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Genetica y Microbiologia; Esquivel, J.P.; Sabate, N.; Del Campo, F.J.; Munoz, F.J. [Inst. de Microelectronica de Barcelona-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    While global energy demand increases daily, fossil fuel sources are being depleted at an unsustainable pace. Fuel cells represent a solution as they are more efficient than other energy sources. A microbial fuel cell is an electrochemical device capable of continuously converting chemical energy into electrical energy for as long as adequate fuel and oxidant are available. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) adds the benefit of converting chemical energy from organic compounds, such as simple carbohydrates or organic waste matter, into electricity by using bacteria as biocatalysts. This article described the effect of several parameters that affect the operation of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The study is based on a methodology utilized in previous studies which employed escherichia coli as biocatalyst and neutral red as the electron mediator in a mediated electron transfer (MET) microbial fuel cell. The study analysed the influence of the bacterial concentration, the effective area of electrode and the volume of the cell. It was concluded that there is a proportional energy production to the bacterial concentration present in the anode compartment. It was demonstrated that an increase in the volume of the cell negatively affects the power produced by the cells. 8 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  11. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  12. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  13. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  14. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  15. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    Present and anticipated variation in jet propulsion fuels due to advanced engine compression ratios and airframe cooling requirements necessitate greater understanding of chemical phenomena associated...

  16. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  17. 40 CFR 49.130 - Rule for limiting sulfur in fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section? This section does not apply to gasoline and diesel fuel, such as automotive and marine diesel..., gaseous fuel, marine vessel, mobile sources, motor vehicle, nonroad engine, nonroad vehicle, owner...

  18. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  19. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  20. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  1. Feasibility and Design Implications of Fuel Cell Power for Sealift Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    fuel cells as the primary power source on a large military cargo ship. A notional solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and the... cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and the implications of the technology on fuel savings and machinery arrangements are analyzed. The study shows that...notional Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) module is defined as the building block for future fuel cell power plants. A hybrid SOFC and gas turbine

  2. Feasibility and Design Implications of Fuel Cell Power for Sealift Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    fuel cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and the implications of the technology on fuel savings and...implementing fuel cells as the primary power source on a large military cargo ship. A notional solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and...suitability. 4 3. Proposed Notional Fuel Cell Power Plants for LMSR In this section, a notional hybrid SOFC – gas turbine (GT) power plant

  3. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M.; Zevenhoven, R. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland); Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Peltola, K. [Foster Wheeler Energy (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Source separation of combustible materials from household or municipal solid waste yields a raw material for the production of Packaging Derived Fuel (PDF). This fuel can substitute the traditional fuels in heat and power generation and is also called recycled fuel. Co-combustion of these types of fuels with coal has been studied in several LIEKKI-projects and the results have been both technically and environmentally favourable. (author)

  4. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  5. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  6. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  7. From waste to traffic fuel (W-fuel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kask, Ue.; Andrijevskaja, J.; Kask, L. [and others

    2012-11-01

    The EU directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Directive 2009/28/EC) sets a mandatory minimum target for the use of fuels produced using renewable energy sources of 10% of total petrol and diesel consumption in the transport sector by the year 2020. In addition, it states that production of renewable fuels should be consistent with sustainable development and must not endanger biodiversity. In the INTERREG IVA Southern Finland - Estonia Sub-programme, efforts towards finding solutions to the tasks set by the EU were undertaken in co-operation with Finnish and Estonian researchers. The purpose of the 'From Waste to Traffic Fuel' (W-Fuel) project was to promote the sustainable production and use of biogas using locally-sourced biodegradable waste materials from the food and beverage industry and the agricultural and municipal sectors. The ultimate aim of the project was to upgrade the biogas (produced based on anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes, sludge, manure, slurry and energy crops) to biomethane with a methane content similar to natural gas, to be further used as transport fuel with the aim of reducing traffic-borne emissions, in particular CO{sub 2}. The project combined waste, energy and traffic solutions in order to decrease emissions, costs and the use of materials. Six case areas in southern Finland and northern Estonia were selected. The two case areas in Estonia were the counties of Harju and Laeaene-Viru in northern Estonia. The project aimed to promote waste and sludge prevention and to commence biogas production and its subsequent upgrading to biomethane for use as a renewable fuel. The project promoted regional businesses and employment in waste treatment and 'green energy' production. On basis of the gathered data, the biogas potentials and prerequisites of each case county were analysed. Furthermore, the environmental, economic and other regional effects of the different options were

  8. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  10. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  11. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  12. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow

  13. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  14. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  15. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  16. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  17. Selection of Power Sources for Portable Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Flipsen, S.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    New power sources emerge very quickly. Implementation of hybrid power sources for portable electronics depends on the knowledge of industrial designers. For now this group has little understanding of fuel cells and especially fuel-cell hybrids. This slows down implementation and increases the chance of failure. In this paper a review is given of tools and methods which gives concept designers a first guesstimate of the volumes they have to deal with when designing the power source. Second the...

  18. Modeling: driving fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Francis

    2002-05-01

    Fuel cells were invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove, a Welsh judge and gentleman scientist, as a result of his experiments on the electrolysis of water. To put it simply, fuel cells are electrochemical devices that take hydrogen gas from fuel, combine it with oxygen from the air, and generate electricity and heat, with water as the only by-product.

  19. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    properties of the other fuels are varied systematically beyond the specification limits imposed on the reference fuels, principally in the direction of...lower hydrogen content- Comparison of fuel nozzles, Figurae ,6.32. shows stronger dependence bet- ween oeiseslona and hydrogen content for airblast and

  20. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.