WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-relaxed state means

  1. Mean Shift Detection for State Space Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, J.; Mandjes, M.; Taimre, T.; Weber, T.; McPhee, M.J.; Anderssen, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we develop and validate a procedure for testing against a shift in mean in the observations and hidden state sequence of state space models with Gaussian noise. State space models are popular for modelling stochastic networks as they allow to take into account that observations of the

  2. Continuous time finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-04-23

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  3. Mean values of local operators in highly excited Bethe states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozsgay, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider expectation values of local operators in (continuum) integrable models in a situation when the mean value is calculated in a single Bethe state with a large number of particles. We develop a form factor expansion for the thermodynamic limit of the mean value, which applies whenever the d

  4. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-10-06

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments,which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.

  5. Multiproxy Reconstruction of Tropical Pacific Holocene Mean State Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuszewski, J. A.; Oppo, D.; Huang, K. F.; Galy, V.; Dubois, N.; Mohtadi, M.; Herbert, T.; Rosenthal, Y.; Linsley, B. K.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Koutavas, A.; Rustic, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most prominent mode of tropical Pacific climate variability, significantly impacting both regional and global climate. In the past, the mean state of the Pacific Ocean has differed from today as evidenced by variability in the zonal water column structure. Recent paleoproxy based studies of tropical Pacific hydrology and surface temperature variability have hypothesized that observed climatological changes over the Holocene are directly linked to ENSO and/or mean state variability, complementing studies that dynamically relate centennial scale ENSO variability to mean state changes. These studies have suggested that mid Holocene ENSO variability was low and the mean state was more "La Niña" like. In the late Holocene, data have been interpreted as indicating an increase in ENSO variability with a more moderate mean state. Here, we test the hypothesis that observed climatological changes in the eastern tropical Pacific are related to mean state or ENSO variability during the Holocene. We focus our study on three sediment core locations from the equatorial Pacific: the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (BJ803-119 GGC, 117MC), the Line Islands in the central Pacific (ML1208-18GC) and the Galapagos Islands in the Eastern Cold Tongue (KNR195-5 43 GGC, 42MC). These sites lie in regions poised to provide evidence of basin-wide equatorial water column structure changes in response to mean state and/or long-term ENSO variability. We use a multiproxy approach with data from both organic (sterol abundances) and inorganic proxies (Mg/Ca and δ18O of 4 planktonic foraminiferal species, % G. bulloides) to reconstruct zonal tropical Pacific (sub)surface temperature and stratification gradients over the Holocene. This approach enables us to combine the strengths of each individual proxy to derive more robust records. To put our data in the context of the broader Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions, we compare our new data to published records.

  6. Mean-field theory of echo state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massar, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2013-04-01

    Dynamical systems driven by strong external signals are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Here we study “echo state networks,” networks of a large number of randomly connected nodes, which represent a simple model of a neural network, and have important applications in machine learning. We develop a mean-field theory of echo state networks. The dynamics of the network is captured by the evolution law, similar to a logistic map, for a single collective variable. When the network is driven by many independent external signals, this collective variable reaches a steady state. But when the network is driven by a single external signal, the collective variable is non stationary but can be characterized by its time averaged distribution. The predictions of the mean-field theory, including the value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, are compared with the numerical integration of the equations of motion.

  7. Application of statistical contrasts to mean refractive state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abelman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing  for  differences  between  specific groups  or  combinations  of  groups  is  referred to as comparison or contrast testing. Statistical significance of comparisons can be assessed by first forming contrasts and then testing for their significance. A contrast essentially tests wheth-er or not two means are significantly different, where each mean could be a weighted average of two or more means. Gillan  investigated  whether  the  instillation of a cycloplegic (Mydriacyl 1% (tropicamide into the right eye of a 30-year-old female sub-ject would affect the variability of her distance refractive state as measured by an autorefractor.The  purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  introduce mutually orthogonal linear contrasts of sample data  to  optometric  research.  By  constructing particular contrasts, mean refractive states are compared  before  instillation,  before  and  after instillation, and after instillation.

  8. STATE INSTITUTIONS AND DAILY LIFE: MEANINGS CONSTRUCTED BY CIVIL EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANNY TERESA MANTILLA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is about the organizational culture in governmental institutions and takes into consideration theinternational debate about the government crisis and the need for a redesign of the state. The conceptual premises thatthe investigation employs are the ones from the historical cultural approach of Vygotsky and Bruner which considersthat the interaction between the individual and his or her historical cultural milieu. In this case, the organizationalenvironment is mediated by the language. To accede to the investigation of the culture, it is necessary to gather thenarrations that demonstrate the particular styles of the governmental institutions. This investigation is one ofqualitative character and assumes the narrations as means of mental elaboration of the experience. For this research weworked with employees of five governmental institutions in the directive, professional, administrative and operativelevels and the results were organized around the thematic nuclei, organization, relations and labor roll of the employee.

  9. Ground state correlations and mean field in 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    1999-03-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion [exp(S) method] to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the NN interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body G matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to 16O in a configuration space of 50ħω. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of 16O.

  10. Ground state correlations and mean-field in $^{16}$O

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, J H; Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan.

    1999-01-01

    We use the coupled cluster expansion ($\\exp(S)$ method) to generate the complete ground state correlations due to the $NN$ interaction. Part of this procedure is the calculation of the two-body ${\\mathbf G}$ matrix inside the nucleus in which it is being used. This formalism is being applied to $^{16}$O in a configuration space of 35 $\\hbar\\omega$. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the binding energy and one- and two-body densities for the ground state of~$^{16}$O.

  11. Revamping State Monitoring Process: A Means of Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fukue S.

    In 1981, when Chapter 1 replaced Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I and with the advent of the effective schools movement, the Hawaii state administrators of Chapter 1 made a long term commitment to program improvement, especially in the area of instruction and quality delivery of services to the target students. In this program…

  12. Investigating echo state networks dynamics by means of recurrence analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Filippo Maria; Alippi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we elaborate over the well-known interpretability issue in echo state networks. The idea is to investigate the dynamics of reservoir neurons with time-series analysis techniques taken from research on complex systems. Notably, we analyze time-series of neuron activations with Recurrence Plots (RPs) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA), which permit to visualize and characterize high-dimensional dynamical systems. We show that this approach is useful in a number of ways. First, the two-dimensional representation offered by RPs provides a way for visualizing the high-dimensional dynamics of a reservoir. Our results suggest that, if the network is stable, reservoir and input denote similar line patterns in the respective RPs. Conversely, the more unstable the ESN, the more the RP of the reservoir presents instability patterns. As a second result, we show that the $\\mathrm{L_{max}}$ measure is highly correlated with the well-established maximal local Lyapunov exponent. This suggests that co...

  13. The Meridional Mode in an Idealized Aquaplanet Model: Dependence on the Mean State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Clement, A. C.; Medeiros, B.

    2016-12-01

    The meridional mode provides a source of predictability for the tropical climate variability and change on seasonal and longer time scales by transporting extratropical climate signals into the tropics. Previous research shows that the tropical imprint of the meridional mode is constrained by the interhemispheric asymmetry of the tropical mean climate state. In this study the constraint of the zonal asymmetry is investigated in an AGCM thermodynamically coupled with an aquaplanet slab ocean model. The strategy is to modify the zonal asymmetry of the mean climate state and examine the response of the meridional mode. Presented here are two simulations of different zonal asymmetries in the mean state. In the zonally symmetric case, the meridional mode operates throughout the subtropics but only becomes evident after removing a dominant global-scale eastward-propagating mode. In the zonally asymmetric case, the meridional mode operates only in regions where trade winds converge onto the equator and has an enlarged spatial scale due to the modified mean climate including cold sea surface and weak trade winds. In both simulations, the tropical imprint of the meridional mode is constrained by the north-south seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone. These results suggest that the meridional mode does not require the zonal asymmetry of the mean state but is intrinsic to the subtropical ocean-atmosphere coupled system with its characteristics subject to the mean climate state. The implication is that the internal climate variability needs to be assessed in the context of the mean climate state.

  14. Mean annual runoff, precipitation, and evapotranspiration in the glaciated northeastern United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two maps, compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale, depict mean annual runoff, precipitation, and evapotranspiration in the part of the United States east of Cleveland, Ohio...

  15. Mean annual runoff, precipitation, and evapotranspiration in the glaciated northeastern United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two maps, compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale, depict mean annual runoff, precipitation, and evapotranspiration in the part of the United States east of Cleveland, Ohio...

  16. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  17. "Cricket singing means rain": semiotic meaning of insects in the district of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Neto, Eraldo M

    2006-03-01

    This paper deals with the semiotic meanings which are given both to the appearance and/or behavior of insect species according to the ethnoentomological knowledge of the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected from February to May 2001 by performing open-ended, recorded interviews with nine men and twenty-five women, whose ages ranged from 19 to 82 years old. Data were analyzed by using the union model, which involves considering all available information on the surveyed subject. Twelve kinds of insects were associated with both beneficial and harmful events, as well as with the indication of changing weather. The way local people perceive and interpret the appearance and/or behavior of certain species of insects depends on the cultural background of each inhabitant. The following semiotic meanings were recorded: fatal, funereal, auspicial, meteorological, societal, monetary, and of abundance or scarcity. The beliefs in the augural power of insects in the village of Pedra Branca are deep-rooted in the local tradition and are transmitted from generation to generation through oral culture. It is hoped that the data now available will be incorporated into a curriculum by those researchers interested in insect conservation and ethnobiology as well.

  18. PV-θ view of the zonal mean state of the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, A.J.; Hinssen, Y.B.L.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between zonal mean potential vorticity (PV) in potential temperature (u) coordinates and the zonal mean zonal wind in January and in July is studied. PV-anomalies are defined with respect to a reference state that is at rest with respect to the rotating earth. Two important PV-anomalies

  19. Ground state correlations and mean field using the exp(S) method

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, J H; Heisenberg, Jochen H.; Mihaila, Bogdan

    1999-01-01

    This document gives a detailed account of the terms used in the computation of the ground state mean field and the ground state correlations. While the general approach to this description is given in a separate paper (nucl-th/9802029) we give here the explicite expressions used.

  20. EXCITATION OF LOW-LYING STATES IN ND-144 BY MEANS OF (E,E') SCATTERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERRINO, R; BLASI, N; DELEO, R; HARAKEH, MN; DEJAGER, CW; MICHELETTI, S; MIEREMET, J; PIGNANELLI, M; PONOMAREV, VY; SANDOR, RKJ; DEVRIES, H

    1993-01-01

    The low-lying states of Nd-144 have been investigated up to an excitation energy of 3.1 MeV by means of high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. Transition charge densities have been extracted for natural-parity states. The experimental data have been compared with the predictions of the quasi

  1. Mean-square state and parameter estimation for stochastic linear systems with Gaussian and Poisson noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basin, M.; Maldonado, J. J.; Zendejo, O.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes new mean-square filter and parameter estimator design for linear stochastic systems with unknown parameters over linear observations, where unknown parameters are considered as combinations of Gaussian and Poisson white noises. The problem is treated by reducing the original problem to a filtering problem for an extended state vector that includes parameters as additional states, modelled as combinations of independent Gaussian and Poisson processes. The solution to this filtering problem is based on the mean-square filtering equations for incompletely polynomial states confused with Gaussian and Poisson noises over linear observations. The resulting mean-square filter serves as an identifier for the unknown parameters. Finally, a simulation example shows effectiveness of the proposed mean-square filter and parameter estimator.

  2. Terrorism as war by other means: national security and state support for terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekmekci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach in the discipline of International Relations is to treat terrorist organizations as "non-state" actors of international relations. However, this approach is problematic due to the fact that most terrorist organizations are backed or exploited by some states. In this article, I take issue with the non-stateness of terrorist organizations and seek to answer the question of why so many states, at times, support terrorist organizations. I argue that in the face of rising threats to national security in an age of devastating wars, modern nation states tend to provide support to foreign terrorist organizations that work against their present and imminent enemies. I elaborate on my argument studying three cases of state support for terrorism: Iranian support for Hamas, Syrian support for the PKK, and American support for the MEK. The analyses suggest that, for many states, terror is nothing but war by other means.

  3. On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. $\\sigma$-SCF: A Direct Energy-targeting Method To Mean-field Excited States

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Hong-Zhou; Ricke, Nathan D; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The mean-field solutions of electronic excited states are much less accessible than ground state (e.g.\\ Hartree-Fock) solutions. Energy-based optimization methods for excited states, like $\\Delta$-scf, tend to fall into the lowest solution consistent with a given symmetry -- a problem known as "variational collapse". In this work, we combine the ideas of direct energy-targeting and variance-based optimization in order to describe excited states at the mean-field level. The resulting method, $\\sigma$-scf, has several advantages. First, it allows one to target any desired excited state by specifying a single parameter: a guess of the energy of that state. It can therefore, in principle, find \\emph{all} excited states. Second, it avoids variational collapse by using a variance-based, unconstrained local minimization. As a consequence, all states -- ground or excited -- are treated on an equal footing. Third, it provides an alternate approach to locate $\\Delta$-scf solutions that are otherwise inaccessible by the...

  5. Mean-Square Filtering for Polynomial System States Confused with Poisson Noises over Polynomial Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Basin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mean-square filtering problem for polynomial system states confused with white Poisson noises over polynomial observations is studied proceeding from the general expression for the stochastic Ito differentials of the mean-square estimate and the error variance. In contrast to the previously obtained results, the paper deals with the general case of nonlinear polynomial states and observations with white Poisson noises. As a result, the Ito differentials for the mean-square estimate and error variance corresponding to the stated filtering problem are first derived. The procedure for obtaining an approximate closed-form finite-dimensional system of the filtering equations for any polynomial state over observations with any polynomial drift is then established. In the example, the obtained closed-form filter is applied to solve the third order sensor filtering problem for a quadratic state, assuming a conditionally Poisson initial condition for the extended third order state vector. The simulation results show that the designed filter yields a reliable and rapidly converging estimate.

  6. Tropical Climate Mean State and Variability during the Pliocene Warm Period (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, A. C.; Ford, H. L.; Dekens, P. S.; White, S. M.; Griffith, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Past studies have shown that the mean climate state during the Pliocene warm period, about 3 - 4 million years ago, differed from present day climate in several ways: global temperature was about 3-4 degrees C warmer, the tropical thermocline was warmer and/or deeper, and meridional and zonal sea surface temperature gradients were reduced due to warmer high latitude temperatures but tropical sea surface temperatures that were similar to today. One of the most striking features of the Pliocene warm period is the El Niño-like (El Padre) mean state of the tropical Pacific, which is thought to have far-field impacts. In this study, we present a synthesis of new and published tropical Pacific data, detailing the mean state and higher frequency variability (e.g., using orbital scale records and measurements made on single foraminifera shells), for the purpose of meeting two main goals. First, we highlight important characteristics of the El Padre mean state, which include average Indo-Pacific warm pool temperatures that were similar and east Pacific cold tongue temperatures and cross-Pacific subsurface temperatures that were warmer than today. Because much of the paleotemperature data comes from Mg/Ca ratios measured in planktonic foraminifera, the impact of possible changes in Mg/Ca of seawater on paleotemperature estimates is addressed. We conclude that Mg/Ca-derived temperature estimates could be adjusted by no more than about 1 degree in order to account for seawater chemistry changes. Second, by examining orbital variability and temperature distributions based on single foraminifera analyses, we evaluate whether the cumulative strength of the many feedbacks that are involved in the generation of climate variability may be impacted by the mean state. Data indicate that the amplitude of orbital variability in surface temperature, and possibly the amplitude of ENSO variability, was reduced during the warm Pliocene compared to today. On orbital timescales, the

  7. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md Masud

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT) based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations.

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.131 - What does United States mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does United States mean? 301-10.131 Section 301-10.131 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Use of...

  9. Entrepreneurship Education in Delta State Tertiary Institution as a Means of Achieving National Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakwe, Regina N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined entrepreneurship education in Delta Sate tertiary institutions as a means of national growth and development. Two research questions were asked to guide the study. The population comprised all the 1,898 academic staff in eight tertiary institutions in the state. A sample of 800 lecturers was drawn through the multi stage and…

  10. Review of "Class Size: What Research Says and What It Means for State Policy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore Schanzenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    "Class Size: What Research Says and What It Means for State Policy" argues that increasing average class size by one student will save about 2% of total education spending with negligible impact on academic achievement. It justifies this conclusion on the basis that Class-Size Reduction (CSR) is not particularly effective and is not as…

  11. Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Koning, Jos

    2013-01-01

    to ship-wave interactions in a seaway. In the paper, sea state estimates are produced by three means: the wave buoy analogy, relying on shipboard response measurements, a wave radar system, and a system providing the instantaneous wave height. The presented results show that for the given data, recorded...

  12. Finite-State Mean-Field Games, Crowd Motion Problems, and its Numerical Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Machado Velho, Roberto

    2017-09-10

    In this dissertation, we present two research projects, namely finite-state mean-field games and the Hughes model for the motion of crowds. In the first part, we describe finite-state mean-field games and some applications to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community and the consumer choice behavior in a free market. The corresponding finite-state mean-field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we propose and validate a new numerical method. Next, we consider the dual formulation to two-state mean-field games, and we discuss numerical methods for these problems. We then depict different computational experiments, exhibiting a variety of behaviors, including shock formation, lack of invertibility, and monotonicity loss. We conclude the first part of this dissertation with an investigation of the shock structure for two-state problems. In the second part, we consider a model for the movement of crowds proposed by R. Hughes in [56] and describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. We first establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Next, we consider radial solutions, and we identify a shock formation mechanism. Subsequently, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. We also propose a new numerical method for the solution of Fokker-Planck equations and then to systems of PDEs composed by a Fokker-Planck equation and a potential type equation. Finally, we illustrate the use of the numerical method both to the Hughes model and mean-field games. We also depict cases such as the evacuation of a room and the movement of persons around Kaaba (Saudi Arabia).

  13. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based......) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature...

  14. Bosonic particle-correlated states: A nonperturbative treatment beyond mean field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhang; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2017-08-01

    Many useful properties of dilute Bose gases at ultralow temperature are predicted precisely by the (mean-field) product-state Ansatz, in which all particles are in the same quantum state. Yet, in situations where particle-particle correlations become important, the product Ansatz fails. To include correlations nonperturbatively, we consider a new set of states: the particle-correlated state of N =l ×n bosons is derived by symmetrizing the n -fold product of an l -particle quantum state. Quantum correlations of the l -particle state "spread out" to any subset of the N bosons by symmetrization. The particle-correlated states can be simulated efficiently for large N , because their parameter spaces, which depend on l , do not grow with n . Here we formulate and develop in great detail the pure-state case for l =2 , where the many-body state is constructed from a two-particle pure state. These paired wave functions, which we call pair-correlated states (PCS), were introduced by A. J. Leggett [Rev. Mod. Phys. 73, 307 (2001), 10.1103/RevModPhys.73.307] as a particle-number-conserving version of the Bogoliubov approximation. We present an iterative algorithm that solves for the reduced (marginal) density matrices (RDMs), i.e., the correlation functions, associated with PCS in time O (N ) . The RDMs can also be derived from the normalization factor of PCS, which is derived analytically in the large-N limit. To test the efficacy of PCS, we analyze the ground state of the two-site Bose-Hubbard model by minimizing the energy of the PCS state, both in its exact form and in its large-N approximate form, and comparing with the exact ground state. For N =1000 , the relative errors of the ground-state energy for both cases are within 10-5 over the entire parameter region from a single condensate to a Mott insulator. We present numerical results that suggest that PCS might be useful for describing the dynamics in the strongly interacting regime.

  15. The meaning of marriage vis-a-vis childbearing in Europe and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends Holland’s (2013) marriage typology, linking the timing of marriage, childbearing, and cohabitation, and apply it to the Harmonized Histories covering a range of European countries and the United States. The meaning of marriage is organized around six ideal types: Direct Family Forming, Post-Cohabitation Family Forming, Conception-Related Legitimizing, Birth-Related Legitimizing, Reinforcing and Capstone marriage. Although smaller shares of women entered marriage at each age...

  16. Mean field theory of charge-density wave state in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Lyubshin, Dmitrij

    2005-03-01

    We develop a mean field theory of charge-density wave (CDW) state in magnetic field and study properties of this state below the transition temperature. We show that the CDW state with shifted wave vector in high magnetic field (CDWx phase) has a double harmonic modulation on the most part of the phase diagram. At perfect nesting the single harmonic CDW state with shifted wave vector exists only in a very narrow region near the triple point. We show that the transition from CDW0 to CDWx state below the critical temperature is accompanied by a jump of the CDW order parameter and of the CDW wave vector rather than by their continuous increase. This implies a first order transition between these CDW states and explains a strong hysteresis accompanying this transition. The similarities between CDW in high magnetic field and nonuniform LOFF superconducting phase are pointed out. Our investigation provides a theoretical description for recent experiments on organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 and other compounds. In particular, we explain the higher value of the kink transition field and provide the calculation of the phase diagram in the case of perfect nesting.

  17. Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung; An, Soon-Il [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we classified two types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events within the decadal ENSO amplitude modulation cycle using a long-term coupled general circulation model simulation. We defined two climate states - strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods - and separated the characteristics of ENSO that occurred in both periods. There are two major features in the characteristics of ENSO: the first is the asymmetric spatial structure between El Nino and La Nina events; the second is that the El Nino-La Nina asymmetry is reversed during strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods. El Nino events during strong (weak) ENSO amplitude periods resemble the Eastern Pacific (Central Pacific) El Nino in terms of the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and physical characteristics based on heat budget analysis. The spatial pattern of the thermocline depth anomaly for strong (weak) El Nino is identical to that for weak (strong) La Nina, but for an opposite sign and slightly different amplitude. The accumulated residuals of these asymmetric anomalies dominated by an east-west contrast structure could feed into the tropical Pacific mean state. Moreover, the residual pattern associated with El Nino-La Nina asymmetry resembles the first principal component analysis (PCA) mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability, indicating that the accumulated residuals could generate the change in climate state. Thus, the intensified ENSO amplitude yields the warm residuals due to strong El Nino and weak La Nina over the eastern tropical Pacific. This linear relationship between ENSO and the mean state is strong during the mature phases of decadal oscillation, but it is weak during the transition phases. Furthermore, the second PCA mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability plays an important role in changing the phase of the first mode. Consequently, the feedback between ENSO and the mean state is positive feedback to amplify the first PCA mode

  18. Basin characteristics and mean annual streamflow data for streamgages in New Mexico and adjacent states, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Aurelia; Tillery, Anne C.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI), identified basin characteristics and estimated mean annual streamflow for a regional study of 169 USGS surface-water streamgages throughout the state of New Mexico and adjacent states. The basin characteristics and mean annual streamflows presented here will be used to derive equations for estimating mean annual streamflow at ungaged locations in New Mexico. The accompanying directories contain basin characteristics computation methods and results, and mean annual streamflow at streamgages.Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), surface-water streamgages were selected based on their location in New Mexico and adjoining basins. In addition, only streamgages at perennial, non-regulated streams with 10 or more years of record were selected for analysis. Of the 169 streamgages meeting the selection criteria, 79 streamgages are located outside of the state of New Mexico but in drainage basins that flow into the state. Of these 79 streamgages, 57 are located in Colorado, 3 are located in Texas, 11 are located in Arizona, 4 are located in Utah, and 4 are located in Oklahoma. The remaining 90 streamgages are located within New Mexico. Periods of record for all the 169 streamgages included in the study range from 10 to 124 years. Streamgage locations as recorded in NWIS are based on the Public Land Survey System, with horizontal accuracy of 1/8 mi². Where necessary, streamgage locations were adjusted in the GIS to match with the StreamStats streamline file. Basin characteristics were identified for each streamgage by using GIS and the online USGS StreamStats program (available at https//water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) (Ries and others, 2003). Mean annual streamflow was determined using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DFLOW coding (Rossman, 1990).ReferencesRies, K.G., and Gray, J.R., 2003, StreamStats: a U.S. geological survey web site for stream

  19. Global-mean marine δ13C and its uncertainty in a glacial state estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Geoffrey; Peterson, Carlye D.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Spero, Howard J.

    2015-10-01

    A paleo-data compilation with 492 δ13C and δ18O observations provides the opportunity to better sample the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and infer its global properties, such as the mean δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Here, the paleo-compilation is used to reconstruct a steady-state water-mass distribution for the LGM, that in turn is used to map the data onto a 3D global grid. A global-mean marine δ13C value and a self-consistent uncertainty estimate are derived using the framework of state estimation (i.e., combining a numerical model and observations). The LGM global-mean δ13C is estimated to be 0.14‰ ± 0.20‰ at the two standard error level, giving a glacial-to-modern change of 0.32‰ ± 0.20‰. The magnitude of the error bar is attributed to the uncertain glacial ocean circulation and the lack of observational constraints in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans. To halve the error bar, roughly four times more observations are needed, although strategic sampling may reduce this number. If dynamical constraints can be used to better characterize the LGM circulation, the error bar can also be reduced to 0.05 to 0.1‰, emphasizing that knowledge of the circulation is vital to accurately map δ13C in three dimensions.

  20. Speeding up CRMs for cloud-climate interaction studies by acceleration of mean state tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. R.; Bretherton, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud-resolving models (CRMs) are routinely used to simulate boundary-layer and deep convective cloud processes, aid in the development of moist physical parameterization for global models, study cloud-climate feedbacks and cloud-aerosol interaction, and as the heart of superparameterized climate models. CRMs are computationally demanding, placing practical constraints on their use in these applications, especially for long, climate-relevant simulations. In many situations, the horizontal-mean atmospheric structure evolves slowly compared to the turnover time of the most energetic turbulent eddies. We use this time scale separation to accelerate the time-integration of a CRM, the System for Atmospheric Modelling. Our approach uses a large time step to evolve the horizontally averaged state variables, followed by a short time step to calculate the turbulent fluctuations about the mean state. Using this approach, we are able to accelerate the model evolution by a factor of 8 or more in idealized stratocumulus, shallow and deep cumulus convection without substantial loss of accuracy in simulating mean cloud statistics and their sensitivity to climate change perturbations. We show how to adapt the approach to challenges arising from rapidly falling precipitation and from advecting scalars with a variety of lifetimes.

  1. Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasen Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1/2 on a lattice interacting through an XYZ Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.

  2. Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiasen; Biella, Alberto; Viyuela, Oscar; Mazza, Leonardo; Keeling, Jonathan; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide

    2016-07-01

    We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free) energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1 /2 on a lattice interacting through an X Y Z Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.

  3. State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Egido, J Luis

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of beyond mean field theories (BMFT) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in nuclear physics with effective forces. After a reminder of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory a discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA) is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a shortcoming of this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom: quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle ones. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of f...

  4. Change in mean frequency of resting-state electroencephalography after transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd W. Boonstra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is proposed as a tool to investigate cognitive functioning in healthy people and as a treatment for various neuropathological disorders. However, the underlying cortical mechanisms remain poorly understood. We aim to investigate whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG can be used to monitor the effects of tDCS on cortical activity. To end we tested whether the spectral content of ongoing EEG activity is significantly different after a single session of active tDCS compared to sham stimulation. Twenty participants were tested in a sham-controlled, randomized, crossover design. Resting-state EEG was acquired before, during and after active tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (15 min of 2mA tDCS and sham stimulation. Electrodes with a diameter of 3.14 cm2 were used for EEG and tDCS. Partial least squares (PLS analysis was used to examine differences in power spectral density and the EEG mean frequency to quantify the slowing of EEG activity after stimulation. PLS revealed a significant increase in spectral power at frequencies below 15 Hz and a decrease at frequencies above 15 Hz after active tDCS (P=0.001. The EEG mean frequency was significantly reduced after both active tDCS (P<0.0005 and sham tDCS (p=0.001, though the decrease in mean frequency was smaller after sham tDCS than after active tDCS (P=0.073. Anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC using a high current density bi-frontal electrode montage resulted in general slowing of resting-state EEG. The similar findings observed following sham stimulation question whether the standard sham protocol is an appropriate control condition for tDCS.

  5. On the link between mean state biases and prediction skill in the tropics: an atmospheric perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Doi, Takeshi; Behera, Swadhin K.; Keenlyside, Noel

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines how mean state biases in sea-surface temperature (SST), surface wind and precipitation affect model skill in reproducing surface wind and precipitation anomalies in the tropics. This is done using theoretical arguments, atmosphere-only experiments in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, and customized sensitivity tests with the SINTEX-F general circulation model. Theoretical arguments suggest that under certain conditions the root mean square error (RMSE) of a variable can be related to its variance and its mean, which indicates a direct link between bias and skill. The anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC), on the other hand, is generally not related to either the mean state or its variance, as several examples document. Multi-model atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed SST warming suggest that both ACC and RMSE of surface wind and precipitation are rather insensitive to warming on the order of 4 K. When SST biases from a free-running control simulation are prescribed in SINTEX-F, the ACC of surface wind is almost unaffected in the equatorial Pacific and Atlantic, while that of precipitation decreases noticeably in some regions but also increases in others. The RMSE of both fields shows widespread deterioration. There is a tendency for warm SST biases to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and sometimes ACC as well. The results suggest that, in the context of atmosphere-only simulations, improving SST and precipitation biases does not necessarily improve the skill in reproducing anomalies of surface wind and precipitation.

  6. Impact of semidiurnal tidal variability during SSWs on the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A.; Liu, H.-L.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites reveal a global reduction in the zonal and diurnal mean F region peak electron density (NmF2) during sudden stratosphere warmings (SSWs). The present study investigates the source of the global NmF2 decrease by performing numerical experiments with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model. The simulations reveal that the NmF2 reduction coincides with a depletion of thermospheric [O]/[N2], indicating that the NmF2 depletion is related to changes in thermospheric composition during SSWs. Numerical experiments further illustrate that the short-term (˜10 day) enhancement of the migrating semidiurnal solar tide (SW2) during SSWs is the source of the variability in thermospheric composition. In particular, the enhancement of the SW2 during SSWs alters the lower thermosphere zonal mean circulation, leading to a reduction in atomic oxygen in the lower thermosphere. The atomic oxygen reduction propagates into the upper thermosphere through molecular diffusion, leading to a decrease in [O]/[N2] throughout the low- to middle-latitude thermosphere. It is anticipated that the effects of the SW2 on the ionosphere and thermosphere investigated herein will be modulated by SSW related enhancements of the migrating semidiurnal lunar tide (M2). The magnitude of the combined impact of the SW2 and M2 on the ionosphere-thermosphere mean state will depend on the relative phasing of the solar and lunar tides. The results demonstrate that in addition to modulating the low-latitude electrodynamics, tidal variability during SSWs can significantly impact the mean state of the ionosphere and thermosphere.

  7. Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Zied

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wigner measures for general states can be proved, extending to the infinite dimensional case a standard result of semiclassical analysis.

  8. Mean-field potential calculations of high-pressure equation of state for BeO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-Li; Zhang Ping; Song Hai-Feng; Liu Hai-Feng

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of the Hugoniot equation of state, phase transition, and the other thermodynamic properties including the Hugoniot temperature, the electronic and ionic heat capacities, and the Griineisen parameter for shockcompressed BeO, has been carried out by calculating the total free energy. The method of calculations combines first-principles treatment for 0 K and finite-T electronic contribution and the mean-field-potential approach for the vibrational contribution of the lattice ion to the total energy. Our calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Ground state properties of La isotopes in reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The ground state properties of La isotopes are investigated with the reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field(RAS-RMF) model.The calculation results of binding energies and the quadrupole moments are in good agreements with the experiment.The calculation results indicate the change of the quadrupole deformation with the nuclear mass number.The "kink" on the isotope shifts is observed at A = 139 where the neutron number is the magic number N = 82.It is also found that the octupole deformations may exist in the La isotopes with mass number A ~ 145-155.

  10. Ground state properties of La isotopes in reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nan; GUO Lu

    2009-01-01

    The ground state properties of La isotopes are investigated with the reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field (RAS-RMF) model.The calculation results of binding energies and the quadrupole moments are in good agreements with the experiment.The calculation results indicate the change of the quadrupole deformation with the nuclear mass number.The "kink" on the isotope shifts is observed at A=139 where the neutron number is the magic number N=82.It is also found that the octupole deformations may exist in the La isotopes with mass number A~ 145-155.

  11. Tidal deformability of neutron and hyperon star with relativistic mean field equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bharat; Patra, S K

    2016-01-01

    We systematically study the tidal deformability for neutron and hyperon stars using relativistic mean field (RMF) equations of state (EOSs). The tidal effect plays an important role during the early part of the evolution of compact binaries. Although, the deformability associated with the EOSs has a small correction, it gives a clean gravitational wave signature in binary inspiral. These are characterized by various love numbers kl (l=2, 3, 4), that depend on the EOS of a star for a given mass and radius. The tidal effect of star could be efficiently measured through advanced LIGO detector from the final stages of inspiraling binary neutron star (BNS) merger.

  12. Doping Induced Spin State Transition in LaCoO3: Dynamical Mean-Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinský, P.; Křápek, V.; Kuneš, J.

    2013-06-01

    Hole and electron doped LaCoO3 is studied using dynamical mean-field theory. The one-particle spectra are analyzed and compared to the available experimental data, in particular the x-ray absorption spectra. Analyzing the temporal spin-spin correlation functions we find the atomic intermediate spin state is not important for the observed Curie-Weiss susceptibility. Contrary to the commonly held view about the roles played by the t2g and eg electrons we find narrow quasiparticle bands of t2g character crossing the Fermi level accompanied by strongly damped eg excitations.

  13. Tidal deformability of neutron and hyperon stars within relativistic mean field equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bharat; Biswal, S. K.; Patra, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    We systematically study the tidal deformability for neutron and hyperon stars using relativistic mean field equations of state (EOSs). The tidal effect plays an important role during the early part of the evolution of compact binaries. Although, the deformability associated with the EOSs has a small correction, it gives a clean gravitational wave signature in binary inspiral. These are characterized by various Love numbers kl(l =2 ,3 ,4 ), that depend on the EOS of a star for a given mass and radius. The tidal effect of star could be efficiently measured through an advanced LIGO detector from the final stages of an inspiraling binary neutron star merger.

  14. The Meaning of Law Through State in Legal Framework of “Rechtstaat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffry Alexander Ch. Likadja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the meaning of law through state in legal framework of “Rechtstaat” and how the implementation and implications for the liberty (peoples in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research (doctrinal research by using existing conceptual approach. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Rule of Law is necessary to make the concept rechtstaat becomes more dynamic and able to deal with social changes in society and make the law more autonomous than other authorities such as political intervention. Furthermore, Implementation of freedom in the context of state law is interpreted narrowly and only considers justice can be done if the procedural law can be obeyed by all citizens. The main purpose of the application of the Rule of Law is the limitation of authority and power reduction obligations of citizens, so that it will produce a doctrine of jurisprudence based on the rights (right centered jurisprudence.

  15. Heterodyne and adaptive phase measurements on states of fixed mean photon number

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, D; Zhang Zhao Xi; Zhang, Zhong-Xi

    1998-01-01

    The standard technique for measuring the phase of a single mode field is heterodyne detection. Such a measurement may have an uncertainty far above the intrinsic quantum phase uncertainty of the state. Recently it has been shown [H.M. Wiseman and R.B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2169 (1998)] that an adaptive technique introduces far less excess noise. Here we quantify this difference by an exact numerical calculation of the minimum measured phase variance for the various schemes, optimized over states with a fixed mean photon number. We also derive analytically the asymptotics for these variances. For the case of heterodyne detection our results disagree with the power law claimed by G.M. D'Ariano and M.G.A. Paris [Phys. Rev. A 49, 3022 (1994)].

  16. Utilizing the state of ENSO as a means for season-ahead predictor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Brian G.; Vimont, Daniel J.; Block, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces the Nino Index Phase Analysis (NIPA) framework for forecasting hydroclimatic variables on a seasonal time scale. Antecedent Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) are commonly used in statistical predictive frameworks for seasonal forecasting, however, the typical approach of evaluating all the years on record in one bin ("phase") does not often provide the level of skill required by decision makers. For many locations around the world, the most influential climate signal on the seasonal time scale is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and there are various indices used to capture the state of ENSO and provide this information. NIPA utilizes the state of ENSO to classify the years of record into four phases, operating under the hypothesis that ENSO itself is affecting the "mean state" of the atmospheric-oceanic system, and relevant teleconnections depend on and must be selected within these mean states. A case study focused on spring precipitation over the Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB) in Texas is chosen to illustrate NIPA's potential. Results show that correlations between wintertime SST fields and spring precipitation in the LCRB improve from 0.21 to 0.47 for the typical "one phase" and the NIPA "four-phase" approach, respectively. Even greater improvements are seen across tercile-based skill scores such as the Heidke Hit Skill Score and Ranked Probability Skill Score; skill is particularly strong for years exhibiting extreme wet or dry conditions. It also outperforms the North American Multi-Model Ensemble predictions across the LCRB for the selected seasons. This is encouraging as improved predictability through NIPA may translate to better decision-making for water managers.

  17. Characterizing featureless Mott insulating state by quasiparticle interference: A dynamical mean field theory view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    The quasiparticle interferences (QPIs) of the featureless Mott insulators are investigated by a T -matrix formalism implemented with the dynamical mean field theory (T -DMFT). In the Mott insulating state, due to the singularity at zero frequency in the real part of the electron self-energy [Re Σ (ω )˜η /ω ] predicted by DMFT, where η can be considered as the "order parameter" for the Mott insulating state, QPIs are completely washed out at small bias voltages. However, a further analysis shows that Re Σ (ω ) serves as an energy-dependent chemical potential shift. As a result, the effective bias voltage seen by the system is e V'=e V -Re Σ (e V ) , which leads to a critical bias voltage e Vc˜√{η } satisfying e V'=0 if and only if η is nonzero. Consequently, the same QPI patterns produced by the noninteracting Fermi surfaces appear at this critical bias voltage e Vc in the Mott insulating state. We propose that this reentry of noninteracting QPI patterns at e Vc could serve as an experimental signature of the Mott insulating state, and the order parameter can be experimentally measured as η ˜(eVc) 2 .

  18. The meaning of dreams in the psychotic state. Theoretical considerations and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, P; de Masi, F

    2001-10-01

    The authors consider that the Freudian theory of dreams is not directly applicable to psychotic and borderline patients with their constantly varying states of mental integration. Because these patients' dreams lack associations, the usual psychoanalytic approach cannot be used to ascertain their meaning. After reviewing the literature on the specific quality of dreams in the psychotic state, the authors point out that such dreams have nothing to do with the metaphorical language of the dream work but instead express the concreteness of the hallucinatory construction. For this reason, a dream's meaning may fail to be understood by the patient even if it seems clear to an observer. Yet the analyst's reception of a 'psychotic dream' is a unique and essential source of valuable information on the manner of construction of the delusional system, allowing analytic work on the psychotic nucleus. In the authors' view, such dreams may help the analyst and the patient--while still lucid--to acquire insight, thus affording a stable foundation for emergence from psychosis. The paper includes some case histories, in one of which a psychotic female patient is enabled by work on dreams to reconstruct a psychotic episode and thereby to ward off an imminent fresh lapse into psychosis.

  19. Mean field model for synchronization of coupled two-state units and the effect of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaff, D.; Lindenberg, K.

    2014-01-01

    A prototypical model for a mean field second order transition is presented, which is based on an ensemble of coupled two-states units. This system is used as a basic model to study the effect of memory. To wit, we distinguish two types of memories: weak and strong, depending on the feasibility of linearizing the generalized mean field master equation. For weak memory we find static solutions that behave much like those of the memoryless (Markovian) system. The latter exhibits a pitchfork bifurcation as the control parameter is increased, with two stable and one unstable solution. The former exhibits an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation to states with the same behaviors. In both cases, the stability of the static solutions is analyzed via the usual linearization around the equilibrium solution. For strong memories we again find an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation, with two stable and one unstable branch. However, it is no longer possible to analyze these behaviors via the usual linearization, which is local in time, because a strong memory requires knowledge of the system for its entire past. Finally, we are pleased to dedicate this publication to Helmut Brand on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  20. PV-θ view of the zonal mean state of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnout J. Van Delden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation between zonal mean potential vorticity (PV in potential temperature (θ coordinates and the zonal mean zonal wind in January and in July is studied. PV-anomalies are defined with respect to a reference state that is at rest with respect to the rotating earth. Two important PV-anomalies are identified. One PV-anomaly, the ‘Ex-UTLS PV-anomaly’, coincides approximately with the extratropical tropopause (310–360 K. It is a permanent feature of the zonal mean state. The other PV-anomaly is located higher in the stratosphere. It exhibits a strong seasonal cycle, i.e. in winter, it is strongly positive, while in summer, it is weakly negative. In the Northern Hemisphere winter, the Ex-UTLS PV-anomaly and the stratospheric PV-anomaly are separated by a ‘surf-zone’, which is characterised by a negative PV-anomaly pole-wards of a positive PV-anomaly. Piecewise PV-inversion reveals that (1 the Ex-UTLS PV-anomaly induces the westerly winds in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, including the subtropical jet, that (2 the positive stratospheric PV-anomaly induces the stratospheric polar night jet and that (3 the negative polar cap stratospheric PV-anomaly in summer reduces the westerly wind speeds in the troposphere and induces easterly winds in the stratosphere. The Ex-UTLS PV-anomaly is manifest mainly as an isentropic density- (or mass- anomaly. Piecewise PV-inversion of these anomalies in isolation should account for this by an appropriate adjustment of the lower boundary condition.

  1. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, Mandana; Hertz, John

    2004-01-01

    cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean-field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high-conductance states......Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1, indicating a tendency toward spikes being clustered. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced...... of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Ground State Properties of Ds Isotopes Within the Relativistic Mean Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海飞; 张鸿飞; 李君清

    2012-01-01

    The ground state properties of Ds (Z=110) isotopes (N=151-195) are studied in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with the effective interaction NL-Z2.The pairing correlation is treated within the conventional BCS approximation.The calculated binding energies are consistent with the results from finite-range droplet model (FRDM) and Macroscopic-microscopic method (MMM).The quadrupole deformation,α-decay energy,α-decay half-live,charge radius,two-neutron separation energy and single-particle spectra are analyzed for Ds isotopes to find new characteristics of superheavy nuclei (SHN).Among the calculated results it is rather distinct that the isotopic shift appears evidently at neutron number N=184.

  3. Ground-State Properties of Z = 59 Nuclei in the Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong; MA Zhong-Yu; CHEN Bao-Qiu; LI Jun-Qing

    2000-01-01

    Ground-state properties of Pr isotopes are studied in a framework of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory using the recently proposed parameter set TM1. Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pproximation and blocking method is adopted to deal with pairing interaction and the odd nucleon, respectively. The pairing forces are taken to be isospin dependent. The domain of the validity of the BCS theory and the positions of neutron and proton drip lines are studied. It is shown that RMF theory has provided a good description of the binding energy,isotope shifts and deformation of nuclei over a large range of Pr isotopes, which are in good agreement with those obtained in the finite-range droplet model.

  4. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE INNOVATIVE MEANS ON FUNCTIONAL STATE OF SECOND MATURITY WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konakova O.Y.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find influence of physical culture innovative means (combination of Pilates - exercises for body and mind - and program Port de bras (movements of arms and body on functional state of second maturity women. Material: 22 women of age from 50 to 55 were tested; they were divided into main and control groups. Control group practiced health related swimming; experimental group was trained by system Pilates and program Port de bras with application of special equipment. Results: it was found, that for confident changes in women’s functional systems it was necessary to practice trainings in zone of sub-maximal load (75-85% from maximal oxygen consumption; trainings in zone of low intensity do not give confident health related effect. Conclusions: At low and below average women’s physical fitness it is necessary to practice health related trainings in zone of low intensity (mean heart beats rate -90-115 beats per minute. For increasing trainings intensity it is necessary to raise women’s physical fitness.

  5. A Second Relativistic Mean Field and Virial Equation of State for Astrophysical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, G; O'Connor, E

    2011-01-01

    We generate a second equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter for a wide range of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions for use in supernovae, neutron star mergers, and black hole formation simulations. We employ full relativistic mean field (RMF) calculations for matter at intermediate density and high density, and the Virial expansion of a non-ideal gas for matter at low density. For this EOS we use the RMF effective interaction FSUGold, whereas our earlier EOS was based on the RMF effective interaction NL3. The FSUGold interaction has a lower pressure at high densities compared to the NL3 interaction. We calculate the resulting EOS at over 100,000 grid points in the temperature range $T$ = 0 to 80 MeV, the density range $n_B$ = 10$^{-8}$ to 1.6 fm$^{-3}$, and the proton fraction range $Y_p$ = 0 to 0.56. We then interpolate these data points using a suitable scheme to generate a thermodynamically consistent equation of state table on a finer grid. We discuss differences between this EOS, our NL3 ba...

  6. State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, J. Luis

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of different beyond mean field theories (BMFTs) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in many body nuclear physics with effective forces. In a first step a short reminder of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory is given. A general discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA), stemming either from the lack of the elementary symmetries (like particle number and angular momentum) or the absence of fluctuations around the mean values, is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is also needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. A whole chapter is devoted to illustrate with examples the convenience of recovering symmetries and the differences between the projection before and after the variation. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a big shortcoming inherent to this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom of the atomic nucleus. In the low energy part of the spectrum these are the quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle degrees of freedom. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of freedom are used as coordinates to generate, by the constrained (projected) HFB theory, a collective subspace. The highly correlated GCM wave function is finally written as a linear combination of a projected basis of this space. The variation of the coefficients of the linear combination leads to the Hill-Wheeler equation. The flexibility of the GCM Ansatz allows to describe a whole palette of physical situations by conveniently choosing the generator coordinates. We discuss the

  7. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States....

  8. Mean annual solar radiation in the United States Pacific Northwest (1991-2005) summarized for NHDPlus v2 catchments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent mean annual solar radiation in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States...

  9. PEOPLE RETRIEVAL BY MEANS OF COMPOSITE PICTURES: PROBLEM STATE-OF-THE-ART AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Kukharev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problem of people retrieval by means of composite pictures constructed according to descriptive portrait. An overview of the problem state-of-the-art is provided beginning from the basic concepts and terminology to a modern technology for composite picture creation, real-world scenarios and search results. The development history of systems for forming composite portraits (photo robots and sketches and the ideas implemented in these systems are provided. The problem of automatic comparison of composite pictures with the original ones is discussed, and the reasons for unattainability of stable retrieval of originals by a composite picture in real-world scenarios are revealed. Requirements to composite pictures databases in addition to the existing benchmark databases of facial images and also methods for implementation of such databases are formulated. Approaches for generation of sketches population from an initial one that increase effectiveness of identikit-based photo image retrieval systems are proposed. The method of similarity index increasing in the couple identikit-photograph based on computation of an average identikit from the created population is provided. It is shown that such composite pictures are more similar to original portraits and their use in the discussed search problem can lead to good results. Thus the created identikits meet the requirements of the truthful scenario as take into account the possibility of incomplete information in descriptions. Results of experiments on CUHK Face Sketch and CUHK Face Sketch FERET databases and also open access identikits and corresponding photos are discussed.

  10. Dynamical mean-field theory and path integral renormalisation group calculations of strongly correlated electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmann, D.B.

    2007-02-15

    The two-plane HUBBARD model, which is a model for some electronic properties of undoped YBCO superconductors as well as displays a MOTT metal-to-insulator transition and a metal-to-band insulator transition, is studied within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory using HIRSCH-FYE Monte Carlo. In order to find the different transitions and distinguish the types of insulator, we calculate the single-particle spectral densities, the self-energies and the optical conductivities. We conclude that there is a continuous transition from MOTT to band insulator. In the second part, ground state properties of a diagonally disordered HUBBARD model is studied using a generalisation of Path Integral Renormalisation Group, a variational method which can also determine low-lying excitations. In particular, the distribution of antiferromagnetic properties is investigated. We conclude that antiferromagnetism breaks down in a percolation-type transition at a critical disorder, which is not changed appreciably by the inclusion of correlation effects, when compared to earlier studies. Electronic and excitation properties at the system sizes considered turn out to primarily depend on the geometry. (orig.)

  11. The impact of mean state errors on equatorial Atlantic interannual variability in a climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Keenlyside, Noel; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Wahl, Sebastian

    2015-02-01

    Observations show that the Equatorial Atlantic Zonal Mode (ZM) obeys similar physics to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO): positive Bjerknes and delayed negative feedbacks. This implies the ZM may be predictable on seasonal timescales, but models demonstrate little prediction skill in this region. In this study using different configurations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) exhibiting different levels of systematic error, we show that a reasonable simulation of the ZM depends on realistic representation of the mean state, i.e., surface easterlies along the equator, upward sloping thermocline to the east, with an equatorial SST cold tongue in the east. We further attribute the differences in interannual variability among the simulations to the individual components of the positive Bjerknes and delayed negative feedbacks. Differences in the seasonality of the variability are similarly related to the impact of seasonal biases on the Bjerknes feedback. Our results suggest that model physics must be enhanced to enable skillful seasonal predictions in the Tropical Atlantic Sector, although some improvement with regard to the simulation of Equatorial Atlantic interannual variability may be achieved by momentum flux correction. This pertains especially to the seasonal phase locking of interannual SST variability.

  12. Operating in the Dark: What Outdated State Policies and Data Gaps Mean for Effective School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kerri; Cheney, Gretchen Rhines; Davis, Jacquelyn; Moll, Kerry Ann

    2013-01-01

    The "Principal Policy State Survey" is a first-of-its-kind effort to capture the current state of affairs in state principal preparation, licensure policy, principal tenure, and data collection on the output of these policies. This report explores how states are using their authority to increase the supply of effective principals focused…

  13. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  14. Verification of Monthly Mean Forecasts for Fire Weather Elements in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Willlam H.; Charney, Joseph J.; McCutchan, Morris H.; Benoit, John W.

    1996-12-01

    The authors first review a system for specifying monthly mean anomalies of midday temperature (T), dew-point (D), and wind speed (W) at a large network of surface stations across the United States. Multiple regression equations containing approximately three terms were derived for each element and month from concurrent fields of 700-mb height anomaly (H) observed over North America and vicinity, plus the previous month's observed local anomaly of T, D, or W, during the 20-year period 1964-1983. Results of testing this forecast system on prognostic values of H prepared twice a month at the National Weather Service from 1973 to 1990 and on observed values of H during the independent period from 1984 to 1990 are presented.The authors pooled the data for all months and 122 stations to compute Heidke skill scores (HSS) for two, three, four, and five classes for each weather element. All scores showed skill that dropped steadily as the number of classes increased. In all cases skill was highest for T and lowest for W, the same result as that obtained in the original derivation. In order to examine the distribution of skill, we computed the HSS separately for each class. The skill scores for the first and last classes were greater than those for the middle class for all elements and months. It is encouraging that forecasts above the 90th percentile, the most critical category for fire potential, consistently showed greater skill than forecasts for any other class. Geographical and seasonal variations of skill based on prognostic height was also examined. The results showed that skill is strongly dependent on location, month, and weather element. Mean annual scores were positive for each element in all parts of the country, while monthly scores were highest in January and lowest in October.Although the forecasts based on prognostic heights were more skillful than climatology for all weather elements, they improved over month-to-month persistence only for T and D. If the

  15. Mean-field theory of random-site q-state Potts models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enter, Aernout; Hemmen, Jan Leonard van; Pospiech, C.

    1988-01-01

    A class of random-site mean-field Potts models is introduced and solved exactly. The bifurcation properties of the resulting mean-field equations are analysed in detail. Particular emphasis is put on the relation between the solutions and the underlying symmetries of the model. It turns out that, in

  16. Mean-field studies of time reversal breaking states in super-heavy nuclei with the Gogny force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, L. M., E-mail: luis.robledo@uam.es [Departamento Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Recent progress on the description of time reversal breaking (odd mass and multi-quasiparticle excitation) states in super-heavy nuclei within a mean field framework and using several flavors of the Gogny interaction is reported. The study includes ground and excited states in selected odd mass isotopes of nobelium and mendelevium as well as high K isomeric states in {sup 254}No. These are two and four-quasiparticle excitations that are treated in the same self-consistent HFB plus blocking framework as the odd mass states.

  17. Multi-Species Temperature and Proxy Reconstructions of the Tropical Pacific Mean State across Marine Isotope Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, J. E.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    The current climatic mean state of the Pacific is characterized by trade wind induced upwelling of cold water in the east and accumulation of warm surface waters in the west, resulting in a strong E-W sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The initiation and propagation of ENSO events are due to perturbations in this system. Changes in the mean state have the potential to alter ENSO-related processes, feedbacks, and properties. However, it remains unclear how ENSO feedbacks interact as the mean state changes - an increasingly important question as current climate warms, potentially altering the mean state. Here, we use the abrupt climate warming events of Marine Isotope Stage 3 from 32-64 kyr as a natural experiment for understanding how the tropical Pacific mean state varied across past periods of rapid climate warming. We measured Mg/Ca ratios in the thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera N. dutertrei as a proxy for thermocline temperature variability from Eastern Pacific sediment core MV1014-17JC (0°10.8'S, 85°52.0'W). Reconstructing subsurface temperatures removes the seasonal cycle imprint on SSTs, and instead, thermocline temperatures vary with ENSO conditions. Our record reveals that interstadial warming events are characterized by a more El Niño-like mean state, characterized by increased thermocline temperatures up to 6°C. Thermocline warming events are more pronounced from 64-44 kyr when overall global climate was in a warmer state. Moving from 44-32 kyr, our record shows cooler thermocline temperatures, suggesting a shift to a more La Niña-like mean state, as climate began transitioning into the Glacial Maximum. We also measured Mg/Ca ratios in the surface dwelling planktonic foraminifera G. ruber. Our G. ruber SST record displays the same cooling trend as the N. dutertrei record from 64-32 kyr. SSTs cool 1-1.5°C while thermocline temperatures cool 2.5-3°C. Preliminary comparison with a SST record from the Western Pacific suggests a

  18. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism-denial experiments using Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model are conducted to investigate the importance of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, wind-evaporation feedback, and radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes when processes are turned off in the model. Here time-invariant forcing and nudging on effective timescales longer than the intraseasonal timescale are implemented to maintain the mean state. The MJO activity remains largely unchanged with suppressed extratropical and circumnavigating waves when the mean state is maintained to be close to that of the control run, suggesting that excitation of MJO by extratropical and circumnavigating waves is not necessary for the existence of MJO in this model. It is also shown that the wind-evaporation feedback slows down eastward propagation of the MJO, and the radiative-convective feedback amplifies the MJO.

  19. Vive la Difference: What It Means for State Boards to Embrace Two Models for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarick, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The charter school model differs fundamentally from the district-based model of public education delivery that is still dominant in every state. Instead of creating government bodies that directly operate all of an area's public schools, the state approves entities that authorize and oversee schools run by nonprofit organizations. In this article,…

  20. MORTGAGE MARKET AS A MEAN OF ACHIEVING THE STATE FINANCIAL POLICIES OBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romaniuk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways to ensure the implementation of financial policies of the state through the mortgage market: capital accumulation, expansion of house construction, providing social development. It is analyzed main advantages and disadvantages of foreign models of the mortgage market and the role of the state in them.

  1. Class Size: What Research Says and What It Means for State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction…

  2. Estimated mean annual natural ground-water recharge in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer resolution raster (grid) dataset is an index of mean annual natural ground-water recharge. The dataset was created by multiplying a grid of...

  3. Modeling of meaning acquisition based on NL phrases using state transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cretu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop techniques for the meaning acquisition of the NL phrases. Our approach is based on modeling meaning extraction by analyzing lexical component, syntactic component and semantic component of the phrases written or spoken in NL. To assure necessary semantic precision we adopt a double-level interpretation of the NL phrases using formal language with well defined semantics. This fact is essential for our approach.

  4. Mean Monthly Evaporation Atlas for the Contiguous 48 United States (1956-1970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — TR-33: Maps are presented showing the areal distribution in the contiguous 48 states of evaporation (1) observed from Class A pans from from May through October, (2)...

  5. Mean-variance portfolio optimization with state-dependent risk aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoerk, Tomas; Murgoci, Agatha; Zhou, Xun Yu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the mean-variance portfolio optimization in continuous time. Since this problem is time inconsistent we attack it by placing the problem within a game theoretic framework and look for subgame perfect Nash equilibrium strategies. This particular problem has...

  6. Observed Lagrangian Transition of Stratocumulus into Cumulus during ASTEX: Mean State and Turbulence Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, S.R. de; Duynkerke, P.G.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft measurements made during the "First Lagrangian" of the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) between 12 and 14 June 1992 are presented. During this Lagrangian experiment an air mass was followed that was advected southward by the mean wind. Five aircraft flights were undertak

  7. Efficient estimation of time-mean states of ocean models using 4D-Var and implicit time-stepping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.D.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for estimating a time-mean state of an ocean model subject to given observations using implicit time-stepping. The new method uses (i) an implicit implementation of the 4D-Var method to fit the model trajectory to the observations, and (ii) a preprocessor which applies

  8. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  9. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  10. The ground state energy of the mean field spin glass model

    CERN Document Server

    Koukiou, Flora

    2008-01-01

    From the study of a functional equation of Gibbs measures we calculate the limiting free energy of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model at a particular value of (low) temperature. This implies the following lower bound for the ground state energy $\\epsilon_0$ \\[\\epsilon_0\\geq -0.7833...,\\] close to the replica symmetry breaking and numerical simulations values.

  11. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  12. Ground state correlations and mean-field in $^{16}O$, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, B; Mihaila, Bogdan; Heisenberg, Jochen H.

    2000-01-01

    We continue the investigations of the $^{16}$O ground state using the coupled-cluster expansion [$\\exp({\\bf S})$] method with realistic nuclear interaction. In this stage of the project, we take into account the three nucleon interaction, and examine in some detail the definition of the internal Hamiltonian, thus trying to correct for the center-of-mass motion. We show that this may result in a better separation of the internal and center-of-mass degrees of freedom in the many-body nuclear wave function. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the "theoretical" charge form factor and charge density. Using the "theoretical" charge density, we generate the charge form factor in the DWBA picture, which is then compared with the available experimental data. The longitudinal response function in inclusive electron scattering for $^{16}$O is also computed.

  13. Levitation of Extended States in a Random Magnetic Field with a Finite Mean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Sheng; LEI Xiao-Lin

    2004-01-01

    We study the localization properties of electrons in a two-dimensional system in a random magnetic field B(r) = Bo + δB(r) with the average Bo and the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations δB. The localization length of the system is calculated by using the finite-size scaling method combined with the transfer-matrix technique.Inthe case of weak δB, we find that the random magnetic field system is equivalent to the integer quantum Hall effect system, namely, the energy band splits into a series of disorder broadened Landau bands, at the centers of which states are extended with the localization length exponent v = 2.34 ± 0.02. With increasing δB, the extended states float up in energy, which is similar to the levitation scenario proposed for the integer quantum Hall effect.

  14. ENSO feedbacks and their relationships with the mean state in a flux adjusted ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrett, Samantha; Collins, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is governed by a combination of amplifying and damping ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in the equatorial Pacific. Here we quantify these feedbacks in a flux adjusted HadCM3 perturbed physics ensemble under present day conditions and a future emissions scenario using the Bjerknes Stability Index (BJ index). Relationships between feedbacks and both the present day biases and responses under climate change of the mean equatorial Pacific climate are investigated. Despite minimised mean sea surface temperature biases through flux adjustment, the important dominant ENSO feedbacks still show biases with respect to observed feedbacks and inter-ensemble diversity. The dominant positive thermocline and zonal advective feedbacks are found to be weaker in ensemble members with stronger mean zonal advection. This is due to a weaker sensitivity of the thermocline slope and zonal surface ocean currents in the east Pacific to surface wind stress anomalies. A drier west Pacific is also found to be linked to weakened shortwave and latent heat flux damping, suggesting a link between ENSO characteristics and the hydrological cycle. In contrast to previous studies using the BJ index that find positive relationships between the index and ENSO amplitude, here they are weakly or negatively correlated, both for present day conditions and for projected differences. This is caused by strong thermodynamic damping which dominates over positive feedbacks, which alone approximate ENSO amplitude well. While the BJ index proves useful for individual linear feedback analysis, we urge caution in using the total linear BJ index alone to assess the reasons for ENSO amplitude biases and its future change in models.

  15. The government of state's power bodies by means of the Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Bercea, L; Ungureanu, C

    2010-01-01

    The electronic government involves developing the informational society, which refers to an economy and a society in which the access, acquisition, memorizing, taking, transmitting, spreading and using the knowledge accede to a decisive role. The informational society involves changes in the domains of administration (e-Government), business (electronic commerce and e-business), education (long distance education), culture (multimedia centers and virtual libraries), mass- media (TV, video advertising panels), and in the labor manner (tele-work and virtual commuting).The e-government refers to the interaction between the Government, Parliament and other public institutions with the citizens by the electronic means.

  16. Masses, Deformations and Charge Radii--Nuclear Ground-State Properties in the Relativistic Mean Field Model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Meng, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the ground-state properties of all the nuclei from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line throughout the periodic table employing the relativistic mean field model. The TMA parameter set is used for the mean-field Lagrangian density, and a state-dependent BCS method is adopted to describe the pairing correlation. The ground-state properties of a total of 6969 nuclei with $Z,N\\ge 8$ and $Z\\le 100$ from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line, including the binding energies, the separation energies, the deformations, and the rms charge radii, are calculated and compared with existing experimental data and those of the FRDM and HFB-2 mass formulae. This study provides the first complete picture of the current status of the descriptions of nuclear ground-state properties in the relativistic mean field model. The deviations from existing experimental data indicate either that new degrees of freedom are needed, such as triaxial deformations, or that serious effort is ne...

  17. Links of meaning: some linguistic considerations on an application of the mini mental state examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heronides Moura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show that Cognitive Linguistics can provide the tools for a more fine-grained analysis of the results of the Mini Mental State Examination, which is used by clinicians to help diagnose Alzheimer dementia. First, it will be considered the structure of a sentence said by a patient, in an application of the test. Secondly, it will be examined the change of words performed by a patient. We try to show that this change was meaningful, from a cognitive point of view and not a simple error.

  18. What does it mean to be pseudo single domain? Demystifying the PSD state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, I.; Harrison, R. J.; Einsle, J. F.; Ball, M.

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, non-interacting stable single domain grains were thought to be the sole reliable paleomagnetic recorders. However most natural samples contain so-called "non-ideal" paleomagnetic recorders, which are either interacting single domain particles, or magnetic grains larger than single domain grains, but smaller than proper multi domain grains, which are poor paleomagnetic recorders. The grain size range for these recorders, which for magnetite comprises grains from 100 nm to a few μm in size, is known as the pseudo single domain (PSD) state. Natural samples containing abundant PSD grains have been shown time and again to reliably record thermomagnetic remanent magnetizations that are stable over billions of years. Here we attempt to shed new light on the PSD state by investigating obsidian varieties found at Glass Butte, Oregon, which present the opportunity to study simple cases of magnetic grains encapsulated in volcanic glass. We do this by combining rock magnetism, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) nanotomography, and finite-element micromagnetic modeling. Using rock magnetism we have identified PSD signatures in these samples via their fingerprint in first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams. Tomographic reconstructions obtained by stacking SEM images acquired via sequential milling through sample volumes of a few tens of cubic μm reveal the presence of abundant grains that span the PSD grain size interval. These grains have a variety of shapes, from simple ellipsoidal particles, to more complex morphologies attained through the coalescence of neighboring grains during crystallization, to intricate "rolling snowball" morphologies in larger grains that contain appendices formed as a result of particle growth in a dynamic environment as the flowing lava cooled. Micromagnetic modeling of the simplest morphologies reveals that these grains are in single vortex states, with the remanence controlled by irregularities in grain morphology. Coalesced

  19. Mean-field state population study for iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zheng, Fa-Wei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-02-01

    The occupation number distribution in momentum space are theoretically studied within a two-orbital model, which can be unified describing the low-energy physics of the iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides. The mean-field approximation of Hubbard interaction is employed. By tuning the hopping parameters, the difference between the iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides in their occupation number distribution behavior can be clearly observed. The results show that when the pairing interaction tends to zero, the occupation number n (k) ≈ 0 at Γ point for iron chalcogenides while n (k) ≈ 2 at Γ point for iron pnictides. By increasing the strength of the pairing interaction to a large value, the change of n (k) at Γ point for iron chalcogenides (pnictides) is remarkable (unremarkable). In addition, we find that the effect of the nearest-neighbor coupling between the two layers, contained in the S4 model [Hu and Hao, (2012) [33

  20. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and cluster states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is “extensive” in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.

  1. Landau-like theory for universality of critical exponents in quasistationary states of isolated mean-field systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.

    2015-06-01

    An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.

  2. Landau-like theory for universality of critical exponents in quasistationary states of isolated mean-field systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

    2015-06-01

    An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.

  3. To the Question of Information Security and Providing State and Municipal Services by Means of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Galushkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author investigates interconnected questions of information security and providing state and municipal services by means of the global information Internet. Author analyzes opinions of the number of leading Russian and foreign experts and scientists. In the summary author draws a conclusion that implementation of rules of law answering to modern realities and also fruitful work of law enforcement and supervisory authorities regarding law application practice improvement is necessary for information security and human rights protection.

  4. Application of multivariate analysis of vari-ance (MANOVA to distance refractive vari-ability and mean distance refractive state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abelman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractive state can be regarded as a dynam-ic quantity. Multiple measurements of refractive state can be determined easily and rapidly on a number of different occasions using an autore-fractor. In an experimental trial undertaken by Gillan, a 30-year-old female was subjected to 30 autorefractor measurements each taken at vari-ous intervals before and after the instillation of Mydriacyl 1% (tropicamide into her right eye. The purpose of this paper is to apply multivar-iate analysis of variance (MANOVA to Gillan’s sample data in order to assess whether instillation of Mydriacyl into the eye affects variability of distance refractive state as well as mean distance refractive state as measured by an autorefractor. In  five  of  the  seven  cases  where  pairwise hypotheses  tests  were  performed,  it  is  con-cluded that at a 99% level of confidence there is no difference in variability of distance refrac-tive state before and after cycloplegia. In two of the three cases where MANOVA was applied, there is a significant difference at a 95% and at a 99% level of confidence in both variability of distance refractive state and mean distance refractive  state  with  and  without  cycloplegia.

  5. Classification of Four-Qubit States by Means of a Stochastic Local Operation and the Classical Communication Invariant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Xin-Wei; MA Gang-Long

    2011-01-01

    It is a recent observation that entanglement classification for qubits is closely related to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) invariants. Verstraete et al.[Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002)052112] showed that for pure states of four qubits there are nine different degenerate SLOCC entanglement classes. Li et al.[Phys.Rev. A 76 (2007)052311] showed that there are at least 28 distinct true SLOCC entanglement classes for four qubits by means of the SLOCC invariant and semi-invariant. We give 16 different entanglement classes for four qubits by means of basic SLOCC invariants.%@@ It is a recent observation that entanglement classification for qubits is closely related to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) invariants.Verstraete et al.[Phys.Rev.A 65(2002)052112] showed that for pure states of four qubits there are nine different degenerate SLOCC entanglement classes.Li et al.[Phys.Rev.A 76(2007)052311] showed that there are at least 28 distinct true SLOCC entanglement classes for four qubits by means of the SLOCC invariant and semi-invariant.We give 16 different entanglement classes for four qubits by means of basic SLOCC invariants.

  6. EXISTENTIAL SENTENCES AS A MEANS OF REPRESENTATION OF THE “STATE OF NATURE” TYPICAL PROPOSITION IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selemeneva, O.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the multifunctionality property of existential sentences in the Russian language. The author believes that the structural scheme “There + be + Noun(object/person+Adverbial modifier of Place (AMPlace” that forms the basis of existential sentences, serves not only as a specialized sign of the “existence of the object” proposition, but also as an unspecialized sign of the “state of nature” proposition. This becomes possible due to the constitutive components of the schema being filled with specific lexical content in course of its speech realization. Thus, when functioning in a “state of nature” typical proposition, the component that formally occupies the “subject/object of the existence” position is verbalized through lexemes having a seme denoting “state” and is seen as a predicate, the other component bearing the “locus of existence” meaning is viewed as a locative subject. Changing the signified of “There + be +Noun(object/person+AMPlace” structural scheme (‘existence of the object” into the “state of nature” leads to correcting this structural scheme nomination (from “There + be + Noun(object/person + AMPlace” to “There+be+Noun(state of nature+AMPlace”. Utterances produced according to “There+be+Noun(state of nature+AMPlace” structural scheme are diverse and can be further classified into several subgroups based on the type of the manifestation of the state of nature.

  7. Modeling attainment of steady state of drug concentration in plasma by means of a Bayesian approach using MCMC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul; Brunschwig, Hadassa; Luedin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The approach of Bayesian mixed effects modeling is an appropriate method for estimating both population-specific as well as subject-specific times to steady state. In addition to pure estimation, the approach allows to determine the time until a certain fraction of individuals of a population has reached steady state with a pre-specified certainty. In this paper a mixed effects model for the parameters of a nonlinear pharmacokinetic model is used within a Bayesian framework. Model fitting by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods as implemented in the Gibbs sampler as well as the extraction of estimates and probability statements of interest are described. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated by application to trough data from a multiple dose clinical trial.

  8. Amplitude death and synchronized states in nonlinear time-delay systems coupled through mean-field diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tanmoy; Biswas, Debabrata

    2013-12-01

    We explore and experimentally demonstrate the phenomena of amplitude death (AD) and the corresponding transitions through synchronized states that lead to AD in coupled intrinsic time-delayed hyperchaotic oscillators interacting through mean-field diffusion. We identify a novel synchronization transition scenario leading to AD, namely transitions among AD, generalized anticipatory synchronization (GAS), complete synchronization (CS), and generalized lag synchronization (GLS). This transition is mediated by variation of the difference of intrinsic time-delays associated with the individual systems and has no analogue in non-delayed systems or coupled oscillators with coupling time-delay. We further show that, for equal intrinsic time-delays, increasing coupling strength results in a transition from the unsynchronized state to AD state via in-phase (complete) synchronized states. Using Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory, we derive the stability conditions that predict the parametric region of occurrence of GAS, GLS, and CS; also, using a linear stability analysis, we derive the condition of occurrence of AD. We use the error function of proper synchronization manifold and a modified form of the similarity function to provide the quantitative support to GLS and GAS. We demonstrate all the scenarios in an electronic circuit experiment; the experimental time-series, phase-plane plots, and generalized autocorrelation function computed from the experimental time series data are used to confirm the occurrence of all the phenomena in the coupled oscillators.

  9. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving.

  10. The role of the cold sector of extratropical cyclones in setting atmospheric mean state features of the Gulf Stream basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannière, Benoît; Czaja, Arnaud; Dacre, Helen; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which the Gulf Stream SST front anchors a band of precipitation on its warm edge is still a matter of debate and little is known about how synoptic activity contributes to shape precipitation mean state pattern. In this talk, we introduce a new indicator for the cold sector of extratropical storms based on low-level PV. This indicator is used in ERA interim data to separate the cold sector contribution to precipitation and vertical wind from the contribution of the rest of the storm. We find that cold sector precipitation forms a band following the SST front closely. In contrast, the enhanced ascent on the warm edge of the front is set primarily by the warm sector and cannot be directly related to the precipitation band as proposed by previous studies. Numerical sensitivity experiments of an extratropical cyclone passing over different sets of SST further confirms that the anchoring effect of the SST front on precipitation comes exclusively from the cold sector. These results lead us to revisit the atmospheric boundary layer model proposed to describe air-sea interactions over the Gulf-Stream SST gradient. Finally, we explore the role of the cold sector convection in restoring baroclinicity in the wake of an extratropical cyclone.

  11. Relative Contributions of Mean-State Shifts and ENSO-Driven Variability to Precipitation Changes in a Warming Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfils, Celine; Santer, Benjamin D.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Marvel, Kate; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Doutriaux, Charles; Capotondi, Antonietta

    2015-12-15

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important driver of regional hydroclimate variability through far-reaching teleconnections. Most climate models project an increase in the frequency of extreme El Niño events under increased greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing. However, it is unclear how other aspects of ENSO and ENSO-driven teleconnections will evolve in the future. Here, we identify in 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) observations a time-invariant ENSO-like (ENSOL) pattern that is largely uncontaminated by GHG forcing. We use this pattern to investigate the future precipitation (P) response to ENSO-like SST anomalies. Models that better capture observed ENSOL characteristics produce P teleconnection patterns that are in better accord with observations and more stationary in the 21st century. We decompose the future P response to ENSOL into the sum of three terms: (1) the change in P mean state, (2) the historical P response to ENSOL, and (3) a future enhancement in the P response to ENSOL. In many regions, this last term can aggravate the P extremes associated with ENSO variability. This simple decomposition allows us to identify regions likely to experience ENSOL-induced P changes that are without precedent in the current climate.

  12. The meaning of postponed motherhood for women in the United States and Sweden: aspects of feminism and radical timing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles-Nyström, B

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study considered certain psychosocial, medical, and cultural aspects of the phenomenon of postponed motherhood for one cohort of white women born between 1947 and 1953 in Sweden and the United States. A cross-cultural comparison was made of the experience of pregnancy and the early perinatal period in 15 American and 16 Swedish women to find out (a) whether timing decisions reflected the influence of feminist ideology toward a reproductive strategy radically different from the conventional one, and (b) whether the pattern of delayed motherhood was culture specific. Results indicated that the patterns of delayed motherhood were culture specific. Feminist ideology clearly influenced the timing of the American women's first birth but was evident in Sweden. Women in the U.S. exhibited more nonconventional behaviors and attitudes, whereas Swedish women were more conventional. However, the husbands in both groups were remarkably similar in infant caretaking behaviors, regardless of culture and level of education attainment. These findings indicate postponed motherhood has different meanings in the cultural context of these two Western industrialized societies.

  13. Operating in the Dark: What Outdated State Policies and Data Gaps Mean for Effective School Leadership. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Kerri; Cheney, Gretchen Rhines; Davis, Jacquelyn; Moll, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The "Principal Policy State Survey" is a first-of-its-kind effort to capture the current state of affairs in state principal preparation, licensure policy, principal tenure, and data collection on the output of these policies. This report explores how states are using their authority to increase the supply of effective principals focused…

  14. Uncompensated Care Burden May Mean Financial Vulnerability For Rural Hospitals In States That Did Not Expand Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Noles, Marissa; Pink, George H

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of the Affordable Care Act has led to a large decrease in the number of uninsured people. Yet uncompensated care will still occur, particularly in states where eligibility for Medicaid is not expanded. We compared rural hospitals in Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states in terms of the amount of uncompensated care they provided and their profitability and market characteristics in 2013. We found that rural hospitals in expansion states provided more dollars of uncompensated care than those in nonexpansion states and that the difference was at least partly driven by greater uncompensated costs associated with public programs such as Medicaid. We found higher dollar values of unrecoverable debt and charity care among non-critical access rural hospitals in nonexpansion states than among those in expansion states. Compared to hospitals in expansion states, those in nonexpansion states provided greater amounts of uncompensated care as a percentage of revenues and appeared to be more financially vulnerable; thus, these hospitals may be more likely to experience financial pressure or losses. Policy makers need to formulate strategies for maintaining access to care for rural populations residing in nonexpansion states. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mean Infiltration-Excess Overland Flow, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean value for infiltration-excess overland flow as estimated by the watershed model TOPMODEL, compiled for every catchment of...

  16. Mean-square exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching based on vector Lyapunov functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Quanxin

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the mean-square exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. By using the vector Lyapunov function and property of M-matrix, two generalized Halanay inequalities are established. By means of the generalized Halanay inequalities, sufficient conditions are also obtained, which can ensure the exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the derived results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of the density, density effect and mean excitation energy in solid-state detectors for small photon fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Pedro; Benmakhlouf, Hamza

    2017-02-01

    A number of recent publications on small photon beam dosimetry aim at contributing to the understanding of the response of solid-state detectors in small fields. Some of them assign the difference in response to the mass density, or to the electron density, of the sensitive detector material relative to that of water. This work analyses the role of the mass and electron density (ρ,{{n}\\text{e}} ), density effect (δ) and mean excitation energy (I-value) of some detector materials in a 6 MV photon beam of 0.5 cm radius, its rationale being that the response of a detector depends critically on the stopping-power ratio detector-to-water. The influence on the detector response of volume scaling by electron density, and of electron single and multiple scattering, is also investigated. Detector materials are water, diamond and silicon, and additional materials are included for consistency in the analysis. A detailed analysis on the (ρ,I,δ ) dependence of stopping-power ratios shows that the density effect δ depends both on the electron density and on the I-value of the medium, but not on the mass density ρ alone as is usually assumed. This leads to a double dependence of stopping-power ratios on the I-value and questions the adequacy of a ‘density perturbation factor’ or of common interpretations of detector response in terms of ρ alone. Differences in response can be described in terms of the variation of stopping power ratios detector-to-water, mainly due to different I-values and to a lesser extent to different values of electron density. It is found that at low energies the trend of Monte Carlo-calculated electron fluence spectra inside the detector materials depends solely on their I-values. No dependence on mass density or density effect alone is observed at any energy. The trend of restricted-cema ratios to water (as a substitute of absorbed dose ratios) follows that of stopping-power ratios at 1 MeV, the most probable energy of differential

  18. Estimation of Time-Varying Channel State Transition Probabilities for Cognitive Radio Systems by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbulut

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied for the estimation of the channel state transition probabilities. Unlike most other studies, where the channel state transition probabilities are assumed to be known and/or constant, in this study, these values are realistically considered to be time-varying parameters, which are unknown to the secondary users of the cognitive radio systems. The results of this study demonstrate the following: without any a priori information about the channel characteristics, even in a very transient environment, it is quite possible to achieve reasonable estimates of channel state transition probabilities with a practical and simple implementation.

  19. High-pressure magnetic state of MnP probed by means of muon-spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.; Bonfà, P.; Guguchia, Z.; Luetkens, H.; Morenzoni, E.; De Renzi, R.; Zhigadlo, N. D.

    2016-05-01

    We report a detailed muon-spin rotation study of the pressure evolution of the magnetic order in the manganese-based pnictide MnP, which has been recently found to undergo a superconducting transition under pressure once the magnetic ground state is suppressed. Using the muon as a volume sensitive local magnetic probe, we identify a ferromagnetic state as well as two incommensurate helical states (with propagation vectors Q aligned along the crystallographic c and b directions, respectively) which transform into each other through first-order phase transitions as a function of pressure and temperature. Our data suggest that the magnetic state from which superconductivity develops at higher pressures is an incommensurate helical phase.

  20. Manipulation of the surface density of states of Ag(111) by means of resonators: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J.; Moro-Lagares, María; Serrate, D.; Aligia, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the density of surface Shockley states of Ag(111) probed by the differential conductance G (V )=d I /d V by a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) can be enhanced significantly at certain energies and positions introducing simple arrays of Co or Ag atoms on the surface, in contrast to other noble-metal surfaces. Specifically we have studied resonators consisting of two parallel walls of five atoms deposited on the clean Ag(111) surface. A simple model in which the effect of the adatoms is taken into account by an attractive local potential and a small hybridization between surface and bulk at the position of the adatoms explains the main features of the observed G (V ) and allows us to extract the proportion of surface and bulk states sensed by the STM tip. These results might be relevant to engineer the surface spectral density of states, to study the effects of surface states on the Kondo effect, and to separate bulk and surface contributions in STM studies of topological surface states.

  1. Kinematic Features of the Large-Scale Mean State Phase II of Gate and Comparison with Phase III Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    isotachs for six levels in the atmosphere and calculated mean divergence and relative vorticity at these levels. Estoque and Douglas (1978) discussed...analysis. Estoque and Douglas (1978) suggest that: The pattern of rainfall, cloudiness and water vapor indicate the existence of a vertical cir

  2. Meaning-Construction in warring states philosophical discourse : a discussion of the palaeographic materials from Tomb Guōdiàn One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    This book analyzes a defined corpus of philosophic texts from the Warring States period. It treats texts as objects in their own right and, in a broad sense, discusses the relationship between material conditions of text and manuscript culture, writing, techniques of meaning-construction, and philos

  3. Verification of joint input-state estimation for force identification by means of in situ measurements on a footbridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, K.; Nimmen, K. Van; Lourens, E.; Rezayat, A.; Guillaume, P.; Roeck, G. De; Lombaert, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a verification of a joint input-state estimation algorithm using data obtained from in situ experiments on a footbridge. The estimation of the input and the system states is performed in a minimum-variance unbiased way, based on a limited number of response measurements and a system model. A dynamic model of the footbridge is obtained using a detailed finite element model that is updated using a set of experimental modal characteristics. The joint input-state estimation algorithm is used for the identification of two impact, harmonic, and swept sine forces applied to the bridge deck. In addition to these forces, unknown stochastic forces, such as wind loads, are acting on the structure. These forces, as well as measurement errors, give rise to uncertainty in the estimated forces and system states. Quantification of the uncertainty requires determination of the power spectral density of the unknown stochastic excitation, which is identified from the structural response under ambient loading. The verification involves comparing the estimated forces with the actual, measured forces. Although a good overall agreement is obtained between the estimated and measured forces, modeling errors prohibit a proper distinction between multiple forces applied to the structure for the case of harmonic and swept sine excitation.

  4. Low frequency steady-state brain responses modulate large scale functional networks in a frequency-specific means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Feng; Long, Zhiliang; Cui, Qian; Liu, Feng; Jing, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Heng; Guo, Xiao-Nan; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Neural oscillations are essential for brain functions. Research has suggested that the frequency of neural oscillations is lower for more integrative and remote communications. In this vein, some resting-state studies have suggested that large scale networks function in the very low frequency range (brain networks because both resting-state studies and conventional frequency tagging approaches cannot simultaneously capture multiple large scale networks in controllable cognitive activities. In this preliminary study, we aimed to examine whether large scale networks can be modulated by task-induced low frequency steady-state brain responses (lfSSBRs) in a frequency-specific pattern. In a revised attention network test, the lfSSBRs were evoked in the triple network system and sensory-motor system, indicating that large scale networks can be modulated in a frequency tagging way. Furthermore, the inter- and intranetwork synchronizations as well as coherence were increased at the fundamental frequency and the first harmonic rather than at other frequency bands, indicating a frequency-specific modulation of information communication. However, there was no difference among attention conditions, indicating that lfSSBRs modulate the general attention state much stronger than distinguishing attention conditions. This study provides insights into the advantage and mechanism of lfSSBRs. More importantly, it paves a new way to investigate frequency-specific large scale brain activities.

  5. Contemporary Internet as a Means for Leveling Social Inequality in the Context of Relationships between Civil Society and the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronchev, Gennadi B.; Monakhov, Danila N.; Kovalchuk, Valerii K.

    2016-01-01

    The topicality of the research depends on the existence of social inequality which emerges as various social groups of the civil society interact with the state. With regard to this, the paper aims to find out the relation between the current social stratification and the usage level of modern information and communication technologies by…

  6. Ground state correlations and mean field in 16O. II. Effects of a three-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Heisenberg, Jochen H.

    2000-05-01

    We continue the investigations of the 16O ground state using the coupled-cluster expansion [exp(S)] method with realistic nuclear interaction. In this stage of the project, we take into account the three nucleon interaction, and examine in some detail the definition of the internal Hamiltonian, thus trying to correct for the center-of-mass motion. We show that this may result in a better separation of the internal and center-of-mass degrees of freedom in the many-body nuclear wave function. The resulting ground state wave function is used to calculate the ``theoretical'' charge form factor and charge density. Using the ``theoretical'' charge density, we generate the charge form factor in the DWBA picture, which is then compared with the available experimental data. The longitudinal response function in inclusive electron scattering for 16O is also computed.

  7. Characterization of surface metallic states in SrTiO{sub 3} by means of aberration corrected electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Santolino, G. [GFMC, Departamento. Física Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6071 (United States); Tornos, J.; Bruno, F.Y.; Cuellar, F.A.; Leon, C.; Santamaría, J. [GFMC, Departamento. Física Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pennycook, S.J [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6071 (United States); Varela, M., E-mail: mvarela@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6071 (United States); GFMC, Departamento. Física Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    An unusual conducting surface state can be produced in SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by irradiation with Argon ions from a plasma source, at low energy and high doses. The effects of irradiation are analyzed here by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Depth sensitive studies demonstrate the existence of a heavily damaged surface layer and an oxygen vacancy rich layer immediately underneath, both induced during the irradiation process. We find a clear dependence of the Ti oxidation state with the depth, with a very intense Ti{sup 3+} component near the surface. Oxygen vacancies act as n-type doping by releasing electrons into the lattice and producing an insulator-to-metal transition, which explains the unusual metallic behavior of these samples.

  8. Study of corrosion in steel sculptures by means of solid state voltammetry at paraffin-impregnated graphite electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    DOMENECH CARBO, ANTONIO; Roig Salom, José Luís; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state voltammetry is used for studying the composition of corrosion products in a series of sculptures from the Contemporary Sculpture Collection of the Universidad Politècnica de Valencia (Spain). Upon attachment to paraffin-impregnated graphite electrodes, well-defined voltammetric responses were obtained upon immersion in 0.10 M HCl. A hematite with a variable degree of hydration and crystallinity, accompanied by FeO(OH) forms, is identified as the main corrosion product. La volta...

  9. Ageing out of place: The meaning of home among hispanic older persons living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia; Martins, Diane C; Gillsjö, Catharina; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2017-09-01

    To explore the meaning of home among older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place." Emerging evidence supports the concept of older persons ageing in place. Nurse researchers have demonstrated that older person who age in place have better physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. Less, however, is known about older persons who are "aging out of place," meaning out of their country of origin. With the growth of home health care, there is a need to understand the older immigrants' meaning of home when ageing out of their country of origin. An inductive, qualitative descriptive research design was used. Seventeen Hispanic participants, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Two major finding of the study focused on participants' descriptions of home in their country of origin and in the USA. The majority of participants described their home in their native country as the community, countryside or town (pueblo) and in the U.S.A. as family. The level of social isolation and loneliness among participants was evident. Older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place" integrate their past experiences of sense of place in their native country with their present experiences of home in the USA. The need to understand the role of the community and the family in the provision of nursing care in the home may be more important than the physical structure or setting in which it is delivered. Further intra- and cross-national studies are needed to provide a framework for understanding the issues of ageing and immigration globally. Gerontological nurses need to recognise the complexity of family relationships for older Hispanic persons who are ageing out of place of origin and their risk of depression, social isolation, and loneliness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Automated identification of sleep states from EEG signals by means of ensemble empirical mode decomposition and random under sampling boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahnaf Rashik; Bhuiyan, Mohammed Imamul Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Automatic sleep staging is essential for alleviating the burden of the physicians of analyzing a large volume of data by visual inspection. It is also a precondition for making an automated sleep monitoring system feasible. Further, computerized sleep scoring will expedite large-scale data analysis in sleep research. Nevertheless, most of the existing works on sleep staging are either multichannel or multiple physiological signal based which are uncomfortable for the user and hinder the feasibility of an in-home sleep monitoring device. So, a successful and reliable computer-assisted sleep staging scheme is yet to emerge. In this work, we propose a single channel EEG based algorithm for computerized sleep scoring. In the proposed algorithm, we decompose EEG signal segments using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and extract various statistical moment based features. The effectiveness of EEMD and statistical features are investigated. Statistical analysis is performed for feature selection. A newly proposed classification technique, namely - Random under sampling boosting (RUSBoost) is introduced for sleep stage classification. This is the first implementation of EEMD in conjunction with RUSBoost to the best of the authors' knowledge. The proposed feature extraction scheme's performance is investigated for various choices of classification models. The algorithmic performance of our scheme is evaluated against contemporary works in the literature. The performance of the proposed method is comparable or better than that of the state-of-the-art ones. The proposed algorithm gives 88.07%, 83.49%, 92.66%, 94.23%, and 98.15% for 6-state to 2-state classification of sleep stages on Sleep-EDF database. Our experimental outcomes reveal that RUSBoost outperforms other classification models for the feature extraction framework presented in this work. Besides, the algorithm proposed in this work demonstrates high detection accuracy for the sleep states S1 and REM

  11. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  12. The Fabric of Meaning and Subjective Effects in LSD-Induced States Depend on Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, Katrin H; Herdener, Marcus; Pokorny, Thomas; Planzer, Amanda; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Liechti, Matthias E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-02-06

    A core aspect of the human self is the attribution of personal relevance to everyday stimuli enabling us to experience our environment as meaningful [1]. However, abnormalities in the attribution of personal relevance to sensory experiences are also critical features of many psychiatric disorders [2, 3]. Despite their clinical relevance, the neurochemical and anatomical substrates enabling meaningful experiences are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the neuropharmacology of personal relevance processing in humans by combining fMRI and the administration of the mixed serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine receptor (R) agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), well known to alter the subjective meaning of percepts, with and without pretreatment with the 5-HT2AR antagonist ketanserin. General subjective LSD effects were fully blocked by ketanserin. In addition, ketanserin inhibited the LSD-induced attribution of personal relevance to previously meaningless stimuli and modulated the processing of meaningful stimuli in cortical midline structures. These findings point to the crucial role of the 5-HT2AR subtype and cortical midline regions in the generation and attribution of personal relevance. Our results thus increase our mechanistic understanding of personal relevance processing and reveal potential targets for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses characterized by alterations in personal relevance attribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Systematic Calculation on Ground State Properties of Even-even Superheavy Nuclei Using Relativistic Mean Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHongfei; ZuoWei; SoojaeRenIm; ZhouXiaohong; LiJunqing

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of Super Heavy Element (SHE) with atomic number Z=108~116 has opened up a new era of research in nuclear physics, however, the extreme difficulties to synthesize SHE greatly restrict the experimental studies on it, so that the theoretical studies are very important. The Relativistic Mean Field theory (RMF) is proved to be a simple and successful theory due to its great success in describing the bulk properties at the β-stable valley, as well as nuclei far from the β-stable line, and gives good predictions for nuclei far beyond the end of the known periodic table. In the framework of RMF we have calculated the properties on SHN such as the binding energy, the deformation, single and double neutron separation energy, and the a-decay half-life and so on for nuclei Z=108~114 and N=156~190. The axial deformations considered by using the expansion of harmonic oscillator basis. The Lagrangian wc have used is as the following form:

  14. Investigating transition state resonances in the time domain by means of Bohmian mechanics: The F+HD reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, A S; Gonzalez-Lezana, T

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the existence of transition state resonances on atom-diatom reactive collisions from a time-dependent perspective, stressing the role of quantum trajectories as a tool to analyze this phenomenon. As it is shown, when one focusses on the quantum probability current density, new dynamical information about the reactive process can be extracted. In order to detect the effects of the different rotational populations and their dynamics/coherences, we have considered a reduced two-dimensional dynamics obtained from the evolution of a full three-dimensional quantum time-dependent wave packet associated with a particular angle. This reduction procedure provides us with some information about the entanglement between the radial (r,R) degrees of freedom and the angular one (\\gamma), which here can be considered as a bath. The here proposed combined approach has been applied to study the F+HD reaction, for which the FH+D product channel exhibits a resonance-mediated dynamics.

  15. Determination of Steady-State and Faulty Regimes of Overhead Lines by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guglielmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase positive sequence modelling is often used in power systems when power flows and short circuit analysis are assessed. Of course, the use of single-phase positive sequence modelling assumes purely three-phase configurations and perfectly symmetrical ones so that single-phase modelling considers that all the phase conductors behave in the same way. When considering the physical reality of power networks, this assumption can be questionable and the behaviors of all the system conductors including the passive ones (earth wires for overhead lines, metallic screens and armours for cables and enclosures for gas insulated lines is completely unknown. Therefore, the present multiconductor cell analysis (MCA becomes necessary, since it allows one to achieve great precision results on the regimes of both phase conductors and passive conductors. MCA offers a powerful tool in order to validate (or less approximated and simplified computation methods. In particular, for single and double circuit overhead lines (OHLs, the current phasors induced in the earth wires and the ground return current alongside the line can be directly computed by MCA in steady state and faulty regimes. It is worth noting that, for faulty regimes, MCA allows also evaluating the approximation degree and validity field of screening factors k.

  16. Some Thoughts about Literature as a Means of Advancing Sustainable Unity and Stability in the Contemporary Nigerian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaso George Nwaorah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An in depth investigation was conducted on the possibility of literature employed to enhance cohesion, sustainable unity, national stability and security of lives and property in the contemporary Nigeria. These three elements- Unity, national stability and security of lives and property are considered the key-pillars of a modern state, the absence of which render the Country volatile and uninhabitable. The contemporary Nigeria lacks these elements in a large dose, thereby rendering it a country without peace and security. This has been the root cause of the current nationwide agitation for a national conference required to define the future for a country that has existed for a century, but still grappling unsuccessfully, with the problems of nationhood. This paper identified the cause of the problems to arise from the multi-ethnic composition of the one-hundred and seventy million people and over three hundred different ethnic nationals of Nigeria. The fact of uniting so many ethnic groups into one country is not peculiar to Nigeria, as many other countries have a similar composition.

  17. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2017-05-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  18. Long-term Stability and Oceanic Mean State Simulated by the Coupled Model FGOALS-s2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Pengfei; YU Yongqiang; LIU Hailong

    2013-01-01

    We describe the long-term stability and mean climatology of oceanic circulations simulated by version 2 of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model (FGOALS-s2).Driven by pre-industrial forcing,the integration of FGOALS-s2 was found to have remained stable,with no obvious climate drift over 600 model years.The linear trends of sea SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) were-0.04℃ (100 yr)-1 and 0.01 psu (100 yr)-1,respectively.The simulations of oceanic temperatures,wind-driven circulation and thermohaline circulation in FGOALS-s2 were found to be comparable with observations,and have been substantially improved over previous FGOALS-s versions (1.0 and 1.1).However,significant SST biases (exceeding 3℃) were found around strong western boundary currents,in the East China Sea,the Sea of Japan and the Barents Sea.Along the eastern coasts in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean,a warm bias (>3℃) was mainly due to overestimation of net surface shortwave radiation and weak oceanic upwelling.The difference of SST biases in the North Atlantic and Pacific was partly due to the errors of meridional heat transport.For SSS,biases exceeding 1.5 psu were located in the Arctic Ocean and around the Gulf Stream.In the tropics,freshwater biases dominated and were mainly caused by the excess of precipitation.Regarding the vertical dimension,the maximal biases of temperature and salinity were located north of 65°N at depths of greater than 600 m,and their values exceeded 4℃ and 2 psu,respectively.

  19. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. I Firing rates in healthy and parkinsonian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S J; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    Parkinsonism leads to various electrophysiological changes in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system (BGTCS), often including elevated discharge rates of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the output nuclei, and reduced activity of the globus pallidus external (GPe) segment. These rate changes have been explained qualitatively in terms of the direct/indirect pathway model, involving projections of distinct striatal populations to the output nuclei and GPe. Although these populations partly overlap, evidence suggests dopamine depletion differentially affects cortico-striato-pallidal connection strengths to the two pallidal segments. Dopamine loss may also decrease the striatal signal-to-noise ratio, reducing both corticostriatal coupling and striatal firing thresholds. Additionally, nigrostriatal degeneration may cause secondary changes including weakened lateral inhibition in the GPe, and mesocortical dopamine loss may decrease intracortical excitation and especially inhibition. Here a mean-field model of the BGTCS is presented with structure and parameter estimates closely based on physiology and anatomy. Changes in model rates due to the possible effects of dopamine loss listed above are compared with experiment. Our results suggest that a stronger indirect pathway, possibly combined with a weakened direct pathway, is compatible with empirical evidence. However, altered corticostriatal connection strengths are probably not solely responsible for substantially increased STN activity often found. A lower STN firing threshold, weaker intracortical inhibition, and stronger striato-GPe inhibition help explain the relatively large increase in STN rate. Reduced GPe-GPe inhibition and a lower GPe firing threshold can account for the comparatively small decrease in GPe rate frequently observed. Changes in cortex, GPe, and STN help normalize the cortical rate, also in accord with experiments. The model integrates the basal ganglia into a unified framework along with an

  20. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  1. The production of a new fungal alpha-amylase degraded the raw starch by means of solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Bilal; Ertan, Figen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was intended to produce a new fungal amylase by solid-state fermentation and purification and also to determine some of its biochemical properties. It was found that Penicillium brevicompactum had the best enzyme activity according to screening methods with amylase degrading raw starch, and P. brevicompactum was selected as the amylase source. Wheat bran, rice husks, and sunflower oil meal were tested to determine the best solid substrate. Wheat bran was determined as the best of these. The fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of amylase. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be an initial moisture level for the solid substrate of 55%, moistening agent of 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 5.0), incubation period of 7 d, inoculum concentration of 2.5 mL, and incubation temperature at 30 degrees C. Penicillium brevicompactum alpha-amylase was purified 45.98 times by the starch affinity method. The K(m) and V(max) values of alpha-amylase for soluble starch were 5.71 mg/mL and 666.6 U/mL, respectively. This amylase showed maximum activity at between 30 and 50 degrees C and at pH 5.0. Initial enzyme activity was kept at 100% after incubation at 30 degrees C for 45 min. Enzyme was stable in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. This enzyme was activated by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), and Na(+) ions, and was inhibited by Mg(2+), K(+), Fe(3+), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The molecular mass of P. brevicompactum alpha-amylase was found to be 32.5 kD by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. FGOALS-s2 Simulation of Upper-level Jet Streams over East Asia:Mean State Bias and Synoptic-scale Transient Eddy Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fengfei; ZHOU Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    Upper-level jet streams over East Asia simulated by the LASG/IAP coupled climate system model FGOALS-s2 were assessed,and the mean state bias explained in terms of synoptic-scale transient eddy activity (STEA).The results showed that the spatial distribution of the seasonal mean jet stream was reproduced well by the model,except that following a weaker meridional temperature gradient (MTG),the intensity of the jet stream was weaker than in National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project Ⅱ reanalysis data (NCEP2).Based on daily mean data.,the jet core number was counted to identify the geographical border between the East Asian Subtropical Jet (EASJ) and the East Asian Polar-front Jet (EAPJ).The border is located over the Tibetan Plateau according to NCEP2 data,but was not evident in FGOALS-s2 simulations.The seasonal cycles of the jet streams were found to be reasonably reproduced,except that they shifted northward relative to reanalysis data in boreal summer owing to the northward shift of negative MTGs.To identify the reasons for mean state bias,the dynamical and thermal forcings of STEA on mean flow were examined with a focus on boreal winter.The dynamical and thermal forcings were estimated by extended Eliassen-Palm flux (E) and transient heat flux,respectively.The results showed that the failure to reproduce the tripolar-pattern of the divergence of E over the jet regions led to an unsuccessful separation of the EASJ and EAPJ,while dynamical forcing contributed less to the weaker EASJ.In contrast,the weaker transient heat flux partly explained the weaker EASJ over the ocean.

  3. Asian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill in the Met Office GloSea5 model and its dependence on mean state biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Stephanie; Turner, Andrew; Martin, Gill; Woolnough, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Predicting the circulation and precipitation features of the Asian monsoon on time scales of weeks to the season ahead remains a challenge for prediction centres. Current state-of-the-art models retain large biases, particularly dryness over India, which evolve rapidly from initialization and persist into centennial length climate integrations, illustrating the seamless nature of the monsoon problem. We present initial results from our Ministry of Earth Sciences Indian Monsoon Mission collaboration project to assess and improve weekly-to-seasonal forecasts in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) coupled initialized Global Seasonal Prediction System (GloSea5). Using a 14-year hindcast ensemble of integrations in which atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components are initialized from May start dates, we assess the monsoon seasonal prediction skill and global mean state biases of GloSea5. Initial May and June biases include a lack of precipitation over the Indian peninsula, and a weakened monsoon flow, and these give way to a more robust pattern of excess precipitation in the western north Pacific, lack of precipitation over the Maritime Continent, excess westerlies across the Indian peninsula and Indochina, and cool SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and western north Pacific in July and August. Despite these mean state biases, the interannual correlation of predicted JJA all India rainfall from 1998 to 2009 with TRMM is fairly high at 0.68. Future work will focus on the prospects for further improving this skill with bias correction techniques.

  4. On the mechanisms in a tropical ocean-global atmosphere coupled general circulation model. Pt. I. Mean state and the seasonal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vintzileos, A. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Delecluse, P. [Laboratoire d`Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, UMR: CNRS/ORSTOM/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 26, etage 4, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Sadourny, R. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the mean state and the seasonal and interannual variations of the coupled tropical Pacific-global atmosphere system are investigated by analyzing a thirty year simulation, where the LMD global atmospheric model and the LODYC tropical Pacific model are coupled using the delocalized physics method. No flux correction is needed over the tropical region. The coupled model reaches its regime state roughly after one year of integration in spite of the fact that the ocean is initialized from rest. Departures from the mean state are characterized by oscillations with dominant periodicities at annual, biennial and quadriennial time scales. In our model, equatorial sea surface temperature and wind stress fluctuations evolved in phase. In the central Pacific during boreal autumn, the sea surface temperature is cold, the wind stress is strong, and the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is shifted northwards. The northward shift of the ITCZ enhances atmospheric and oceanic subsidence between the equator and the latitude of organized convention. In turn, the stronger oceanic subsidence reinforces equatorward convergence of water masses at the thermocline depth which, being not balanced by equatorial upwelling, deepens the equatorial thermocline. An equivalent view is that the deepening of the thermocline proceeds from the weakening of the meridional draining of near-surface equatorial waters. The inverse picture prevails during spring, when the equatorial sea surface temperatures are warm. Thus temperature anomalies tend to appear at the thermocline level, in phase opposition to the surface conditions. (orig.) With 28 figs., 2 tabs., 60 refs.

  5. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  6. Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Trend analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical trend analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine trends (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative trends were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and temperature in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant trend of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive trends of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative trends of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum temperature showed significant increasing warming trends on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum temperature varied from 0.03 °C at Ganganagar to 0.05 °C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the trends in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and temperature were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify trends and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and temperature in

  7. Experiences and meanings of integration of TCAM (Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical) providers in three Indian states: results from a cross-sectional, qualitative implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, D; Narayan, V V; Josyula, L K; Porter, J D H; Sathyanarayana, T N; Sheikh, K

    2014-11-25

    Efforts to engage Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical (TCAM) practitioners in the public health workforce have growing relevance for India's path to universal health coverage. We used an action-centred framework to understand how policy prescriptions related to integration were being implemented in three distinct Indian states. Health departments and district-level primary care facilities in the states of Kerala, Meghalaya and Delhi. In each state, two or three districts were chosen that represented a variation in accessibility and distribution across TCAM providers (eg, small or large proportions of local health practitioners, Homoeopaths, Ayurvedic and/or Unani practitioners). Per district, two blocks or geographical units were selected. TCAM and allopathic practitioners, administrators and representatives of the community at the district and state levels were chosen based on publicly available records from state and municipal authorities. A total of 196 interviews were carried out: 74 in Kerala, and 61 each in Delhi and Meghalaya. We sought to understand experiences and meanings associated with integration across stakeholders, as well as barriers and facilitators to implementing policies related to integration of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative (TCA) providers at the systems level. We found that individual and interpersonal attributes tended to facilitate integration, while system features and processes tended to hinder it. Collegiality, recognition of stature, as well as exercise of individual personal initiative among TCA practitioners and of personal experience of TCAM among allopaths enabled integration. The system, on the other hand, was characterised by the fragmentation of jurisdiction and facilities, intersystem isolation, lack of trust in and awareness of TCA systems, and inadequate infrastructure and resources for TCA service delivery. State-tailored strategies that routinise interaction, reward individual and system

  8. Study on the Influence of Piloti on Mean Radiant Temperature in Residential Blocks by 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianYu Xi; JianHua Ding; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Piloti is commonly used in tropical and subtropical climate zones to get high wind velocity and create shadowed areas in order to optimize the living environment of residential blocks, but there are few studies to reveal the influence of piloti on the radiant environment of residential blocks systematically. Taking the city of Guangzhou as an example, using 3-D Unsteady State Heat Balance Radiation Calculation Method, this paper shows that the mean radiant temperature ( MRT) under piloti area increases with the increase of piloti ratio, and especially when piloti ratio is equal to 100%, the MRT increase trend becomes sharp. The MRT of exposed area decreases with the increase of piloti ratio, especially when piloti ratio reaches 100%, the decrease trend of MRT becomes sharp, which offers the reference for the study on piloti design in subtropical climate zones and further research on living environment by CFD simulation in residential blocks.

  9. Purposefulness of early application of physical rehabilitation means for improvement of external respiration system functional state of women with post mastectomies syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briskin Y.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine purposefulness of early application of physical rehabilitation means for improvement of external respiration system functional state of women with post mastectomies syndrome. Material: in the research 135 women with post mastectomies syndrome, who endured radical mastectomy by Madden, participated. Women of main groups were trained in compliance with appropriate programs during one year. Effectiveness of trainings was controlled after half of year. Admission to trainings was given by oncologist. Patients of these groups belonged to third clinical group. At the beginning of dispensary period the groups were equal by all indicators of external system function. Results: it was found that early rehabilitation is more effective exclusively for indicators of bronchial patency. Complex, personality oriented program included: aqua-fitness; conditional swimming; health related aerobic and Pilates. It was found that after half year training advantages of early physical rehabilitation were noticed only in indicators of forced exhale volume at first second. Conclusions: we stated importance of early rehabilitation trainings of women with post mastectomies syndrome.

  10. What Does the Mean Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Nicholas N.; Lamontagne, Claude; Chartier, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The arithmetic mean is a fundamental statistical concept. Unfortunately, social science students rarely develop an intuitive understanding of the mean and rely on the formula to describe or define it. According to constructivist pedagogy, educators that have access to a variety of conceptualizations of a particular concept are better equipped to…

  11. Default Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. Jaszczolt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I present some aspects of the controversy surrounding the semantics/pragmatics boundary and offer a possible solution in the form of Default Semantics. First, I present a brief introduction to Paul Grice's approach to meaning as intentional communication. Next, I address the problem of the unit of which truth conditions should be predicated, assuming after Grice that the most successful approach to meaning has to make use of truth conditions.Further, I extend the discussion to some aspects of neo-Gricean pragmatics, most notably the issue of pragmatic processing that contributes to the truth-conditional representation and the proposed shortcuts through this processing in the form of default meanings. In the main part, I present the theory of Default Semantics ( Jaszczolt 2005a) , assess some arguments in favour of such an interactive theory of meaning that combines information from various sources, and address the issue of compositionality of meaning so conceived. In the final part, I apply the theory of Default Semantics to expressions with future-time reference in English in order to demonstrate the advantages of a framework that combines various types of information about utterance meaning in one, merged semantic representation. The main advantage turns out to be, in this domain, the unified treatment of all expressions with future-time reference.

  12. Intonational meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosodic studies have focused on the study of intonational form and the study of intonational meaning has been relatively neglected. Similarly, the fields of semantics and pragmatics have paid little attention to the pragmatic uses of intonation. As a result, there is no firm agreement within the linguistic community on how to integrate the analysis of intonational meaning across languages into a unified prosodic, semantic, and pragmatic approach. This article provides an overview of the literature on intonational meaning, describing the recent advances made in the fields of prosody, semantics/pragmatics, and syntax. Several theoretical approaches to explaining the semantics and pragmatics of intonation are presented. A common feature to most frameworks is that intonation (1) should be regarded as an integral part of linguistic grammar; and (2) typically encodes meanings related to the modal aspect of propositions. However, features such as compositionality, duality of structure, and context-dependency are still hotly debated issues. These features will be discussed from different theoretical perspectives, and we will identify potential advances related to the full integration of intonational meaning into dynamic and multidimensional models of meaning.

  13. Contextual Meaning and Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istvan Kecskes

    2006-01-01

    The paper has three goals: 1 ) Explain the role of context and word in meaning construction and comprehension. 2) Present a model that can explain meaning generated by both monolingual and multilingual meaning construction systems. 3) Discuss how the model can be applied to explain major issues in pragmatics.Pragmatics is understood here in a narrow sense as defined by Sperber & Noveck: "...pragmatics is the study of how linguistic properties and contextual factors interact in the interpretation of utterances" ( Sperber & Noveck 2004:1 ). It is argued that world knowledge is available to interlocutors in two forms: as encapsulated in lexical items based on prior encounters and experience (conventionalized cognitive context), and as provided by the actual situational context framed by the situation in which the interaction takes place. Meaning formally expressed in the linguistic interactional context is created on-the-spot, and is the result of the interaction of the two sides of world knowledge and the actual situational context.The paper makes three claims: First, supremacy of context is not unconditional in language processing. Second,salient meaning rather than literal meaning of lexical units plays a central role in comprehension. Third, intercultural communication differs from intracultural communication in the conceptual content of conventionalized cognitive contexts rather than in communicative means.

  14. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  15. Improvement of Systematic Bias of mean state and the intraseasonal variability of CFSv2 through superparameterization and revised cloud-convection-radiation parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, P.; Phani Murali Krishna, R.; Goswami, Bidyut B.; Abhik, S.; Ganai, Malay; Mahakur, M.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Dudhia, Jimmy

    2016-05-01

    Inspite of significant improvement in numerical model physics, resolution and numerics, the general circulation models (GCMs) find it difficult to simulate realistic seasonal and intraseasonal variabilities over global tropics and particularly over Indian summer monsoon (ISM) region. The bias is mainly attributed to the improper representation of physical processes. Among all the processes, the cloud and convective processes appear to play a major role in modulating model bias. In recent times, NCEP CFSv2 model is being adopted under Monsoon Mission for dynamical monsoon forecast over Indian region. The analyses of climate free run of CFSv2 in two resolutions namely at T126 and T382, show largely similar bias in simulating seasonal rainfall, in capturing the intraseasonal variability at different scales over the global tropics and also in capturing tropical waves. Thus, the biases of CFSv2 indicate a deficiency in model's parameterization of cloud and convective processes. Keeping this in background and also for the need to improve the model fidelity, two approaches have been adopted. Firstly, in the superparameterization, 32 cloud resolving models each with a horizontal resolution of 4 km are embedded in each GCM (CFSv2) grid and the conventional sub-grid scale convective parameterization is deactivated. This is done to demonstrate the role of resolving cloud processes which otherwise remain unresolved. The superparameterized CFSv2 (SP-CFS) is developed on a coarser version T62. The model is integrated for six and half years in climate free run mode being initialised from 16 May 2008. The analyses reveal that SP-CFS simulates a significantly improved mean state as compared to default CFS. The systematic bias of lesser rainfall over Indian land mass, colder troposphere has substantially been improved. Most importantly the convectively coupled equatorial waves and the eastward propagating MJO has been found to be simulated with more fidelity in SP-CFS. The reason of

  16. Projection of future climate change conditions using IPCC simulations, neural networks and Bayesian statistics. Part 2: Precipitation mean state and seasonal cycle in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe [LODYC, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Tour 45-55/Etage 4/Case 100, UPMC, Paris Cedex 05 (France); University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, Fernando; Segura, Enrique C. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-02-15

    Evaluating the response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing is a major objective of the climate community, and the use of large ensemble of simulations is considered as a significant step toward that goal. The present paper thus discusses a new methodology based on neural network to mix ensemble of climate model simulations. Our analysis consists of one simulation of seven Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Models, which participated in the IPCC Project and provided at least one simulation for the twentieth century (20c3m) and one simulation for each of three SRES scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. Our statistical method based on neural networks and Bayesian statistics computes a transfer function between models and observations. Such a transfer function was then used to project future conditions and to derive what we would call the optimal ensemble combination for twenty-first century climate change projections. Our approach is therefore based on one statement and one hypothesis. The statement is that an optimal ensemble projection should be built by giving larger weights to models, which have more skill in representing present climate conditions. The hypothesis is that our method based on neural network is actually weighting the models that way. While the statement is actually an open question, which answer may vary according to the region or climate signal under study, our results demonstrate that the neural network approach indeed allows to weighting models according to their skills. As such, our method is an improvement of existing Bayesian methods developed to mix ensembles of simulations. However, the general low skill of climate models in simulating precipitation mean climatology implies that the final projection maps (whatever the method used to compute them) may significantly change in the future as models improve. Therefore, the projection results for late twenty-first century conditions are presented as possible projections based on the ''state

  17. Sensitivity of the southern West African mean atmospheric state to variations in low-level cloud cover as simulated by ICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffka, Anke; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents first results of numerical sensitivity experiments that are carried out in the framework of the project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa). DACCIWA aims to investigate the impact of the drastic increase in anthropogenic emissions in West Africa on the local weather and climate, for example through cloud-aerosol interactions or impacts on radiation and stability. DACCIWA organised a major international field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016 and involves a wide range of modelling activities. Several studies have shown - and first results of the DACCIWA campaign confirm - that extensive ultra-low stratus clouds form in the southern parts of West Africa (8°W-8°E, 5-10°N) at night in connection with strong nocturnal low-level jets. The clouds persist long after sunrise and have therefore a substantial impact on the surface radiation budget and consequently on the diurnal evolution of the daytime, convectively mixed boundary layer. The objective of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the West African monsoon system and its diurnal cycle to the radiative effects of these low clouds. The study is based on a series of daily 5-day sensitivity simulations using ICON, the operational numerical weather prediction model of the German Weather Service during the months July - September 2006. In these simulations, low clouds are made transparent, by artificially lowering the optical thickness information passed on to the model's radiation scheme. Results reveal a noticeable influence of the low-level cloud cover on the atmospheric mean state of our region of interest and beyond. Also the diurnal development of the convective boundary layer is influenced by the cloud modification. In the transparent-cloud experiments, the cloud deck tends to break up later in the day and is shifted to a higher altitude, thereby causing a short-lived intensification around 11 LT. The average rainfall patterns are

  18. Quantitative analysis of the relief in watersheds of the “El Ávila” massif northern hillside (Vargas State, Venezuela and its hydrogeomorphological meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams José Méndez Mata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphological features of the relief and its quantitative morphometric quantification are essential elements in interpreting its influence on the hydrogeomorphological dynamics of watersheds in mountainous environments. This is particularly important when studying small spatial units (micro watersheds and torrential regimes, as this influences the sudden and aggressive hydrological responses of these systems and the likelihood of activation of mass removal processes. In the study region (Vargas State, Venezuela the most important debris flow recorded in Venezuela’s history occurred on December 14, 15 and 16, 1999, as a consequence of extremely heavy rainfall in those dates associated with a very particular weather. For the above reasons, this research conducted a quantitative analysis of the relief features in watersheds of “El Ávila” massive northern hillside and their impact on the local hydrogeomorphological dynamics, aimed at identifying the main attributes influencing these dynamics. The study area is located in the northern-central region of Venezuela, in the central part of Vargas state, delimited by 10º32’25”-10º37’35”N and 66º40’08”- 66º59’12”W, and comprises thirteen micro watersheds of mountainous environment. The methodology consisted of (a the geomorphological characterization of the area, from the review and interpretation of digitized base maps at scales 1:5 000 and 1:25 000, the digital elevation model (DEM, aerial photographs at scale 1:5 000, orthophotomaps at scale 1:25 000, satellite images, Google Earth and Google Maps images, and geomorphological maps (landforms and geomorphological processes at scale 1:25 000; (b measurements and calculations of basic morphometric parameters of watershed relief on digital mapping using the ArcGIS 9.2 and their Spatial Analysis and ArcHydro modules, and the mathematical equations that define the other parameters using MS Excel; (c descriptive statistical

  19. Probing photoisomerization processes by means of multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy: The multi-state quantum hierarchical Fokker-Planck equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2017-07-01

    Photoisomerization in a system with multiple electronic states and anharmonic potential surfaces in a dissipative environment is investigated using a rigorous numerical method employing quantum hierarchical Fokker-Planck equations (QHFPEs) for multi-state systems. We have developed a computer code incorporating QHFPE for general-purpose computing on graphics processing units that can treat multi-state systems in phase space with any strength of diabatic coupling of electronic states under non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath interactions. This approach facilitates the calculation of both linear and nonlinear spectra. We computed Wigner distributions for excited, ground, and coherent states. We then investigated excited state dynamics involving transitions among these states by analyzing linear absorption and transient absorption processes and multi-dimensional electronic spectra with various values of heat bath parameters. Our results provide predictions for spectroscopic measurements of photoisomerization dynamics. The motion of excitation and ground state wavepackets and their coherence involved in the photoisomerization were observed as the profiles of positive and negative peaks of two-dimensional spectra.

  20. Child Support: States' Progress in Implementing the 1984 Amendments. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Information on the states' progress in implementing 14 provisions of the 1984 Child Support Enforcement Amendments is provided in this report, which also summarizes the states' opinions on the effects of the amendments on five enforcement activities. Responses to questionnaires indicated that, as of March 31, 1986, only Oregon had fully…

  1. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Mean Infiltration-Excess Overland Flow, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean value for infiltration-excess overland flow as estimated by the watershed model TOPMODEL, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1...

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Estimated Mean Annual Natural Groundwater Recharge, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the mean annual natural groundwater recharge, in millimeters, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1catchment of selected Major River Basins...

  3. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States....

  4. Methods and results of investigation of the stressed state of rock masses and the development of effective means of controlling mine pressure during underground excavation of ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitmatov, I.T.; Akhmatov, V.I.; Borshch-Komponiets, V.I.; Vlokh, N.P.; Egorov, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.V.; Kurlenya, M.V.; Leont' ev, A.V.; Markov, G.A.; Murashev, V.I.

    1988-05-01

    Experimental and theoretical work conducted in the Soviet Union in determining the stressed state of rock masses and developing underground strata control measures are reviewed. Methods of determining stresses in a rock mass were classified into two groups: mechanical and geophysical. A geodynamic model of the stressed state of the upper layers of the earth's crust was developed based on direct measurements in shafts using methods and apparatus developed in the USSR. Fundamental laws governing the initial stressed state of the earth's crust show that within the limits of a geologically homogeneous block, gravitational and tectonic components of the overall stress field are present with gradients of the stress field and its random components. A study was made of the stress-strain state of chamber roofs; the results made it possible to substantiate the limiting spans of fissured roofs in cleaned chambers.

  5. BRIC in the Backyard: Brazil’s Economic Rise and What it Means for the United States (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 14-11, July 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    seeking expanded trade ties with developing countries, as well as a strengthening of the Common Market of the South – Mercosul ( Mercosur in Spanish...Brazil believes that strengthening Mercosur would grant South America better conditions to fight for more balanced and fairer trade with other regions...Department of State Country Background Notes –Brazil,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/ bgn/35640.htm (accessed April 10, 2011) CSL-3 world.12 In 2008 Mercosur

  6. When Getting Tough Means Getting Tougher: Historical and Conceptual Understandings of Juveniles of Color Sentenced as Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney K.; Obidah, Jennifer E.

    2002-01-01

    Examines problems with juvenile crime and justice for juveniles of color, suggesting patterns in the failing notions of rehabilitation on this marginalized population. Highlights where getting tough means getting tougher, examining dominant explanations regarding disparity in incarceration rates. Asserts that conceptions of race deserve more…

  7. Angular distributions of low-spin states in {sup 240}Pu by means of the {sup 242}Pu(p,t){sup 240}Pu reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieker, Mark; Endres, Janis; Pascu, Sorin; Zilges, Andreas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Bucurescu, Dorel; Zamfir, Nicolae-Victor [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Faestermann, Thomas [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Hertenberger, Ralf; Wirth, Hans-Friedrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since recent experimental and theoretical studies revealed the importance of octupole correlations in the actinide region and especially in {sup 240}Pu, a {sup 242}Pu(p,t){sup 240}Pu experiment has been conducted at the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz laboratory in Munich. Excited states in {sup 240}Pu were investigated up to an excitation energy of 3 MeV. Angular distributions have been measured at 9 laboratory angles between 5 {sup circle} and 40 {sup circle}. The comparison of the experimental angular distributions with DWBA calculations allowed the assignment of several low-spin states. Most of them were seen for the first time. The experimental data, especially the data on the 21 J{sup π}= 0{sup +} states, are presented and discussed in the framework of the spdf-version of the Interacting Boson Model.

  8. [Meanings and practices related to HIV risk according to the sexual scripts of women from a low-income neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristiane de Oliveira; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2007-12-01

    A growing number of studies have connected sexuality, gender, and power to discuss the increasing spread of HIV in women, but the epidemic still poses significant theoretical and programmatic challenges. The current study focuses on how cultural codes underlying sexual experience are manifested in women's subjectivity and orient their interpretations and practices related to the risk of HIV infection. In-depth interviews with 15 women ranging from 18 to 30 years of age led to the reconstitution of three life histories, focusing on their sexual scripts The data were organized using the Nud-Ist software and submitted to hermeneutic analysis. The meanings and practices associated with HIV risk vary according to the moment in life, the sociability network, and the type of bond established with the partner. The findings point to the need to understand the shared sexual meanings in specific contexts, in order to develop more culturally sensitive prevention programs.

  9. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  10. What does quality of care mean for maternal health providers from two vulnerable states of India? Case study of Bihar and Jharkhand

    OpenAIRE

    Karvande, Shilpa; Sonawane, Devendra; Chavan, Sandeep; Mistry, Nerges

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality instillation has its own challenges, facilitators and barriers in various settings. This paper focuses on exploration of quality components related to practices, health system challenges and quality enablers from providers’ perspectives with a focus on maternal health studied through a pilot research conducted in 2012–2013 in two states of India—Bihar and Jharkhand—with relatively poor indicators for maternal health. Methods Qualitative data through in-depth interviews of 4...

  11. Sensitivity of the tropical Pacific seasonal cycle and ENSO to changes in mean state induced by a surface heat flux adjustment in CCSM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiaohua [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Fairfax, VA (United States); University of Maryland at Baltimore County, Goddard Earth Science Technology Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); NASA GSFC Code 613.3, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua; Shukla, Jagadish [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The influence of mean climate on the seasonal cycle and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific climate is investigated using the Climate Community System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). An empirical time-independent surface heat flux adjustment over the tropical ocean is applied to the oceanic component of CCSM3. In comparison with the control run, the heat flux-adjusted run simulates a more realistic mean climate not only for the sea surface temperature (SST) but also for wind stress and precipitation. Even though the heat flux adjustment is time-independent, the seasonal cycles of SST, wind stress and precipitation over the equatorial eastern Pacific are more realistic in the flux-adjusted simulation. Improvements in the representation of the ENSO variability in the heat flux-adjusted simulation include that the Nino3.4 SST index is less regular than a strong biennial oscillation in the control run. But some deficiencies also arise. For example, the amplitude of the ENSO variability is reduced in the flux-adjusted run. The impact of the mean climate on ENSO prediction is further examined by performing a series of monthly hindcasts from 1982 to 1998 using CCSM3 with and without the heat flux adjustment. The flux-adjusted hindcasts show slightly higher predictive skill than the unadjusted hindcasts with January initial conditions at lead times of 7-9 months and July initial conditions at lead times of 9-11 months. However, their differences during these months are not statistically significant. (orig.)

  12. LUMPED Unsteady: a Visual Basic ® code of unsteady-state lumped-parameter models for mean residence time analyses of groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, N. Nur; Bayari, C. Serdar

    2005-04-01

    A Microsoft ® Visual Basic 6.0 (Microsoft Corporation, 1987-1998) code of 9 lumped-parameter models of unsteady flow is presented for the analysis of mean residence time in aquifers. Groundwater flow systems obeying plug and well-mixed flow models and their combinations in parallel or serial connection can be simulated by the code. Models can use tritium, tritiugenic He-3, oxygen-18, deuterium, krypton-85, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as the environmental tracers. The executable code runs under all 32-bit Windows operating systems. Details of the code are explained and its limitations are indicated.

  13. The money of the State or the meaning of impersonal money: wealth, credit and debt in the age of micro credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    an important development of the banking system and private market activities. At the same time, the successful democratic process stimulated a massive involvement of external donor agencies, and the country has since 1990 received a considerable amount of development aid every year predominately from European...... of logics. The paper will tend to contribute to the discussion within anthropological literature on the meaning of money and the construction of (new) ideas of wealth. Furthermore it will elaborate on these questions in relation to African studies and social science in general and to more development......: banks, markets, NGO micro-credit projects and religious institutions....

  14. The Vlasov formalism for extended relativistic mean field models: the crust-core transition and the stellar matter equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Pais, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The Vlasov formalism is extended to relativistic mean-field hadron models with non-linear terms up to fourth order and applied to the calculation of the crust-core transition density. The effect of the nonlinear $\\omega\\rho$ and $\\sigma\\rho$ coupling terms on the crust-core transition density and pressure, and on the macroscopic properties of some families of hadronic stars is investigated. For that purpose, six families of relativistic mean field models are considered. Within each family, the members differ in the symmetry energy behavior. For all the models, the dynamical spinodals are calculated, and the crust-core transition density and pressure, and the neutron star mass-radius relations are obtained. The effect on the star radius of the inclusion of a pasta calculation in the inner crust is discussed. The set of six models that best satisfy terrestrial and observational constraints predicts a radius of 13.6$\\pm$0.3 km and a crust thickness of $1.36\\pm 0.06$km for a 1.4 $M_\\odot$ star.

  15. Study of the functional state of peripheral vessels in fingers of rheumatological patients by means of laser Doppler flowmetry and cutaneous thermometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Podmasteryev, Konstantin V.; Pilipenko, Olga V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Khakhicheva, Lyudmila S.; Muradyan, Vadim F.

    2016-04-01

    Vasospastic disorders are a common class of rheumatic disease. These include syndromes such as vegetative dystonia, Raynaud's syndrome, vibration disease and rheumatoid arthritis among others. The aim of this work is to develop an original method of diagnosing the functional state of peripheral vessels of the fingers, based on the simultaneous recording of LDF- and thermograms during the occlusion test, for determining vascular disorders of rheumatological patients. A diagnostic method was developed for assessing the functional state of the peripheral vessels of fingers, based on carrying out occlusion test in a thermally stabilized environment, with simultaneous recording of signals of laser Doppler flowmetry and skin thermometry. To verify the diagnostic value of the proposed method, a series of experiments were carried out on 41 rheumatological patients: 5 male and 36 females (average age 56.0+/-12.2 years). The most common diagnoses in the patient group were rheumatoid arthritis, arthrosis, gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. The laser analyser of blood microcirculation "LAKK-02" (SPE "LAZMA" Ltd, Russia) and a custom developed multi-channel thermometry device for low inertia thermometry were used for experimental measurements. The measurements of cutaneous temperature and the index of microcirculation were performed on the distal phalanx of the third finger of the right hand. Occlusion tests were performed with water baths at 25 and 42 °C and a tonometer cuff with a pressure of 200-220 mmHg for 3 min on the upper arm. The results of experimental studies are presented and interpreted. These data indicate a violation of the blood supply regulation in the form of a pronounced tendency towards microvascular vasoconstriction in the fingers. Thus, the response displaying a tendency toward angiospasm among patients in the rheumatological diseases profile group was observed mainly in the most severe cases (49 % of this group). The prospects of the developed

  16. Second-order equation of state with the full Skyrme interaction: toward new effective interactions for beyond mean-field models

    CERN Document Server

    Moghrabi, Kassem; Roca-Maza, Xavier; Colo', Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    In a quantum Fermi system the energy per particle calculated at the second order beyond the mean-field approximation diverges if a zero-range interaction is employed. We have previously analyzed this problem in symmetric nuclear matter by using a simplified nuclear Skyrme interaction, and proposed a strategy to treat such a divergence. In the present work, we extend the same strategy to the case of the full nuclear Skyrme interaction. Moreover we show that, in spite of the strong divergence ($\\sim$ $\\Lambda^5$, where $\\Lambda$ is the momentum cutoff) related to the velocity-dependent terms of the interaction, the adopted cutoff regularization can be always simultaneously performed for both symmetric and nuclear matter with different neutron-to-proton ratio. This paves the way to applications to finite nuclei.

  17. A mean-field renormalisation-group approach to Ising and q = 3-state Potts models with long-range interactions in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C. E. K.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo; Branco, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    We study the one-dimensional Potts model with long-range interactions decaying with distance r as r 1 + σ. An extended mean-field renormalisation-group procedure is applied, such that three finite-size linear lattices are compared, in order to evaluate critical temperatures and exponents for the q = 2 (Ising model) and q = 3 (such that the transition is a continuous one) cases. Good results are obtained, whenever comparison with exact results or with other procedures is possible. Moreover, we evaluate the surface field exponent for these models. We have been able to go to rather large lattices and then a suitable finite-size scaling procedure is employed to obtain the results in the thermodynamic limit.

  18. What does quality of care mean for maternal health providers from two vulnerable states of India? Case study of Bihar and Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvande, Shilpa; Sonawane, Devendra; Chavan, Sandeep; Mistry, Nerges

    2016-02-20

    Quality instillation has its own challenges, facilitators and barriers in various settings. This paper focuses on exploration of quality components related to practices, health system challenges and quality enablers from providers' perspectives with a focus on maternal health studied through a pilot research conducted in 2012-2013 in two states of India-Bihar and Jharkhand-with relatively poor indicators for maternal health. Qualitative data through in-depth interviews of 49 health providers purposively selected from various cadres of public health system in two districts each from Bihar and Jharkhand states was thematically analysed using MAXQDA Version 10. Maternity management guidelines developed by the National Health Mission, India, were considered as a tool to learn instillation of quality in provision of health services in various selected health facilities. Infrastructure, human resources, equipments and materials, drugs, training capacity and health information systems were described as health system challenges by medical and paramedical health providers. On a positive note, the study findings simultaneously identified quality enablers such as appreciation of public-private partnerships, availability of clinical guidelines in the form of wall posters in health facilities, efforts to translate knowledge and evidence through practice and enthusiasm towards value of guidelines. Against the backdrop of quality initiatives in the country to foster United Health Care (UHC), frontline health providers' perspectives about quality and safety need to be considered and utilized. The provision of adequate health infrastructure, strong health management information system, introduction of evidence-based education and training with supportive supervision must constitute parallel efforts.

  19. Climate protection by means of state aids. An analysis of the state aid framework of energy political and environmental political measures; Klimaschutz durch Beihilfen. Eine Analyse des beihilferechtlichen Rahmens fuer energie- und umweltpolitische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behlau, Volker; Lutz, Jana; Schuett, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the book under consideration report on an analysis of the state aid framework of energy political and environmental political measures. This book consists of the following chapters: (1) Subsidies as an instrument of the law on climate protection and environmental protection (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, M. Schuett); (2) The material prohibition of State aid of Art. 107 AEUV (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) (V. Behlau); (3) State aids for the environmental protection in the legislative practice and decision practice of the European Commission (J. Lutz, V. Behlau, M. Schuett, F. Bartl); (4) State aids for the environmental protection in the European procedural law (M. Schuett); (5) Altmark Trans, Ferring and Co. - Is the leading back of the state aid regime also economically interesting for climate protection relevant measures? (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, S. Sobotta, M. Schuett); (6) Concluding remarks (V. Behlau, J. Lutz, M. Schuett).

  20. Influence of seaway changes during the Pliocene on tropical Pacific climate in the Kiel climate model: mean state, annual cycle, ENSO, and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhaoyang; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Krebs-Kanzow, Uta; Schneider, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of tropical Pacific interannual variability in the present-day climate. Available proxy evidence suggests that ENSO also existed during past climates, for example during the Pliocene extending from about 5.3 million to about 2.6 million years BP. Here we investigate the influences of the Panama Seaway closing and Indonesian Passages narrowing, and also of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on the tropical Pacific mean climate and annual cycle, and their combined impact on ENSO during the Pliocene. To this end the Kiel Climate Model), a global climate model, is employed to study the influences of the changing geometry and CO2-concentration. We find that ENSO is sensitive to the closing of the Panama Seaway, with ENSO amplitude being reduced by about 15-20 %. The narrowing of the Indonesian Passages enhances ENSO strength but only by about 6 %. ENSO period changes are modest and the spectral ENSO peak stays rather broad. Annual cycle changes are more prominent. An intensification of the annual cycle by about 50 % is simulated in response to the closing of the Panama Seaway, which is largely attributed to the strengthening of meridional wind stress. In comparison to the closing of the Panama Seaway, the narrowing of the Indonesian Passages only drives relatively weak changes in the annual cycle. A robust relationship is found such that ENSO amplitude strengthens when the annual cycle amplitude weakens.

  1. States of stress and slip partitioning in a continental scale strike-slip duplex: Tectonic and magmatic implications by means of finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrieta, Pablo Cristián; Hurtado, Daniel E.; Cembrano, José; Stanton-Yonge, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Orogenic belts at oblique convergent subduction margins accommodate deformation in several trench-parallel domains, one of which is the magmatic arc, commonly regarded as taking up the margin-parallel, strike-slip component. However, the stress state and kinematics of volcanic arcs is more complex than usually recognized, involving first- and second-order faults with distinctive slip senses and mutual interaction. These are usually organized into regional scale strike-slip duplexes, associated with both long-term and short-term heterogeneous deformation and magmatic activity. This is the case of the 1100 km-long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System in the Southern Andes, made up of two overlapping margin-parallel master faults joined by several NE-striking second-order faults. We present a finite element model addressing the nature and spatial distribution of stress across and along the volcanic arc in the Southern Andes to understand slip partitioning and the connection between tectonics and magmatism, particularly during the interseismic phase of the subduction earthquake cycle. We correlate the dynamics of the strike-slip duplex with geological, seismic and magma transport evidence documented by previous work, showing consistency between the model and the inferred fault system behavior. Our results show that maximum principal stress orientations are heterogeneously distributed within the continental margin, ranging from 15° to 25° counter-clockwise (with respect to the convergence vector) in the master faults and 10-19° clockwise in the forearc and backarc domains. We calculate the stress tensor ellipticity, indicating simple shearing in the eastern master fault and transpressional stress in the western master fault. Subsidiary faults undergo transtensional-to-extensional stress states. The eastern master fault displays slip rates of 5 to 10 mm/yr, whereas the western and subsidiary faults show slips rates of 1 to 5 mm/yr. Our results endorse that favorably oriented

  2. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  3. Steady-state captopril renography: continuous monitoring of the captopril-induced increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} mean parenchymal transit time in renovascular hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Esper, I. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Chajari, M`H. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Fonroget, J. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Neveu, J.P. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Makdassi, R. [Department of Nephrology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Bailly, P. [Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France); Fournier, A. [Department of Nephrology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Amiens (France)

    1997-07-01

    Steady-state captopril renography (SSCR) is an original technique for assessing the captopril-induced increase in technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}) mean parenchymal transit time (MPTT) in kidneys affected with functional renal artery stenosis (RAS). The steady-state parenchymal activity achieved by constant infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}is directly linked to the MPTT of the radiopharmaceutical. This steady-state parenchymal activity was continuously monitored from 15 min before to 60 min after a single dose of captopril in order to detect possible disruption of the steady state. SSCR was performed in 11 hypertensive patients with unilateral RAS and in two with RAS of a solitary kidney before renal revascularization (RR). In four of these patients, an additional SSCR was performed after RR. Of the ten patients whose hypertension was cured or improved by RR, one presented an uninterpretable SSCR and six presented a positive SSCR on the affected side. Control SSCR performed in four of these six patients was bilaterally negative. SSCR was also bilaterally negative in the three patients who showed no blood pressure response to RR. These preliminary results tend to indicate that, in spite of the stability of pre- and post-captopril hydration and data acquisition conditions allowed by this steady-state technique, the sensitivity is lower than expected. However, the reason for the false-negative results does not seem to be inherent to SSCR. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  5. The dance of meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

    2005-01-01

    competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship......competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship...

  6. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    OpenAIRE

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  7. Making meaning(s with cover designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Reed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design and Bernstein’s work on pedagogic discourse are drawn on in order to analyze some of the ways in which meanings are made and some meanings privileged over others in the designing, both visual and discursive, of the covers of three course books prepared for teacher education programmes in South Africa. The primary aim of this analysis is to understand what meanings are offered to readers as entrants into or as established members of communities of practice in the teaching profession and the academy.

  8. Car-Parrinello simulation of an O-H stretching envelope and potential of mean force of an intramolecular hydrogen bonded system: application to a Mannich base in solid state and in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierska, Aneta; Panek, Jarosław J; Koll, Aleksander; Mavri, Janez

    2007-05-28

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) study was performed for an anharmonic system-an intramolecularly hydrogen bonded Mannich-base-type compound, 4,5-dimethyl-2(N,N-dimethylaminemethyl)phenol, to investigate the vibrational spectrum associated with the O-H stretching. Calculations were carried out for the solid state and for an isolated molecule. The classical CPMD simulation was performed and then the proton potential snapshots were extracted from the trajectory. The vibrational Schrodinger equation for the snapshots was solved numerically, and the (O-H) envelope was calculated as a superposition of the 0-->1 transitions. The potential of mean force for the proton stretching mode was calculated from the proton vibrational eigenfunctions and eigenvalues incorporating statistical sampling, nuclear quantum effects, and effects of the environment. Perspectives for application of the presented methodology in the computational support of biocatalysis are given in the study.

  9. Aerial Moisture Transport in the Earth Climate System: A Study of the Mean State and Perturbations Due to CO2-Doubling using Numerical Water Tracers and a Novel Linear Algebra Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. A.; Bitz, C. M.; Nusbaumer, J. M.; Noone, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial moisture transport is fundamental to the climate system, and numerical water tracers (WTs) are a powerful tool for understanding this transport. Here, we present a novel matrix operator framework that permits systematic, rather than ad hoc, analysis of WT results. We use this framework to study moisture transport, from evaporation (or sublimation) to precipitation, in a state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) which incorporates WTs. This framework separates moisture divergence over a given tagged region into local divergence (the export of locally-evaporated moisture) and remote convergence (the import of remotely-evaporated moisture). The remote convergence term may be further subdivided into zonal, meridional, intrabasin, and interbasin parts, and can be used to predict precipitation given a particular spatial pattern of evaporation (demonstrated in Figure 1a). Findings from analysis of the preindustrial mean state concur with findings from earlier moisture transport studies: water evaporated at the equator and high latitudes tends to precipitate locally, whereas water evaporated in the subtropics and midlatitudes tends to precipitate remotely; water evaporated in the subtropics diverges both equatorward and poleward of its source region, while water evaporated in the midlatitudes mostly diverges poleward. New insights from the method reveal fundamental differences between the major ocean basins, with the Atlantic basin having the largest local divergence, smallest remote convergence, and greatest interbasin moisture export. With quasi-equilibrium CO2-doubling, we find that a greater fraction of locally-evaporated moisture is exported, moisture exchange between ocean basins increases (shown in Figure 2c), and moisture convergence within a given basin shifts towards greater distances between moisture source and sink regions. These changes can be understood in terms of a greater moisture residence time with warming, or, equivalently, a robust increase in

  10. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning......The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... that is internal to meaning discourse, then we can preserve the normativity of meaning and yet locate meaning in the natural world. I develop a generic motivation for this position, but argue that, since this motivation is consistent with the Ramsey-Carnap-Lewis-Jackson reductionist strategy, internalized meaning...

  11. Geometric Mean--What Does It Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalder, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and numerous mathematics educators promote the combination of conceptual understanding and procedural learning in the successful instruction of mathematics. Despite this, when geometric mean is taught in a typical American geometry class, it is taught as a process only despite the many connections…

  12. Means on scattered compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banakh T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a separable Hausdor_ topological space X containing a cocountable subset homeomorphic to [0, ω1] admits no separately continuous mean operation and no diagonally continuous n-mean for n ≥ 2.

  13. Lectures on mean curvature flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xi-Ping

    2002-01-01

    "Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...

  14. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed....

  15. 老子基于大国关系的天下秩序观:钩沉及建构∗%Laozi’s order under the sky and the approach of the great state as the means of governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若晖

    2016-01-01

    communication;thus Tao would prevail in the world.If reversing the philosophical infant model,we could set up a kind of relationship between one person and all the others,and this unique person was the Son of Heaven.The relationships in the great state which was between the small state and the sage king's governance were beyond the kinship, so it must develop into a relationship between states;thus the ruler of the great state had relationships with all the people in the world.The reconstruction of the order by means of the great state had been abandoned by Laozi,which was not expressed in a positive way as the small state.However,it could be reconstructed by teasing out the sources.Laozi’s abandoned idea of the great state found expres-sion in the Youyushi’s governance advocated by Zhuangzi which was higher than that of King Wu of the Zhou dynasty while lower than the age of the perfect virtue.Shun’s humility and following the natural course,which meant that he appointed positions and conferred offices on his subj ects,made himself become a worldly medium from the Confucian sage king to the Taoist age of the perfect vir-tue.

  16. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  17. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  18. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-01-06

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  19. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-04

    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  20. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  1. Processing Film, Processing Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowski, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are at a ripe age to make meaning and think abstractly (Kerlavage, 1998); yet, they are not "born knowing how to get ideas into materials, or how materials can be manipulated to shape ideas and meaning" (Burton, 2012, p. 14). Adolescents need guidance in understanding abstract concepts, and art teachers play an important role…

  2. A construção do significado de controle social com conselheiros de saúde no Estado do Piauí, Brasil Construction of meanings relating to social control with health counselors in Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivo dos Santos Pedrosa

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição de uma experiência de intervenção pedagógica junto aos conselheiros de saúde de duas Diretorias Regionais de Saúde do Estado do Piauí. Valendo-se do projeto de Incentivo ao Controle Social e à Participação Popular na Construção do SUS, do Ministério da Saúde, o artigo analisa as formas e conteúdos da questão do controle social em saúde, numa situação em que o controle político e econômico da sociedade é exercido por pequenos grupos donos do poder e da riqueza, que configuram o padrão oligárquico de dominação. Neste sentido, a experiência demonstrou a importância da construção coletiva do significado de controle social com bases nas relações cotidianas entre a comunidade e os serviços de saúde e o papel estratégico do profissional ao desenvolver estas ações.This article describes a health education experiment with health counselors in two health administration districts in the State of Piaui, Brazil. Focusing on the Ministry of Health's Project for Social Control and People's Participation in Health, the article analyzes forms and contents pertaining to the issue of social control in the health field, under a situation where society is controlled by small groups detaining both power and wealth. The experiment showed the importance of constructing meanings concerning social control in day-to-day relationships between the community and health services and the strategic role of health professionals in developing health education activities.

  3. Scalable K-Means++

    CERN Document Server

    Bahmani, Bahman; Vattani, Andrea; Kumar, Ravi; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    Over half a century old and showing no signs of aging, k-means remains one of the most popular data processing algorithms. As is well-known, a proper initialization of k-means is crucial for obtaining a good final solution. The recently proposed k-means++ initialization algorithm achieves this, obtaining an initial set of centers that is provably close to the optimum solution. A major downside of the k-means++ is its inherent sequential nature, which limits its applicability to massive data: one must make k passes over the data to find a good initial set of centers. In this work we show how to drastically reduce the number of passes needed to obtain, in parallel, a good initialization. This is unlike prevailing efforts on parallelizing k-means that have mostly focused on the post-initialization phases of k-means. We prove that our proposed initialization algorithm k-means|| obtains a nearly optimal solution after a logarithmic number of passes, and then show that in practice a constant number of passes suffic...

  4. Child Care: Recent State Policy Changes Affecting the Availability of Assistance for Low-Income Families. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    At Congressional request, the General Accounting Office examined states choices for providing child care assistance to families and states' proposed changes to child care assistance programs for fiscal year 2004. Information was obtained through a survey of child care administrators of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Findings revealed…

  5. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  6. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  7. Fragile States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Lothar; Holm, Hans-Henrik; Sørensen, Georg;

    What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not......What does state fragility means and how is it adressed. Case studies of where it went wrong and where it did not...

  8. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  9. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  10. Stats means business

    CERN Document Server

    Buglear, John

    2010-01-01

    Stats Means Business is an introductory textbook written for Business, Hospitality and Tourism students who take modules on Statistics or Quantitative research methods. Recognising that most users of this book will have limited if any grounding in the subject, this book minimises technical language, provides clear definition of key terms, and gives emphasis to interpretation rather than technique.Stats Means Business enables readers to:appreciate the importance of statistical analysis in business, hospitality and tourism understand statis

  11. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME’S FORECASTING AND REDUCTION BY MEANS OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING IN THE PENAL POLITICS OF THE STATE: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to elaborate a valid method of forecasting of the potential offender during the hiring process by means of pre-employment tests as an integral part of the process of prevention and counteracting of the phenomenon of white-collar criminality in the realm of Penal Politics of the Republic of Moldova and the State of Israel. Namely, the „personality coefficient” of the potential offender, which, in the author’s opinion, will define better the likelihood of success in perpetrating a white-collar crime. As a result, a new methodology and tactics for the earlier reducing of white-collar criminality at workplace a new and original scale of pre-employment test valid for hiring process which will be justifiable not only from economical and sociological standpoint, but also from criminological point of view in the process of white-collar criminality reducing.Prognozarea şi reducerea criminalităţii gulerelor albe prin metoda testărilor pre-angajatoare în politica penală a statului: rezultatele empirice pentru Moldova şi IsraelScopul propus în acest articol constă în elaborarea unei metode valide pentru identificarea criminalilor potenţiali în procesul de angajare prin teste de pre-selecţie privite ca parte integrantă a procesului de prevenire şi combatere a fenomenului criminalităţii gulerelor albe în cadrul politicii penale a Republicii Moldova şi a Statului Israel. În special, este propus spre utilizare „coeficientul personalităţii” potenţialului infractor care, în opinia autorului, va defini mai precis probabilitatea săvârşirii crimei gulerelor albe. Prin urmare, este propusă şi argumentată o nouă metodologie şi tactică de reducere a criminalităţii gulerelor albe la locul de muncă, precum şi un model original de testare pre-angajare oportun din perspectivă economică, sociologică şi criminologică.

  12. 青少年情绪状态与社会支持对攻击性的预测%The Predictability of Aggressiveness by Means of Adolescent Emotion States and Social Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永志; 张海钟; 李娜

    2011-01-01

    China is in a new period of rapid social transformation,and youth mental health problems have become increasingly prominent.The mental and physical development in adolescents is uncoordinated and the mental development is lagging behind.Young people are likely to suffer physical and mental problem by the impact of negative information.Therefore,in this research,we selected 357 junior school students as participants by using scaling method to collect data to investigate the predictability of aggressiveness by means of different emotion states and social support.Results showed that:(1)all variables,except positive emotions,had significant correlation with every factor of aggressiveness and the total score;(2)the main effect of physical aggressiveness was clearly concerning different classes and genders while the main effect of the total score of aggressiveness was also obvious in classes.Meanwhile,the other variables had no significant effects on classes and gender;(3)the emotion states and social supports had significant predictable effects on aggressiveness.The results further illustrates that the relationship between emotional,social support and adolescent aggression,which can provide inspiration for solving the problem of mental health education of young people.%我国正处于社会急剧转型的新时期,青少年的心理健康问题日益凸显。青少年心理与身体发育不协调,心理发育相对滞后,加之受负面信息的影响,青少年身心健康很容易受到侵害。本研究以357名初中生为被试,采用问卷法,考察了不同情绪状态与社会支持对攻击性的预测作用。研究结果表明:(1)除了正性情绪与攻击性各维度及总分没有显著相关外,其他变量与攻击性各维度及总分均有显著相关;(2)身体攻击的年级主效应、性别主效应显著,攻击性总分的年级主效应显著,其他变量年级与性别主效应不显著;(3)情绪状态与社会支持

  13. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens;

    2017-01-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...... with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state...... contributing to the mean excitation energy....

  14. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Phillip W. K.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  15. Mean excitation energies for molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.

  16. Evaluative Meaning in Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Jurko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative meaning is frequently understood as a form of connotation, pertaining to single lexical items. However, the term has recently been applied also to longer stretches of text, spanning several words. The paper generally deals with the latter aspect and provides a corpus-driven analysis of several Slovene and English phrases that may appear semantically neutral, yet turn out to be heavily non-neutral in terms of their semantic properties. After a short introduction of the main approaches to the topic, including its dilemmas, the paper focuses on the L1-into-L2 translation of such strings, with particular emphasis on proper rendering of the evaluative meaning. While further research is warranted into the matter, the work presented here attests to the complex and ubiquitous nature of the Sinclairian extended unit of meaning.

  17. Meaning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.

    2017-02-01

    Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.

  18. Mean Field ICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations and improvements of a technique for Independent Component Analysis (ICA), called "Mean Field ICA". The main focus of the thesis is the optimization part of the algorithm, the so-called "EM algorithm". Using different approaches it is demonstrated that the EM...... Gradient Recipe is applicable to a wide selection of models. Furthermore, the Mean Field ICA model is extended to incorporate ltering over time in a so-called "convolutive ICA" model. Finally, by using mixture of Gaussians as source priors, the generative and ltering approach to ICA is compared...

  19. Intersubjective meaning making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children presented here, shows that while the constraints of single-touch screens does not support equality of interaction at the verbal and the physical level, there seems to be an intersubjective learning outcome. More precisely, the constraints...... of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in its ability of constraining the interaction. By presenting a short embodied interaction analysis of 22 seconds of collaboration, I illustrate how an embodied interaction perspective on intersubjective meaning making can tell...... a different story about touch-screen supported collaborative learning....

  20. The Nexus of Military Missions and Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    is being published to formally record the state of the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) circa 2002. However, since that time, the MMF has...continued to evolve and has been presented in updated forms at various conferences. See, for example, the "Military Missions and Means Framework " paper

  1. The meaning of talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society gives a remarkable role to human potentialities into organizations. For this reason has emerged talent management. But it is necessary to know its meaning to put on practice programs. In this paper, the author analyzes different points of views about this topic.

  2. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  3. Meaning in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    A model for context-dependent natural language semantics is proposed and formalized in terms of possible worlds. The meaning of a sentence depends on context and at the same time affects that context representing the knowledge about the world collected from a discourse. The model fits well...

  4. Conversations across Meaning Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Progressive interpretations of scientific theories have long been denounced as naive, because of the inescapability of meaning variance. The charge reportedly applies to recent realist moves that focus on theory-parts rather than whole theories. This paper considers the question of what "theory-parts" of epistemic significance (if any) relevantly…

  5. What does 'regionalisation' mean?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Ounanian, Kristen; Raakjær, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    . To draw implications for policy, we explore these perceptions and seek, by means of interviews and a survey of participants in the Regional Advisory Councils with hands-on experience in regional cooperation in European fisheries management, to flesh out the question whether regionalisation is seen a good...

  6. The Problem of Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, Arthur Rex

    1970-01-01

    The study of semantics, the study of meaning, promises more complete communicative thought transfer if several problem areas can be solved or at least generally agreed upon. The problem of exact definition of words arises from the fact that no one work is the exact equivalent of another. However, the study of many languages forces the mind to…

  7. The meaning of curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    diffusion to volume growth. We are e.g. interested in obtaining precise bounds for mean exit times for Brownian motions and for isoperimetric inequalities. One way to obtain such bounds are via curvature controlled comparison with corresponding values in constant curvature spaces and in other tailor-made so...

  8. PR Means Positive Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  9. Meaning = Information + Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Notions like meaning, signal, intentionality, are difficult to relate to a physical word. I study a purely physical definition of "meaningful information", from which these notions can be derived. It is inspired by a model recently illustrated by Kolchinsky and Wolpert, and improves on Dretske classic work on the relation between knowledge and information. I discuss what makes a physical process into a "signal".

  10. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be both confusing and disorienting to academic and clinical practitioners who ... questions of students of phenomenology often are the most appropriate ... Meaning attribution is the psychological study of the ... a best-seller with my publisher. But, except for ..... perhaps listening to music, having a chat, and things are ...

  11. The Measurement of Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Charles E.; And Others

    The problem of measuring meaning viewed strictly as a psychological conception via the application of semantic differential theory is presented in this study. The first half of the book discusses theoretical background, logic of semantic measurement, basic factor analysis research, and a critical scientific evaluation of measuring procedures. The…

  12. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  13. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  14. Mean Transit Time and Mean Residence Time for Linear Diffusion–Convection–Reaction Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Waniewski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic times for transport processes in biological systems may be evaluated as mean transit times (MTTs (for transit states or mean residence times (MRT (for steady states. It is shown in a general framework of a (linear reaction–diffusion–convection equation that these two times are related. Analytical formulas are also derived to calculate moments of exit time distribution using solutions for a stationary state of the system.

  15. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  16. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  17. IAP/LASG全球海-陆-气耦合系统模式的纬向平均大气气候态分析%Analysis of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Climate State in IAP/ LASG GOALS Model Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韬; 郭裕福; 吴国雄

    2002-01-01

    The results of four versions of IAP/LASG Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (GOALS) are analyzed separately over the oceans and over continents, and compared with observed data.Some fundamental atmospheric variables including surface air temperature (SAT), sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation are examined to evaluate the ability of the GOALS model to simulate the contemporary climate and climate variability. In general, all four versions of the GOALS model are capable of reproducing the main features of the mean state and seasonal variation of the observed climate with reasonable accuracy.The evaluation also reveals some weakness of the model. According to this study, we can clearly see that the essential discrepancy of global averaged SLP lies over the continents in boreal summer. The simulated higher SAT over land versus the observed is mainly due to the effect of the land surface process. It is worth noting the underestimation by simulated precipitation rates mostly appears over the oceans, yet over-land precipitation is higher in high and middle latitudes than the observed for the boreal winter.Through intercomparisons among different versions of the model, it can be clearly seen that the incorporation of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation apparently improves the simulation of SAT, especially in the low and middle latitudes over land. Also, the introduction of the diurnal cycle shows a great improvement in precipitation in tropical continents and wintertime precipitation in high and middle latitudes. Furthermore,based on the daily flux anomaly exchange scheme (DFA), the latest version of GOALS model simulated over-ocean temperature variability is improved in the low and middle latitudes.Having compared the standard deviation of the annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) simulated by the GOALS model to observation, it is found that all four versions of the GOALS model underestimate surface air temperature variability over both oceans and land

  18. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  19. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically...... improved means of fast physical movement from one place to another. Yet, the impact that the technology of automobility came to have was not of a limited materialistic nature. As many literary and cultural critics have noted, car technology extended its influence into the field of imaginative transport...... as a means of physical and spiritual transport is thus consistently embedded in a less idealized context, where its technological machinery is foregrounded. In conclusion, the paper argues that Williams’s thematic treatment of the car in his writings may be read as a modern poet’s meta-poetic gloss on poetry...

  20. Feeling, Meaning, and Intentionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the phenomenology of aesthetic experience. It first, critically, considers one of the most influential approaches to the psychophysics of aesthetic perception, viz. neuroaesthetics. Hereafter, it outlines constitutive tenets of aesthetic perception in terms of a particular...... relative to its object and the tools for meaning-making specific to that object, and not relative to the feeling (of beauty) it may elicit. Finally, I sketch the import this fact may have on a research program in empirical aesthetics....

  1. The Meaning of Mandela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Julia Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Book Reviews The Meaning of Mandela: A Broader Canvas Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, The Decolonial Mandela: Peace, Justice and the Politics of Life (Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books, 2016), 186 pp., hardback, £64.00, US$90.00, ISBN 978-1-78533-118-3; paperback, £19.00, US$27.95, ISBN 978-1-78533-......-1-78533-296-8; e-book, ISBN 978-1-79533-119-0...

  2. Weighted Mean Impact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Linear regression is a popular tool that is often applied to biometric and epidemiological data. It relies on strong model assumptions that are rarely satisfied. To overcome this difficulty, Brannath and Scharpenberg (2014) proposed a new population based interpretation of linear regression coefficients. The idea is to quantify how much the unconditional mean of the dependent variable Y can be changed by changing the distribution of the independent variable X. The maximum change is called "me...

  3. Observation of the surface 4f state of CePd{sub 7} by means of the resonant-inverse-photoemission study at the Ce 4d absorption edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, K.; Tezuka, Y.; Fujisawa, M.; Harada, Y.; Shin, S. [Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 188 (Japan); Schmerber, G.; Kappler, J.P.; Parlebas, J.C. [IPCMS-GEMME (UMR 46 CNR), Universite Louis Pasteur, 23, rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Kotani, A. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    The resonant inverse photoemission study (RIPES) of CePd{sub 7}, has been carried out at the Ce 4d{r_arrow}4f absorption edge. The strong resonant enhancement of the 4f cross section enables us to distinguish two 4f components in the empty electronic state near the Fermi level. The incidence-angle dependence of the RIPES indicates a clear difference between ground-state configurations at the bulk and surface. It is found that the former shows a strongly hybridized 4f state, while the latter shows a localized 4f character. The angle dependence of the RIPES of {alpha}-Ce metal has been also carried out and similar results as those of CePd{sub 7} were obtained. The RIPES at the Ce 4d{r_arrow}4f edge is found to be a powerful method to investigate the surface 4f state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Mean-field games for marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-05-07

    This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple\\'s network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.

  5. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  6. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  7. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    F.C. Bartlett and L.S.Vygotsky were two seminal figures in the psychological study of remembering. Both emphasized the role of meaning and imagination in this process. Bartlett did this by showing the systematic and holistic changes that ensue when cultural material is repeatedly reproduced outside...... of the group to which it belongs. Vygotsky, on the other hand, attended to the ways in which we construct meaningful ―signs‖ as artificial memory aids to solve memory problems that go beyond our natural capacities. These two approaches are brought together to show how we utilize various cultural resources...

  8. Mean gust shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2003-01-01

    patterns of a wind turbine when a gust event is imposed. Methods exist to embed a gust of a prescribed appearance in a stochastic wind field. The present report deals with a method to derive realistic gustshapes based only on a few stochastic features of the relevant turbulence field. The investigation...... is limited to investigation of the longitudinal turbulence component, and consequently no attention is paid to wind direction gusts. A theoreticalexpression, based on level crossing statistics, is proposed for the description of a mean wind speed gust shape. The description also allows for information...

  9. Foster Care: State Practices for Assessing Health Needs, Facilitating Service Delivery, and Monitoring Children's Care. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. GAO-09-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kay; Bascetta, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Providing health care services for foster children, who frequently have significant health care needs, can be challenging. The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) oversees foster care, but state child welfare agencies are responsible for ensuring that these children receive health care services, which are often financed by Medicaid. In…

  10. Child Support Enforcement: Effects of Declining Welfare Caseloads Are Beginning To Emerge. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembra, Richard L.

    As a condition of receiving federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds, states are required to operate Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs. Families receiving TANF are required to participate in the CSE program; families not receiving TANF may also request CSE services. However, since 1994, an increasing number of states…

  11. THE MEANING OF GENETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Adolphs

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Research into the public understanding of genetics has greatly expanded lately. At the same time inatters relating to biotechnology have scizcd the public's attention. Corpus linguistics has long asked questions about how meaning is created and changed in the public sphere through language use. However, linking Corpus linguistics to the study of the public understanding of science is something too few have done. To correct this trend, we apply methods from corpus linguistics and cognitive linguistics to study how people talk about genetics. We do so by analysiny the mieaning of words like gene, genes, genetic, genetics, and genetically as found in various spoken and written corpora. Specifically, we examine how they take on certain (e.g. figurative connotations and modulate in context.

  12. Walking With Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McDuff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is beneficial for people with dementia, but little research explores subjective experiences of physical activity in this population. Interpretive description guided the analysis of 26 interviews conducted with 12 people with dementia. Three themes described the subjective meaning of everyday physical activity: Participants were attracted to activity because it improved physical well-being, provided social connections, gave opportunity to be in nature, and provided structure and focus; participants experienced impediments to activity because of physical discomfort, environmental factors, lack of enthusiasm, and memory loss; and participants made adjustments by choosing walking over other activities and by being active with others. Results show that physical activity remains important for people with dementia, although they encounter barriers. They may prefer walking with others as a form of activity. Findings could influence how nurses conceptualize wandering and suggest that walking programs could be well received by people with dementia.

  13. Focus on Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words 房,堂,屋, and 厅on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests......’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation...... of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning in the classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2...

  14. The meaning of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiverstein, Julian

    2012-10-01

    There is substantial disagreement among philosophers of embodied cognitive science about the meaning of embodiment. In what follows, I describe three different views that can be found in the current literature. I show how this debate centers around the question of whether the science of embodied cognition can retain the computer theory of mind. One view, which I will label body functionalism, takes the body to play the functional role of linking external resources for problem solving with internal biological machinery. Embodiment is thus understood in terms of the role the body plays in supporting the computational circuits that realize cognition. Body enactivism argues by contrast that no computational account of cognition can account for the role of commonsense knowledge in our everyday practical engagement with the world. I will attempt a reconciliation of these seemingly opposed views.

  15. Improvisation and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-08-07

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  16. Risk-sensitive mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study a class of risk-sensitive mean-field stochastic differential games. We show that under appropriate regularity conditions, the mean-field value of the stochastic differential game with exponentiated integral cost functional coincides with the value function satisfying a Hamilton -Jacobi- Bellman (HJB) equation with an additional quadratic term. We provide an explicit solution of the mean-field best response when the instantaneous cost functions are log-quadratic and the state dynamics are affine in the control. An equivalent mean-field risk-neutral problem is formulated and the corresponding mean-field equilibria are characterized in terms of backward-forward macroscopic McKean-Vlasov equations, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and HJB equations. We provide numerical examples on the mean field behavior to illustrate both linear and McKean-Vlasov dynamics. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  17. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    of energy for a wave energy converter or wave farm. Fundamentally, the MAEP is equal to the sum of the product of the power capture of a set of sea-states and their average annual occurrence. In general, it is necessary in the calculation of the MAEP to achieve a balance between computational demand......This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The calculation of the mean annual energy production (MAEP) is critical to the assessment of the levelized cost...... obtained through system identification. The traditional method for representing the wave climate is using a scatter table, indexed by significant wave height and energy period; however, it has been found that this can lead to high errors in the MAEP due to the necessary assumptions regarding spectral shape...

  18. When Information Conveys Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reading

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].

  19. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  20. Local structures and electronic band states of α−Fe2O3 polycrystalline particles in the glazes of the HIZEN celadons produced in the Edo period of Japan, by means of X-ray absorption spectra (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, M; Ohashi, K.; R. P. Wijesundera; L. S. R. Kumara; Sugihara, S.; Momoshima,N.; Kubuki,S.; Sung,N. E.

    2011-01-01

    HIZEN celadon glazes produced in 1630's to 1790's (Edo period, Japan) have been investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) near a Fe-K edge by using synchrotron radiation and a Mössbauer spectrum. The XAS suggest that the local structure around Fe2O3 fine powders is slightly different between the Izumiyama ceramics of mainly the Quartz-SiO2 and Ohkawachi ceramics of mainly the feldspar of (K,Na)Si3O8 (Sanidine), and that the glazes of the HIZEN celadons include the Fe2O3 fine pow...

  1. Sovereignty, globalization and the constitution of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Samir Benavides Vanegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I wish to show how law’s and the nation’s loss of sovereignty have meant the emergence of new sites of identity construction and how these new identities have become global due to the loss of centrality of the nation state as a place of meaning production. By analyzing the concept of sovereignty and its relation to the power of naming held by the State, and exercised through the law, I want to show how in a society of the spectacle that power is removed from the State and given to other places that can ensure passivity of viewers and thus the absence of resistance in the construction of meaning. This I will do by analyzing a Colombian soap opera and its handling of the concept of corruption to show legal meaning was overtaken by the one built in the media.

  2. Dietary intake estimates as a means to the harmonization of maximum residue levels for veterinary drugs. II. Proposed application to the Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, S C; Vilim, A; Lambert, G; Yong, M S; Brynes, S D

    1996-10-01

    The Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada (FTA) went into effect January 1, 1989. To implement certain provisions of the agreement on technical regulations and standards, the United States Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine, Health and Welfare Canada's Bureau of Veterinary Drugs, and Agriculture Canada established the Working Group on Veterinary Drug Tolerances. The progress of the working group and its continuing efforts to harmonize tolerances for approximately 15 veterinary drugs are discussed. This paper proposes use of the toxicologically determined acceptable daily intake (ADI) for the drug as the safety standard for reaching conclusions on the acceptability of residues in meat for human consumption. Specifically, the "equivalence" of different MRLs for the same veterinary drug would be determined by considering whether they are likely to result in dietary residues that exceed the other country's ADI for the drug. Estimates are made for the veterinary drugs lasalocid, fenbendazole, morantel tartrate, halofuginone, and tilmicosin. Based on these estimates, the U.S. and Canadian MRLs for each drug would be considered equivalent for trade purposes.

  3. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  4. Mean Shift Registration Algorithm for Dissimilar Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong-qing; JING Zhong-liang; HU Shi-qiang; ZHAO Hai-tao

    2009-01-01

    The mean shift registration (MSR) algorithm is proposed to accurately estimate the biases for multiple dissimilar sensors. The new algorithm is a batch optimization procedure. The maximum likelihood estimator is used to estimate the target states, and then the mean shift algorithm is implemented to estimate the sensor biases. Monte Carlo simulations show that the MSR algorithm has significant improvement in performance with reducing the standard deviation and mean of sensor biased estimation error compared with the maximum likelihood registration algorithm. The quantitative analysis and the qualitative analysis show that the MSR algorithm has less computation than the maximum likelihood registration method.

  5. The meaning of lives and the meaning of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijnck, W. de

    2013-01-01

    Meaning in life is an important aspect of human well-being and motivation. But as the notion of 'meaning in life' is not easily assimilated to that of semantic meaning, it is difficult to define. While meaning in life is standardly discussed in terms of meaningful ways of living, I here take the alt

  6. The meaning of lives and the meaning of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijnck, W. de

    2013-01-01

    Meaning in life is an important aspect of human well-being and motivation. But as the notion of 'meaning in life' is not easily assimilated to that of semantic meaning, it is difficult to define. While meaning in life is standardly discussed in terms of meaningful ways of living, I here take the

  7. The greenway as a means to recover valley floor areas: A proposal for the Mandacarú stream, Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.12529

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cassimiro Barbosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to recover the Mandacarú Stream, located in the city of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil by developing a greenway. The stream in question has been extremely degraded, principally by human activity. The proposed methodology begins with preparing a scenario for the valley floor with a greenway in place. This is followed by an investigation of the corridor’s ecological and cultural variables, taking a holistic view to synthesise and diagnose the information collected. Guidelines for recovering the valley floor and developing the greenway are then drawn up to direct the preparation of the final plan. As a result, the principal environmental impacts that undermine the quality of the study area were surveyed, such as erosion, loss of riparian vegetation, illegal sewage connections and lack of environmental education. A list of guidelines was developed for recovering and conserving the area, in combination with the development of a greenway along the valley floor. It is hoped that these guidelines can assist a future intervention at this location and that the proposed method can be used as the basis for the recovery of other urban valley floors.

  8. Miraculous Meaning: Threatened Meaning Increases Belief in Miracles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Clay; Roylance, Christina; Abeyta, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    For many, religious belief is a source of meaning and a resource for coping with life stressors that have the potential to undercut meaning. In the present study, we sought to further probe the connection between religion and meaning by focusing on the potential for threatened meaning to inspire belief in miraculous testimonials. We threatened meaning with a meaninglessness manipulation and then had participants read testimonials in which people described miraculous experiences involving supernatural agents and rate the extent to which they believed these testimonials to be credible and true. Meaning threat, relative to a control condition, increased belief in miraculous stories.

  9. The genetics and conservation of Araucaria angustifolia: I. Genetic structure and diversity of natural populations by means of non-adaptive variation in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria Frizon Auler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to generate information relative to the allele distribution and dynamics within and among populations of Araucaria angustifolia, a naturally-occurring conifer in the south of Brazil, being known popularly as "pinheiro-do-Paraná", "araucaria" or pine tree. In order to elucidate the levels and the distribution of the genetic variability, the population's genetic structure and the genetic distance among natural populations of this species with different levels of disturbance in different geographical areas were studied in detail. For this, samples of leaf tissue were collected from 328 adult individuals in nine natural populations in Santa Catarina State. To analyze the samples, the allozyme technique was applied in starch gel electrophoresis (penetrose 13%, with citrate/morfholine buffer. Nine enzymatic systems (PGM, PGI MDH, PRX, SKDH, 6PGDH, ACP, IDH and G6PDH revealed 15 loci. The analysis provided values for He and Ho of 0.084 and 0.072, respectively. The general average of polymorphic loci was 73% in the species and 26.6% in the studied populations and the allele number per locus was 1.6. Wright's F-statistical estimates indicated the existence of inbreeding in populations (F IS= 0.148 and a low divergence among populations (F ST = 0.044. However, the inbreeding values were variable in different populations. Taken together, the results indicated that the greater part of the genetic variability is contained within populations. The working hypothesis that originally there was greater genetic diversity can be supported by these results which indicate that in the degraded populations the diversity indexes are lower in the degraded populations than those found in better-conserved populations. Thus the fragmentation of the forest followed by "araucaria" exploitation could have contributed to the genetic differentiation expressed through the allele frequency of the studied population.

  10. Mean fluorescence lifetime and its error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiserova, Eva [Department of Mathematical Analysis and Applications of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University in Olomouc, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZE-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kubala, Martin, E-mail: mkubala@prfnw.upol.cz [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University in Olomouc, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZE-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Mean excited-state lifetime is one of the fundamental fluorescence characteristics and enters as an important parameter into numerous calculations characterizing molecular interactions, such as e.g. FRET or fluorescence quenching. Our experiments demonstrated that the intensity-weighted mean fluorescence lifetime is very robust characteristic, in contrast to the amplitude-weighted one, which value is dependent on the data quality and particularly on the used fitting model. For the first time, we also report the procedure for the error estimation for both the intensity- and amplitude-weighted mean fluorescence lifetimes. Furthermore, we present a method for estimation of the mean fluorescence lifetime directly from the fluorescence-decay curve recorded by TCSPC (Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting) method. For its simplicity and low computational demands, it could be a useful tool in the high-throughput applications, such as FACS, FLIM-FRET or HPLC detectors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intensity-weighted mean fluorescence lifetime is very robust characteristic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amplitude-weighted mean lifetime depends on the selection of fitting model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rigorous procedure for estimation of confidence intervals for mean lifetime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean lifetime can be estimated directly from the TCSPC histogram.

  11. Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1995-01-01

    Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requ...

  12. Overestimation of Knowledge about Word Meanings: The "Misplaced Meaning" Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a "Misplaced Meaning" (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much…

  13. Preservation of As(III) and As(V) in drinking water supply samples from across the United States using EDTA and acetic acid as a means of minimizing iron-arsenic coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia A; Schwegel, Carol A; Parks, Amy; Gamble, Bryan M; Wymer, Larry; Creed, John T

    2004-05-15

    Seven different treatment/storage conditions were investigated for the preservation of the native As(III)/As(V) found in 10 drinking water supplies from across the United States. These 10 waters were chosen because they have different As(III)/As(V) distributions; six of these waters contained enough iron to produce an iron precipitate during shipment. The waters were treated and stored under specific conditions and analyzed periodically over a span of approximately 75 days. Linear least squares (LLS) was used to estimate the change in As(III) and As(V) over the study period. Point estimates for the first and last analyses days and 95% confidence bounds were calculated from the LLS. The difference in the point estimates for the first and last day were then evaluated with respect to drinking water treatment decision making. Three primary treatments were evaluated: EDTA/AcOH-treatment and AcOH treatment as well as no treatment. The effect of temperature was explored for all treatments, while the effect of aeration was evaluated for only the EDTA/AcOH treated samples. The nontreated samples experienced a 0-40% reduction in the native arsenic concentration due to the formation of Fe/As precipitates. The Fe/As precipitates were resolubilized and shown to contain elevated concentrations of As(V) relative to the native distribution. Once this Fe/As precipitate was removed from solution using a 0.45 and 0.2 microm filter, the resulting arsenic concentration (As(III) + As(V)) was relatively constant (the largest LLS slope was -1.4 x 10(-2) (ng As g water(-1)) day(-1)). The AcOH treatment eliminated the formation of the Fe/As precipitate observed in the nontreated samples. However, two of the AcOH water samples produced analytically significant changes in the As(III) concentration. The LLS slopes for these two waters were -5.7 x 10(-2) (ng As(III) g water(-1)) day(-1) and -1.0 x 10(-1) (ng As(III) g water(-1)) day(-1). This corresponds to a -4.3 ng/g and a -7.8 ng/g change in

  14. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  15. Kinetic mean-field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkheck, John; Stell, George

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic mean-field theory for the evolution of the one-particle distribution function is derived from maximizing the entropy. For a potential with a hard-sphere core plus tail, the resulting theory treats the hard-core part as in the revised Enskog theory. The tail, weighted by the hard-sphere pair distribution function, appears linearly in a mean-field term. The kinetic equation is accompanied by an entropy functional for which an H theorem was proven earlier. The revised Enskog theory is obtained by setting the potential tail to zero, the Vlasov equation is obtained by setting the hard-sphere diameter to zero, and an equation of the Enskog-Vlasov type is obtained by effecting the Kac limit on the potential tail. At equilibrium, the theory yields a radial distribution function that is given by the hard-sphere reference system and thus furnishes through the internal energy a thermodynamic description which is exact to first order in inverse temperature. A second natural route to thermodynamics (from the momentum flux which yields an approximate equation of state) gives somewhat different results; both routes coincide and become exact in the Kac limit. Our theory furnishes a conceptual basis for the association in the heuristically based modified Enskog theory (MET) of the contact value of the radial distribution function with the ''thermal pressure'' since this association follows from our theory (using either route to thermodynamics) and moreover becomes exact in the Kac limit. Our transport theory is readily extended to the general case of a soft repulsive core, e.g., as exhibited by the Lennard-Jones potential, via by-now-standard statistical-mechanical methods involving an effective hard-core potential, thus providing a self-contained statistical-mechanical basis for application to such potentials that is lacking in the standard versions of the MET. We obtain very good agreement with experiment for the thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of several

  16. Study on the ferromagnetic state in iron mixed-valence complexes, A[Fe{sup II}Fe{sup III}(dto){sub 3}] (A = (n-C{sub n}H{sub 2n + 1}){sub 4}N; dto = C{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}) by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yuki; Okazawa, Atsushi, E-mail: cokazawa@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Masaya [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science Division I (Japan); Kojima, Norimichi, E-mail: cnori@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    We have investigated the ferromagnetic states for (n-C{sub n}H{sub 2n + 1}){sub 4}N[Fe{sup II}Fe{sup III}(dto){sub 3}] (n = 3-6; dto C{sub 2}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}) by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The major component of the spin configuration in the ferromagnetic states for n = 3 and 4 is the low-temperature phase (LTP) with the Fe{sup III} (S = 5/2) and Fe{sup II} (S = 0) states. The high-temperature phase (HTP) of n = 4 remains by more than 20%, which is consistent with two ferromagnetic transitions (T{sub C} = 7 and 13 K). Moreover, it was revealed that the Moessbauer spectra in the ferromagnetic states for n = 5 and 6 correspond to the HTP consisting of the Fe{sup II} (S = 2) and Fe{sup III} (S = 1/2) states.

  17. THE CLIMATE OF NORTHERN CHILE: MEAN STATE, VARIABILITY AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Garreaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este manuscrito documenta las características principales del clima del norte de Chile, lugar donde se ubican, y donde se proyecta, la instalación de varios observatorios astronómicos. Primeramente se provee de una descripción del clima regional a una escala espacial amplia, donde se describe la importancia relativa de la celda de Hadley, del Monsón Sud-Americano, y perturbaciones extra-tropicales en dar forma al estado promedio de la temperatura, precipitación y vientos en la región. Entonces, se describen los efectos de la Oscilación del Sur-El Niño para producir algún nivel de variabilidad inter-anual en el clima del norte de Chile. Se concluye este trabajo, basándose en lo expuesto en estudios recientes, con un resumen de las tendencias observadas y proyecciones en el cambio climático para lo que resta del siglo XXI.

  18. Means-end theory of lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    Brunsø, Scholderer and Grunert (in press) reconstruct means-end chain theory and lifestyle within a dual-process framework, incorporating bottom-up and top-down information-processing routes. The bottom-up route of their model is defined as a hierarchical categorization process, and the top......-down route as goal-directed action. Lifestyle, then, is seen as a system of individual differences in the habitual use of declarative and procedural knowledge structures that intervene between abstract goal states (personal values) and situation-specific product perceptions and behaviors. Access...... the list of values as a measure of abstract goal states, the food-related lifestyle instrument as a measure of intervening knowledge structures, and the food-related behavior list as a measure of the frequency of a broad range of consumption behaviors. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation...

  19. Meaning of Life and Meaning of Care: A Christian Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Th.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution, we will review the quest for meaning in the lives of people with mental retardation, and of the meaning of care, in light of what I conceive to be some key concepts of the Christian tradition. This tradition is complex and therefore not always unequivocal. As I will argue,

  20. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowaffaq Hajja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

  1. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  2. Relationship Between Mean Length and Mean Period of Wind Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-hua; ZHENG Gui-zhen; HE Yun-kai

    2006-01-01

    The mean wavelength of ocean waves is an important environmental parameter in ocean engineering. Owing to the difficulty in its measurement, it is usually estimated from the mean wave period according to the theoretical relationship between the two wave parameters. However, the relationships that have been proposed are not very satisfactory. In this paper, some suggestions are made for improvement of the data analysis method by which the mean wavelength is estimated from surface elevation records. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a wind-wave flume, and a new relationship between the mean wavelength and mean wave period is obtained by the application of the improved data analysis method. The new relationship deviates from that of Xu et al. (1999) while it is very close to the one proposed by Kinsman (1965), although the last one is theoretically deficient.

  3. The meaning of biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-03-13

    Biological information encoded in genomes is fundamentally different from and effectively orthogonal to Shannon entropy. The biologically relevant concept of information has to do with 'meaning', i.e. encoding various biological functions with various degree of evolutionary conservation. Apart from direct experimentation, the meaning, or biological information content, can be extracted and quantified from alignments of homologous nucleotide or amino acid sequences but generally not from a single sequence, using appropriately modified information theoretical formulae. For short, information encoded in genomes is defined vertically but not horizontally. Informally but substantially, biological information density seems to be equivalent to 'meaning' of genomic sequences that spans the entire range from sharply defined, universal meaning to effective meaninglessness. Large fractions of genomes, up to 90% in some plants, belong within the domain of fuzzy meaning. The sequences with fuzzy meaning can be recruited for various functions, with the meaning subsequently fixed, and also could perform generic functional roles that do not require sequence conservation. Biological meaning is continuously transferred between the genomes of selfish elements and hosts in the process of their coevolution. Thus, in order to adequately describe genome function and evolution, the concepts of information theory have to be adapted to incorporate the notion of meaning that is central to biology.

  4. Biopiracy: about its legal meanings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security...

  5. Metaphorical Meanings. Do you see what I mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Reimer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available My intention in this paper is to propose a conception of metaphorical meaning on which the meaning of a metaphor includes propositional as well as non-propositional features. I will make two general claims on behalf of the proposed account: first, it is intuitive; second, it is of theoretical value. In claiming that the proposed account is of theoretical value, I mean only that its adoption leads to an increased understanding of the nature of metaphor: of metaphorical thought and ofmetaphorical communication in particular.

  6. Spirituality in narratives of meaning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study ... in this regard) is also better aligned with the postmodern position which we have adopted in our research. ..... animals and music and reading as more things which added meaning to ... religion (and I assume also spirituality) into a psychological.

  7. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  8. The Arithmetic Mean - Geometric Mean - Harmonic Mean: Inequalities and a Spectrum of Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithwijit De

    2016-12-01

    The Arithmetic Mean – Geometric Mean – Harmonic Meaninequality, AM–GM–HM inequality in short, is one of thefundamental inequalities in Algebra, and it is used extensivelyin olympiad mathematics to solve many problems. Theaim of this article is to acquaint students with the inequality,its proof and various applications.

  9. What the Rosenberger Decision Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, Lee M.

    The United States Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision in the Rosenberger case, ruled that the University of Virginia had violated the free speech clause of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution by refusing to subsidize a Christian student publication. The magazine, "Wide Awake," was published by a student organization that…

  10. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  11. Spirituality in narratives of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Wessels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.

  12. Spherical k-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hornik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clustering text documents is a fundamental task in modern data analysis, requiring approaches which perform well both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Spherical k-means clustering is one approach to address both issues, employing cosine dissimilarities to perform prototype-based partitioning of term weight representations of the documents.This paper presents the theory underlying the standard spherical k-means problem and suitable extensions, and introduces the R extension package skmeans which provides a computational environment for spherical k-means clustering featuring several solvers: a fixed-point and genetic algorithm, and interfaces to two external solvers (CLUTO and Gmeans. Performance of these solvers is investigated by means of a large scale benchmark experiment.

  13. "Means and Metaphors of Change"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2005-01-01

    Technology as means of changes in society and as metaphor of change seen especially in relation to the Danish avant-garde of the 1960s: the experimental school of art, den eksperimenterende kunstskole.......Technology as means of changes in society and as metaphor of change seen especially in relation to the Danish avant-garde of the 1960s: the experimental school of art, den eksperimenterende kunstskole....

  14. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    -2004. It is the first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high......-resolution 1 min global MDT called DNSC08 MDT derived from the slightly smoothed difference between the DNSC08 MSS and the EGM2008 geoid. The derivation and quality control of the new DNSC08 MSS and DNSC08 MDT is presented in this paper along with suggestions for time period standardization of the MSS and MDT...

  15. Coordenadas geográficas na estimativa das temperaturas máxima e média decendiais do ar no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Geographic coordinates in the ten-day maximum and mean air temperature estimation in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos dados referentes à temperatura máxima média decendial (Tx e à temperatura média decendial (Tm do ar de 41 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, de 1945 a 1974, este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar se a Tx e a Tm podem ser estimadas em função da altitude, latitude e longitude. Para cada um dos 36 decêndios do ano, realizou-se análise de correlação e estimaram-se os parâmetros do modelo das equações de regressão linear múltipla, considerando Tx e Tm como variável dependente e altitude, latitude e longitude como variáveis independentes. Na validação dos modelos de estimativa da Tx e Tm, usou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson, entre a Tx e a Tm estimada e a Tx e a Tm observada em dez municípios do Estado, com dados da série de observações meteorológicas de 1975 a 2004. A temperatura máxima média decendial e a temperatura média decendial podem ser estimadas por meio da altitude, latitude e longitude, em qualquer local e decêndio, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The objective of this research was to estimate ten-day maximum (Tx and mean (Tm air temperature using altitude and the geographic coordinates latitude and longitude for the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Normal ten-day maximum and mean air temperature of 41 counties in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1945 to 1974 were used. Correlation analysis and parameters estimate of multiple linear regression equations were performed using Tx and Tm as dependent variable and altitude, latitude and longitude as independent variables, for the 36 ten-day periods of the year. Pearson's linear correlation coefficient between estimated and observed Tx and Tm, calculated for tem counties using data of were used as independent data sets. The ten-day maximum and mean air temperature may be estimated from the altitude and the geographic coordinates latitude and longitude in the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  16. Altitude e coordenadas geográficas na estimativa da temperatura mínima média decendial do ar no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Altitude and geographic coordinates in the ten-day mean minimum air temperature estimation in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar, com dados de temperatura mínima média decendial do ar (Tm de 41 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, de 1945 a 1974, se a Tm pode ser estimada em função da altitude, latitude e longitude. Para cada um dos 36 decêndios do ano, realizaram-se análise de correlação, análise de trilha das variáveis causais - altitude, latitude e longitude - sobre o efeito Tm, e estimaram-se os parâmetros do modelo das equações de regressão linear múltipla, pelo método passo a passo, com teste para saída de variáveis, considerando Tm como variável dependente e altitude, latitude e longitude como variáveis independentes. Na validação dos modelos de estimativa da Tm, usou-se o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson, entre a Tm estimada e a Tm observada em dez municípios do Estado, com dados da série de observações meteorológicas de 1975 a 2004. A temperatura mínima média decendial do ar pode ser estimada pelas coordenadas geográficas em qualquer local e decêndio, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A altitude e latitude explicam melhor a variação da Tm.The objective of this work was to estimate ten-day mean minimum air temperature (Tm using altitude and the geographic coordinates latitude and longitude for the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Normal ten-day mean minimum air temperature of 41 counties in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1945 to 1974 were used. Correlation analysis, path analysis of causal variables (altitude, latitude and longitude on Tm, and parameters estimate of multiple linear regression equations were performed by the stepwise backward method, using Tm as dependent variable and altitude, latitude and longitude as independent variables, for the 36 ten-day periods of the year. Pearson's linear correlation coefficient between estimated and observed Tm, calculated for tem counties using data of the series of meteorological observations from 1975 to 2004 were used as

  17. Modelagem estatística da precipitação mensal e anual e no período seco para o estado de Minas Gerais Statistical modeling of monthly, annual and dry season mean precipitation for the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. de Mello

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o presente estudo, ajustar modelos lineares para predição da precipitação média mensal (no período úmido e anual e no período seco, baseados nas coordenadas geográficas (latitude e longitude e altitude para o Estado de Minas Gerais. Aplicaram-se dados diários de precipitação, provenientes da Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA de 209 estações meteorológicas, das quais 197 foram usadas para ajuste dos modelos e 12 para sua validação final. O coeficiente de determinação ajustado (r², o erro médio absoluto (%, a tendência das estimativas (% e significância dos parâmetros, foram considerados na avaliação dos modelos. De maneira geral, os modelos apresentaram bons parâmetros estatísticos de validação, com r² maior que 0,70, erro médio menor que 10% e tendência não significativa (This study aimed at adjusting statistical linear models for prediction of total mean precipitation associated to monthly (in the wet season, annual and dry season periods, based on geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude and altitude for the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Daily precipitation data from the "Agência Nacional de Águas" (ANA for 209 pluviometric stations were applied, 197 for modeling adjustment and 12 for final validation. Coefficient of determination adjusted (r², mean absolute error (%, prediction bias (% and estimated parameters significance were considered for evaluation of models. The monthly and annual precipitation models presented good statistical validation coefficients, with r² greater than 0.70, mean error smaller than 10% and bias not significant (< 2% in relation to mean value. However, the dry season model presented an overestimation of precipitation, showing that more variables associated to topographic characteristics would be necessary to produce a more accurate model. Nevertheless, the adjusted models present good conditions for practical applications, forming an important tool for

  18. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  19. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  20. The Two Meanings of Economic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Polanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text Karl Polanyi explains the two meanings of economic: the formal, which springs from the logical character of the means-ends relationship, and from which springs the scarcity definition of economic, and the substantive meaning, which points to the elemental fact that human beings, like all other living things, cannot exist for any length of time without a physical environment that sustains them. The two meanings, the formal and the substantive, have nothing in common. According to the author how solidly the two meanings were joined can be inferred from the ironic fate of the most controversial of modern mythological figures – economic man. Nel testo Karl Polanyi illustra i due significati di economico: il significato formale, che deriva dalla natura logica della relazione mezzi-fini e da cui discende la definizione di economico basata sulla scarsità, e il significato sostanziale, che rinvia al fatto che gli esseri umani, come tutti gli esseri viventi, non possono mantenersi in vita senza un ambiente materiale che li sostenga. I due significati non hanno nulla in comune. Secondo l’autore la solidità della congiunzione dei due termini si può capire dalla sorte ironica della più controversa fra le figure mitologiche moderne: l’uomo economico.

  1. Evolution of meaning special handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhlbier, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    The Evolution of Meaning is based upon the premise that the Universe consists of information processing events. 'Information' is to be understood here not in the bare mathematical sense, but in the full active life/observation/meaning sense. From this viewpoint, the scientific description of Nature is seen to involve not only the fabric of spacetime, material aggregates and the forces acting between them, but also various equally real and fundamental groups of laws and law-like entities, as well as the concepts of subjectivity and value-oriented essential dimensi

  2. Meaning and the English verb

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  3. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  4. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...

  5. Diabatic constrained relativistic mean field approach

    CERN Document Server

    L"u, H F; Meng, J

    2005-01-01

    A diabatic (configuration-fixed) constrained approach to calculate the potential energy surface (PES) of the nucleus is developed in the relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces of $^{208}$Pb obtained from both adiabatic and diabatic constrained approaches are investigated and compared. The diabatic constrained approach enables one to decompose the segmented PES obtained in usual adiabatic approaches into separate parts uniquely characterized by different configurations, to define the single particle orbits at very deformed region by their quantum numbers, and to obtain several well defined deformed excited states which can hardly be expected from the adiabatic PES's.

  6. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases...... with the strength of the synapses in the network and with the value to which the membrane potential is reset after a spike. Generalizing the model to include conductance-based synapses gives insight into the connection between the firing statistics and the high- conductance state observed experimentally in visual...

  7. Relativistic mean field description of cluster radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, A.; Gambhir, Y. K.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive investigations of the observed cluster radioactivity are carried out. First, the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory is employed for the calculations of the ground-state properties of relevant nuclei. The calculations reproduce the experiment well. The calculated RMF point densities are folded with the density-dependent M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction to obtain the cluster-daughter interaction potential. This, along with the calculated and experimental Q values, is used in the WKB approximation for estimating the half-lives of the parent nuclei against cluster decay. The calculations qualitatively agree with the experiment. Sensitive dependence of the half-lives on Q values is explicitly demonstrated.

  8. Localization of Eigenstates & Mean Wehrl Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics of a periodically time dependent quantum system is reflected in the features of the eigenstates of the Floquet operator. Of the special importance are their localization properties quantitatively characterized by the eigenvector entropy, the inverse participation ratio or the eigenvector statistics. Since these quantities depend on the choice of the eigenbasis, we suggest to use the overcomplete basis of coherent states, uniquely determined by the classical phase space. In this way we define the mean Wehrl entropy of eigenvectors of the Floquet operator and demonstrate that this quantity is useful to describe quantum chaotic systems.

  9. Mean field magnetization of gapped anisotropic multiplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, L. S.; Reis, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Some materials have a large gap between the ground and first excited states. At temperatures smaller than the gap value, the thermodynamic properties of such materials are mainly ruled by the ground state. It is also common to find materials with magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which arises due to interatomic interactions. The present paper uses a classical approach to deal large angular momenta in such materials. Based on analytical expressions for the thermodynamics of paramagnetic gapped anisotropic multiplets, we use mean field theory to study the influence of the anisotropy upon the properties of interacting systems. We also use Landau theory to determine the influence of the anisotropy in first and second order phase transitions. It is found that the anisotropy increases the critical temperature, and enlarges the hysteresis of first order transitions. We present analytical expressions for the quantities analyzed.

  10. Mean-field models for disordered crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cancès, Eric; Lewin, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set up a functional setting for mean-field electronic structure models of Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham types for disordered crystals. The electrons are quantum particles and the nuclei are classical point-like articles whose positions and charges are random. We prove the existence of a minimizer of the energy per unit volume and the uniqueness of the ground state density of such disordered crystals, for the reduced Hartree-Fock model (rHF). We consider both (short-range) Yukawa and (long-range) Coulomb interactions. In the former case, we prove in addition that the rHF ground state density matrix satisfies a self-consistent equation, and that our model for disordered crystals is the thermodynamic limit of the supercell model.

  11. A Fair and Balance Approach to the Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan A.; Bennett, Victoria Miller; Young, Mandy; Watkins, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The mean can be interpreted as a fair-share value and as a balance point. Standards documents, including Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010), suggest focusing on both interpretations. In this article, the authors propose a sequence of five activities to help students develop these understandings of the mean, and they…

  12. Cultivating archives: meanings and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Ketelaar

    2012-01-01

    By cultivating archives through successive activations, people and communities define their identities. In these activations, the meanings of archives are constructed and reconstructed. Archives are not a static artifact imbued with the record creator’s voice alone, but a dynamic process involving a

  13. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  14. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existi

  15. Negotiating Meaning in Technical Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peterlicean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of language is to exchange information within a given community of users. Thus, the process of communication takes language users through a complex process that starts with the perception of entities from the surrounding world and continues with a negotiation of meaning. This paper highlights some considerations about how representations of entities are reflected in language use.

  16. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  17. Meaning holism in caring practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on Ludwig Wittgenstein's influential theory of concept possession, the article argues that assumptions about meaning in patients' linguistic communities normally play an important role in nurse-patient communication. Case studies are used to clarify the significance of the sociocultural dimension of understanding in caring practice.

  18. The MEANING multilingual central repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atserias, J.; Villarejo, L.; Rigau, G.; Agirre, E.; Carroll, J.; Magnini, B.; Vossen, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first version of the Multilingual Central Repository, a lexical knowledge base developed in the framework of the MEANING project. Currently the MCR integrates into the EuroWordNet framework five local wordnets (including four versions of the English WordNet from Princeton),

  19. A Converse of the Mean Value Theorem Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortici, Cristinel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss some results about the converse mean value theorem stated by Tong and Braza [J. Tong and P. Braza, "A converse of the mean value theorem", Amer. Math. Monthly 104(10), (1997), pp. 939-942] and Almeida [R. Almeida, "An elementary proof of a converse mean-value theorem", Internat. J. Math. Ed. Sci. Tech. 39(8)…

  20. Operational meaning of quantum measures of recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Tom; Hirche, Christoph; Morgan, Ciara; Olson, Jonathan P.; Seshadreesan, Kaushik P.; Watrous, John; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-08-01

    Several information measures have recently been defined that capture the notion of recoverability. In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system A of a tripartite quantum state, defined on systems A B C , by acting on system C alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. In this paper we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. The quantum interactive proof system giving this operational meaning requires four messages exchanged between the prover and verifier, but by forcing the prover to perform actions in superposition, we construct a different proof system that requires only two messages. The result is that the associated decision problem is in QIP(2) and another argument establishes it as hard for QSZK (both classes contain problems believed to be difficult to solve for a quantum computer). We finally prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the type I error is constrained to be no larger than a constant.

  1. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  2. Population inversion between the {sup 3}H{sub 4} and the {sup 3}F{sub 4} excited states of Tm{sup 3+} investigated by means of numerical solutions of the rate equations system in Tm{sup 3+}-doped and Tm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}-codoped fluoride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Librantz, A.F.H. [Department of Sciences, UNINOVE, Sao Paulo, SP 02111-030 (Brazil)], E-mail: librantz@uninove.br; Gomes, L. [Center for Lasers and Applications, IPEN/CNEN-SP, P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, SP 05422-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: igomes@ipen.br

    2009-04-15

    Population inversion between the {sup 3}H{sub 4} and the {sup 3}F{sub 4} excited states of Tm{sup 3+} ions responsible for the 1.5 {mu}m emission in Tm{sup 3+} singly doped (0.5%) and Tm{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}-codoped fluoride (ZBLAN) glasses and its dependence on the Ho{sup 3+} concentration (x=0.2-1%) was investigated by means of numerical solution of the rate equations system for continuous pumping at 797 nm. Mean lifetimes of donor and acceptor states were evaluated by using the integration method applied to the best fitting of fluorescence curves previously reported. Lifetime values were used to obtain the rate constants of all non-radiative energy-transfer processes involved and a complete set of rate equations better describing the observations was given. The rate equations were solved by numerical method and the population inversion between the {sup 3}H{sub 4} and the {sup 3}F{sub 4} excited states of Tm{sup 3+} was calculated to examine the beneficial effects on the gain associated with Ho{sup 3+} codoping. The results have shown that Tm{sup 3+} population inversion is reached only for high Ho{sup 3+}-codoping ({>=}0.3 mol%). Highest population inversion ({approx}1.6x10{sup 18} Tm{sup 3+} ions cm{sup -3}) was obtained in Tm(0.5%), Ho(1%)-codoped (ZBLAN) pumped by 2.8 kW cm{sup -2}. This population inversion density is {approx}6.4 times higher than that one observed in Tm:Tb:GLKZ, Tm:Tb:Ge-Ga-As-S-CsBr and Tm:Ho:Ge-Ga-As-S-CsBr for a similar pumping condition ({approx}2.5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}). In addition, Tm(0.5%):Ho(1%):ZBLAN presents the highest population inversion that linearly increases with the pumping intensity; this behavior does not show saturation effect at least for the maximum intensity of 12 kW cm{sup -2} employed. The use of 1 mol% of Ho{sup 3+}-codoping maximizes the potential gain of Tm{sup 3+}-doped (0.5%) ZBLAN to produce stimulated emission near 1.5 {mu}m, making this material suitable for using it as fiber optical amplifier and/or fiber

  3. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  4. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists to approximate large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networked systems with few entities. In this paper we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.

  5. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists of approximating large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networks with few entities. In this paper, we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions, and spiteful bidders.

  6. What psychiatry means to us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Trivedi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other.

  7. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  8. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-12-21

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  9. The Successive Mean Quantization Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael; Dahl, Mattias; Claesson, Ingvar

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Successive Mean Quantization Transform (SMQT). The transform reveals the organization or structure of the data and removes properties such as gain and bias. The transform is described and applied in speech processing and image processing. The SMQT is considered as an extra processing step for the mel frequency cepstral coefficients commonly used in speech recognition. In image processing the transform is applied in automatic image enhancement and dynamic range compress...

  10. The Successive Mean Quantization Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael; Dahl, Mattias; Claesson, Ingvar

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the Successive Mean Quantization Transform (SMQT). The transform reveals the organization or structure of the data and removes properties such as gain and bias. The transform is described and applied in speech processing and image processing. The SMQT is considered as an extra processing step for the mel frequency cepstral coefficients commonly used in speech recognition. In image processing the transform is applied in automatic image enhancement and dynamic range compress...

  11. Dynamical Mean-Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vollhardt, D.; Byczuk, K.; Kollar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) is a widely applicable approximation scheme for the investigation of correlated quantum many-particle systems on a lattice, e.g., electrons in solids and cold atoms in optical lattices. In particular, the combination of the DMFT with conventional methods for the calculation of electronic band structures has led to a powerful numerical approach which allows one to explore the properties of correlated materials. In this introductory article we discuss the ...

  12. Decidability of Mean Value Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoshan

    1999-01-01

    Mean Value Calculus (MVC)[1] is a real-time logicwhich can be used to specify and verify real-time systems[2]. As aconservative extension of Duration Calculus (DC)[3], MVC increasesthe expressive power but keeps the properties of DC. In this paper wepresent decidability results of MVC. An interesting result is that propositional MVC with chop star operator is still decidable, which develops the results of[4]and[5].

  13. What did the Greeks mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsioti, J G; Rose, F C

    1995-03-01

    By tracing in the work of medical authorities, some of whom are not widely quoted, the changing meaning of three neurological terms used in ancient Greece - poplexia, epilepsia and cephalalgia - the development of Greek ideas about neurological science may be appreciated. It may be concluded that the achievement of the schools of Greek medicine was in keeping with the level attained by the ancient Greeks in philosophy and other aspects of civilization.

  14. Identifying Small Mean Reverting Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    d'Aspremont, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Given multivariate time series, we study the problem of forming portfolios with maximum mean reversion while constraining the number of assets in these portfolios. We show that it can be formulated as a sparse canonical correlation analysis and study various algorithms to solve the corresponding sparse generalized eigenvalue problems. After discussing penalized parameter estimation procedures, we study the sparsity versus predictability tradeoff and the impact of predictability in various mar...

  15. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  16. LANGUAGE MEANS OF CREATING IDIOSTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarskaya T. B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Idiostyle is considered as a system of informative and formal linguistic characteristics. Approaches to the study of idiostyle are denoted. There are discriminated actual means of text-forming actualized in the definite product of speech (markers that attract a reader’s and a researcher’s attention with their singularity. There are described techniques and constructions of the syntax of postmodernist discourse

  17. Revisiting the Meaning of Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Jin

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the meaning of requirements can help elicit the real world requirements and refine their specifications. But what do the requirements of a desired software mean is not a well-explained question yet though there are many software development methods available. This paper suggests that the meaning of requirements could be depicted by the will-to-be environments of the desired software, and the optative interactions of the software with its environments as well as the causal relationships among these interactions. This paper also emphasizes the necessity of distinguishing the external manifestation from the internal structure of each system component during the process of requirements decomposition and refinement. Several decomposition strategies have been given to support the continuous decomposition. The external manifestation and the internal structure of the system component have been defined. The roles of the knowledge about the environments have been explicitly described. A simple but meaningful example embedded in the paper illustrates the main ideas as well as how to conduct the requirements decomposition and refinement by using these proposed strategies.

  18. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners. Keywords:  communication; focused communication tasks; unfocused communication tasks; negotiation of meaning

  19. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  20. Managing meaning for strategic change: the role of perception and meaning congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Wesley A

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative study of the cultural and strategic changes being made by a mid-sized hospital in the southwestern United States. The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, the paper examines the methods used by strategic managers in this hospital to manage meaning and create congruent interpretations of culture and strategy throughout the organization. This paper takes a social construction, interpretive position that culture and strategy are created through human interaction and involve shared meaning systems and interpretive schemes that individuals use to interpret and make sense of their world. Second, the study examines the effectiveness of the methods used by hospital management by examining perceptual similarities and differences among top leadership and other organizational members. This paper takes the position that perceptual and meaning congruence are necessary for the successful implementation of strategy that is given in a top-down fashion.

  1. Neurobiology: From neurons through nonlinear dynamics to meaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, W.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    That branch of semiotics called semantics deals with the relationships between meanings and representations. In my view meanings exist only in brains without representation there. A meaning is the focus of an activity pattern that may occupy the entire available brain. It is constructed by intentional action followed by learning from the consequences of the action. Communication between brains requires reciprocal construction of representations in accordance with meanings, which elicit other meanings in other brains. A representation, as a material object or process, has no meaning in itself. EEG data indicate that neural patterns of meaning occur in trajectories of discrete steps marked by cortical state transitions, served by rapid exchanges of discrete wave packets between interactive cortical domains. These wave packets are made by self-organizing dynamics that control behavior and shape the sensitivities of sensory cortices to the sequellae of actions.

  2. On the search for meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacocque, P E

    1982-09-01

    The author demonstrates heuristic ways to differentiate healthy from pathological meanings in life. He argues that no one can tackle such a task without first detecting the purpose of life. To find it, one must recognize that, ultimately, life does not belong to anyone, and this on two accounts: First, it is received through parental union, and second, it is only temporal and must thus be "given back." Life is a loan that must be returned through death. These two polar realities, it is here believed, inform the whole of existence and guide us toward healthy growth (positive existential mental health).

  3. Co-creating New Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, Mette Rosendal; Boesgaard, Søren; Preisler, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    a change of meaning among professional staff members. In the present case, new insights were generated through systematic confrontation with the patients’ voices. This confrontation catalysed changes in the professionals’ perceptions of themselves, of their concept of professionalism and of the patients....... The process triggered the development of a new governance model with a focus on taking seriously the patients’ subjective experiences and the time they spend. Rigshospitalet developed a shared language to describe innovation that will serve as a new, shared approach to developing professional practices...

  4. Non-Local Means Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a new denoising method called non-local means. The method is based on a simple principle: replacing the color of a pixel with an average of the colors of similar pixels. But the most similar pixels to a given pixel have no reason to be close at all. It is therefore licit to scan a vast portion of the image in search of all the pixels that really resemble the pixel one wants to denoise. The paper presents two implementations of the method and displays some results.

  5. Retrieving words from their "meanings"

    OpenAIRE

    Durgar El-Kahlout, İlknur; Durgar El-Kahlout, Ilknur

    2003-01-01

    The human brain is the best memory that can record and keep a huge number of information for a long time. Words, their meanings, domains, relationships between different words, and the grammars of languages are well organized in the linguistic component of brain. While speaking or writing, we can generally express our thoughts and feelings by words without thinking for a long time what the correct words can be. But, sometimes things do not go like clockwork even for human brain. In our daily ...

  6. Significados e práticas de saúde e doença entre a população em situação de rua em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Meanings and practices associated with health and illness among the homeless in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magalhães Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar práticas e significados atribuídos à saúde e à doença pela população em situação de rua em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo de enfoque antropológico com realização de observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 13 indivíduos entre 30 e 66 anos. Os resultados apontam que as condições de vida e saúde deste grupo são muito precárias, sendo a violência sobressalente nas narrativas. Os principais problemas de saúde foram o abuso de substâncias psicoativas, HIV/AIDS, transtornos mentais, problemas odontológicos, dermatológicos e gastrointestinais. A saúde foi associada, entre outros significados, à capacidade de resistir ao cotidiano de dificuldades, enquanto a doença vinculou-se ao estado de debilidade impeditivo de lutar pela sobrevivência. Os serviços de saúde são procurados em situações graves e urgentes. Conclui-se pela necessidade de políticas específicas visando garantir condições de vida adequadas e acesso à saúde para esta população.This article aimed to analyze the practices and meanings associated with health and illness among homeless people in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. A qualitative anthropological study was conducted with participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 13 subjects 30 to 66 years of age. The results point to extremely precarious living and health conditions among the homeless. The narratives emphasize frequent violence. The main health problems were substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, mental disorders, and dental, dermatological, and gastrointestinal problems. Among other meanings, health was associated with the capacity to cope with everyday difficulties. Meanwhile, illness was identified as a state of weakness that hindered the struggle for survival. Homeless people only turned to health services when their health problems were serious and urgent. In conclusion, the study showed the need

  7. Breastfeeding Education: disagreement of meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia Stella Caicedo Martínez

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to analyze how educational processes have been developed for breastfeeding in a health institution, starting from the meanings mothers, families, and health staff construct thereon. Methods. This was qualitative research of ethnographic approach, which included observations during the group educational activities of the programs, focal groups, and interviews of mothers, their families, and the health staff of a hospital unit in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The analysis was guided by the constant comparison method. Results. The categories emerging from the data were: 1 breast milk is an ideal food. 2 The mothers' experiences influence upon the breastfeeding practice. 3 Family beliefs sometimes operate as cultural barriers. 4 Disagreements are revealed in the educational process. Conclusion. The way educational processes have taken place for breastfeeding reveals a break expressed by the scarce interaction between the meanings professionals have constructed on the topic and those the mothers and their families give to the experience of breastfeeding.

  8. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  9. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  10. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  11. Meaning Negotiations of Collaborative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie; Zandee, Danielle P.

    2016-01-01

    engages with recent debates about the complexity of such new governance forms, as well as discussions on the relationship between discourse and materiality and the calls made to develop multi-method approaches to study complex organizational phenomena. In effect, the chapter develops empirical......This chapter explores the potential for developing organizational discourse approaches through ethnographic fieldwork in the context of collaborative governance: a procedure to involve stakeholders in public problem solving of, for example, policy and service innovation. In doing so, the researcher...... and analytical approaches to unfold discourse-material aspects of the negotiations of meanings and matters of such new governance form in practice. The chapter provides examples based on ethnographic fieldwork in collaborations across actors from the welfare area of education. In conclusion, the author reflects...

  12. Meaning Negotiations of Collaborative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie; Zandee, Danielle P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential for developing organizational discourse approaches through ethnographic fieldwork in the context of collaborative governance: a procedure to involve stakeholders in public problem solving of, for example, policy and service innovation. In doing so, the researcher...... and analytical approaches to unfold discourse-material aspects of the negotiations of meanings and matters of such new governance form in practice. The chapter provides examples based on ethnographic fieldwork in collaborations across actors from the welfare area of education. In conclusion, the author reflects...... engages with recent debates about the complexity of such new governance forms, as well as discussions on the relationship between discourse and materiality and the calls made to develop multi-method approaches to study complex organizational phenomena. In effect, the chapter develops empirical...

  13. Cost Reduction is an Important Means to Improve Market Competitiveness for State-owned Industrial Enterprises%降低成本是国有工业企业提高市场竞争力的重要手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荣

    2013-01-01

      只要商品经济存在,市场竞争就不可避免。市场竞争十分激烈,价格竞争是市场竞争的客观要求,也是企业提高经济效益的要求。价格以成本为基础,没有低廉的成本,价格就没有任何竞争优势。因此,降低成本是国有工业企业提高市场竞争力的重要手段。%Market competition is inevitable as long as there is commodity economy. Market competition is very fierce. Price competition is the objective requirement of market competition, also is the need to enhance the economic performance for en-terprises. Price is based on cost, and it has no competitive advantage if there is no low cost. Therefore, cost reduction is an im-portant means to improve market competitiveness for state-owned industrial enterprises.

  14. Mean-field Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    A proof of convergence of the standard EnKF generalized to non-Gaussian state space models is provided. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limiting EnKF (MFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for d < 2 . The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from non-linearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.

  15. Searching for the lost meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gaetano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only defi ning the nature of schizophrenia, but even defi ning schizophrenia as a diagnostic entity is still a challengefor psychiatry. The current diagnostic systems and the related approach to psychopathology are of little aid to thispurpose, and have inadvertently resulted in an impoverished clinical practice. There is substantial meaning underlyingschizophrenic symptoms that would appear bizarre and senseless from the viewpoint of a purely descriptive method.Psychiatry needs to devise an approach that embraces the complexity of the different perspectives of explanationand understanding of mental illness, examining the interplay of each element in the subjective experience. Symptomssuch as delusion and hallucinations cannot merely be conceptualized as false judgment or lacking of external object,respectively, as they refl ect the fact that patients try to make sense of their different, globally altered experience ofthe self, of others and of the world. This line of reasoning builds on previous work in the phenomenological traditionpostulating a disturbance in sensorimotor processes, which bond human beings with one another while remainingimperceptible to consciousness. This suggestion is consistent with a large body of research highlighting impairmentin sensory processing in schizophrenia. Other authors underscored the importance of subtle alterations of functionsother than sensorimotor processes, such as experiential anomalies of affectivity, cognition-perception and body-motorexperience, alterations of self-awareness, and disturbances in reciprocal attunement leading to disconnection from acommon register of meanings and loss of common sense. Heidegger refers to a human being as Being intrinsically selfrevelatoryin the unity of physis and logos. He refers to the lived experience of being constantly in the everyday situationas being located, “thrown” into the world. The existence is always ‘in the world’, ‘near the things

  16. Condensation enhancement by means of electrohydrodynamic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrymowicz Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Short state-of-the-art on the enhancement of condensation heat transfer techniques by means of condensate drainage is presented in this paper. The electrohydrodynamic (EHD technique is suitable for dielectric media used in refrigeration, organic Rankine cycles and heat pump devices. The electric field is commonly generated in the case of horizontal tubes by means of a rod-type electrode or mesh electrodes. Authors proposed two geometries in the presented own experimental investigations. The first one was an electrode placed just beneath the tube bottom and the second one consisted of a horizontal finned tube with a double electrode placed beneath the tube. The experimental investigations of these two configurations for condensation of refrigerant R-123 have been accomplished. The obtained results confirmed that the application of the EHD technique for the investigated tube and electrode arrangement caused significant increase in heat transfer coefficient. The condensation enhancement depends both on the geometry of the electrode system and on the applied voltage.

  17. Meaning in life and intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2016-03-01

    Three correlational studies and 2 experiments examined the association between meaning in life (MIL) and reliance on intuitive information processing. In Studies 1-3 (total N = 5,079), Faith in Intuition (FI) scale and MIL were correlated positively, controlling for religiosity, positive mood, self-esteem, basic need satisfaction, and need for cognition. Two experiments manipulated processing style. In Study 4 (N = 614), participants were randomly assigned to complete the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT; Fredrick, 2005) either immediately before (reflective/low intuitive mindset condition) or immediately after (control condition) rating MIL. Condition did not affect MIL. However, low MIL rated before the CRT predicted superior performance and greater time spent on the task. The association between reflection and MIL was curvilinear, such that MIL was strongly negatively related to CRT performance particularly at low levels of MIL. In Study 5 (N = 804), intuitive or reflective mindsets were induced and FI and MIL were measured. Induced processing style study did not affect MIL. However, those high in MIL were more responsive to the intuitive mindset induction. The relationship between FI and MIL was curvilinear (in this and the correlational studies), with intuitive processing being strongly positively related to MIL particularly at higher levels of MIL. Although often considered in the context of conscious reflection, MIL shares a positive relationship with reliance on gut feelings, and high MIL may facilitate reliance on those feelings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Forced hyperbolic mean curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate two hyperbolic flows obtained by adding forcing terms in direction of the position vector to the hyperbolic mean curvature flows in \\cite{klw,hdl}. For the first hyperbolic flow, as in \\cite{klw}, by using support function, we reduce it to a hyperbolic Monge-Amp$\\grave{\\rm{e}}$re equation successfully, leading to the short-time existence of the flow by the standard theory of hyperbolic partial differential equation. If the initial velocity is non-negative and the coefficient function of the forcing term is non-positive, we also show that there exists a class of initial velocities such that the solution of the flow exists only on a finite time interval $[0,T_{max})$, and the solution converges to a point or shocks and other propagating discontinuities are generated when $t\\rightarrow{T_{max}}$. These generalize the corresponding results in \\cite{klw}. For the second hyperbolic flow, as in \\cite{hdl}, we can prove the system of partial differential equations related to the flow is ...

  19. What psychology means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelson E. Dulany

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available What the title of this article means to me after decades on a university faculty is very broad. It would include topics of my research and writing, of my graduate and undergraduate teaching, and of what I read in the area, including papers that have been submitted to me as editor of the American Journal of Psychology. What I can write here focuses on my research and writing and related metatheoretical views, including what I have considered the deeper and more significant questions formulated in philosophy of mind and submitted to empirical investigation in psychology. Of most active concern today, and over the years, are those asking about the roles of consciousness, symbolic representation, and volition in mental activity and action. Is symbolic representation carried out consciously or unconsciously, or both? This paper recognizes the 19th century attempt to establish a science of consciousness, a behavioristic movement that rejected consciousness as being the soul of theology, a cognitive metatheory giving some place to consciousness but emphasizing non-conscious symbolic representation. This summarizes our experimental examinations of my theories of the source of intentional action, of causal reasoning, and of explicit and implicit learning. It also summarizes the overarching mentalistic metatheory I have described.

  20. Language repair via metalinguistic means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, M

    2000-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been shown to be deficient in the use of complex sentences. In an attempt to remediate this area of weakness, two groups of such children (mean ages 9;4 and 10;6) received about 55 half-hour sessions of metalinguistic training spread over 12 months. Results showed that the use of complex sentences increased to at least normal levels in the experimental groups, and were significantly improved, at both the written and oral levels, as compared with SLI control groups, which evidenced little change over the same period. Further analysis of the data revealed the striking finding that those children who had the poorest complex sentence usage tended to benefit the most from metalinguistic training. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that metalinguistic training helps to overcome the presumed neurological deficit of the language disordered child by making linguistic rules conscious, and thereby providing a 'metalinguistic bridge' via which information can bypass the damaged area.

  1. The Pursuit of Word Meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jon Scott; Gleitman, Lila R; Trueswell, John C; Yang, Charles

    2017-04-01

    We evaluate here the performance of four models of cross-situational word learning: two global models, which extract and retain multiple referential alternatives from each word occurrence; and two local models, which extract just a single referent from each occurrence. One of these local models, dubbed Pursuit, uses an associative learning mechanism to estimate word-referent probability but pursues and tests the best referent-meaning at any given time. Pursuit is found to perform as well as global models under many conditions extracted from naturalistic corpora of parent-child interactions, even though the model maintains far less information than global models. Moreover, Pursuit is found to best capture human experimental findings from several relevant cross-situational word-learning experiments, including those of Yu and Smith (), the paradigm example of a finding believed to support fully global cross-situational models. Implications and limitations of these results are discussed, most notably that the model characterizes only the earliest stages of word learning, when reliance on the co-occurring referent world is at its greatest. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. What psychology means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sugarman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The author takes on the task of describing the interface between emotion and cognition by way of a narrative about psychology, and its meaning to his life. Using time as an overall metaphor, or perhaps a foundation stone underpinning a series of seemingly unconnected events, some insight is given into the author's personal life. The author invokes the works of feminist philosopher and author, Susan Faludi, to portray some aspects of his journey through fantasy, and then the reality of a disparate practice on two continents in psychology and neuropsychology. With particular reference to Faludi's portrayal of men as failed heroes without a role in modern society, the author discovers that all of his work with others has been a work with his own troubled soul, and his failed heroism. Calling on his early role models, and life with and without a sense of purpose, he learns from his clients the value of courage and patience, a spiritual as well as intellectual journey that leads him to become many things to many people in order to heal them, and himself.

  3. What does the HAMD mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, Stefan; Fennema, Hein; Engel, Rolf; Kaspers-Janssen, Marion; Lepping, Peter; Szegedi, Armin

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the clinical relevance of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) total scores. It is unclear how total scores translate into clinical severity, or what commonly used measures for response (reduction from baseline of ≥ 50% in the total score) and remission (total HAMD-17 score ≤ 7) mean from a clinical perspective. We therefore compared: (a) the percentage and absolute change in the HAMD-17 total scores with Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I); (b) the absolute and percentage change in the HAMD-17 total scores with Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) absolute change; and (c) the percentage and absolute change in the HAMD-17 total scores with CGI-I in the subgroups of patients with ≤ median and > median HAMD-17 total scores at baseline. The method used was equipercentile linking of HAMD-17 and CGI ratings from 43 drug trials in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 7131). Our results confirm the validity of the commonly used measures for remission and response in MDD trials: a CGI-I score of 2 ('much improved') corresponded to a reduction from baseline of > 50% and 75% and < 85%. The CGI-S score of 1 ('normal., not at all ill') corresponded to the HAMD-17 total score of < 5 and the CGI-S score of 2 ('borderline mentally ill') to the score between 6 and 8. An effect of baseline illness severity was observed.

  4. What psychology means to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2006-01-01

    What the title of this article means to me after decades on a university faculty is very broad. It would include topics of my research and writing, of my graduate and undergraduate teaching, and of what I read in the area, including papers that have been submitted to me as editor of the American Journal of Psychology. What I can write here focuses on my research and writing and related metatheoretical views, including what I have considered the deeper and more significant questions formulated in philosophy of mind and submitted to empirical investigation in psychology. Of most active concern today, and over the years, are those asking about the roles of consciousness, symbolic representation, and volition in mental activity and action. Is symbolic representation carried out consciously or unconsciously, or both? This paper recognizes the 19(th) century attempt to establish a science of consciousness, a behavioristic movement that rejected consciousness as being the soul of theology, a cognitive metatheory giving some place to consciousness but emphasizing non-conscious symbolic representation. This summarizes our experimental examinations of my theories of the source of intentional action, of causal reasoning, and of explicit and implicit learning. It also summarizes the overarching mentalistic metatheory I have described.

  5. Relativistic mean-field mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arteaga, D.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new effort to develop viable mass models within the relativistic mean-field approach with density-dependent meson couplings, separable pairing and microscopic estimations for the translational and rotational correction energies. Two interactions, DD-MEB1 and DD-MEB2, are fitted to essentially all experimental masses, and also to charge radii and infinite nuclear matter properties as determined by microscopic models using realistic interactions. While DD-MEB1 includes the σ, ω and ρ meson fields, DD-MEB2 also considers the δ meson. Both mass models describe the 2353 experimental masses with a root mean square deviation of about 1.1 MeV and the 882 measured charge radii with a root mean square deviation of 0.029 fm. In addition, we show that the Pb isotopic shifts and moments of inertia are rather well reproduced, and the equation of state in pure neutron matter as well as symmetric nuclear matter are in relatively good agreement with existing realistic calculations. Both models predict a maximum neutron-star mass of more than 2.6 solar masses, and thus are able to accommodate the heaviest neutron stars observed so far. However, the new Lagrangians, like all previously determined RMF models, present the drawback of being characterized by a low effective mass, which leads to strong shell effects due to the strong coupling between the spin-orbit splitting and the effective mass. Complete mass tables have been generated and a comparison with other mass models is presented.

  6. Relativistic mean-field mass models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Arteaga, D.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP-226, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-15

    We present a new effort to develop viable mass models within the relativistic mean-field approach with density-dependent meson couplings, separable pairing and microscopic estimations for the translational and rotational correction energies. Two interactions, DD-MEB1 and DD-MEB2, are fitted to essentially all experimental masses, and also to charge radii and infinite nuclear matter properties as determined by microscopic models using realistic interactions. While DD-MEB1 includes the σ, ω and ρ meson fields, DD-MEB2 also considers the δ meson. Both mass models describe the 2353 experimental masses with a root mean square deviation of about 1.1 MeV and the 882 measured charge radii with a root mean square deviation of 0.029 fm. In addition, we show that the Pb isotopic shifts and moments of inertia are rather well reproduced, and the equation of state in pure neutron matter as well as symmetric nuclear matter are in relatively good agreement with existing realistic calculations. Both models predict a maximum neutron-star mass of more than 2.6 solar masses, and thus are able to accommodate the heaviest neutron stars observed so far. However, the new Lagrangians, like all previously determined RMF models, present the drawback of being characterized by a low effective mass, which leads to strong shell effects due to the strong coupling between the spin-orbit splitting and the effective mass. Complete mass tables have been generated and a comparison with other mass models is presented. (orig.)

  7. The Core Meaning of Human Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinie Steinmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human dignity is relatively new in international and domestic constitutional law. Dignity is protected as a value or a right, or both, in international law and many domestic jurisdictions. It is difficult to define human dignity in a legal context, as the concept is not defined in the first international document which recognizes inherent human dignity and the protection thereof, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1946 and many international (and national documents enacted thereafter. Despite dissensus regarding the widespread use of the concept, dignity has come to display three elements in constitutional adjudication post World War Two: the ontological element which entails that human beings have equal inherent human dignity that cannot be waived or diminished; the second element being the claim that inherent human dignity has to be recognised and respected; and the limited-state claim as the third element which entails that states have a positive obligation to progressively realise human dignity through the mechanism of socio-economic rights. It is widely accepted that these elements root in Kantian moral ethics which holds that man's autonomy is based upon universal dignity, as a result of which man should never be used as a means to an end, but only as a means in himself. Kant expressed this idea through formulation of a categorical imperative, namely that everyone's inherent human dignity has to be respected and protected universally. The preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1946, article 1(1 of the German Basic Law and section 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 embody the elements of Kant's categorical imperative. As a result, the three elements are applied as a definitional term of human dignity in German and South African constitutional adjudication. Based on these elements, it can be argued that the current idea of universal inherent dignity, at least in German and

  8. Meaning Lag in the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Orrin E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the meaning crisis in modern society in terms of information overload. Points out reasons for meaning lag: (1) slowness of meaning formation; (2) sparseness of social networks; (3) substitution of meaning of a lower quality as a compensation for lost meaning; and (4) information becoming noiselike. (PD)

  9. Globalising Chinese Migration: New Spaces, New Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Nyíri

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews new trends in international migration from the People’s Republic of China in the last decade, focusing on two aspects: 1 The geographic expansion and merger of formerly distinct translocal migration flows into a global migration system. It includes the opening up of new migration spaces in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia; increased mobility between destination countries; and increased interchange between different social strata of migrants, from students to illegal workers; 2 A shift in what the social and cultural meaning of migration is to the migrant, to non-migrants, and to elites, which can be described as “upgrading the migrant” (Wang,1998. Various discourses of migration have converged into a highly success-oriented discourse, which reduces the relevance of social background and path of migration. The People’s Republic of China imbues this discourse with tropes of patriotism and development. Concerning the first aspect, the paper problematises the distinction of flows of legal and illegal migrants, students, tourists, and workers, and calls for a holistic approach in studying the configuration of current migration from the PRC. Concerning the second aspect, the paper questions the persistent theory that the PRC as an entity supports emigration, and points out the conflicting interests of various levels and organisations within the state apparatus. At the same time, it recognises that the PRC, like other states, is currently enjoying a honeymoon with state-sanctioned transnationalism, in which migrants are often being more engaged into nation-building and enfranchised as political citizens than are rural non-migrants.

  10. EDITORIAL: Astrophysics by all means - but by what means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1997-01-01

    -centred menu and offering a new updated, attractive, student-centred approach to teaching and learning physics. The approach will be one where teaching is supported by innovative teaching materials, enabling students to work in groups, to role-play, to research and problem-solve, to design using mathematical models, to learn about physics beyond their classrooms, to develop key skills and to speak about physics with an enthusiasm and sparkle. Yes, I too can dream, but if you don't aim for the stars, as the saying goes, you will not even reach the top of the mountain. The inclusion of topics like astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics in syllabus structures is to be applauded for offering young people a broader vision of physics. However, they are all developments which attempt to influence the content of a physics syllabus. The debate has been whether or not to include the fourth-power law in an astrophysics unit or whether refractive index has a place in Medical Physics to explain optical fibre technology. What has been missing as far as I can see has been a parallel movement in developing the way Physics has been taught, can be taught and can be studied. The time for funding new initiatives which will develop the methodology of teaching and learning physics is now. It is over 20 years since I used the teacher's pages of the old Nuffleld Advanced books to give me ideas on how to teach the course as a probationer (NQT). I still find myself referring to them on occasion. In the intervening years we have learnt much about how young people learn science and how older people teach science. So here is a message to the physics education community. By all means fund projects to introduce some modern physics into the curriculum but hear this plea for parallel developments in new ways to teach the new, and the old, physics - ways that will cater for broad ability ranges and for the diverse career interests of students and will allow teachers to adjust their focus away from the

  11. 基于非理想信道状态信息的最小化均方误差非线性收发机设计%Minimum Mean Square Error Non-linear Transceiver Design Based on Imperfect Channel State Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿烜; 何迪

    2012-01-01

    A design method for nonlinear transceiver with Tomlinson-Harashima precoding(THP) struc ture was proposed based on minimum mean square error (MSE) criterion, when the transceiver knows the imperfect channel state information (CSI) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The MSE is derived firstly, and then transformed as the function of only one variable being precoding matrix. By minimizing the lower bound of MSE using optimization and matrix theory, the optimal precoding matrix and the closed-form of the lower bound are obtained, so that the total non-linear transceiver matrices are solved. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing linear transceiver and the classic THP transceiver.%在多输入多输出系统中,当收发端已知非理想信道状态信息时,提出了一种基于最小化均方误差准则的非线性收发机设计方法,其结构基于汤姆林森一哈拉希玛预编码(THP).首先研究了收发信号的均方误差表达式,并将其转换为预编码矩阵的函数;然后,通过最优化及矩阵论方法最小化均方误差的下界,求解最优预编码矩阵以及下界的闭式解,进而获得整个非线性收发机矩阵.仿真结果表明,该方法性能优于现有的线性收发机设计和经典的THP收发机设计.

  12. Sampling and kriging spatial means: efficiency and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Lian-Fa; Christakos, George

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and estimation of geographical attributes that vary across space (e.g., area temperature, urban pollution level, provincial cultivated land, regional population mortality and state agricultural production) are common yet important constituents of many real-world applications. Spatial attribute estimation and the associated accuracy depend on the available sampling design and statistical inference modelling. In the present work, our concern is areal attribute estimation, in which the spatial sampling and Kriging means are compared in terms of mean values, variances of mean values, comparative efficiencies and underlying conditions. Both the theoretical analysis and the empirical study show that the mean Kriging technique outperforms other commonly-used techniques. Estimation techniques that account for spatial correlation (dependence) are more efficient than those that do not, whereas the comparative efficiencies of the various methods change with surface features. The mean Kriging technique can be applied to other spatially distributed attributes, as well.

  13. Sampling and Kriging Spatial Means: Efficiency and Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Christakos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sampling and estimation of geographical attributes that vary across space (e.g., area temperature, urban pollution level, provincial cultivated land, regional population mortality and state agricultural production are common yet important constituents of many real-world applications. Spatial attribute estimation and the associated accuracy depend on the available sampling design and statistical inference modelling. In the present work, our concern is areal attribute estimation, in which the spatial sampling and Kriging means are compared in terms of mean values, variances of mean values, comparative efficiencies and underlying conditions. Both the theoretical analysis and the empirical study show that the mean Kriging technique outperforms other commonly-used techniques. Estimation techniques that account for spatial correlation (dependence are more efficient than those that do not, whereas the comparative efficiencies of the various methods change with surface features. The mean Kriging technique can be applied to other spatially distributed attributes, as well.

  14. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p satisfaction with life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  15. Word Meaning And Sentence Relation In Semantic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓妹

    2011-01-01

    Through the semantic learning,we know that lexical semantic is the study of word meaning,any utterance consists of lexical meanings of the separate words with structural meanings.In this paper,I will introduce some of words meaning first and then analysis the sentence relation,in order to understand them well.

  16. Introduction to a systemic theory of meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    Information and meanings are present everywhere around us and within ourselves. Specific studies have been implemented in order to link information and meaning: - Semiotics/Biosemiotics - Phenomenology - Analytic Philosophy, linguistics - Psychology No general coverage is available for the notion of meaning. We propose to complement this lack by a systemic approach to meaning generation

  17. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  18. 14 CFR 125.155 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shutoff means. 125.155 Section 125.155....155 Shutoff means. (a) Each engine must have a means for shutting off or otherwise preventing... of an engine. (b) The shutoff means must allow an emergency operating sequence that is...

  19. 50 CFR 25.12 - What do these terms mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... large game animals, including moose, elk, caribou, reindeer, musk ox, deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat... mean any member of the animal kingdom in a wild, unconfined state, whether alive or dead, including a... extinction as determined in writing by the Director or so directed by Presidential or Secretarial order....

  20. Critical fluctuations for quantum mean-field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fannes, M.; Kossakowski, A.; Verbeure, A. (Univ. Louvain (Belgium))

    1991-11-01

    A Ginzburg-Landau-type approximation is proposed for the local Gibbs states for quantum mean-field models that leads to the exact thermodynamics. Using this approach, the spin fluctuations are computed for some spin-1/2 models. At the critical temperature, the distribution function showing abnormal fluctuations is found explicitly.

  1. STUDY ON MEAN-SQUARE RADIUS OF GYRATION FOR POLYALKYLENEOXIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhiping; YAN Deyue

    1997-01-01

    Taking account of the effect of heteroatoms in backbone, this article dealt with the mean-square radii of gyration of polyalkyleneoxides by the approach of matrix algebra in accordance with the rotational isomeric state model. Numerical calculation with the molecular weight can be expressed by the general formula:〈S2〉=aMb

  2. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  3. Duty, Habit, and Meaning: Different Faces of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2001-01-01

    All elements of an active lifestyle need not be meaningful. Good active habits of living can be generated without significant reliance on excitement or other kinds of notable meaning. The development of active living habits depend partly on enlightened social policy, but such policies are rare in the United States. Consequently, kinesiologists…

  4. 31 CFR 103.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the particular service offered. (h) Currency. The coin and paper money of the United States or of any... does not issue such checks or money orders or stored value in an amount greater than $1,000 in currency... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meaning of terms. 103.11 Section...

  5. Gun Violence and the Meaning of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…

  6. Unpacking Child-Centredness: A History of Meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shunah; Walsh, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical development of the term "child centered" in the discourse of early schooling in the United States. Beginning with Friedrich Froebel, who was the founder of the kindergarten and focuses on the development of the kindergarten until the 1930s. Explores how the underlying meanings of child-centerdness changed. (CMK)

  7. 45 CFR 95.22 - Meaning of good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meaning of good cause. 95.22 Section 95.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits...

  8. The semiotic actor : From signs to socially constructed meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, M.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.; Gazendam, H.W.M.

    A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay

  9. Mean field limit for bosons and propagation of Wigner measures

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Z

    2008-01-01

    We consider the N-body Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics of bosons in the mean field limit with a bounded pair-interaction potential. According to the previous work \\cite{AmNi}, the mean field limit is translated into a semiclassical problem with a small parameter $\\epsilon\\to 0$, after introducing an $\\epsilon$-dependent bosonic quantization. The limit is expressed as a push-forward by a nonlinear flow (e.g. Hartree) of the associated Wigner measures. These object and their basic properties were introduced in \\cite{AmNi} in the infinite dimensional setting. The additional result presented here states that the transport by the nonlinear flow holds for rather general class of quantum states in their mean field limit.

  10. On Social Optima of Non-Cooperative Mean Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2016-12-12

    This paper studies the social optima in noncooperative mean-field games for a large population of agents with heterogeneous stochastic dynamic systems. Each agent seeks to maximize an individual utility functional, and utility functionals of different agents are coupled through a mean field term that depends on the mean of the population states/controls. The paper has the following contributions. First, we derive a set of control strategies for the agents that possess *-Nash equilibrium property, and converge to the mean-field Nash equilibrium as the population size goes to infinity. Second, we study the social optimal in the mean field game. We derive the conditions, termed the socially optimal conditions, under which the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game maximizes the social welfare. Third, a primal-dual algorithm is proposed to compute the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game. Since the *-Nash equilibrium of the mean field game is socially optimal, we can compute the equilibrium by solving the social welfare maximization problem, which can be addressed by a decentralized primal-dual algorithm. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Revising the negative meaning of chronic pain - A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Tapio; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro; Sipilä, Kirsi; Suutama, Timo; Piirainen, Arja

    2015-06-01

    Chronic pain may disable the body, depress the mind and ruin the quality of life. The aim of this study was to use the participants' personal experiences to explore the meaning of the experience of chronic pain and to find successful ways to manage chronic pain. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain were interviewed. The transcribed interviews were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological method consisting of four phases: (1) reading the transcriptions several times, (2) discriminating meaning units, (3) collecting meaning units into groups and (4) the synthesis. The participants stated that the key to managing chronic pain was to reconsider the individual meaning of the experience of pain. As a result of the interviews, seven subthemes were found based on the 'Negativity of chronic pain', namely, 'State of reflection', 'Reconsidering values', 'Acceptance of pain', 'Support network', 'Altered self', 'Joys in life' and 'Pain dissociation'. Pain is an aversive sensation, which leads to the conclusion that the meaning of the experience is also negative, but it can be reversed. In clinical practice, the focus should be on revising the subjective meaning of pain in order to manage pain and to restore positivity in personal life. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Death and meaning: the case of Tristan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peeters

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest versions of the legend of Tristan have reached us in fragmentary state only, the reader therefore has to reconstruct the story and become actively involved in its interpretation. This interpretation must follow the steps taken by medieval hermeneutics which was the context in which the poets wrote and constituted the horizon of expectation and reception. A story was considered to be an integumentum, a construct in which a deeper meaning was embedded and which the reader had to reconstruct by following the verbal concatenations inside the text. In the case of Thomas’s text the verbal concatenations show that the love between Tristan and Isolde was an effort to identify totally between the lovers which is denied to them in so far as they do not die together. The reader is then left to draw his own conclusions. It seems that both Thomas and Gottfried von Strasburg want to point out the danger which lies in an exclusive passion, in a fascination which locks human consciousness up in desire and self-reflection.

  13. The meaning of liberty beyond earth

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to initiate a new discussion on liberty focusing on the infinite realms of space. The discussion of the nature of liberty and what it means for a human to be free has occupied the minds of thinkers since the Enlightenment. However, without exception, every one of these discussions has focused on the character of liberty on the Earth.The emergence of human space exploration programs in the last 40-50 years raise a fundamental and new question: what will be the future of liberty in space? This book takes the discussion of liberty into the extraterrestrial environment. In this book, new questions will be addressed such as: Can a person be free when the oxygen the individual breathes is the result of a manufacturing process controlled by someone else? Will the interdependence required to survive in the extremities of the extraterrestrial environment destroy individualism? What are the obligations of the individual to the extraterrestrial state? How can we talk of extraterrestrial li...

  14. Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody J. H.

    2016-05-03

    The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.

  15. When transparency doesn't mean ease: learning the meaning of resultative verb compounds in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong

    2016-04-14

    Children have to figure out the lexicalization of meaning components in learning verb semantics (e.g. Behrens, 1998; Gentner, 1982; Tomasello & Brooks, 1998). The meaning of an English state-change verb (e.g. break) is divided into two portions (i.e. cause and result), respectively encoded with a separate verb in a Mandarin resultative verb compound (RVC). The majority of Mandarin monomorphemic verbs do not specify any realization of a state change (like hunt), or only imply it (like wash) (Talmy, 2000). This study examines the acquisition of the constructional meaning of RVCs and the semantic division of labor between the component verbs. Four groups of Mandarin-learning children (aged 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, and 6;1) participated in an elicitation experiment. The results reveal that, although transparency in form facilitates their learning of the state-change meanings of RVCs, Mandarin children have difficulties in unpacking the meanings of individual verbs, revealing language-specific learning issues.

  16. Green's function relativistic mean field theory for Λ hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S.-H.; Sun, T.-T.; Zhang, W.

    2017-05-01

    The relativistic mean field theory with the Green's function method is extended to study Λ hypernuclei. Taking the hypernucleus Ca61Λ as an example, the single-particle resonant states for Λ hyperons are investigated by analyzing the density of states, and the corresponding energies and widths are given. Different behaviors are observed for the resonant states, i.e., the distributions of the very narrow 1 f5 /2 and 1 f7 /2 states are very similar to bound states while those of the wide 1 g7 /2 and 1 g9 /2 states are like scattering states. Besides, the impurity effect of Λ hyperons on the single-neutron resonant states is investigated. For most of the resonant states, both the energies and widths decrease with adding more Λ hyperons due to the attractive Λ N interaction. Finally, the energy level structure of Λ hyperons in the Ca hypernucleus isotopes with mass number A =53 -73 are studied; obvious shell structure and small spin-orbit splitting are found for the single-Λ spectrum.

  17. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlighting the goal (toy) or the means (cloth) was more…

  18. The inescapability of intersubjectivity in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowers, Blaine J; Lefevor, G Tyler

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). The current authors welcome Heintzelman and King's discussion of meaning and agree that meaning is necessary for a good human life. The authors endorse a fully subjective understanding of meaning by focusing on personal experiences of purpose, significance, and life making sense. The current authors suggest, however, that (a) a subjective theory of meaning is only one approach to meaning, (b) the subjective theory creates serious difficulties, and (c) intersubjectivity is necessary to adequately understand meaning.

  19. Weighted Means through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2013-01-01

    Each weighted mean of two values has a counterpart, equidistant from the arithmetic mean, obtained by exchanging roles between the weights or by inversing each weight. These elementary relations are apt for introductory courses.

  20. What "Being Overweight" Means (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What Being Overweight Means KidsHealth > For Kids > What Being Overweight Means ... talk to your doctor. Why Do People Become Overweight or Obese? Most of the time, people have ...

  1. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  2. Mott-Hubbard and Anderson transitions in dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byczuk, Krzysztof [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: byczuk@fuw.edu.pl; Hofstetter, Walter [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Vollhardt, Dieter [Theoretical Physics III, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute for Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2005-04-30

    The Anderson-Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling is investigated within dynamical mean-field theory at zero temperature. The local density of states is calculated by taking the geometric and arithmetic mean, respectively. The non-magnetic ground state phase diagrams obtained within the different averaging schemes are compared.

  3. 7 CFR 1230.24 - State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State. 1230.24 Section 1230.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS.... State means each of the 50 States....

  4. On mean curvatures in submanifolds geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By using moving frame theory,first we introduce 2p-th mean curvatures and(2p+1)-th mean curvature vector fields for a submanifold.We then give an integral expression of them that characterizes them as mean values of symmetric functions of principle curvatures.Next we apply it to derive directly the celebrated Weyl-Gray tube formula in terms of integrals of the 2p-th mean curvatures and some Minkowski-type integral formulas.

  5. Tropical polyhedra are equivalent to mean payoff games

    CERN Document Server

    Akian, Marianne; Guterman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    We show that several decision problems originating from max-plus or tropical convexity are equivalent to mean payoff (zero-sum, two player) game problems. More precisely, checking whether a tropical polyhedral cone is reduced to the zero vector is equivalent to checking whether a mean payoff game has at least one winning initial state; checking whether an (affine) tropical polyhedron is empty can be transformed in linear time to checking whether a prescribed initial state of a mean payoff game is winning, and vice versa; and checking whether several points belong to a common tropical hyperplane can be transformed in quadratic time to checking whether a mean payoff game has at least one winning initial state. These results imply that the problems mentioned above concerning tropical algebra and convexity belong to $NP\\cap coNP$ and can be solved in pseudo-polynomial time. We also obtain as a corollary a game theoretical proof of the fact that the tropical rank of a matrix, defined as the maximal size of a subma...

  6. [Meaning and spirituality in patients with chronic somatic illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, A

    2006-08-01

    Issues of the meaning of life and spirituality are particularly important subjects given the threat of a serious illness and the confrontation with the finiteness of one's own life. Thus, addressing questions of meaning and spiritual domains of supportive care has been identified as essential by patients as well as by health care professionals. In recent years more research has focussed on theoretical conceptualization, empirical examination as well as on the development of meaning-centred interventions in somatically ill patients. Theoretical models for the understanding, development and adaptation of concepts and interventions addressing meaning and spirituality in the chronically ill are offered by the philosophical tradition of existentialism, logotherapy as well as by cognitive and developmental psychology, in particular studies on autobiographical memory and life story. However, the current state of empirical research focussing on the association between meaning, spirituality and physical as well as mental health and underlying mechanisms is not sufficient to draw reliable conclusions. With regard to psychosocial care, meaning-centred interventions have been developed in recent years primarily within the context of palliative care. These interventions are intended to support patients to find meaning in life in the face of a serious illness and to experience their life as fulfilled.

  7. The Underlying Meaning of Absurd Theatre Endgame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小康

    2011-01-01

    The absurd theatre denies the meaning of human' s existence and displays absurdity directly with fantastic means.The article is to analyze Beckett' s famous play Endgam by combining characteristics of the absurd theatre,summerizing its writing features and digging up its implied meaning.

  8. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young adult mean (−1 to −2.5 SD). Osteoporosis Bone density is 2.5 SD or more below the young adult mean (−2.5 SD or lower). Severe (established) osteoporosis Bone density is more than 2.5 SD below the young adult mean, and there have been one or more ...

  9. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  10. An Optimal Double Inequality for Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wei-Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For , the generalized logarithmic mean , arithmetic mean and geometric mean of two positive numbers and are defined by , ; , , , ; , , ; , , ; and , respectively. In this paper, we give an answer to the open problem: for , what are the greatest value and the least value , such that the double inequality holds for all ?

  11. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  12. Mean field interaction in biochemical reaction networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we establish a relationship between chemical dynamics and mean field game dynamics. We show that chemical reaction networks can be studied using noisy mean field limits. We provide deterministic, noisy and switching mean field limits and illustrate them with numerical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. 14 CFR 121.257 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shutoff means. 121.257 Section 121.257..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.257 Shutoff means. (a) Each... shutoff means must allow an emergency operating sequence that is compatible with the emergency...

  14. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  15. Uncertainty quantification for mean field games in social interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2016-01-09

    We present an overview of mean field games formulation. A comparative analysis of the optimality for a stochastic McKean-Vlasov process with time-dependent probability is presented. Then we examine mean-field games for social interactions and we show that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize couple (marriage). However , if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. Finally we introduce the Wiener chaos expansion for the construction of solution of stochastic differential equations of Mckean-Vlasov type. The method is based on the Cameron-Martin version of the Wiener Chaos expansion and allow to quantify the uncertainty in the optimality system.

  16. Bochner-Riesz means on Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shanzhen

    2013-01-01

    This book mainly deals with the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral and series on Euclidean spaces. It aims to give a systematical introduction to the fundamental theories of the Bochner-Riesz means and important achievements attained in the last 50 years. For the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral, it includes the Fefferman theorem which negates the Disc multiplier conjecture, the famous Carleson-Sjölin theorem, and Carbery-Rubio de Francia-Vega's work on almost everywhere convergence of the Bochner-Riesz means below the critical index. For the Bochner-Riesz means o

  17. Naturalisation, Desert, and the Symbolic Meaning of Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2012-01-01

    of naturalisation requirements as involving notions of desert and asks what these developments imply about the meaning of citizenship. Naturalisation marks the boundary of society understood as a political community, i.e. a civic rather than territorial boundary. How this boundary is policed and on the basis......The chapter considers recent trends in naturalisation legislation in Europe and what they might imply for the symbolic meaning of citizenship. During the first decade of the 21st century many European states have strengthened requirements for access to citizenship. This development has both had...

  18. Spurious Shell Closures in the Relativistic Mean Field Model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Toki, H; Long, W H; Shen, G

    2006-01-01

    Following a systematic theoretical study of the ground-state properties of over 7000 nuclei from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line in the relativistic mean field model [Prog. Theor. Phys. 113 (2005) 785], which is in fair agreement with existing experimental data, we observe a few spurious shell closures, i.e. proton shell closures at Z=58 and Z=92. These spurious shell closures are found to persist in all the effective forces of the relativistic mean field model, e.g. TMA, NL3, PKDD and DD-ME2.

  19. General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki

    1998-03-01

    The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)

  20. Politics of Meaning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    in mathematics education, I want to show how meaning becomes formatted. In order to do this, I provide a foreground-interpretation of meaning. The basic idea is to relate meanings and foregrounds, acknowledging that foregrounds are formed bya range of factors, as well as by the person’s experiences......By a politics of meaning I refer to the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions for experiencing meaning. I refer as well to the layers of visons, assumptions, presumptions and preconceptions that might construct something as being meaningful. By addressing different politics of meaning...... of such factors. Politics of meaning can be analysed with reference to sexism, racism, instrumentalism, the school mathematics tradition, critical mathematics education, and the banality of expertise....

  1. Metallic bond effects on mean excitation energies for stopping powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Xu, Y. J.

    1982-01-01

    Mean excitation energies for first row metals are evaluated by means of the local plasma approximation. Particle corrections based on Pines' (1953) procedure and the Wigner Seitz (1934) model of the metallic state are included. The agreement with experimental values is remarkably good. In contrast to previous work, the calculations given here estimate shifts in the plasma frequency according to the theory for plane wave states in an extended plasma as calculated by Pines. It is demonstrated that the effects of the metallic bond in lithium and beryllium are quite large and that they appear mainly as a result of collective oscillations in the 'free' electron gas formed from the valence electrons. The usefulness of the plasma frequency shift derived for a degenerate electron gas in predicting the plasma frequency shift within the ion core is considered surprising.

  2. Meaning Making in the Context of Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the factors underlying adaptive psychological responses and recovery after disasters has important implications for intervention and prevention efforts. To date, little attention has been paid to successful coping processes in recovering from natural and technological disasters. This article takes a meaning making perspective to explicate how survivors successfully adapt after disasters. Relevant literature is reviewed to illustrate the process of adaptation and resilience after disasters. Studies to date suggest both survivors' global meaning, particularly their religiousness and sense of meaning, and their appraisals and meaning making after the disaster are important influences on their postdisaster resilience. Meanings made in the form of changes in global beliefs and perceived growth have been reported and shown to have inconsistent relations with adjustment. Although much more research is needed, current literature suggests that meaning making processes are central to recovery and resilience after a range of disasters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Goal Trumps the Means: Highlighting Goals is More Beneficial than Highlighting Means in Means-End Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Woodward, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    Means-end actions are an early-emerging form of problem solving. These actions require initiating initial behaviors with a goal in mind. In this study, we explored the origins of 8-month-old infants' means-end action production using a cloth-pulling training paradigm. We examined whether highlightin

  4. Politics of Meaning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    By a politics of meaning I refer to the social, economic, cultural and religious conditions for experiencing meaning. I refer as well to the layers of visons, assumptions, presumptions and preconceptions that might construct something as being meaningful. By addressing different politics of meani...... of such factors. Politics of meaning can be analysed with reference to sexism, racism, instrumentalism, the school mathematics tradition, critical mathematics education, and the banality of expertise....

  5. Meaning in animal and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language.

  6. This Means War! (Maybe?) Clarifying Casus Belli in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Unlimited This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The views expressed in... Studies Degree. The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and...words of Michael Walzer, “the precise meaning of the Charter . . . a kind of utopian quibbling.”8 To the contrary, its provisions and those of

  7. only: A Case Study In Projective Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craige Roberts

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I offer an integrated theory of the meaning of only in which the prejacent, while not presupposed, is both entailed and backgrounded, hence tends to project (following a general proposal about projection due to Simons et al. 2010. Moreover, I argue, contra Beaver & Brady (2008, that only is not conventionally associated with focus, the focus effects arising instead pragmatically. But I do adopt aspects of their semantics for only, including the presupposition of a pre-order over the elements of its domain.ReferencesAbbott, B. 2000. ‘Presuppositions as non-assertions’. Journal of Pragmatics 32: 1419–37.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(9900108-3Abbott, B. 2008. ‘Presuppositions and common ground’. Linguistics and Philosophy 31: 523–538.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10988-008-9048-8Amaral, P. 2010. ‘Entailment, assertion, and textual coherence: the case of almost and barely’. Linguistics 48, no. 3: 525–545.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/LING.2010.016Amaral, P., Roberts, C. & Allyn Smith, E. 2008. ‘Review of The Logic of Conventional Implicature by Chris Potts’. Linguistics and Philosophy 30: 707–749.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10988-008-9025-2Atlas, J. D. 1993. ‘The importance of being “only”: testing the neo-Gricean versus neoentailment paradigms’. Journal of Semantics 10: 301–18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/10.4.301Beaver, D. 2001. Presupposition and Assertion in Dynamic Semantics. CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.Beaver, D. 2010. ‘Handout from a talk on projective meaning’. Stuttgart, Germany.Beaver, D. & Brady, C. 2003. ‘Always and Only: Why not all focus sensitive operators are alike’. Natural Language Semantics 11: 323–62.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025542629721Beaver, D. & Brady, C. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity. Blackwell.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444304176Beckman, M. E. & Ayers, G. M. 1994. ‘Guidelines for ToBI labeling guide, ver. 2.0’. On-line at The Ohio State University: www.ling.ohio-state

  8. Finding golden mean in a physics exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-07-01

    The golden mean is an algebraic irrational number that has captured the popular imagination and is discussed in many books. Indeed, some scientists believe that it appears in some patterns in nature, including the spiral arrangement of leaves and other plant parts. Generally, the golden mean is introduced in geometry and the textbooks give the definition showing a graphical method to determine it. In this short note, we want to find this number by studying projectile motion. This could be a way to introduce the golden mean (also said to be the golden ratio, golden section, Fidia constant, divine proportion or extreme and mean ratio) in a physics course.

  9. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, F

    2013-01-01

    Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen

  10. Scalable k-means statistics with Titan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David C.; Bennett, Janine C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents both the serial and parallel k-means statistics engines. It is a sequel to [PT08], [BPRT09], and [PT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, and contingency engines. The ease of use of the new parallel k-means engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets and algorithm verification is provided. This report justifies the design of the statistics engines with parallel scalability in mind, and provides scalability and speed-up analysis results for the k-means engine.

  11. MBOK: ITS DISTRIBUTION, MEANING, AND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajar Pradika A. Tur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mbok, in Javanese language, has not only a ’mother’ in meaning. As a lexicon in the language, mbok in one side truly means a ‘mother’ and still has the same meaning although it experiences the morphological process to be, at least, embok, simbok, or mboke. The variations exist and are spoken by Javanese native speakers throughout the Javanese dialects such as Suroboyoan, Solo, Yogyakarta, Bagelen, and Banyumasan dialects spread from the East Java, Yogyakarta, and Central Java. However, mbok, as a particle has different meaning, even different various meanings relying on its distribution in a sentence. Then the meanings bear its different various functions as well in the sentence based on the context of the sentence (grammatical-semantics meaning. Through Teknik Balik (Converse Technique the data gained was analyzed to distinguish the position of the particle in the sentence in order to reach its significant different meanings and functions. At least, from the analysis, we have three positions of mbok in the sentences, that are in the initial, middle, and the end of the sentences. These positions affect the meanings and functions that can be seen as follows; ‘, is not it?’ (Tag Question and ‘is/are” (Verbal Question for emphasizing, ‘please’ for requesting a help, ‘may be’ and ‘in case’ for expressing possibility, and ‘causing’ for expressing cause-effect. Keywords: mbok, semantics, Banyumasan dialect

  12. Being forgotten: implications for the experience of meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura A; Geise, Aaron C

    2011-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of being forgotten on the target of memory. In Study 1, undergraduate women (N = 96) who had completed a lab session two days prior, were randomly assigned to be remembered, forgotten, complimented, or to a control group. In the absence of effects on mood or social self-esteem, being forgotten resulted in lower meaning in life. In Study 2, participants (N = 47) who had completed a group exercise were informed two days later that no one remembered them, that everyone remembered them, or that no one wanted to work with them. Being forgotten led to lower meaning in life than being remembered but did not differ from being excluded. Being forgotten may be considered a type of incipient ostracism that influences meaning in life but not mood or state social self-esteem.

  13. Semiparametric Inference in a GARCH-in-Mean Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Dahl, Christian Møller; Iglesias, Emma M.

    , such as the dividend yield. Using the profile likelihood approach, we show that our estimator under stated conditions is consistent, asymp- totically normal, and efficient, i.e. it achieves the semiparametric lower bound. A sampling experiment provides evidence on finite sample properties as well as comparisons......A new semiparametric estimator for an empirical asset pricing model with general nonpara- metric risk-return tradeoff and a GARCH process for the underlying volatility is introduced. The estimator does not rely on any initial parametric estimator of the conditional mean func- tion, and this feature...... facilitates the derivation of asymptotic theory under possible nonlinearity of unspecified form of the risk-return tradeoff. Besides the nonlinear GARCH-in-mean effect, our specification accommodates exogenous regressors that are typically used as conditioning variables entering linearly in the mean equation...

  14. Mean gas opacity for circumstellar environments and equilibrium temperature degeneracy

    CERN Document Server

    Malygin, M G; Klahr, H; Dullemond, C P; Henning, Th

    2014-01-01

    In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We prod...

  15. Accretion Disks and Dynamos: Toward a Unified Mean Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of gravitational energy into radiation near stars and compact objects in accretion disks the origin of large scale magnetic fields in astrophysical rotators have long been distinct topics of active research in astrophysics. In semi-analytic work on both problems it has been useful to presume large scale symmetries, which necessarily results in mean field theories; magnetohydrodynamic turbulence makes the underlying systems locally asymmetric and highly nonlinear. Synergy between theory and simulations should aim for the development of practical, semi-analytic mean field models that capture the essential physics and can be used for observational modeling. Mean field dynamo (MFD) theory and alpha-viscosity accretion disc theory have exemplified such distinct pursuits. Both are presently incomplete, but 21st century MFD theory has nonlinear predictive power compared to 20th century MFD. in contrast, alpha-viscosity accretion theory is still in a 20th century state. In fact, insights from MFD theory ar...

  16. Nonequilibrium Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for Bosonic Lattice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Hugo U. R.; Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We develop the nonequilibrium extension of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory and a Nambu real-time strong-coupling perturbative impurity solver. In contrast to Gutzwiller mean-field theory and strong-coupling perturbative approaches, nonequilibrium bosonic dynamical mean-field theory captures not only dynamical transitions but also damping and thermalization effects at finite temperature. We apply the formalism to quenches in the Bose-Hubbard model, starting from both the normal and the Bose-condensed phases. Depending on the parameter regime, one observes qualitatively different dynamical properties, such as rapid thermalization, trapping in metastable superfluid or normal states, as well as long-lived or strongly damped amplitude oscillations. We summarize our results in nonequilibrium "phase diagrams" that map out the different dynamical regimes.

  17. The attraction of evil and the destruction of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Does the concept of evil deserve special formulation in the realm of psychoanalytic thought? In agreement with authors such as Meltzer (1992) and De Masi (2003) and through selected moments from a boy's long analysis, I will propose a definition of evil as a state of mind, characterized by disregard for the human quality of the object and the destruction of meaning and meaningfulness of life in and for others. Evil drains, perverts and strips symbols of intentions and goals, leaving them empty of emotional significance. In my patient, the state of mind that he called evil exerted a seductive appeal and was accompanied by a sadistic excitement that he elevated into a state of sexualized well-being, which progressively perverted and destroyed emotional meaning, contributing to his confusion and desperation. Confronting this pathological configuration and describing the situation that I felt existed within his mind and between us, and rearticulating emotional meaning where it had been perverted, cannibalized or left empty, was the principal - and at times only - clinical instrument available to lead him out of his descent into nothingness.

  18. State Fairgrounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile is a point shapefile that displays the locations of the major state/regional agricultural fairs held throughout the United States. Some states (e.g.,...

  19. Semantic maps as metrics on meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cysouw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the world?s linguistic diversity, the study of meaning can be transformed from an introspective inquiry into a subject of empirical investigation. For this to be possible, the notion of meaning has to be operationalized by defining the meaning of an expression as the collection of all contexts in which the expression can be used. Under this definition, meaning can be empirically investigated by sampling contexts. A semantic map is a technique to show the relations between such sampled contextual occurrences. Or, formulated more technically, a semantic map is a visualization of a metric on contexts sampled to represent a domain of meaning. Or, put more succinctly, a semantic map is a metric on meaning. To establish such a metric, a notion of (dissimilarity is needed. The similarity between two meanings can be empirically investigated by looking at their encoding in many different languages. The more similar these encodings, in language after language, the more similar the contexts. So, to investigate the similarity between two contextualized meanings, only judgments about the similarity between expressions within the structure of individual languages are needed. As an example of this approach, data on cross-linguistic variation in inchoative/causative alternations from Haspelmath (1993 is reanalyzed.

  20. Sexual Meaning Systems of Engaged Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Catherine Fourre; Maddock, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Administered Sexual Meaning Survey to 526 couples. Findings supported hypothesis that engaged couples would be less discrepant in sexual meanings than randomly paired men and women. Regression analyses provided evidence that level of education, church attendance, discrepancy in religious affiliation, cohabitation status, and agreement on family…

  1. 14 CFR 25.1189 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... powerplant or engine mount structural failure. (h) Each shutoff valve must have a means to relieve excessive...) Each engine installation and each fire zone specified in § 25.1181(a)(4) and (5) must have a means to... required for— (1) Lines, fittings, and components forming an integral part of an engine; and (2)...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1189 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shutoff means. 23.1189 Section 23.1189... § 23.1189 Shutoff means. (a) For each multiengine airplane the following apply: (1) Each engine... shutoff valve for any engine may not make any fuel unavailable to the remaining engines that would...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1189 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shutoff means. 27.1189 Section 27.1189... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 27.1189 Shutoff means. (a... guard against inadvertent operation of each shutoff, and to make it possible for the crew to reopen...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1189 - Shutoff means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shutoff means. 29.1189 Section 29.1189... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1189 Shutoff means. (a... displacement. (b) The closing of any fuel shutoff valve for any engine may not make fuel unavailable to...

  5. Active causation and the origin of meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are necessary concepts for understanding mind and culture, but appear to be absent from the physical world and are not part of the explanatory framework of the natural sciences. Understanding how meaning (in the broad sense of the term) could arise from a physical world has prove

  6. A Discussion on Mean Excess Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2009-01-01

    A widely used tool in the study of risk, insurance and extreme values is the mean excess plot. One use is for validating a Generalized Pareto model for the excess distribution. This paper investigates some theoretical and practical aspects of the use of the mean excess plot.

  7. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  8. Analysis on Rhetoric Means in English Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊

    2015-01-01

    advertising as an applied language is a widely used exchanging medium in our society.This thesis is written mainly from three perspectives of phonetic rhetoric,lexical rhetoric,and syntactical rhetoric.By analyzing the application of rhetorical means in English advertising,the author explains the functions and results of these means.

  9. Mean-field models and exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.; Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rutz, K. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, P.G. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)

  10. The Dual Meaning of the Expresion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract The ironic expression "az bone dandan" (from the root has been written to mean "wholeheartedly and desirous "in all persian dictionaries including general and specific ones like those of idioms and expressions or the ones devoted to a particular poet ’ s or works terminology. In fact they have just pointed to one aspect of its meaning. Since this meaning was not in accordance whit the semantic structure of some of the lines of poetry, this study analysed a number of cases from old poetry and prose texts. The outcome shows that the aforementioned expression should be regarded as one of the "Opposits" in Persian, because in the collected cases one can see that the expression means exactly something contradictory which has been ignored by lexicographers. In the opposite case the expression means: "obliged or forced to do something. "This expression is an adverbial and a prepositional phrase. Â

  11. Levels of meaning in family stress theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J M; Garwick, A W

    1994-09-01

    Major stressful life events, particularly those that have chronic hardships, create a crisis for families that often leads to reorganization in the family's style of functioning. A major factor in this reorganization is the meaning the family gives to the stressful event. Often the meaning extends beyond the event itself and leads to a changed view of the family system and even to a changed view of the world. Building on other family stress models, we elaborate the family's definition of the stressor into three levels of family meanings: (1) situational meanings, (2) family identity, and (3) family world view. Examples from clinical work and studies of families adapting to chronic illness are used to illustrate the relationship between these three levels of meaning, particularly as they change in response to crisis. Implications for clinical and empirical work are discussed.

  12. Social and Cultural Influence on Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美曦

    2008-01-01

    Different nations have different social cultures, and the social culture of every nation is developing with the devel-opment of the nation, language is greatly influenced by social culture, which enables language to possess national and historical characteristics. Word is the smallest, independent, meaningful linguistic unit of language. It can well reflect the national and historical characteristics. From synchronic aspect, the social and cultural influence on word meaning is mainly embodied in con-ceptual and associative meanings of word. The incorrespondence of word meaning is a phenomenon that exists in both conceptual and associative meanings of word among different languages. From diachronic aspect, the development of social culture causes some changes of word meaning to some extent. Therefore, social culture plays a key role in vocabulary learning and mastery of a language.

  13. Watching the brain during meaning acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    Acquiring the meaning of a new word in a foreign language can be achieved either by rote memorizing or, similar to meaning acquisition during infancy, by extracting it from context. Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning. Here we demonstrate, using event-related brain potentials, the rapid development of a brain signature related to lexical and semantic processing during contextual word learning. Healthy volunteers engaged in a simple word-learning task were required to discover the meaning of a novel word from a context during silent reading. After 3 exposures, brain potentials to novel words in meaningful contexts were indistinguishable from real words, although this acquisition effect was not observed for novel words, for which sentence contexts allowed no meaning derivation. Furthermore, when the learned novel words were presented in isolation, an activation of their corresponding meaning was observed, although this process was slower than for real words.

  14. Effect of the velocity ratio on the turbulent structure of the plane wall jet under the self-preserving state. 1st Report. ; Conditions for self-preservation and mean flow field. Jiko hozon jokenka no heimen hekimen funryu no ranryu kozo ni oyobosu sokudohi no eikyo. 1. ; Jiko hozon no joken to heikin sokudoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, H.; Mchizuki, S. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Tominaga, T. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-11-25

    Relation was studied between the turbulent structure and velocity ratio of plane wall jet of the self-preserving liquid, constant in pressure gradient (velocity ratio). The experimental unit for the study is 100mm in height (S{sub 1}) of jet outlet in the flowing field, 384mm in height of external flow outlet, 400mm in width of both those outlets and approximately 2400mm in length of aluminum made plane for the measurement. To measure the mean velocity and frictional stress against wall surface, used were Pitot and Preston tubes. As a velocity ratio, setting was made at the three values, i.e., 2.0, 2.9 and 4.0. The mean flow gives self-preserving characteristics in the range of 57mean velocity distributions approximate to one another against the same value of velocity ratio. As for the similarity of velocity distribution in both the inner layer and outer layer regions, the velocity distributions in the former region are not similar as influenced by the velocity ratio, while those in the latter region are approximate regardless of velocity ratio. As for the length scale, the half value width also lowers in growing ratio with lowering in velocity ratio. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  15. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  16. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  17. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  19. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  1. 7 CFR 1230.25 - State association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State association. 1230.25 Section 1230.25... association. State association means the single organization of producers in a State that is organized under the laws of that State and is recognized by the chief executive officer of such State as...

  2. [Meaning in life and mental health: personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Sabine; Knappe, Rainer; Joraschky, Peter; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the personal meaning systems of psychotherapists and psychotherapy patients as well as correlations between meaning in life and mental health. We qualitatively assessed the content and structure of the personal meaning systems of 41 psychotherapists and 77 psychotherapy patients. In addition, the participants completed questionnaires measuring meaning in life (LRI-r-d), sense of coherence (SOC-9L), self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), self-efficacy (SWK), and depression (BDI). The personal meaning systems of psychotherapists were more complex and coherent compared to psychotherapy patients. In the group of psychotherapy patients, a more elaborate structure of the personal meaning system correlated with the subjective sense of meaning. We were able to confirm correlations between meaning in life and mental health for most of the instances. Psychotherapists had more elaborate and coherent meaning systems than psychotherapy patients. Especially for psychotherapy patients elaborate and coherent meaning systems turned out to be important for mental health.

  3. Mean age distribution of inorganic soil-nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Excess reactive nitrogen in soils of intensively managed landscapes causes adverse environmental impact, and continues to remain a global concern. Many novel strategies have been developed to provide better management practices and, yet, the problem remains unresolved. The objective of this study is to develop a model to characterize the "age" of inorganic soil-nitrogen (nitrate, and ammonia/ammonium). We use the general theory of age, which provides an assessment of the time elapsed since inorganic nitrogen has been introduced into the soil system. We analyze a corn-corn-soybean rotation, common in the Midwest United States, as an example application. We observe two counter-intuitive results: (1) the mean nitrogen age in the topsoil layer is relatively high; and (2) mean nitrogen age is lower under soybean cultivation compared to corn although no fertilizer is applied for soybean cultivation. The first result can be explained by cation-exchange of ammonium that retards the leaching of nitrogen, resulting in an increase in the mean nitrogen age near the soil surface. The second result arises because the soybean utilizes the nitrogen fertilizer left from the previous year, thereby removing the older nitrogen and reducing mean nitrogen age. Estimating the mean nitrogen age can thus serve as an important tool to disentangle complex nitrogen dynamics by providing a nuanced characterization of the time scales of soil-nitrogen transformation and transport processes.

  4. Nonlocal Means-Based Denoising for Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical images often consist of low-contrast objects corrupted by random noise arising in the image acquisition process. Thus, image denoising is one of the fundamental tasks required by medical imaging analysis. Nonlocal means (NL-means method provides a powerful framework for denoising. In this work, we investigate an adaptive denoising scheme based on the patch NL-means algorithm for medical imaging denoising. In contrast with the traditional NL-means algorithm, the proposed adaptive NL-means denoising scheme has three unique features. First, we use a restricted local neighbourhood where the true intensity for each noisy pixel is estimated from a set of selected neighbouring pixels to perform the denoising process. Second, the weights used are calculated thanks to the similarity between the patch to denoise and the other patches candidates. Finally, we apply the steering kernel to preserve the details of the images. The proposed method has been compared with similar state-of-art methods over synthetic and real clinical medical images showing an improved performance in all cases analyzed.

  5. Flexible word meaning in embodied agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, Peter; Loetzsch, Martin; Steels, Luc

    2008-06-01

    Learning the meanings of words requires coping with referential uncertainty - a learner hearing a novel word cannot be sure which aspects or properties of the referred object or event comprise the meaning of the word. Data from developmental psychology suggest that human learners grasp the important aspects of many novel words after just a few exposures, a phenomenon known as fast mapping. Traditionally, word learning is viewed as a mapping task, in which the learner has to map a set of forms onto a set of pre-existing concepts. We criticise this approach and argue instead for a flexible nature of the coupling between form and meanings as a solution to the problem of referential uncertainty. We implemented and tested the model in populations of humanoid robots that play situated language games about objects in their shared environment. Results show that the model can handle an exponential increase in uncertainty and allows scaling towards very large meaning spaces, while retaining the ability to grasp an operational meaning almost instantly for a great number of words. In addition, the model captures some aspects of the flexibility of form-meaning associations found in human languages. Meanings of words can shift between being very specific (names) and general (e.g. 'small'). We show that this specificity is biased not by the model itself but by the distribution of object properties in the world.

  6. Quantifying Residual Stresses by Means of Thermoelastic Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on the application of the Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) technique as a tool for assessing the residual stress state of structures. TSA is based on the fact that materials experience small temperature changes when compressed or expanded. When a structure is cyclically loaded, a surface temperature profile results which correlates to the surface stresses. The cyclic surface temperature is measured with an infrared camera. Traditionally, the amplitude of a TSA signal was theoretically defined to be linearly dependent on the cyclic stress amplitude. Recent studies have established that the temperature response is also dependent on the cyclic mean stress (i.e., the static stress state of the structure). In a previous study by the authors, it was shown that mean stresses significantly influenced the TSA results for titanium- and nickel-based alloys. This study continued the effort of accurate direct measurements of the mean stress effect by implementing various experimental modifications. In addition, a more in-depth analysis was conducted which involved analyzing the second harmonic of the temperature response. By obtaining the amplitudes of the first and second harmonics, the stress amplitude and the mean stress at a given point on a structure subjected to a cyclic load can be simultaneously obtained. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for both the first and second harmonics of the temperature response. As a result, confidence was achieved concerning the ability to simultaneously obtain values for the static stress state as well as the cyclic stress amplitude of structures subjected to cyclic loads using the TSA technique. With continued research, it is now feasible to establish a protocol that would enable the monitoring of residual stresses in structures utilizing TSA.

  7. Review of Meaning, Discourse and Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGCHAO ZHEN

    2011-01-01

    In Meaning, Discourse and Society, Teubert explains how a reality can be constructed in discourse. The central stance is that the discourse-external reality is just shapeless and meaningless stuff, and what people talk about in both verbal communication and written texts are actually the objects they have created collectively within discourse. Discourse therefore becomes the only seat of meaning. By putting forward this argument, Teubert finds himself in conflict with the tenor of cognitive scientists who claim that meaning can be found in mental concepts or neural activities. For Teubert,

  8. Medians and means in Finsler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We investigate existence and uniqueness of p-means and the median of a probability measure on a Finsler manifold, in relation with the convexity of the support of the measure. We prove that the p-mean is the limit point of a continuous time gradient flow. Under some additional condition which is always satisfied for larger than or equal to 2, a discretization of this path converges to the p-mean. This provides an algorithm for determining those Finsler center points.

  9. Description of $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ in the constrained relativistic mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhang; Shuang-Quan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of $^{178}$Hf and the isomeric state $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ are studied within the adiabatic and diabatic constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The RMF calculations reproduce well the binding energy and the deformation for the ground state of $^{178}$Hf. Using the ground state single-particle eigenvalues obtained in the present calculation, the lowest excitation configuration with $K^\\pi=16^+$ is found to be $\

  10. The protection of individuals by means of diplomatic protection: diplomatic protection as a human rights instrument

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Individuals whose international (human) rights are violated outside their state of nationality often have very limited means to address such violations. For instance, the foreign nationals detained by the United States in Guantanamo Bay have been unable to improve their situation themselves. Their state of nationality however can protect them through the exercise of diplomatic protection, thereby invoking the international responsibility of the host state for a violation of international law....

  11. Categorizing the meanings of craft: A multi-perspectival framework for eight interrelated meaning categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kouhia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The meaning and value of crafts as bearers of the cultural heritage are widely acknowledged, and deserved attention has also been paid to the pedagogical applications of craft in practice. Still, research relating to subjectively interpreted meanings of crafts has remained rather scarce. The main interest of the study is to examine subjectively construed meanings of craft associated both to the self-reflective act of making and to the tangible craft object, and categorize the discovered meanings into representative categories. In presenting a multi-perspectival framework for the categories that portray the common kinds of meanings that crafts have, a substance that surpasses cultural boundaries is also captured due to the multicultural research setting. The primary empirical data of the study are composed of interviews of six women from different cultural backgrounds; the supporting data feature a participant observation of a multicultural craft activity group and photographic notes. The wide range of different meanings captured from the data is, during the conducted qualitative content analysis, critically classified into representational categories that typify the personally experienced meanings. The analysis revealed eight interrelated meaning categories regarding the meanings of craft that go beyond cultural boundaries: Meanings proceed from the subjective process of interpreting craft in a socially constructed, personalized setting, but still the meanings given to craft have been given similar characterizations in the several cultural contexts examined. This study adds to an understanding of how personalized meanings contribute to building intercultural reciprocity. Keywords: craft, culture, meanings, interculturality, meaning making

  12. Corporate Lingo: A New Meaning (Language Watching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the words and phrases that make up corporate lingo usually have meaning on two levels: management level and worker level, with huge gaps between them. Offers the author's "redefinitions" of a number of corporate terms. (SR)

  13. Mean dose to lymphocytes during radiotherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandan, M.E.; Perez-Pastenes, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica (Mexico); Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Gonsebatt, M.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas (Mexico); Diaz-Perches, R. [Hospital General de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-10-01

    Using a probabilistic model with parameters from four radiotherapy protocols used in Mexican hospitals for the treatment of cervical cancer, the authors have calculated the distribution of dose to cells in peripheral blood of patients. Values of the mean dose to the lymphocytes during and after a {sup 60}Co treatment are compared to estimates from an in vivo chromosome aberration study performed on five patients. Calculations indicate that the mean dose to the circulating blood is about 2% of the tumor dose, while the mean dose to recirculating lymphocytes may reach up to 7% of the tumor dose. Differences up to a factor of two in the dose to the blood are predicted for different protocols delivering equal tumor doses. The data suggest mean doses higher than the predictions of the model. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. GRAPHIC AND MEANING IN LOGO DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADÎR Victor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To design a logo is a special work. It means creation, intelligence, use of colors, and of course, signs and symbols. It is about a visual personality and a signature of an entity. During the working process, a designer has to answer to a few questions, such as: What signs, symbols and colors have to be used? or What are the important things be design in a logo? What are the logos in the market about a same activity? To answer means to design it. The meaning comes mainly from graphics and that is why it is compulsory to pay attention to each detail. The paper talks about the connection between graphic and meaning which may create a corporate identity.

  15. Portfolio optimization with mean-variance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Lam Weng; Siew, Lam Weng

    2016-06-01

    Investors wish to achieve the target rate of return at the minimum level of risk in their investment. Portfolio optimization is an investment strategy that can be used to minimize the portfolio risk and can achieve the target rate of return. The mean-variance model has been proposed in portfolio optimization. The mean-variance model is an optimization model that aims to minimize the portfolio risk which is the portfolio variance. The objective of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using the mean-variance model. The data of this study consists of weekly returns of 20 component stocks of FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (FBMKLCI). The results of this study show that the portfolio composition of the stocks is different. Moreover, investors can get the return at minimum level of risk with the constructed optimal mean-variance portfolio.

  16. Meaning and Theme in Indian Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojahed Gholami

    2016-12-01

    With a glimpse on what was said and a pause on the poems of Saeb Tabrizi, as one of the most seasoned poets in Indian style, it demonstrates part of his art and also illuminates the relation among word, meaning and theme in his poetry and viewpoint. He established multiple proportions among the concepts in his poem: sometimes he expressed a semantic unit as a content with diversities in word, or in some occasions, he expressed a semantic unit by different contents, with similar or dissimilar content maker elements, or even sometimes he use content maker elements for expressing multiple meanings and so on. Also it is necessary to be noted that when Saeb and the other poets of Indian style, measure the meaning by words, their meant is subjective matter and if the meaning comes with adjectives such as unfamiliar, narrow, distant, and so on, these words have used mainly in order to replace theme.

  17. Estimating stellar mean density through seismic inversions

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, D R; Goupil, M J; Thompson, M J; Deheuvels, S

    2012-01-01

    Determining the mass of stars is crucial both to improving stellar evolution theory and to characterising exoplanetary systems. Asteroseismology offers a promising way to estimate stellar mean density. When combined with accurate radii determinations, such as is expected from GAIA, this yields accurate stellar masses. The main difficulty is finding the best way to extract the mean density from a set of observed frequencies. We seek to establish a new method for estimating stellar mean density, which combines the simplicity of a scaling law while providing the accuracy of an inversion technique. We provide a framework in which to construct and evaluate kernel-based linear inversions which yield directly the mean density of a star. We then describe three different inversion techniques (SOLA and two scaling laws) and apply them to the sun, several test cases and three stars. The SOLA approach and the scaling law based on the surface correcting technique described by Kjeldsen et al. (2008) yield comparable result...

  18. Recurring Mean Inequality of Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingjin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidimensional recurring mean inequality is shown. Furthermore, we prove some new inequalities, which can be considered to be the extensions of those established inequalities, including, for example, the Polya-Szegö and Kantorovich inequalities .

  19. MP3 the meaning of a format

    CERN Document Server

    Sterne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Sterne shows that understanding the historical meaning of the MP3, the world's most common format for recorded audio, involves rethinking the place of digital technologies in the broader universe of twentieth-century communication history.

  20. Networks and knowledge creation for meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how business networks can create organisational knowledge to provide meaning for enabling innovation and reduction of Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE)? The research was conducted from June 2014 to May 2015, using a qualitative deductive research approach...... the meaning necessary for innovation. In the organising process sources of systematic storage in the enterprise, education and training and the essential knowledge creation through people need to be emphasised on the creation of meaning for innovation and reduction of LCOE. Each of these sources is important...... and due to the organising process highly valuable findings regarding innovation can be utilised both for improved central decisions and for improved application of knowledge locally when the meaning is established. Further research is needed for elaboration of the business network frame and the organising...

  1. VT Mean Annual Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPA7100 includes mean annual precipitation data (in inches) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived from...

  2. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  3. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  4. Single pass kernel -means clustering method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Hitendra Sarma; P Viswanath; B Eswara Reddy

    2013-06-01

    In unsupervised classification, kernel -means clustering method has been shown to perform better than conventional -means clustering method in identifying non-isotropic clusters in a data set. The space and time requirements of this method are $O(n^2)$, where is the data set size. Because of this quadratic time complexity, the kernel -means method is not applicable to work with large data sets. The paper proposes a simple and faster version of the kernel -means clustering method, called single pass kernel k-means clustering method. The proposed method works as follows. First, a random sample $\\mathcal{S}$ is selected from the data set $\\mathcal{D}$. A partition $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$ is obtained by applying the conventional kernel -means method on the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$. The novelty of the paper is, for each cluster in $\\Pi_{\\mathcal{S}}$, the exact cluster center in the input space is obtained using the gradient descent approach. Finally, each unsampled pattern is assigned to its closest exact cluster center to get a partition of the entire data set. The proposed method needs to scan the data set only once and it is much faster than the conventional kernel -means method. The time complexity of this method is $O(s^2+t+nk)$ where is the size of the random sample $\\mathcal{S}$, is the number of clusters required, and is the time taken by the gradient descent method (to find exact cluster centers). The space complexity of the method is $O(s^2)$. The proposed method can be easily implemented and is suitable for large data sets, like those in data mining applications. Experimental results show that, with a small loss of quality, the proposed method can significantly reduce the time taken than the conventional kernel -means clustering method. The proposed method is also compared with other recent similar methods.

  5. Meaning Guessing Strategies in English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾兰

    2005-01-01

    In the course of reading we can guess or infer the meaning of some new words, difficult words or keywords through the information, logic, background knowledge and language structure, etc. And it is a very useful reading skill. When obtaining this kind of skill, the readers can quickly infer the meaning of new words from the clue offered by the context or the structure characteristic of new words, therefore, to improve the reading speed and reading ability.

  6. Degenerate second order mean field games systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tonon, Daniela; Cardaliaguet, Pierre; Graber, Philip,; Poretta, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Parallel session; International audience; We consider degenerate second order mean field games systems with a local coupling. The starting point is the idea that mean field games systems can be understood as an optimality condition for optimal control of PDEs. Developing this strategy for the degenerate second order case, we discuss the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution as well as its stability (vanishing viscosity limit). Speaker: Daniela TONON

  7. Journey to seek the meaning of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚楠

    2015-01-01

    It’s about my journey to seek the meaning of life. What’s the meaning of life? I found the life of great men were really meaningful, but what about the life of ordinary people? Is their life meaningless? Through my observation and thinking, I have that the life of ordinary people is also meaningful as long as they live their life to the fullest.

  8. REFEREE PERSONAL MEANING: PERCEPTION of FOOTBALL OFFICIALS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal meaning of refereeing for Portuguese football referees. Participants were 47 football referees from the 1st Portuguese Professional Football League evaluated through an open question: "Write down what refereeing means to you". The analysis was made according to Miles & Huberman (1994) procedures. The 5 categories are: relation with the football; costs of the practice; emotion for the arbitration; social interaction and way of life. The result...

  9. On Finding the Largest Mean Among Many

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Kevin; Malloy, Matthew; Nowak, Robert; Bubeck, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Sampling from distributions to find the one with the largest mean arises in a broad range of applications, and it can be mathematically modeled as a multi-armed bandit problem in which each distribution is associated with an arm. This paper studies the sample complexity of identifying the best arm (largest mean) in a multi-armed bandit problem. Motivated by large-scale applications, we are especially interested in identifying situations where the total number of samples that are necessary and...

  10. An Algorithmic Approach to Information and Meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Zenil, Hector

    2011-01-01

    I'll survey some of the aspects relevant to a philosophical discussion of information taking into account the developments of algorithmic information theory. I will propose that meaning is deep in Bennett's logical depth sense, and that algorithmic probability may provide the stability for a robust algorithmic definition of meaning, taking into consideration the interpretation and the receiver's own knowledge encoded in the story of a message.

  11. Positivity, Betweenness, and Strictness of Operator Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattrawut Chansangiam

    2015-01-01

    satisfying monotonicity, continuity from above, the transformer inequality, and the fixed-point property. It is well known that there are one-to-one correspondences between operator means, operator monotone functions, and Borel measures. In this paper, we provide various characterizations for the concepts of positivity, betweenness, and strictness of operator means in terms of operator inequalities, operator monotone functions, Borel measures, and certain operator equations.

  12. and State in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to legitimate the state, control dissent, and stay in power the ruling elites .... experience of death and extreme deprivation, the meaning of survival and resis- ...... within a society, the greater the need for an apparatus capable of exercising ..... is the result of the government developmental policy or lack of it rather than bad.

  13. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  14. Identificação de foco estratégico e de consistência entre fins e meios em empresas calçadistas do Estado de São Paulo Identification of strategic focus and consistency between ends and means in footwear companies in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Jacyszyn Bachega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa que teve o objetivo de identificar, por meio de um survey nos polos calçadistas de Franca, Birigui e Jaú, a presença/ausência de foco estratégico nas empresas e a consistência/inconsistência entre fins e meios. O procedimento de pesquisa utilizado foi a pesquisa de avaliação, também conhecida como survey. Vinte e nove empresas, selecionadas por meio de amostragem probabilística e aleatória, participaram da pesquisa. Para tais identificações, utilizou-se o método desenvolvido por Godinho Filho e Fernandes (2009. Dentre os principais resultados, verificou-se que 69% das empresas calçadistas entrevistadas encontram-se sem foco estratégico e 79,3% dos respondentes apresentam inconsistência entre fins e meios. Além disso, 62,1% dessas empresas estão em ambas as situações (inconsistência entre fins e meios e ausência de foco estratégico. Este trabalho apresenta como contribuição o alerta para a existência de falta de foco estratégico e de situações de inconsistência entre fins e meios em empresas do setor calçadista. Essas informações são importantes para o setor coureiro-calçadista, que apresenta um histórico de crise, indicando a necessidade das empresas se reestruturarem estratégica e gerencialmente para encontrarem um 'norte' e, assim, sobreviverem neste ambiente cada vez mais dinâmico e competitivo.This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to identify, by means of a survey in the footwear cluster of Franca, Birigui, and Jaú, the presence/lack of strategic focus on business and consistency/inconsistency between ends and means. The research procedure used was the survey. Twenty-nine companies, selected through probabilistic and random sampling, participated in the survey. The method developed by Godinho Filho and Fernandes (2009 was used. Among the main results, it was found that 69% of the footwear firms interviewed have no strategic

  15. Identify Web-page Content meaning using Knowledge based System for Dual Meaning Words

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sukanta; Dattagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2012-01-01

    Meaning of Web-page content plays a big role while produced a search result from a search engine. Most of the cases Web-page meaning stored in title or meta-tag area but those meanings do not always match with Web-page content. To overcome this situation we need to go through the Web-page content to identify the Web-page meaning. In such cases, where Webpage content holds dual meaning words that time it is really difficult to identify the meaning of the Web-page. In this paper, we are introdu...

  16. Performance Evaluation of K-Mean and Fuzzy C-Mean Image Segmentation Based Clustering Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind R.M Shaaban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Evaluation K-mean and Fuzzy c-mean image segmentation based Clustering classifier. It was followed by thresholding and level set segmentation stages to provide accurate region segment. The proposed stay can get the benefits of the K-means clustering. The performance and evaluation of the given image segmentation approach were evaluated by comparing K-mean and Fuzzy c-mean algorithms in case of accuracy, processing time, Clustering classifier, and Features and accurate performance results. The database consists of 40 images executed by K-mean and Fuzzy c-mean image segmentation based Clustering classifier. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed Fuzzy c-mean image segmentation based Clustering classifier. The statistical significance Measures of mean values of Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR and Mean Square Error (MSE and discrepancy are used for Performance Evaluation of K-mean and Fuzzy c-mean image segmentation. The algorithm’s higher accuracy can be found by the increasing number of classified clusters and with Fuzzy c-mean image segmentation.

  17. 9 CFR 327.8 - Import products; equipment and means of conveyance used in handling to be maintained in sanitary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... other means of conveyance transporting any product to the United States, and all trucks, chutes...

  18. What Yugoslavia means: progress, nationalism, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, S J

    1996-01-01

    Theories of modernization have assumed that the creation of nation-states involved the breakdown of parochial ethnic boundaries and increasing secularism, all of which resulted in a demographic transition from high to low fertility and mortality. Recent experiences suggests, however, that in some circumstances nation-states may be highly unstable as ethnic minorities assert their rights to self-determination. Under such conditions, converging patterns of mortality may begin to diverge as growing inequalities appear between newly independent region of once unified states. The recent history of Yugoslavia is described to provide an example of how this process might occur and what the results might be.

  19. Mean field theory for U(n) dynamical groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, G, E-mail: george.rosensteel@tulane.edu [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2011-04-22

    Algebraic mean field theory (AMFT) is a many-body physics modeling tool which firstly, is a generalization of Hartree-Fock mean field theory, and secondly, an application of the orbit method from Lie representation theory. The AMFT ansatz is that the physical system enjoys a dynamical group, which may be either a strong or a weak dynamical Lie group G. When G is a strong dynamical group, the quantum states are, by definition, vectors in one irreducible unitary representation (irrep) space, and AMFT is equivalent to the Kirillov orbit method for deducing properties of a representation from a direct geometrical analysis of the associated integral co-adjoint orbit. AMFT can be the only tractable method for analyzing some complex many-body systems when the dimension of the irrep space of the strong dynamical group is very large or infinite. When G is a weak dynamical group, the quantum states are not vectors in one irrep space, but AMFT applies if the densities of the states lie on one non-integral co-adjoint orbit. The computational simplicity of AMFT is the same for both strong and weak dynamical groups. This paper formulates AMFT explicitly for unitary Lie algebras, and applies the general method to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick su(2) model and the Elliott su(3) model. When the energy in the su(3) theory is a rotational scalar function, Marsden-Weinstein reduction simplifies AMFT dynamics to a two-dimensional phase space.

  20. 1-deg x 1-deg Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1x1 degree Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base was...