WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-relativistic electron events

  1. Relativistic Remnants of Non-Relativistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiwa, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Electrons obeying the Dirac equation are investigated under the non-relativistic $c \\mapsto \\infty$ limit. General solutions are given by derivatives of the relativistic invariant functions whose forms are different in the time- and the space-like region, yielding the delta function of $(ct)^2 - x^2$. This light-cone singularity does survive to show that the charge and the current density of electrons travel with the speed of light in spite of their massiveness.

  2. OTR from Non-Relativistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Chevallay, E; Lefèvre, T; Suberlucq, Guy

    2003-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) injector will provide pulsed beams of high average current; 5A over 1.56µs at 140keV. For transverse beam sizes of the order of 1mm, as foreseen, this implies serious damage to the commonly used scintillating screens. Optical Transition Radiation from thermally resistant radiators represents a possible alternative. In this context, the backward OTR radiation emitted from an aluminium screen by a 80keV, 60nC, 4ns electron pulse has been investigated. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical expectations, indicating a feeble light intensity distributed over a large solid angle. Our conclusions for the design of the CTF3 injector profile monitor are also given.

  3. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur- [Theoretical Physics Division (TPD), PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan and Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of cold magnetized non-relativistic plasma in the presence of electron-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Biswajit, E-mail: biswajit-sahu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Sinha, Anjana, E-mail: sinha.anjana@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rroychoudhury123@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan - 731 204, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700 075 (India)

    2015-09-15

    A numerical study is presented of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized, cold, non-relativistic plasma, in the presence of electron-ion collisions. The ions are considered to be immobile while the electrons move with non-relativistic velocities. The primary interest is to study the effects of the collision parameter, external magnetic field strength, and the initial electromagnetic polarization on the evolution of the plasma system.

  5. Dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons at a photonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, John

    2013-08-29

    This thesis reports on the observation of dielectric laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons via the inverse Smith-Purcell effect in the optical regime. Evanescent modes in the vicinity of a periodic grating structure can travel at the same velocity as the electrons along the grating surface. A longitudinal electric field component is used to continuously impart momentum onto the electrons. This is only possible in the near-field of a suitable photonic structure, which means that the electron beam has to pass the structure within about one wavelength. In our experiment we exploit the third spatial harmonic of a single fused silica grating excited by laser pulses derived from a Titanium:sapphire oscillator and accelerate non-relativistic 28 keV electrons. We measure a maximum energy gain of 280 eV, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 25 MeV/m, already comparable with state-of-the-art radio-frequency linear accelerators. To experience this acceleration gradient the electrons approach the grating closer than 100 nm. We present the theory behind grating-based particle acceleration and discuss simulation results of dielectric laser acceleration in the near-field of photonic grating structures, which is excited by near-infrared laser light. Our measurements show excellent agreement with our simulation results and therefore confirm the direct acceleration with the light field. We further discuss the acceleration inside double grating structures, dephasing effects of non-relativistic electrons as well as the space charge effect, which can limit the attainable peak currents of these novel accelerator structures. The photonic structures described in this work can be readily concatenated and therefore represent a scalable realization of dielectric laser acceleration. Furthermore, our structures are directly compatible with the microstructures used for the acceleration of relativistic electrons demonstrated in parallel to this work by our collaborators in

  6. On the Infrared Problem for the Dressed Non-Relativistic Electron in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, Laurent; Grebert, Benoit; Guillot, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    We consider a non-relativistic electron interacting with a classical magnetic field pointing along the $x_3$-axis and with a quantized electromagnetic field. The system is translation invariant in the $x_3$-direction and we consider the reduced Hamiltonian $H(P_3)$ associated with the total momentum $P_3$ along the $x_3$-axis. For a fixed momentum $P_3$ sufficiently small, we prove that $H(P_3)$ has a ground state in the Fock representation if and only if $E'(P_3)=0$, where $P_3 \\mapsto E'(P_3)$ is the derivative of the map $P_3 \\mapsto E(P_3) = \\inf \\sigma (H(P_3))$. If $E'(P_3) \

  7. The infrared problem for the dressed non-relativistic electron in a magnetic field; Le probleme infrarouge pour l'electron habille non relativiste dans un champ magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, L. [Reims Univ., Lab. de Mathematiques EDPPM, FRE-CNRS 3111, 51 (France); Faupin, J. [Aarhus Univ., Institut for Matematiske Fag (Denmark); Grebert, B. [Nantes Univ, Lab. de Mathematiques Jean-Leray, UMR-CNRS 6629 (France); Guillot, J.C. [Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de Mathematiques Appliquees, UMR-CNRS 7641, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2008-10-15

    We consider a non-relativistic electron interacting with a classical magnetic field pointing along the x{sub 3}-axis and with a quantized electromagnetic field. The system is translation invariant in the x{sub 3}-direction and the corresponding Hamiltonian has a decomposition H {approx_equal}{integral}{sub R}{sup +}H(P{sub 3})dP{sub 3}. For a fixed momentum P{sub 3} sufficiently small, we prove that H(P{sub 3}) has a ground state in the Fock representation if and only if E'(P{sub 3})=0, where P{sub 3} {yields}E'(P{sub 3}) is the derivative of the map P{sub 3}{yields}E(P{sub 3})=inf{sigma}(H(P{sub 3})). If E'(P{sub 3}){ne}0, we obtain the existence of a ground state in a non-Fock representation. This result holds for sufficiently small values of the coupling constant. (authors)

  8. Exotic Non-relativistic String

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, Roberto; Longhi, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    We construct a classical non-relativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the non-commutative structure of the model. Under double dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic non-relativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.

  9. Non-Relativistic Spacetimes with Cosmological Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrovandi, R.; Barbosa, A. L.; Crispino, L.C.B.; Pereira, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent data on supernovae favor high values of the cosmological constant. Spacetimes with a cosmological constant have non-relativistic kinematics quite different from Galilean kinematics. De Sitter spacetimes, vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations with a cosmological constant, reduce in the non-relativistic limit to Newton-Hooke spacetimes, which are non-metric homogeneous spacetimes with non-vanishing curvature. The whole non-relativistic kinematics would then be modified, with possible ...

  10. Relativistic and non-relativistic geodesic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambo' , R.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Fisica

    1999-07-01

    It is shown that any dynamic equation on a configuration space of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics is associated with connections on its tangent bundle. As a consequence, every non-relativistic dynamic equation can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to a (non-linear) connection on this tangent bundle. Using this fact, the relationships between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.

  11. Do non-relativistic neutrinos oscillate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, Evgeny

    2017-07-01

    We study the question of whether oscillations between non-relativistic neutrinos or between relativistic and non-relativistic neutrinos are possible. The issues of neutrino production and propagation coherence and their impact on the above question are discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that no neutrino oscillations can occur when neutrinos that are non-relativistic in the laboratory frame are involved, except in a strongly mass-degenerate case. We also discuss how this analysis depends on the choice of the Lorentz frame. Our results are for the most part in agreement with Hinchliffe's rule.

  12. Entropy current for non-relativistic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash; Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    We study transport properties of a parity-odd, non-relativistic charged fluid in presence of background electric and magnetic fields. To obtain stress tensor and charged current for the non-relativistic system we start with the most generic relativistic fluid, living in one higher dimension and reduce the constituent equations along the light-cone direction. We also reduce the equation satisfied by the entropy current of the relativistic theory and obtain a consistent entropy current for the non-relativistic system (we call it "canonical form" of the entropy current). Demanding that the non-relativistic fluid satisfies the second law of thermodynamics we impose constraints on various first order transport coefficients. For parity even fluid, this is straight forward; it tells us positive definiteness of different transport coefficients like viscosity, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity etc. However for parity-odd fluid, canonical form of the entropy current fails to confirm the second law of thermody...

  13. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics versus Quantum Field Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review the derivation of a non-relativistic quantum mechanics description of a weakly bound non-relativistic system from the underlying quantum field theory. We highlight the main techniques used.

  14. Renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, R

    2011-07-13

    A brief introduction is given to the renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions at finite density. It is shown that Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid arises as a fixed point (with the Landau parameters as marginal couplings) and its instabilities as relevant perturbations. Applications to related areas, nuclear matter, quark matter and quantum dots, are briefly discussed. The focus will be on explaining the main ideas to people in related fields, rather than addressing the experts.

  15. Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]|[Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z{>=}4 and z{>=}3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of non relativistic electron transport in irradiated liquid water: yield of species formed at 10[sup -15] and 10[sup -12]S. Simulation Monte Carlo du transport d'electrons non relativistes dans l'eau liquide irradiee: rendement des especes formees a 10[sup -15] et 10[sup -12]S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobut, V.; Frongillo, Y.; Jay-Gerin, J.P. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada)); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1993-04-01

    The ingredients and the results of our Monte Carlo simulation of the slowing down of nonrelativistic electrons in irradiated liquid water and of the evolution of the created species are presented. The proportion of excited and ionized species can be seen in the calculated yields at 10[sup -15] s. A fast reorganization of the medium allows radicals and molecular products to be formed and their yields at 10[sup -12] are calculated. Yields of 5.3 electrons and 6.0 hydroxyl radicals per 100 eV absorbed energy are compatible with experimental values at 30 and 200 picoseconds.

  17. Microscopic picture of non-relativistic classicalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhahn, Felix; Müller, Sophia; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert, E-mail: felix.berkhahn@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: sophia.x.mueller@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: florian.niedermann@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: robert.bob.schneider@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A theory of a non-relativistic, complex scalar field with derivatively coupled interaction terms is investigated. This toy model is considered as a prototype of a classicalizing theory and in particular of general relativity, for which the black hole constitutes a prominent example of a classicalon. Accordingly, the theory allows for a non-trivial solution of the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation corresponding to a black hole in the case of GR. Quantum fluctuations on this classical background are investigated within the Bogoliubov approximation. It turns out that the perturbative approach is invalidated by a high occupation of the Bogoliubov modes. Recently, it was proposed that a black hole is a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons that dynamically ensures to stay at the verge of a quantum phase transition. Our result is understood as an indication for that claim. Furthermore, it motivates a non-linear numerical analysis of the model.

  18. A Signed Particle Formulation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sellier, Jean Michel

    2015-01-01

    A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schroedinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the val...

  19. Ion Injection at Non-relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    We use kinetic hybrid simulations (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) to characterize the fraction of ions that are accelerated to non-thermal energies at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. We investigate the properties of the shock discontinuity and show that shocks propagating almost along the background magnetic field (quasi-parallel shocks) reform quasi-periodically on ion cyclotron scales. Ions that impinge on the shock when the discontinuity is the steepest are specularly reflected. This is a necessary condition for being injected, but it is not sufficient. Also by following the trajectories of reflected ions, we calculate the minimum energy needed for injection into diffusive shock acceleration, as a function of the shock inclination. We construct a minimal model that accounts for the ion reflection from quasi-periodic shock barrier, for the fraction of injected ions, and for the ion spectrum throughout the transition from thermal to non-thermal energies. This model captures the physics relevant for i...

  20. Relativistic and Non-relativistic Equations of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mangiarotti, L

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that any second order dynamic equation on a configuration space $X$ of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to some (non-linear) connection on the tangent bundle $TX\\to X$ of relativistic velocities. Using this fact, the relationship between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.

  1. Extended Galilean symmetries of non-relativistic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Carles; Gomis, Joaquim; Not, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.

  2. Extended Galilean symmetries of non-relativistic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Batlle, Carles; Not, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We consider two non-relativistic strings and their Galilean symmetries. These strings are obtained as the two possible non-relativistic (NR) limits of a relativistic string. One of them is non-vibrating and represents a continuum of non-relativistic massless particles, and the other one is a non-relativistic vibrating string. For both cases we write the generator of the most general point transformation and impose the condition of Noether symmetry. As a result we obtain two sets of non-relativistic Killing equations for the vector fields that generate the symmetry transformations. Solving these equations shows that NR strings exhibit two extended, infinite dimensional space-time symmetries which contain, as a subset, the Galilean symmetries. For each case, we compute the associated conserved charges and discuss the existence of non-central extensions.

  3. Holographic thermalization from non relativistic branes

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on the fundamental principles of Gauge/gravity duality and considering a \\textit{global quench}, we probe the physics of thermalization for a special class of strongly coupled non relativistic QFTs by computing the entanglement entropy of the plasma. The isometry group of such QFTs is comprised of the generators of the Schr\\"odinger algebra which could be precisely realized as an isometry group of the killing generators of an asymptotically Schr\\"odinger $ Dp $ brane space time. In our analysis, we note that during the pre local stages of the thermal equilibrium the entanglement entropy has a faster growth in time compared to its relativistic cousin. However, it shows a linear growth during the post local stages of thermal equilibrium where the so called tsunami velocity associated with the linear growth of the entanglement entropy saturates to that of its value corresponding to the relativistic scenario. Finally, we explore the saturation region and it turns out that one must constraint ...

  4. Non-relativistic particles in a thermal bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vairo Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy particles are a window to new physics and new phenomena. Since the late eighties they are treated by means of effective field theories that fully exploit the symmetries and power counting typical of non-relativistic systems. More recently these effective field theories have been extended to describe non-relativistic particles propagating in a medium. After introducing some general features common to any non-relativistic effective field theory, we discuss two specific examples: heavy Majorana neutrinos colliding in a hot plasma of Standard Model particles in the early universe and quarkonia produced in heavy-ion collisions dissociating in a quark-gluon plasma.

  5. Covariant geometric quantization of non-relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Giachetta, G; Sardanashvily, G

    2000-01-01

    We provide geometric quantization of the vertical cotangent bundle V^*Q equipped with the canonical Poisson structure. This is a momentum phase space of non-relativistic mechanics with the configuration bundle Q -> R. The goal is the Schrodinger representation of V^*Q. We show that this quantization is equivalent to the fibrewise quantization of symplectic fibres of V^*Q -> R, that makes the quantum algebra of non-relativistic mechanics an instantwise algebra. Quantization of the classical evolution equation defines a connection on this instantwise algebra, which provides quantum evolution in non-relativistic mechanics as a parallel transport along time.

  6. Symmetry and Covariance of Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Omote, Minoru; kamefuchi, Susumu

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of a 5-dimensional form of space-time transformations non-relativistic quantum mechanics is reformulated in a manifestly covariant manner. The resulting covariance resembles that of the conventional relativistic quantum mechanics.

  7. Radiative transitions in mesons in a non relativistic quark model

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnaz, R.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gignoux, C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the non relativistic quark model, an exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed. The emphasis is put on several points. Some traditional approximations (long wave length limit, non relativistic phase space, dipole approximation for E1 transitions, gaussian wave functions) are analyzed in detail and their effects commented. A complete treatment using three different types of realistic quark-antiquark potential is made. The overall agreement with experi...

  8. Radiative transitions in mesons in a non relativistic quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnaz, R; Gignoux, C

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the non relativistic quark model, an exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed. The emphasis is put on several points. Some traditional approximations (long wave length limit, non relativistic phase space, dipole approximation for E1 transitions, gaussian wave functions) are analyzed in detail and their effects commented. A complete treatment using three different types of realistic quark-antiquark potential is made. The overall agreement with experimental data is quite good, but some improvements are suggested.

  9. Solar impulsive energetic electron events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua

    The Sun is capable of accelerating ions from ~ tens of keV up to tens of GeV and electrons from ~ tens of eV up to hundreds of MeVs in transient events such as flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The energized particles escaping into the interplanetary medium are referred to as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. The great majority of SEP events are impulsive SEP events that are dominated by ~1-100 keV electrons and ~MeV/nucleon ion emissions, with enhanced 3 He/ 4 He ratios up to 10 4 times the coronal values (also called electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events). This thesis is focused on solar impulsive energetic electron events, the electron part of impulsive SEP events, using electron observations from the 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument (3DP) on the WIND spacecraft near the Earth. First, I present the first comprehensive statistical study of solar energetic electron events over almost one solar cycle. I find that the occurrence rate of solar electron events shows a strong solar-cycle variation; after correction for the background effect, the estimated occurrence frequency exhibits a good power-law distribution, and the estimated occurrence rate near the Earth is ~1000/year at solar maximum and ~30/year at solar minimum for the instrumental sensitivity (~2.9×10^-4 (cm 2 s str eV) -1 for the 40 keV channel) of WIND/3DP, about one order of magnitude larger than the observed occurrence rate. Solar energetic electron events have a one-to-one association with type III radio bursts and a poor association with flares, but a close association with 3 He- rich ion emissions. These 3 He-rich electron events also have a poor association with flares but a close (~ 60%) association with west-limb CMEs. Then I present two case studies: one investigating the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and type III radio emissions, and the second studying the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and 3 He- rich ions. For both

  10. Hyperfine splitting of the dressed hydrogen atom ground state in non-relativistic QED

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L

    2010-01-01

    We consider a spin-1/2 electron and a spin-1/2 nucleus interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field in the standard model of non-relativistic QED. For a fixed total momentum sufficiently small, we study the multiplicity of the ground state of the reduced Hamiltonian. We prove that the coupling between the spins of the charged particles and the electromagnetic field splits the degeneracy of the ground state.

  11. Hyperfine splitting in non-relativistic QED: uniqueness of the dressed hydrogen atom ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We consider a free hydrogen atom composed of a spin-1/2 nucleus and a spin-1/2 electron in the standard model of non-relativistic QED. We study the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian associated with this system at a fixed total momentum. For small enough values of the fine-structure constant, we prove that the ground state is unique. This result reflects the hyperfine structure of the hydrogen atom ground state.

  12. Fields and fluids on curved non-relativistic spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M

    2015-01-01

    We consider non-relativistic curved geometries and argue that the background structure should be generalized from that considered in previous works. In this approach the derivative operator is defined by a Galilean spin connection valued in the Lie algebra of the Galilean group. This includes the usual spin connection plus an additional "boost connection" which parameterizes the freedom in the derivative operator not fixed by torsion or metric compatibility. As an example of this approach we develop the theory of non-relativistic dissipative fluids and find significant differences in both equations of motion and allowed transport coefficients from those found previously. Our approach also immediately generalizes to systems with independent mass and charge currents as would arise in multicomponent fluids. Along the way we also discuss how to write general locally Galilean invariant non-relativistic actions for multiple particle species at any order in derivatives. A detailed review of the geometry and its rela...

  13. Non-Relativistic Limit of the Dirac Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ajaib, Muhammad Adeel

    2016-01-01

    We show that the first order form of the Schrodinger equation proposed in [1] can be obtained from the Dirac equation in the non-relativistic limit. We also show that the Pauli Hamiltonian is obtained from this equation by requiring local gauge invariance. In addition, we study the problem of a spin up particle incident on a finite potential barrier and show that the known quantum mechanical results are obtained. Finally, we consider the symmetric potential well and show that the quantum mechanical expression for the quantized energy levels of a particle is obtained with periodic boundary conditions. Based on these conclusions, we propose that the equation introduced in [1] is the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and more appropriately describes spin 1/2 particles in the non-relativistic limit.

  14. Non-relativistic supergravity in three space-time dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zojer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This year Einstein's theory of general relativity celebrates its one hundredth birthday. It supersedes the non-relativistic Newtonian theory of gravity in two aspects: i) there is a limiting velocity, nothing can move quicker than the speed of light and ii) the theory is valid in arbitrary coordinat

  15. A brief introduction to non-relativistic supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zojer, Thomas [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Non-relativistic geometries have received more attention lately. We review our attempts to construct supersymmetric extensions of this so-called Newton-Cartan geometry in three space-time dimensions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Non-relativistic supergravity in three space-time dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zojer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This year Einstein's theory of general relativity celebrates its one hundredth birthday. It supersedes the non-relativistic Newtonian theory of gravity in two aspects: i) there is a limiting velocity, nothing can move quicker than the speed of light and ii) the theory is valid in arbitrary

  17. Non-relativistic classical mechanics for spinning particles

    CERN Document Server

    Salesi, G

    2004-01-01

    We study the classical dynamics of non-relativistic particles endowed with spin. Non-vanishing Zitterbewegung terms appear in the equation of motion also in the small momentum limit. We derive a generalized work-energy theorem which suggests classical interpretations for tunnel effect and quantum potential.

  18. Theory of non-relativistic three-particle scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malfliet, R.; Ruijgrok, Th.

    1967-01-01

    A new method, using asymptotically stationary states, is developed to calculate the S-matrix for the scattering of a non-relativistic particle by the bound state of two other particles. For the scattering with breakup of this bound state, we obtain a simplified form of the Faddeev integral

  19. Energy spectra in relativistic electron precipitation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Bailey, D. K.; Pierson, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two events in August 1967, categorized as relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events by their effect on VHF transmissions propagated via the forward-scatter mode, have been examined with regard to the energy spectra of trapped and precipitated electrons. These two substorm-associated events August 11 and August 25 differ with respect to the relativistic, trapped electron population at synchronous altitude; in the August 25 event there was a nonadiabatic enhancement of relativistic (greater than 400 keV) electrons, while in the August 11 event no relativistic electrons were produced. In both events electron spectra deduced from bremsstrahlung measurements (made on a field line close to that of the satellite) had approximately the same e-folding energies as the trapped electron enhancements. However, the spectrum of electrons in the August 25 event was significantly harder than the spectrum in the event of August 11.

  20. Relativistic and non-relativistic solitons in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Satyendra Nath

    This thesis entitled as "Relativistic and Non-relativistic Solitons in Plasmas" is the embodiment of a number of investigations related to the formation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in plasmas under various physical situations. The whole work of the thesis is devoted to the studies of solitary waves in cold and warm collisionless magnetized or unmagnetized plasmas with or without relativistic effect. To analyze the formation of solitary waves in all our models of plasmas, we have employed two established methods namely - reductive perturbation method to deduce the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the solutions of which represent the important but near exact characteristic concepts of soliton-physics. Next, the pseudopotential method to deduce the energy integral with total nonlinearity in the coupling process for exact characteristic results of solitons has been incorporated. In Chapter 1, a brief description of plasma in nature and laboratory and its generation are outlined elegantly. The nonlinear differential equations to characterize solitary waves and the relevant but important methods of solutions have been mentioned in this chapter. The formation of solitary waves in unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas, and in relativistic plasmas has been described through mathematical entity. Applications of plasmas in different fields are also put forwarded briefly showing its importance. The study of plasmas as they naturally occur in the universe encompasses number of topics including sun's corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, auroras, cosmic rays and radiation. The study of space weather to understand the universe, communications and the activities of weather satellites are some useful areas of space plasma physics. The surface cleaning, sterilization of food and medical appliances, killing of bacteria on various surfaces, destroying of viruses, fungi, spores and plasma coating in industrial instruments ( like computers) are some of the fields

  1. Non-relativistic twistor theory and Newton--Cartan geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dunajski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We develop a non-relativistic twistor theory, in which Newton--Cartan structures of Newtonian gravity correspond to complex three-manifolds with a four-parameter family of rational curves with normal bundle ${\\mathcal O}\\oplus{\\mathcal O}(2)$. We show that the Newton--Cartan space-times are unstable under the general Kodaira deformation of the twistor complex structure. The Newton--Cartan connections can nevertheless be reconstructed from Merkulov's generalisation of the Kodaira map augmented by a choice of a holomorphic line bundle over the twistor space trivial on twistor lines. The Coriolis force may be incorporated by holomorphic vector bundles, which in general are non--trivial on twistor lines. The resulting geometries agree with non--relativistic limits of anti-self-dual gravitational instantons.

  2. Do non-relativistic neutrinos constitute the dark matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The dark matter of the Abell 1689 Galaxy Cluster is modeled by thermal, non-relativistic gravitating fermions and its galaxies and X-ray gas by isothermal distributions. A fit yields a mass of h(70)(1/2) (12/(g) over bar)(1)/(4) 1.445(30) eV. A dark-matter fraction Omega(nu) = h(70)(-3/2) 0.1893(39)

  3. Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geracie, Michael, E-mail: mgeracie@uchicago.edu; Prabhu, Kartik, E-mail: kartikp@uchicago.edu; Roberts, Matthew M., E-mail: matthewroberts@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativistic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one cannot impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper, we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativistic limit of Lorentzian spacetimes. In a companion paper [M. Geracie et al., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02680 ], we use this Bargmann spacetime structure to investigate the details of matter couplings, including the Noether-Ward identities, and transport phenomena and thermodynamics of non-relativistic fluids.

  4. Symmetries and couplings of non-relativistic electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festuccia, Guido [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala (Sweden); Hansen, Dennis [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Hartong, Jelle [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 231, Brussels, 1050 (Belgium); Obers, Niels A. [The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark)

    2016-11-08

    We examine three versions of non-relativistic electrodynamics, known as the electric and magnetic limit theories of Maxwell’s equations and Galilean electrodynamics (GED) which is the off-shell non-relativistic limit of Maxwell plus a free scalar field. For each of these three cases we study the couplings to non-relativistic dynamical charged matter (point particles and charged complex scalars). The GED theory contains besides the electric and magnetic potentials a so-called mass potential making the mass parameter a local function. The electric and magnetic limit theories can be coupled to twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometry while GED can be coupled to an arbitrary torsional Newton-Cartan background. The global symmetries of the electric and magnetic limit theories on flat space consist in any dimension of the infinite dimensional Galilean conformal algebra and a U(1) current algebra. For the on-shell GED theory this symmetry is reduced but still infinite dimensional, while off-shell only the Galilei algebra plus two dilatations remain. Hence one can scale time and space independently, allowing Lifshitz scale symmetries for any value of the critical exponent z.

  5. Symmetries and Couplings of Non-Relativistic Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Festuccia, Guido; Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A

    2016-01-01

    We examine three versions of non-relativistic electrodynamics, known as the electric and magnetic limit theories of Maxwell's equations and Galilean electrodynamics (GED) which is the off-shell non-relativistic limit of Maxwell plus a free scalar field. For each of these three cases we study the couplings to non-relativistic dynamical charged matter (point particles and charged complex scalars). The GED theory contains besides the electric and magnetic potentials a so-called mass potential making the mass parameter a local function. The electric and magnetic limit theories can be coupled to twistless torsional Newton-Cartan geometry while GED can be coupled to an arbitrary torsional Newton-Cartan background. The global symmetries of the electric and magnetic limit theories on flat space consist in any dimension of the infinite dimensional Galilean conformal algebra and a $U(1)$ current algebra. For the on-shell GED theory this symmetry is reduced but still infinite dimensional, while off-shell only the Galile...

  6. Non-relativistic Bondi–Metzner–Sachs algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Carles; Delmastro, Diego; Gomis, Joaquim

    2017-09-01

    We construct two possible candidates for non-relativistic bms4 algebra in four space-time dimensions by contracting the original relativistic bms4 algebra. bms4 algebra is infinite-dimensional and it contains the generators of the Poincaré algebra, together with the so-called super-translations. Similarly, the proposed nrbms4 algebras can be regarded as two infinite-dimensional extensions of the Bargmann algebra. We also study a canonical realization of one of these algebras in terms of the Fourier modes of a free Schrödinger field, mimicking the canonical realization of relativistic bms4 algebra using a free Klein–Gordon field.

  7. Simulations and Theory of Ion Injection at Non-relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Damiano; Pop, Ana-Roxana; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We use kinetic hybrid simulations (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) to characterize the fraction of ions that are accelerated to non-thermal energies at non-relativistic collisionless shocks. We investigate the properties of the shock discontinuity and show that shocks propagating almost along the background magnetic field (quasi-parallel shocks) reform quasi-periodically on ion cyclotron scales. Ions that impinge on the shock when the discontinuity is the steepest are specularly reflected. This is a necessary condition for being injected, but it is not sufficient. Also, by following the trajectories of reflected ions, we calculate the minimum energy needed for injection into diffusive shock acceleration, as a function of the shock inclination. We construct a minimal model that accounts for the ion reflection from quasi-periodic shock barrier, for the fraction of injected ions, and for the ion spectrum throughout the transition from thermal to non-thermal energies. This model captures the physics relevant for ion injection at non-relativistic astrophysical shocks with arbitrary strengths and magnetic inclinations, and represents a crucial ingredient for understanding the diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays.

  8. Are non-relativistic neutrinos the dark matter particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2010-06-01

    . Thereby the spead up the intracluster gas to virial speeds of 10 keV, which causes reionization without assistance of heavy stars. Within the analysis, the baryons are poor tracers of the dark matter density. This work is described in Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen, Do non-relativistic neutrinos constitute the dark matter? Europhysics Letters 86, 59001 (2009). This text of this paper is an update of this work. Structure formation is presently believed to need cold dark matter. However, hydrodynamics alone may explain baryonic clustering without this trigger. Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen, C. H. Gibson and R. E. Schild, Gravitational hydrodynamics of large scale structure formation, Europhysics Letters 2009, to appear.

  9. Effective approach to non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions on non-relativistic wavefunctions are generally not completely constrained by the basic precepts of quantum mechanics, so understanding the set of possible self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian is required. For real physical systems, non-trivial self-adjoint extensions have been used to model contact potentials when those interactions are expected a priori. However, they must be incorporated into the effective description of any quantum mechanical system in order to capture possible short-distance physics that does not decouple in the low energy limit. Here, an approach is described wherein an artificial boundary is inserted at an intermediate scale on which boundary conditions may encode short-distance effects that are hidden behind the boundary. Using this approach, an analysis is performed of the free particle, harmonic oscillator, and Coulomb potential in three dimensions. Requiring measurable quantities, such as spectra and cross sections, to be independent of this artificial bou...

  10. The Thomas-Fermi Quark Model: Non-Relativistic Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Non-relativistic aspects of the Thomas-Fermi statistical quark model are developed. A review is given and our modified approach to spin in the model is explained. Our results are limited so far to two inequivalent simultaneous wave functions which can apply to multiple degenerate flavors. An explicit spin interaction is introduced, which requires the introduction of a generalized spin "flavor". Although the model is designed to be most reliable for many-quark states, we find surprisingly that it may be used to fit the low energy spectrum of octet and decouplet baryons. The low energy fit allows us to investigate the six-quark doubly strange H-dibaryon state, possible 6 quark nucleon-nucleon resonances and flavor symmetric strange states of higher quark content.

  11. Remark on charge conjugation in the non relativistic limit

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rojas, H P; Socolovsky, M

    2005-01-01

    We study the non relativistic limit of the charge conjugation operation $\\cal C$ in the context of the Dirac equation coupled to an electromagnetic field. The limit is well defined and, as in the relativistic case, $\\cal C$, $\\cal P$ (parity) and $\\cal T$ (time reversal) are the generators of a matrix group isomorphic to a semidirect sum of the dihedral group of eight elements and $\\Z_2$. The existence of the limit is supported by an argument based in quantum field theory. Finally, if one complexifies the Lorentz group and therefore the galilean spacetime $x_\\mu$, then the explicit form of the matrix for $\\cal C$ allows to interpret it, in this context, as the complex conjugation of the spatial coordinates: $\\vec{x} \\to \\vec{x}^*$. This result is natural in a fiber bundle description.

  12. Differential Regularization of a Non-relativistic Anyon Model

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Daniel Z; Rius, N

    1994-01-01

    Differential regularization is applied to a field theory of a non-relativistic charged boson field $\\phi$ with $\\lambda (\\phi {}^{*} \\phi)^2$ self-interaction and coupling to a statistics-changing $U(1)$ Chern-Simons gauge field. Renormalized configuration-space amplitudes for all diagrams contributing to the $\\phi {}^{*} \\phi {}^{*} \\phi \\phi$ 4-point function, which is the only primitively divergent Green's function, are obtained up to 3-loop order. The renormalization group equations are explicitly checked, and the scheme dependence of the $\\beta$-function is investigated. If the renormalization scheme is fixed to agree with a previous 1-loop calculation, the 2- and 3-loop contributions to $\\beta(\\lambda,e)$ vanish, and $\\beta(\\lambda,e)$ itself vanishes when the ``self-dual'' condition relating $\\lambda$ to the gauge coupling $e$ is imposed.

  13. Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks: ii) magnetic field amplification and particle diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2014-01-01

    We use large hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations to study ion acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence due to the streaming of energetic particles that are self-consistently accelerated at non-relativistic shocks. When acceleration is efficient (at quasi-parallel shocks), we find that the magnetic field develops transverse components and is significantly amplified in the pre-shock medium. The total amplification factor is larger than 10 for shocks with Mach number $M=100$, and scales with the square root of $M$. We find that in the shock precursor the energy spectral density of excited magnetic turbulence is proportional to spectral energy distribution of accelerated particles at corresponding resonant momenta, in good agreement with the predictions of quasilinear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. We discuss the role of Bell's instability, which is predicted and found to grow faster than resonant instability in shocks with $M\\gtrsim 30$. Ahead of these strong shocks we distinguis...

  14. Newton-Cartan (super)gravity as a non-relativistic limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan; Zojer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We define a procedure that, starting from a relativistic theory of supergravity, leads to a consistent, non-relativistic version thereof. As a first application we use this limiting procedure to show how the Newton-Cartan formulation of non-relativistic gravity can be obtained from general relativit

  15. Holographic energy loss in non-relativistic backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Atashi, Mahdi; Farahbodnia, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study some aspects of energy loss in non-relativistic theories from holography. We analyze the energy lost by a rotating heavy point particle along a circle of radius $l$ with angular velocity $\\omega$ in theories with general dynamical exponent $z$ and hyperscaling violation exponent $\\theta$. It is shown that this problem provides a novel perspective on the energy loss in such theories. A general computation at zero and finite temperature is done and it is shown that how the total energy loss rate depends non-trivially on two characteristic exponents $(z,\\theta)$. We find that at zero temperature there is a special radius $l_c$ where the energy loss is independent of different values of $(z,\\theta)$. Also, there is a crossover between a regime in which the energy loss is dominated by the linear drag force and by the radiation because of the acceleration of the rotating particle. We discover different behaviors at finite temperature case.

  16. Non-Relativistic Anti-Snyder Model and Some Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim

    2016-01-01

    We examine the (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equation in a homogeneous magnetic field under the non-relativistic anti-Snyder model which is relevant to deformed special relativity (DSR) since it exhibits an intrinsic upper bound of the momentum of free particles. After setting up the formalism, exact eigen solutions are derived in momentum space representation and they are expressed in terms of finite orthogonal Romanovski polynomials. There is a finite maximum number of allowable bound states due to the orthogonality of the polynomials and the maximum energy is truncated at the maximum n. Similar to the minimal length case, the degeneracy of the Dirac-Landau levels in anti- Snyder model are modified and there are states that do not exist in the ordinary quantum mechanics limit. By taking zero mass limit, we explore the motion of effective zero mass charged Fermions in Graphene like material and obtained a maximum bound of deformed parameter. Furthermore, we consider the modified energy dispersion relations and its...

  17. Radiation of non-relativistic particle on a conducting sphere and a string of spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Shul'ga, N F; Larikova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation arising under uniform motion of non-relativistic charged particle by (or through) perfectly conducting sphere is considered. The rigorous results are obtained using the method of images known from electrostatics.

  18. Generalized One-Dimensional Point Interaction in Relativistic and Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shigehara, T; Mishima, T; Cheon, T; Cheon, Taksu

    1999-01-01

    We first give the solution for the local approximation of a four parameter family of generalized one-dimensional point interactions within the framework of non-relativistic model with three neighboring $\\delta$ functions. We also discuss the problem within relativistic (Dirac) framework and give the solution for a three parameter family. It gives a physical interpretation for so-called high energy substantially differ between non-relativistic and relativistic cases.

  19. Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks: i) Acceleration efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2013-01-01

    We use 2D and 3D hybrid (kinetic ions - fluid electrons) simulations to investigate particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification at non-relativistic astrophysical shocks. We show that diffusive shock acceleration operates for quasi-parallel configurations (i.e., when the background magnetic field is almost aligned with the shock normal) and, for large sonic and Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers, produces universal power-law spectra proportional to p^(-4), where p is the particle momentum. The maximum energy of accelerated ions increases with time, and it is only limited by finite box size and run time. Acceleration is mainly efficient for parallel and quasi-parallel strong shocks, where 10-20% of the bulk kinetic energy can be converted to energetic particles, and becomes ineffective for quasi-perpendicular shocks. Also, the generation of magnetic turbulence correlates with efficient ion acceleration, and vanishes for quasi-perpendicular configurations. At very oblique shocks, ions can be accelerated via shoc...

  20. Building a Dispersion Relation Solver for Hot Plasmas with Arbitrary Non-relativistic Parallel Velocity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Waters, T.; Gary, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Collisionless space plasmas often deviate from Maxwellian-like velocity distributions. To study kinetic waves and instabilities in such plasmas, the dispersion relation, which depends on the velocity distribution, needs to be solved numerically. Most current dispersion solvers (e.g. WHAMP) take advantage of mathematical properties of the Gaussian (or generalized Lorentzian) function, and assume that the velocity distributions can be modeled by a combination of several drift-Maxwellian (or drift-Lorentzian) components. In this study we are developing a kinetic dispersion solver that admits nearly arbitrary non-relativistic parallel velocity distributions. A key part of any dispersion solver is the evaluation of a Hilbert transform of the velocity distribution function and its derivative along Landau contours. Our new solver builds upon a recent method to compute the Hilbert transform accurately and efficiently using the fast Fourier transform, while simultaneously treating the singularities arising from resonances analytically. We have benchmarked our new solver against other codes dealing with Maxwellian distributions. As an example usage of our code, we will show results for several instabilities that occur for electron velocity distributions observed in the solar wind.

  1. Non-relativistic contributions in order $\\alpha^5m_\\mu c^2$ to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen, deuterium and helium ion

    CERN Document Server

    Karshenboim, S G; Korzinin, E Yu; Shelyuto, V A

    2010-01-01

    Contributions to the energy levels in light muonic atoms and, in particular, to the Lamb shift fall into a few well-distinguished classes. The related diagrams are calculated using different approaches. In particular, there is a specific kind of non-relativistic contributions. Here we consider such corrections to the Lamb shift in order $\\alpha^5m_\\mu$. These contributions are due to free vacuum polarization loops as well as to various effects of light-by-light scattering. The closed loop in the related diagrams is an electronic one, which allows a non-relativistic consideration of the muon. Both kinds of contributions have been known for a while, however, the results obtained up to date are only partial ones. We complete a calculation of the $\\alpha^5m_\\mu$ contributions for muonic hydrogen. The results are also adjusted for muonic deuterium and muonic helium ion.

  2. Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic spinful matter

    CERN Document Server

    Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    For theories of relativistic matter fields with spin there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.

  3. Non relativistic limit of integrable QFT and Lieb-Liniger models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianello, Alvise; De Luca, Andrea; Mussardo, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a suitable limit of integrable QFT with the aim to identify continuous non-relativistic integrable models with local interactions. This limit amounts to sending to infinity the speed of light c but simultaneously adjusting the coupling constant g of the quantum field theories in such a way to keep finite the energies of the various excitations. The QFT considered here are Toda field theories and the O(N) non-linear sigma model. In both cases the resulting non-relativistic integrable models consist only of Lieb-Liniger models, which are fully decoupled for the Toda theories while symmetrically coupled for the O(N) model. These examples provide explicit evidence of the universality and ubiquity of the Lieb-Liniger models and, at the same time, suggest that these models may exhaust the list of possible non-relativistic integrable theories of bosonic particles with local interactions.

  4. Non Relativistic Limit of Integrable QFT and Lieb-Liniger Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianello, Alvise; Mussardo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study a suitable limit of integrable QFT with the aim to identify non-relativistic integrable models with local interactions. This limit amounts to sending to infinity the speed of light c but simultaneously adjusting the coupling constant g of the quantum field theories in such a way to keep finite the energies of the various excitations. The QFT considered here are Toda Field Theories and the O(N) non-linear sigma model. In both cases the resulting non-relativistic integrable models consist only of Lieb-Liniger models, which are fully decoupled for the Toda theories while symmetrically coupled for the O(N) model. These examples provide explicit evidence of the universality and ubiquity of the Lieb-Liniger models and, at the same time, suggest that these models may exhaust the list of possible non-relativistic integrable theories of bosonic particles with local interactions.

  5. Light Fermion Finite Mass Effects in Non-relativistic Bound States

    CERN Document Server

    Eiras, D; Eiras, Dolors; Soto, Joan

    2000-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for the vacuum polarization effects due to a light fermion with finite mass in the binding energy and in the wave function at the origin of QED and (weak coupling) QCD non-relativistic bound states. Applications to exotic atoms, \\Upsilon (1s) and t\\bar{t} production near threshold are briefly discussed.

  6. Bethe ansatz matrix elements as non-relativistic limits of form factors of quantum field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormos, M.; Mussardo, G.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the matrix elements of integrable models computed by the algebraic Bethe ansatz (BA) can be put in direct correspondence with the form factors of integrable relativistic field theories. This happens when the S-matrix of a Bethe ansatz model can be regarded as a suitable non-relativistic

  7. On the Theory of Resonances in Non-Relativistic QED and Related Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Salem, Walid K.; Faupin, Jeremy; Froehlich, Juerg;

    We study the mathematical theory of quantum resonances in the standard model of non-relativistic QED and in Nelson's model. In particular, we estimate the survival probability of metastable states corresponding to quantum resonances and relate the resonances to poles of an analytic continuation...

  8. The confined hydrogenoid ion in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L

    2006-01-01

    We consider a system of a nucleus with an electron together with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke and the M\\"ossbauer effects (see [CTDRG]). When an ultraviolet cut-off is imposed we initiate the spectral analysis of the Hamiltonian describing the system and we derive the existence of a ground state. This is achieved without conditions on the fine structure constant. [CTDRG] C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Dupont-Roc and G. Grynberg. Processus d'interaction entre photons et atomes. Edition du CNRS, 2001.

  9. ATLAS event containing an electron pair and a muon pair

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS

    2011-01-01

    An event with two identified muons and two identified electrons from a proton- proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: one Z decays to two muons, the other to two electrons. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal.

  10. The High Latitude D Region During Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. K.; Collis, P. N.; Korth, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.

  11. High latitude D region during electron precipitation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, J.K.; Collis, P.N.; Korth, A.

    1984-05-01

    The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.

  12. Position of the source of particles in solar electron events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-yi; Huang, Yong-nian

    The ISEE-3 data for 51 solar electron events are analyzed and classified into Fe-rich and Fe-poor events. For Fe-rich events, the source is found to be in the high chromosphere; for the Fe-poor events, in the region between the chromosphere and corona. In both cases the source position differs from the position of the corresponding flare. A process of formation of these two types of events is proposed.

  13. Theory and Applications of Non-Relativistic and Relativistic Turbulent Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A; Takamoto, M; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; Cho, J

    2015-01-01

    Realistic astrophysical environments are turbulent due to the extremely high Reynolds numbers. Therefore, the theories of reconnection intended for describing astrophysical reconnection should not ignore the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection. Turbulence is known to change the nature of many physical processes dramatically and in this review we claim that magnetic reconnection is not an exception. We stress that not only astrophysical turbulence is ubiquitous, but also magnetic reconnection itself induces turbulence. Thus turbulence must be accounted for in any realistic astrophysical reconnection setup. We argue that due to the similarities of MHD turbulence in relativistic and non-relativistic cases the theory of magnetic reconnection developed for the non-relativistic case can be extended to the relativistic case and we provide numerical simulations that support this conjecture. We also provide quantitative comparisons of the theoretical predictions and results of numerical experiments, includi...

  14. Non-relativistic Limit of Dirac Equations in Gravitational Field and Quantum Effects of Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on unified theory of electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions, the non-relativistic limit of the equation of motion of a charged Dirac particle in gravitational field is studied. From the Schrodinger equation obtained from this non-relativistic limit, we can see that the classical Newtonian gravitational potential appears as a part of the potential in the Schrodinger equation, which can explain the gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments.And because of this Newtonian gravitational potential, a quantum particle in the earth's gravitational field may form a gravitationally bound quantized state, which has already been detected in experiments. Three different kinds of phase effects related to gravitational interactions are studied in this paper, and these phase effects should be observable in some astrophysical processes. Besides, there exists direct coupling between gravitomagnetic field and quantum spin, and radiation caused by this coupling can be used to directly determine the gravitomagnetic field on the surface of a star.

  15. Estimates on Functional Integrals of Quantum Mechanics and Non-relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Gonzalo A.; Thomas, Lawrence E.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a unified method for obtaining upper bounds for certain functional integrals appearing in quantum mechanics and non-relativistic quantum field theory, functionals of the form {E[{exp}(A_T)]} , the (effective) action {A_T} being a function of particle trajectories up to time T. The estimates in turn yield rigorous lower bounds for ground state energies, via the Feynman-Kac formula. The upper bounds are obtained by writing the action for these functional integrals in terms of stochastic integrals. The method is illustrated in familiar quantum mechanical settings: for the hydrogen atom, for a Schrödinger operator with {1/|x|^2} potential with small coupling, and, with a modest adaptation of the method, for the harmonic oscillator. We then present our principal applications of the method, in the settings of non-relativistic quantum field theories for particles moving in a quantized Bose field, including the optical polaron and Nelson models.

  16. A General Quadrature Solution for Relativistic, Non-relativistic, and Weakly-Relativistic Rocket Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Adam L

    2015-01-01

    We show the traditional rocket problem, where the ejecta velocity is assumed constant, can be reduced to an integral quadrature of which the completely non-relativistic equation of Tsiolkovsky, as well as the fully relativistic equation derived by Ackeret, are limiting cases. By expanding this quadrature in series, it is shown explicitly how relativistic corrections to the mass ratio equation as the rocket transitions from the Newtonian to the relativistic regime can be represented as products of exponential functions of the rocket velocity, ejecta velocity, and the speed of light. We find that even low order correction products approximate the traditional relativistic equation to a high accuracy in flight regimes up to $0.5c$ while retaining a clear distinction between the non-relativistic base-case and relativistic corrections. We furthermore use the results developed to consider the case where the rocket is not moving relativistically but the ejecta stream is, and where the ejecta stream is massless.

  17. Vortex solutions in axial or chiral coupled non-relativistic spinor- Chern-Simons theory

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, Z A

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of a spin 1/2 particle (described by the non-relativistic "Dirac" equation of Lévy-Leblond) with Chern-Simons gauge fields is studied. It is shown, that similarly to the four dimensional spinor models, there is a consistent possibility of coupling them also by axial or chiral type currents. Static self dual vortex solutions together with a vortex-lattice are found with the new couplings.

  18. Quantization of Interacting Non-Relativistic Open Strings using Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Fuenmayor, E; Leal, L; Leal, Lorenzo

    2005-01-01

    Non-relativistic charged open strings coupled with Abelian gauge fields are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation. The model comprises open-strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond field in four dimensions. It is shown that a consistent geometric-representation can be built using a scheme of ``surfaces and lines of Faraday'', provided that the coupling constant (the ``charge'' of the string) is quantized.

  19. Energy shift of interacting non-relativistic fermions in noncommutative space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jahan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available   A local interaction in noncommutative space modifies to a non-local one. For an assembly of particles interacting through the contact potential, formalism of the quantum field theory makes it possible to take into account the effect of modification of the potential on the energy of the system. In this paper we calculate the energy shift of an assembly of non-relativistic fermions, interacting through the contact potential in the presence of the two-dimensional noncommutativity.

  20. Condensation for non-relativistic matter in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiliang Jing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study condensation for non-relativistic matter in a Hořava–Lifshitz black hole without the condition of the detailed balance. We show that, for the fixed non-relativistic parameter α2 (or the detailed balance parameter ϵ, it is easier for the scalar hair to form as the parameter ϵ (or α2 becomes larger, but the condensation is not affected by the non-relativistic parameter β2. We also find that the ratio of the gap frequency in conductivity to the critical temperature decreases with the increase of ϵ and α2, but increases with the increase of β2. The ratio can reduce to the Horowitz–Roberts relation ωg/Tc≈8 obtained in the Einstein gravity and Cai's result ωg/Tc≈13 found in a Hořava–Lifshitz gravity with the condition of the detailed balance for the relativistic matter. Especially, we note that the ratio can arrive at the value of the BCS theory ωg/Tc≈3.5 by taking proper values of the parameters.

  1. Isotropic Landau levels of relativistic and non-relativistic fermions in 3D flat space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2012-02-01

    The usual Landau level quantization, as demonstrated in the 2D quantum Hall effect, is crucially based on the planar structure. In this talk, we explore its 3D counterpart possessing the full 3D rotational symmetry as well as the time reversal symmetry. We construct the Landau level Hamiltonians in 3 and higher dimensional flat space for both relativistic and non-relativistic fermions. The 3D cases with integer fillings are Z2 topological insulators. The non-relativistic version describes spin-1/2 fermions coupling to the Aharonov-Casher SU(2) gauge field. This system exhibits flat Landau levels in which the orbital angular momentum and the spin are coupled with a fixed helicity. Each filled Landau level contributes one 2D helical Dirac Fermi surface at an open boundary, which demonstrates the Z2 topological nature. A natural generalization to Dirac fermions is found as a square root problem of the above non-relativistic version, which can also be viewed as the Dirac equation defined on the phase space. All these Landau level problems can be generalized to arbitrary high dimensions systematically. [4pt] [1] Yi Li and Congjun Wu, arXiv:1103.5422.[0pt] [2] Yi Li, Ken Intriligator, Yue Yu and Congjun Wu, arXiv:1108.5650.

  2. Reconstructing events, from electronic signals to tracks

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing tracks in the events taken by LHC experiments is one of the most challenging and computationally expensive software tasks to be carried out in the data processing chain. A typical LHC event is composed of multiple p-p interactions, each leaving signals from many charged particles in the detector and jus building up an environment of unprecedented complexity. In the lecture I will give an overview of event reconstruction in a typical High Energy Physics experiment. After an introduction to particle tracking detectors I will discuss the concepts and techniques required to master the tracking challenge at the LHC. I will explain how track propagation in a realistic detector works, present different techniques for track fitting and track finding. At the end we will see how all of those techniques play together in the ATLAS track reconstruction application.

  3. Non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces II, The free non-relativistic particle and its interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, H

    2007-01-01

    This is the second part of a paper about a q-deformed analog of non-relativistic Schroedinger theory. It applies the general ideas of part I and tries to give a description of one-particle states on q-deformed quantum spaces like the braided line or the q-deformed Euclidean space in three dimensions. Hamiltonian operators for the free q-deformed particle in one as well as three dimensions are introduced. Plane waves as solutions to the corresponding Schroedinger equations are considered. Their completeness and orthonormality relations are written down. Expectation values of position and momentum observables are taken with respect to one-particle states and their time-dependence is discussed. A potential is added to the free-particle Hamiltonians and q-analogs of the Ehrenfest theorem are derived from the Heisenberg equations of motion. The conservation of probability is proved.

  4. Search for non-relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kopper, C.; Krasberg, M.; Kurahashi, N.; Landsman, H.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Merck, M.; Morse, R.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Toscano, S.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ackermann, M.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Gora, D.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Jagielski, K.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X.; Evenson, P.A.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Hussain, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Tamburro, A.; Tilav, S. [University of Delaware, Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y. [T.U. Munich, Garching (Germany); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Bose, D.; Rott, C. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2014-07-15

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting 1 km{sup 3} of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10{sup -27} to 10{sup -21} cm{sup 2}. In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal was observed. For catalysis cross sections of 10{sup -22} (10{sup -24}) cm{sup 2} the flux of non-relativistic GUT monopoles is constrained up to a level of Φ{sub 90} ≤ 10{sup -18} (10{sup -17}) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} at a 90 % confidence level, which is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections. (orig.)

  5. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manual...... reviews, and we therefore believe that it is possible to develop automatic tools for monitoring aspects of patient safety....

  6. Testing the Higgs sector directly in the non-relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhentao

    2016-01-01

    Directly measuring the Higgs self-coupling is of great importance for testing the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism in the Standard Model. As a scattering that contains the direct information from the Higgs self-coupling, we investigate the process $\\mu^-\\mu^+\\rightarrow HH$ in the threshold region. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the cross section and consider the non-perturbative contribution from the Higgs self-interactions in the final state. It is found that the scattering in the non-relativistic domain could be an especial process to testing the Higgs sector directly.

  7. Angular momentum in non-relativistic QED and photon contribution to spin of hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Panying, E-mail: pychen@umd.ed [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ji Xiangdong [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Institute of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Center for High-Energy Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100080 (China); Xu Yang [Center for High-Energy Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100080 (China); Zhang Yue [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Center for High-Energy Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100080 (China)

    2010-04-26

    We study angular momentum in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED). We construct the effective total angular momentum operator by applying Noether's theorem to the NRQED lagrangian. We calculate the NRQED matching for the individual components of the QED angular momentum up to one loop. We illustrate an application of our results by the first calculation of the angular momentum of the ground state hydrogen atom carried in radiative photons, alpha{sub em}{sup 3}/18pi, which might be measurable in future atomic experiments.

  8. A relativistic non-relativistic Goldstone theorem: gapped Goldstones at finite charge density

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We adapt the Goldstone theorem to study spontaneous symmetry breaking in relativistic theories at finite charge density. It is customary to treat systems at finite density via non-relativistic Hamiltonians. Here we highlight the importance of the underlying relativistic dynamics. This leads to seemingly new results whenever the charge in question is spontaneously broken and does not commute with other broken charges. These would normally be associated with gapless Goldstone excitations. We find that, in fact, their currents interpolate gapped excitations. We derive exact non-perturbative expressions for their gaps, in terms of the chemical potential and of the symmetry algebra.

  9. Geometric Representation of Interacting Non-Relativistic Open Strings using Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Fuenmayor, E; Leal, L

    2013-01-01

    Non-relativistic charged open strings coupled with Abelian gauge fields are quantized in a geometric representation that generalizes the Loop Representation. The model consists of open-strings interacting through a Kalb-Ramond field in four dimensions. The geometric representation proposed uses lines and surfaces that can be interpreted as an extension of the picture of Faraday's lines of classical electromagnetism. This representation results to be consistent, provided the coupling constant (the "charge" of the string) is quantized. The Schr\\"odinger equation in this representation is also presented.

  10. Maxwell-Chern-Simons Models: Their Symmetries, Exact Solutions and Non-relativistic Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Niederle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS models in the (1 + 3-dimensional space-space are discussed and families of their exact solutions are found. In contrast to the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFE model [2] these systems are relativistically invariant and include the CFJ model as a particular sector.Using the InNonNu-Wigner contraction a Galilei-invariant non-relativistic limit of the systems is found, which makes possible to find a Galilean formulation of the CFJ model.

  11. Non-relativistic perpendicular shocks modeling young supernova remnants: nonstationary dynamics and particle acceleration at forward and reverse shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Wieland, Volkmar; Niemiec, Jacek; Rafighi, Iman; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    For parameters that are applicable to the conditions at young supernova remnants, we present results of 2D3V particle-in-cell simulations of a non-relativistic plasma shock with a large-scale perpendicular magnetic field inclined at 45-deg angle to the simulation plane to approximate 3D physics. We developed an improved clean setup that uses the collision of two plasma slabs with different density and velocity, leading to the development of two distinctive shocks and a contact discontinuity. The shock formation is mediated by Weibel-type filamentation instabilities that generate magnetic turbulence. Cyclic reformation is observed in both shocks with similar period, for which we note global variations on account of shock rippling and local variations arising from turbulent current filaments. The shock rippling occurs on spatial and temporal scales given by gyro-motions of shock-reflected ions. The drift motion of electrons and ions is not a gradient drift, but commensurates with E x B drift. We observe a stabl...

  12. Velocity operator and velocity field for spinning particles in (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recami, E. [Bergamo Univ. (Italy). Facolta` di Ingegneria]|[INFN, Milan (Italy)]|[Campinas State Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Math.; Salesi, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica

    1995-06-01

    Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, the paper introduces - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into tensor algebra, a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle is also proposed. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of- mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework, i.e. in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which the constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current.

  13. Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Meli, A; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting $1\\,\\mathrm{km}^3$ of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the GUT (Grand Unified Theory) era shortly after the Big Bang. These monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of $10^{-27}\\,\\mathrm{cm^2}$ to $10^{-21}\\,\\mathrm{cm^2}$. In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow-particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal ...

  14. Convex Decompositions of Thermal Equilibrium for Non-interacting Non-relativistic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Aurelia; Branczyk, Agata; Sipe, John

    2016-05-01

    We provide convex decompositions of thermal equilibrium for non-interacting non-relativistic particles in terms of localized wave packets. These quantum representations offer a new tool and provide insights that can help relate to the classical picture. Considering that thermal states are ubiquitous in a wide diversity of fields, studying different convex decompositions of the canonical ensemble is an interesting problem by itself. The usual classical and quantum pictures of thermal equilibrium of N non-interacting, non-relativistic particles in a box of volume V are quite different. The picture in classical statistical mechanics is about (localized) particles with a range of positions and velocities; in quantum statistical mechanics, one considers the particles (bosons or fermions) associated with energy eigenstates that are delocalized through the whole box. Here we provide a representation of thermal equilibrium in quantum statistical mechanics involving wave packets with a localized coordinate representation and an expectation value of velocity. In addition to derive a formalism that may help simplify particular calculations, our results can be expected to provide insights into the transition from quantum to classical features of the fully quantum thermal state.

  15. Ion beam enhancement in magnetically insulated ion diodes for high-intensity pulsed ion beam generation in non-relativistic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K., E-mail: surfeng@dlut.edu.cn [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pushkarev, A. I. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Beam and Plasma Technology, High Technologies Physics Institute, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.

  16. Shock Versus Solar Flare Production of Heliospheric Relativistic Electron Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.

    2006-12-01

    Electrons with relativistic (E > 0.3 MeV) energies are often observed as discrete events in the inner heliosphere. Their sharp onsets and antisunward flows indicate that they are produced in solar transient events. In general their origins can be associated in time with both solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Unlike the solar energetic proton (SEP) and ion events, we do not have the advantage of particle elemental abundances and charge states as source diagnostics. We review the characteristics of the electron events observed on the Helios, Venera, ISEE-3, Phobos, and other inner heliospheric spacecraft to determine whether they are more likely to be produced by broad coronal shocks driven by CMEs or by solar flare processes associated with magnetic reconnection. Electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra are compared with properties of flares and CMEs for this determination. Recent comparisons of peak electron and SEP event intensities provide strong evidence for the shock interpretation, but definitive results require the observations provided by the Sentinels mission.

  17. Investigating Plasmasphere Location during Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    The plasmasphere plays a crucial role in the generation of different wave modes and their resonance conditions with radiation belt relativistic electrons. Meredith's (et. al., 2003) statistical study of resonant conditions for >2MeV electrons with EMIC waves found that the majority of these events occur in the vicinity of the plasmpause. The MAXIS and MINIS balloon observations found a distinct class of relativistic electron precipitation occurring at dusk, suggesting EMIC waves as a possible precipitation mechanism. We investigate the location of these relativistic electron precipitation events with respect to the plasmapause using data from IMAGE EUV, POLAR EFI, and a plasmapause test particle simulation driven by an electric field model with terms representing solar-wind-driven convection and ring-current-ionospheric coupling.

  18. Ultra high energy cosmic rays from non-relativistic quasar outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiawei

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that non-relativistic outflows from quasars can naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background and explain the cumulative neutrino background through pion decay in collisions between protons accelerated by the outflow shock and interstellar protons. Here we show that the same quasar outflows are capable of accelerating protons to energies of $\\sim 10^{20}$ eV during the early phase of their propagation. The overall quasar population is expected to produce a cumulative ultra high energy cosmic ray flux of $\\sim10^{-7}\\,\\rm GeV\\,cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}$ at $E_{\\rm CR}\\gtrsim10^{18}$ eV. The spectral shape and amplitude is consistent with recent observations for outflow parameters constrained to fit secondary $\\gamma$-rays and neutrinos without any additional parameter tuning. This indicates that quasar outflows simultaneously account for all three messengers at their observed levels.

  19. Non relativistic limit of the Landau-Lifshitz equation: A new equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares de Parga, G.; Domínguez-Hernández, S.; Salinas-Hernández, E.

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that Ford equation is not adequate in general to describe the motion of a charged particle including the reaction force in the non relativistic limit. As in General Relativity where a post-Newtonian method is developed in order to describe the gravitational effects at low velocities and small energies, an extra term inherited from Special Relativity must be added to the Ford equation. This is due to that the new term is greater than the reaction force in many physical situations. The Coulombic case is analyzed showing the necessity of including the new term. Comparison with General Relativity results is analyzed. The Vlasov equation to first order in 1 /c2 is proposed for the constant electric and magnetic fields.

  20. Failure of relativistic codes in the non-relativistic limit: the role of Brillouin configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Indelicato, P J; Desclaux, J P

    2004-01-01

    In the present letter we solve a long standing problem with relativistic calculations done with the widely used Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock Method. We show, using Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory (RMBPT), how even for relatively high-$Z$, relaxation or correlation causes the non-relativistic limit of states of different total angular momentum but identical orbital angular momentum to have different energies. We identify the role of single excitations obeying to Brillouin's theorem in this problem. We show that with large scale calculations in which this problem is properly treated, we can reproduce very accurately recent high-precision measurements in F-like Ar, and turn then into precise test of QED

  1. Investigation of Properties of Exotic Nuclei in Non-relativistic and Relativistic Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Properties of exotic nuclei are described by non-relativistic and relativistic models. The relativistic mean field theory predicts one proton halo in 26,27,28P and two proton halos in 27,28,29S, recently, one proton halo in 26,27,28P has been found experimentally in MSU lab. The relativistic Hartree-Fock theory has been used to investigate the contribution of Fock term and isovector mesons to the properties of exotic nuclei. It turns out that the influence of the Fock term and isovector mesons on the properties of neutron extremely rich nuclei is very different from that of near stable nuclei. Meanwhile, the deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory has been employed to describe the ground state properties of the isotopes for some light nuclei.

  2. Semi-classical locality for the non-relativistic path integral in configuration space

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In an accompanying paper, we have put forward an interpretation of quantum mechanics grounded on a non-relativistic Lagrangian 3+1 formalism of a closed Universe, existing on timeless configuration space. However, not much was said there about the role of locality, which was not assumed. In this paper, I describe how subsystems existing in (spatial) regions with fixed boundary conditions can be represented as submanifolds of the complete configuration space. I show that if the action functional can be put in the form of Riemannian distance element, then dynamical independence of the subsystem implies that the respective submanifolds are totally geodesic. When two regions are mutually independent the semi-classical path integral kernel factorizes, showing cluster decomposition. To exemplify these constructions I then construct a specific gravitational system with two propagating physical degrees of freedom and no refoliation-invariance. Finally, considering the path integral in this 3+1 context, I implement an...

  3. Virial Theorem for Non-relativistic Quantum Fields in D Spatial Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    The virial theorem for non-relativistic complex fields in $D$ spatial dimensions and with arbitrary many-body potential is derived, using path-integral methods and scaling arguments recently developed to analyze quantum anomalies in lower-dimensional systems. The potential appearance of a Jacobian $J$ due to a change of variables in the path-integral expression for the partition function of the system is pointed out, although in order to make contact with the literature most of the analysis deals with the $J=1$ case. The virial theorem is recast into a form that displays the effect of microscopic scales on the thermodynamics of the system. From the point of view of this paper the case usually considered, $J=1$, is not natural, and the generalization to the case $J\

  4. Non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces III, Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, H

    2007-01-01

    This is the third part of a paper about non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces like the braided line or the three-dimensional q-deformed Euclidean space. Propagators for the free q-deformed particle are derived and their basic properties are discussed. A time-dependent formulation of scattering is proposed. In this respect, q-analogs of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation are given. Expressions for their iterative solutions are written down. It is shown how to calculate S-matrices and transition probabilities. Furthermore, attention is focused on the question what becomes of unitarity of S-matrices in a q-deformed setting. The examinations are concluded by a discussion of the interaction picture and its relation to scattering processes.

  5. Ion and electron velocity distributions within flux transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Stansberry, J. A.; Bame, S. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gosling, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed nature of the thermal and suprathermal ion and electron distributions within magnetic flux transfer events (FTEs) is examined. Examples of both magnetosheath FTEs and magnetospheric FTEs are discussed. The detailed distributions confirm that FTEs contain a mixture of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasmas. To lowest order, the distributions are consistent with a simple superposition of the two interpenetrating populations, with no strong interactions between them. To first order, some interesting differences appear, especially in the electron distributions, suggesting that considerable pitch angle scattering and some electron energy diffusion are also occurring. These observations should provide a useful test of analytical and numerical studies of interpenetrating plasmas.

  6. New exact bound states solutions for (C.F.P.S. potential in the case of Non commutative three dimensional non relativistic quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmadjid MAIRECHE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtain here the modified bound-states solutions for central fraction power singular potential (C.F.P.S. in noncommutative 3-dimensional non relativistic quantum mechanics (NC-3D NRQM. It has been observed that the commutative energy spectra was changed, and replaced degenerate new states, depending on four quantum numbers: j, l and sz=±1/2 corresponding to the two spins states of electron by (up and down and the deformed Hamiltonian formed by two new operators: the first describes the spin-orbit interaction , while the second obtained Hamiltonian describes the modified Zeeman effect (containing ordinary Zeeman effect in addition to the usual commutative Hamiltonian. We showed that the isotropic commutative Hamiltonian HCFPS will be in non commutative space anisotropic Hamiltonian HNC-CFPS.

  7. Low energy scattering parameters from the solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional lattice

    CERN Document Server

    De Soto, F

    2006-01-01

    The numerical solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional size lattice with periodic boundary conditions are obtained. The possibility to extract the corresponding -- infinite space -- low energy parameters and bound state binding energies from eigensates computed at finite lattice size is discussed.

  8. Non-Relativistic Chern-Simons Theories and Three-Dimensional Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hartong, Jelle; Obers, Niels A

    2016-01-01

    We show that certain three-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz gravity theories can be written as Chern-Simons gauge theories on various non-relativistic algebras. The algebras are specific extensions of the Bargmann, Newton-Hooke and Schroedinger algebra each of which has the Galilean algebra as a subalgebra. To show this we employ the fact that Horava-Lifshitz gravity corresponds to dynamical Newton-Cartan geometry. In particular, the extended Bargmann (Newton-Hooke) Chern-Simons theory corresponds to projectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a local U(1) gauge symmetry without (with) a cosmological constant. Moreover we identify an extended Schroedinger algebra containing 3 extra generators that are central with respect to the subalgebra of Galilean boosts, momenta and rotations, for which the Chern-Simons theory gives rise to a novel version of non-projectable conformal Horava-Lifshitz gravity that we refer to as Schroedinger gravity. This theory has a z=2 Lifshitz geometry as a vacuum solution and thus provides a...

  9. Non-relativistic correspondence of Dirac equation with external electromagnetic field and space-time torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno; Dias Junior, Mario Marcio [Instituto Federal de Educacacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The discussion of experimental manifestations of torsion at low energies is mainly related to the torsion-spin interaction. In this respect the behavior of Dirac field and the spinning particle in an external torsion field deserves and received very special attention. In this work, we consider the combined action of torsion and magnetic field on the massive spinor field. In this case, the Dirac equation is not straightforward solved. We suppose that the spinor has two components. The equations have mixed terms between the two components. The electromagnetic field is introduced in the action by the usual gauge transformation. The torsion field is described by the field S{sub μ}. The main purpose of the work is to get an explicit form to the equation of motion that shows the possible interactions between the external fields and the spinor in a Hamiltonian that is independent to each component. We consider that S{sub 0} is constant and is the unique non-vanishing term of S{sub μ}. This simplification is taken just to simplify the algebra, as our main point is not to describe the torsion field itself. In order to get physical analysis of the problem, we consider the non-relativistic approximation. The final result is a Hamiltonian that describes a half spin field in the presence of electromagnetic and torsion external fields. (author)

  10. Effects of high-order operators in non-relativistic Lifshitz holography

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xinwen; Tian, Miao; Wang, Anzhong; Deng, Yanbin; Cleaver, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of high-order operators on the non-relativistic Lifshitz holography in the framework of the Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity, which naturally contains high-order operators in order for the theory to be power-counting renormalizble, and provides an ideal place to study these effects. In particular, we show that the Lifshitz space-time is still a solution of the full theory of the HL gravity. The effects of the high-oder operators on the space-time itself is simply to shift the Lifshitz dynamical exponent. However, while in the infrared the asymptotic behavior of a (probe) scalar field near the boundary is similar to that studied in the literature, it gets dramatically modified in the UV limit, because of the presence of the high-order operators in this regime. Then, according to the gauge/gravity duality, this in turn affects the two-point correlation functions.

  11. Continuity properties of the semi-group and its integral kernel in non-relativistic QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Employing recent results on stochastic differential equations associated with the standard model of non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics by B. Güneysu, J. S. Møller, and the present author, we study the continuity of the corresponding semi-group between weighted vector-valued Lp-spaces, continuity properties of elements in the range of the semi-group, and the pointwise continuity of an operator-valued semi-group kernel. We further discuss the continuous dependence of the semi-group and its integral kernel on model parameters. All these results are obtained for Kato decomposable electrostatic potentials and the actual assumptions on the model are general enough to cover the Nelson model as well. As a corollary, we obtain some new pointwise exponential decay and continuity results on elements of low-energetic spectral subspaces of atoms or molecules that also take spin into account. In a simpler situation where spin is neglected, we explain how to verify the joint continuity of positive ground state eigenvectors with respect to spatial coordinates and model parameters. There are no smallness assumptions imposed on any model parameter.

  12. Quantum Exact Non-Abelian Vortices in Non-relativistic Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Muneto; Vinci, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Non-Abelian vortices arise when a non-Abelian global symmetry is exact in the ground state but spontaneously broken in the vicinity of their cores. In this case, there appear (non-Abelian) Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes confined and propagating along the vortex. In relativistic theories, the Coleman-Mermin-Wagner theorem forbids the existence of a spontaneous symmetry breaking, or a long-range order, in 1+1 dimensions: quantum corrections restore the symmetry along the vortex and the NG modes acquire a mass gap. We show that in non-relativistic theories NG modes with quadratic dispersion relation confined on a vortex can remain gapless at quantum level. We provide a concrete and experimentally realizable example of a three-component Bose-Einstein condensate with U(1) x U(2) symmetry. We first show, at the classical level, the existence of S^3 = S^1 |x S^2 (S^1 fibered over S^2) NG modes associated to the breaking U(2) -> U(1) on vortices, where S^1 and S^2 correspond to type I and II NG modes, respectively. We th...

  13. Dynamics of perturbations in Double Field Theory & non-relativistic string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sung Moon [Department of Physics, Sogang University,Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Melby-Thompson, Charles M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), The University of Tokyo,Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, Fudan University,220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Meyer, René [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), The University of Tokyo,Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Park, Jeong-Hyuck [Department of Physics, Sogang University,Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-22

    Double Field Theory provides a geometric framework capable of describing string theory backgrounds that cannot be understood purely in terms of Riemannian geometry — not only globally (‘non-geometry’), but even locally (‘non-Riemannian’). In this work, we show that the non-relativistic closed string theory of Gomis and Ooguri http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1372697 arises precisely as such a non-Riemannian string background, and that the Gomis-Ooguri sigma model is equivalent to the Double Field Theory sigma model of http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2014.01.003 on this background. We further show that the target-space formulation of Double Field Theory on this non-Riemannian background correctly reproduces the appropriate sector of the Gomis-Ooguri string spectrum. To do this, we develop a general semi-covariant formalism describing perturbations in Double Field Theory. We derive compact expressions for the linearized equations of motion around a generic on-shell background, and construct the corresponding fluctuation Lagrangian in terms of novel completely covariant second order differential operators. We also present a new non-Riemannian solution featuring Schrödinger conformal symmetry.

  14. Generalized Lagrangian-Path Representation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    In this paper a new trajectory-based representation to non-relativistic quantum mechanics is formulated. This is ahieved by generalizing the notion of Lagrangian path (LP) which lies at the heart of the deBroglie-Bohm " pilot-wave" interpretation. In particular, it is shown that each LP can be replaced with a statistical ensemble formed by an infinite family of stochastic curves, referred to as generalized Lagrangian paths (GLP). This permits the introduction of a new parametric representation of the Schrödinger equation, denoted as GLP-parametrization, and of the associated quantum hydrodynamic equations. The remarkable aspect of the GLP approach presented here is that it realizes at the same time also a new solution method for the N-body Schrödinger equation. As an application, Gaussian-like particular solutions for the quantum probability density function (PDF) are considered, which are proved to be dynamically consistent. For them, the Schrödinger equation is reduced to a single Hamilton-Jacobi evolution equation. Particular solutions of this type are explicitly constructed, which include the case of free particles occurring in 1- or N-body quantum systems as well as the dynamics in the presence of suitable potential forces. In all these cases the initial Gaussian PDFs are shown to be free of the spreading behavior usually ascribed to quantum wave-packets, in that they exhibit the characteristic feature of remaining at all times spatially-localized.

  15. Accurate determination of the free-free Gaunt factor; I - non-relativistic Gaunt factors

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoof, P A M; Volk, K; Chatzikos, M; Ferland, G J; Lykins, M; Porter, R L; Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Modern spectral synthesis codes need the thermally averaged free-free Gaunt factor defined over a very wide range of parameter space in order to produce an accurate prediction for the spectrum emitted by an ionized plasma. Until now no set of data exists that would meet this need in a fully satisfactory way. We have therefore undertaken to produce a table of very accurate non-relativistic Gaunt factors over a much wider range of parameters than has ever been produced before. We first produced a table of non-averaged Gaunt factors, covering the parameter space log10(epsilon_i) = -20 to +10 and log10(w) = -30 to +25. We then continued to produce a table of thermally averaged Gaunt factors covering the parameter space log10(gamma^2) = -6 to +10 and log10(u) = -16 to +13. Finally we produced a table of the frequency integrated Gaunt factor covering the parameter space log10(gamma^2) = -6 to +10. All the data presented in this paper are available online.

  16. Modeling the Physics of Sliding Objects on Rotating Space Elevators and Other Non-relativistic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Knudsen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    We consider general problem of modeling the dynamics of objects sliding on moving strings. We introduce a powerful computational algorithm that can be used to investigate the dynamics of objects sliding along non-relativistic strings. We use the algorithm to numerically explore fundamental physics of sliding climbers on a unique class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE). Objects sliding along RSE strings do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported from the Earth's surface into outer space. By extensive numerical simulations, we find that sliding climbers may display interesting non-linear dynamics exhibiting both quasi-periodic and chaotic states of motion. While our main interest in this study is in the climber dynamics on RSEs, our results for the dynamics of sliding object are of more general interest. In particular, we designed tools capable of dealing with strongly nonlinear phenomena involving moving strings of any kind, such as the chaotic dynamics of sliding climbers observed in our simulations.

  17. ``Pheudo-cyclotron'' radiation of non-relativistic particles in small-scale magnetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2014-03-01

    Plasma turbulence in some astrophysical objects (e.g., weakly magnetized collisionless shocks in GRBs and SN) has small-scale magnetic field fluctuations. We study spectral characteristics of radiation produced by particles moving in such turbulence. It was shown earlier that relativistic particles produce jitter radiation, which spectral characteristics are markedly different from synchrotron radiation. Here we study radiation produced by non-relativistic particles. In the case of a homogeneous fields, such radiation is cyclotron and its spectrum consists of just a single harmonic at the cyclotron frequency. However, in the sub-Larmor-scale turbulence, the radiation spectrum is much reacher and reflects statistical properties of the underlying magnetic field. We present both analytical estimates and results of ab initio numerical simulations. We also show that particle propagation in such turbulence is diffusive and evaluate the diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient correlates with some spectral parameters. These results can be very valuable for remote diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  18. Non-relativistic radiation mediated shock breakouts: II. Bolometric properties of SN shock breakout

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Boaz; Waxman, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Exact bolometric light curves of supernova shock breakouts are derived based on the universal, non relativistic, planar breakout solutions (Sapir et al. 2011), assuming spherical symmetry, constant Thomson scattering opacity, \\kappa, and angular intensity corresponding to the steady state planar limit. These approximations are accurate for progenitors with a scale height much smaller than the radius. The light curves are insensitive to the density profile and are determined by the progenitor radius R, and the breakout velocity and density, v_0 and \\rho_0 respectively, and \\kappa. The total breakout energy, E_BO, and the maximal ejecta velocity, v_max, are shown to be E_BO=8.0\\pi R^2\\kappa^-1cv_0 and v_max=2.0v_0 respectively, to an accuracy of about 10%. The calculated light curves are valid up to the time of transition to spherical expansion, t_sph\\approx R/4v_0. Approximate analytic expressions for the light curves are provided for breakouts in which the shock crossing time at breakout, t_0=c/\\kappa\\rho_0v_...

  19. AdS and dS black hole solutions in analogue gravity: The relativistic and non-relativistic cases

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Ramit; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We show that Schwarzschild black hole solutions in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) and de Sitter (dS) spaces may, up to a conformal factor, be reproduced in the framework of analogue gravity. The aforementioned derivation is performed using relativistic and non-relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates. In addition, we demonstrate that the (2+1) planar AdS black hole can be mapped into the non-relativistic acoustic metric. Given that AdS black holes are extensively employed in the gauge/gravity duality, we then comment on the possibility to study the AdS/CFT correspondence and gravity/fluid duality from an analogue gravity perspective.

  20. Non-relativistic Nambu-Goldstone modes associated with spontaneously broken space-time and internal symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Michikazu

    2014-01-01

    We show that a momentum operator of a translational symmetry may not commute with an internal symmetry operator in the presence of a topological soliton in non-relativistic theories. As a striking consequence, there appears a coupled Nambu-Goldstone mode with a quadratic dispersion consisting of translational and internal zero modes in the vicinity of a domain wall in an O(3) sigma model, a magnetic domain wall in ferromagnets with an easy axis.

  1. Duality in the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model in the Shifman-Voloshin limit a pedagogical example

    CERN Document Server

    Le Yaouanc, A; Morénas, V; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    2000-01-01

    The detailed way in which duality between sum of exclusive states and the free quark model description operates in semileptonic total decay widths, is analysed. It is made very explicit by the use of the non relativistic harmonic oscillator quark model in the SV limit, and a simple interaction current with the lepton pair. In particular, the Voloshin sum rule is found to eliminate the mismatches of order $\\delta m/m_b^2$.

  2. Is a non-relativist post-modernism possible? The attempts of William Dean and Wentzel van Huyssteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Stone

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at creating a third option to foundationalism and relativism. It criticizes William Dean’s historicist radical empiricism for going too far toward a relativ ist deconstructionism, and Wentzel van Huyss teen’s critical realism for not leaving modernism. Both, however, succeed in creating a third option. This paper examines their respective contributions to a non relativist, reconstructionist post-modernism.

  3. Non-relativistic pair annihilation of nearly mass degenerate neutralinos and charginos I. General framework and S-wave annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Beneke, M.; Hellmann, C.; Ruiz-Femenia, P.

    2012-01-01

    We compute analytically the tree-level annihilation rates of a collection of non-relativistic neutralino and chargino two-particle states in the general MSSM, including the previously unknown off-diagonal rates. The results are prerequisites to the calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement in the MSSM, which will be presented in subsequent work. They can also be used to obtain concise analytic expressions for MSSM dark matter pair annihilation in the present Universe for a large number of exc...

  4. Proposal for verifying Wigner's rotation with massive spin-$1/2$ particles at non-relativistic speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Palge, Veiko; Dunningham, Jacob; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    In quantum physics Wigner's rotation is commonly regarded as confirmed by the Thomas precession in a hydrogen like atom. In this paper we show that a direct experimental verification of Wigner's rotation is in principle accessible in the regime of non-relativistic velocities at $2 \\cdot 10^3\\,$m/s and propose an experiment using thermal neutrons. The experiment can be carried out in a laboratory and it provides a test of relativity in the quantum domain.

  5. Semi-classical Locality for the Non-relativistic Path Integral in Configuration Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Henrique

    2017-09-01

    In an accompanying paper Gomes (arXiv:1504.02818, 2015), we have put forward an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on a non-relativistic, Lagrangian 3+1 formalism of a closed Universe M, existing on timeless configuration space Q of some field over M. However, not much was said there about the role of locality, which was not assumed. This paper is an attempt to fill that gap. Locality in full can only emerge dynamically, and is not postulated. This new understanding of locality is based solely on the properties of extremal paths in configuration space. I do not demand locality from the start, as it is usually done, but showed conditions under which certain systems exhibit it spontaneously. In this way we recover semi-classical local behavior when regions dynamically decouple from each other, a notion more appropriate for extension into quantum mechanics. The dynamics of a sub-region O within the closed manifold M is independent of its complement, M-O, if the projection of extremal curves on Q onto the space of extremal curves intrinsic to O is a surjective map. This roughly corresponds to e^{i\\hat{H}t}circ prO= prOcirc e^{i\\hat{H}t}, where prO:Q→ Q_O^{partial O} is a linear projection. This criterion for locality can be made approximate—an impossible feat had it been already postulated—and it can be applied for theories which do not have hyperbolic equations of motion, and/or no fixed causal structure. When two regions are mutually independent according to the criterion proposed here, the semi-classical path integral kernel factorizes, showing cluster decomposition which is the ultimate aim of a definition of locality.

  6. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Adriatico Conference on Vacuum in Non-Relativistic Matter-Radiation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Franco; Power, Edwin A.

    1988-01-01

    The physics of the electromagnetic vacuum, its fluctuations and its role in spontaneous emission has been studied since the early days of the quantum theory of radiation. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the nature of the vacuum state and its potency in giving rise to observable effects. For example the question of amplification of photon signals and the way vacuum fluctuations may provide inescapable noise is fundamental to the theory of measurement. Quantum electrodynamics in cavities has become a very active area of research both experimentally and theoretically and the way the radiation field, even in vacuo, is changed by confinement is of interest and importance. The effective Einstein A-coefficient can be much smaller than in free space because the available modes are sparser in a cavity. Radiative connections such as the Lamb shift energies are also changed as the virtual photon modes are varied by the confinement. The existence of electromagnetic field energy (from the vacuum fluctuations) in the neighbourhood of atoms/molecules in their ground state is demonstrated by its effect on test molecules brought into the vicinity of the original sources. All the forces analogous to that of Van der Waals, including of course their Casimir retardations at long range, are explicable in terms of these virtual cloud effects. The Adriatico Conference on "Vacuum in Non-Relativistic Matter-Radiation Systems" held in July 1987 brought together scientists in quantum optics, quantum field theorists and others interested in the electromagnetic vacuum. It was most successful in that the participants found enough mutual agreement but with clearly defined tensions between them to provide excitement and argument throughout the four days' meeting. This volume consists of most of the papers presented at the conference. It is clear that the collection ranges from the pedagogical and the review type article to research papers with original material. The

  7. NON-RELATIVISTIC RADIATION MEDIATED SHOCK BREAKOUTS. III. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapir, Nir; Waxman, Eli [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Katz, Boaz [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The spectrum of radiation emitted following shock breakout from a star's surface with a power-law density profile {rho}{proportional_to}x{sup n} is investigated. Assuming planar geometry, local Compton equilibrium, and bremsstrahlung emission as the dominant photon production mechanism, numerical solutions are obtained for the photon number density and temperature profiles as a function of time for hydrogen-helium envelopes. The temperature solutions are determined by the breakout shock velocity v{sub 0} and the pre-shock breakout density {rho}{sub 0} and depend weakly on the value of n. Fitting formulae for the peak surface temperature at breakout as a function of v{sub 0} and {rho}{sub 0} are provided, with T{sub peak} approx. 9.44 exp [12.63(v{sub 0}/c){sup 1/2}] eV, and the time dependence of the surface temperature is tabulated. The time integrated emitted spectrum is a robust prediction of the model, determined by T{sub peak} and v{sub 0} alone and insensitive to details of light travel time or slight deviations from spherical symmetry. Adopting commonly assumed progenitor parameters, breakout luminosities of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} and Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-10 keV band are expected for blue supergiant (BSG) and red supergiant (RSG)/He-WR progenitors, respectively (T{sub peak} is well below the band for RSGs, unless their radius is {approx}10{sup 13} cm). >30 detections of SN 1987A-like (BSG) breakouts are expected over the lifetime of ROSAT and XMM-Newton. An absence of such detections would imply either that the typical parameters assumed for BSG progenitors are grossly incorrect or that their envelopes are not hydrostatic. The observed spectrum and duration of XRF 080109/SN 2008D are in tension with a non-relativistic breakout from a stellar surface interpretation.

  8. Stability and non-relativistic limits of rarefaction wave to the 1-D piston problem for the relativistic Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Min; Li, Yachun

    2017-04-01

    We study the 1-D piston problem for the relativistic Euler equations under the assumption that the total variations of both the initial data and the velocity of the piston are sufficiently small. By a modified wave front tracking method, we establish the global existence of entropy solutions including a strong rarefaction wave without restriction on the strength. Meanwhile, we consider the convergence of the entropy solutions to the corresponding entropy solutions of the classical non-relativistic Euler equations as the light speed c→ +∞.

  9. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  10. Bimodal Electron Fluxes of Nearly Relativistic Electrons during the Onset of Solar Particle Events: 1. Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Lingpeng; Klecker, Berndt; Krucker, Saem; Droege, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We report for several solar energetic particle events intensity and anisotropy measurements of energetic electrons in the energy range ~ 27 to ~ 500 keV as observed with the Wind and ACE spacecraft in June 2000. The observations onboard Wind show bimodal pitch angle distributions (PAD), whereas ACE shows PADs with one peak, as usually observed for impulsive injection of electrons at the Sun. During the time of observation Wind was located upstream of the Earth's bow shock, in the dawn - noon sector, at distances of ~ 40 to ~ 70 Earth radii away from the Earth, and magnetically well connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock, whereas ACE, located at the libration point L1, was not connected to the bow shock. The electron intensity-time profiles and energy spectra show that the backstreaming electrons observed at Wind are not of magnetospheric origin. The observations rather suggest that the bi-modal electron PADs are due to reflection or scattering at an obstacle located at a distance of less than ~ 150 Earth r...

  11. Classical and Non-Relativistic Limits of a Lorentz-Invariant Bohmian Model for a System of Spinless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; 10.1007/s10701-010-9413-7

    2010-01-01

    A completely Lorentz-invariant Bohmian model has been proposed recently for the case of a system of non-interacting spinless particles, obeying Klein-Gordon equations. It is based on a multi-temporal formalism and on the idea of treating the squared norm of the wave function as a space-time probability density. The particle's configurations evolve in space-time in terms of a parameter {\\sigma}, with dimensions of time. In this work this model is further analyzed and extended to the case of an interaction with an external electromagnetic field. The physical meaning of {\\sigma} is explored. Two special situations are studied in depth: (1) the classical limit, where the Einsteinian Mechanics of Special Relativity is recovered and the parameter {\\sigma} is shown to tend to the particle's proper time; and (2) the non-relativistic limit, where it is obtained a model very similar to the usual non-relativistic Bohmian Mechanics but with the time of the frame of reference replaced by {\\sigma} as the dynamical temporal...

  12. Low energy scattering parameters from the solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, F. de [Laboratoire Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)]|[Dpto. Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, U. Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Carbonell, J. [Laboratoire Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-04-15

    The numerical solutions of the non-relativistic Yukawa model on a 3-dimensional size lattice with periodic boundary conditions are obtained. The possibility to extract the corresponding - infinite space - low energy parameters and bound state binding energies from eigenstates computed at finite lattice size is discussed. The results have been obtained with a non relativistic model, which is justified by the small energies involved in the calculations. Despite its simplicity, the model considered contains an essential ingredient of the hadron-hadron interaction - its finite range - which plays a relevant role in view of extracting the low energy parameters from the finite volume spectra. It offers a wieldy and physically sound tool to test the validity of the different approaches discussed in the literature to study the low energy scattering of baryon-baryon or meson-baryon systems from a lattice simulations in QCD. The results presented in this work have been essentially limited to the ground state of central attractive interactions, depending only on one parameter. The method can be easily applied to more involved interactions, like hard core repulsive terms or non central potentials leading to coupled channel equations. (authors)

  13. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time. In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999 -2004, the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit, and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit, high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed. The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period, and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm?2·sr?1·s?1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum. Among these 45 REE events, four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo- magnetic storms. Meanwhile, several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu- ously before these REE events, and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events. The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre- lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm, and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  14. CME on March 16, 2001, electron pulsation event and solar-terrestrial phenomena related with CMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂清

    2002-01-01

    The electron pulsation event is defined in the paper. Firstly, a slow Halo CME on March 16, 2001 that led to low-energetic solar proton event, electron pulsation event and major geomagnetic storm was analyzed. And then, dozens of events are collected. The interrelations among the solar flare, CME, solar proton event, electron pulsation event and geomagnetic storm are studied. The results show that: (ⅰ) Solar proton events can be regarded as the indication that CMEs get to the earth and the electron pulsation events can be regarded as the indication of solar proton flux. (ⅱ) Not only can fast CMEs strongly influence the earth, but also slow CMEs can influence the earth, and its influences are more frequent and cannot be neglected. (ⅲ) Most of high-energetic solar proton events with E≥10 MeV can lead to geomagnetic storms, but most of the medium and weak geomagnetic storms result from low-energetic solar proton events that are caused by CMEs. (ⅳ) Both the electron pulsation events and geomagnetic storms are the link effects of high- and low-energetic solar proton events, but the occurrence of electron pulsation event are generally prior to the geomagnetic storm. So in the circumstance where the near real-time observing data of the low-energetic solar proton event cannot be obtained, we can regard electron pulsation event as the indication of the low-energetic solar proton flux reaching the earth, which can be used as one of the important 参考文献 of short-term prediction and alert of the geomagnetic storm.

  15. CME on March 16, 2001, electron pulsation event and solar-terrestrial phenomena related with CMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Guiqing(张桂清)

    2002-01-01

    The electron pulsation event is defined in the paper. Firstly, a slow Halo CME on March 16, 2001 that led to low-energetic solar proton event, electron pulsation event and major geomagnetic storm was analyzed. And then, dozens of events are collected. The interrelations among the solar flare, CME, solar proton event, electron pulsation event and geomagnetic storm are studied. The results show that: (ⅰ) Solar proton events can be regarded as the indication that CMEs get to the earth and the electron pulsation events can be regarded as the indication of solar proton flux. (ⅱ) Not only can fast CMEs strongly influence the earth, but also slow CMEs can influence the earth, and its influences are more frequent and cannot be neglected. (ⅲ) Most of high-energetic solar proton events with E≥10 MeV can lead to geomagnetic storms, but most of the medium and weak geomagnetic storms result from low-energetic solar proton events that are caused by CMEs. (ⅳ) Both the electron pulsation events and geomagnetic storms are the link effects of high- and low-energetic solar proton events, but the occurrence of electron pulsation event are generally prior to the geomagnetic storm. So in the circumstance where the near real-time observing data of the low-energetic solar proton event cannot be obtained, we can regard electron pulsation event as the indication of the low-energetic solar proton flux reaching the earth, which can be used as one of the important 参考文献 of short-term prediction and alert of the geomagnetic storm.

  16. Relativistic electron flux enhancement at synchronous orbit during SEP event on July 14, 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 朱光武; 王世金; 高玉芬; 刘振兴

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic (E >1.6 MeV) electron flux enhancements during Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events as observed by the synchronous FY-2 satellite at orbit located at 105°E are investigated. Energetic protons during SEP events heavily contaminate relativistic electron flux measurements. The ratio of the contamination in the original measurement of relativistic electron flux was over 30% during most of the SEP event on July 14, 2000. A method has been developed to eliminate the contamination caused by the energetic protons, and a "corrected" relativistic electron flux has been obtained. The "cleaned-up" relativistic electron flux measurement shows that relativistic electron flux enhancement at synchronous orbit is well correlated with SEP events during which the IMF Bz has some southward periods. The enhancement could arise as the transport of relativistic electrons from the upstream solar wind into synchronous orbit via the magnetotail.

  17. Influence of ion effects on a space charge limited field emission flow: from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Chang, P. C.; Lu, P. S.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Influence of ion effects on a space charge limited field emission flow has been studied systematically, by employing both analytical and numerical approaches. In our model, the field emission of electrons is described by the Fowler-Nordheim equation. The cathode plasma and surface properties are considered within the framework of an effective work function approximation. Ionization effects at the anode as well as electron space-charge effects are described by Poisson's equation coupled with the energy conservation equation including the relativistic effects. The calculations are carried out self-consistently to yield the steady states of the bipolar flow. The electric field on the cathode surface is found to be saturated due to space charge effects and is determined by the effective work function approximately. In addition, the upstream ion current bas been treated as a tuning parameter. It is found that the field emission currents in the presence of saturated ion currents can be enhanced to be nearly 1.8, 1.5, and 1.4 times of the cases with no upstream ion current in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes, respectively. The solutions have also been verified using 1D PIC simulations, as implemented in the OOPD1 code developed by PTSG of UC Berkeley. Work supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C. under Grant No. NSC 96-2112-M-030-004-MY3, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, and National Center for High-Performance Computing, Taiwan, ROC which provides the computing resources.

  18. Non-relativistic pair annihilation of nearly mass degenerate neutralinos and charginos III. Computation of the Sommerfeld enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, M; Ruiz-Femenia, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper concludes the presentation of the non-relativistic effective field theory formalism designed to calculate the radiative corrections that enhance the pair-annihilation cross sections of slowly moving neutralinos and charginos within the general minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). While papers I and II focused on the computation of the tree-level annihilation rates that feed into the short-distance part, here we describe in detail the method to obtain the Sommerfeld factors that contain the enhanced long-distance corrections. This includes the computation of the potential interactions in the MSSM, which are provided in compact analytic form, and a novel solution of the multi-state Schr\\"odinger equation that is free from the numerical instabilities generated by large mass splittings between the scattering states. Our results allow for a precise computation of the MSSM neutralino dark matter relic abundance and pair-annihilation rates in the present Universe, when Sommerfeld enhancements are...

  19. Non-relativistic particle higher-order harmonic radiation based short-wavelength laser and the operation stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-hua; WU Mu-ying; HE Wei; SHAO Ming-zhu; LUO Shi-yu

    2011-01-01

    Under classical mechanics, the general equation of particle motion in the periodic field is derived. In the dampless case, the existence possibility of the higher-order harmonic radiation is explored by using Bessel function expansion of a generalized trigonometrical function and the multi-scale method. In the damping case, the critical properties and a chaotic behavior are discussed by the Melnikov method. The results show that the use of a higher-order harmonic radiation of non-relativistic particles as a short-wavelength laser source is perfectly possible, and the system's critical condition is related to its parameters. Only by adjusting parameters suitablely, the stable higher-order harmonic radiation with bigger intensity can be obtained.

  20. Modified holographic Ricci dark energy coupled to interacting relativistic and non-relativistic dark matter in the nonflat universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, En-Kun; Geng, Jin-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The modified holographic Ricci dark energy coupled to interacting relativistic and non-relativistic dark matter is considered in the nonflat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Through examining the deceleration parameter, one can find that the transition time of the Universe from decelerating to accelerating phase in the interacting holographic Ricci dark energy model is close to that in the $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter model. The evolution of modified holographic Ricci dark energy's state parameter and the evolution of dark matter and dark energy's densities shows that the dark energy holds the dominant position from the near past to the future. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and the evolution of the total pressure, one can find that this model could explain the Universe's transition from the radiation to accelerating expansion stage through the dust stage. According to the $Om$ diagnostic, it is easy to find that when the interaction is weak and the proportion of relativistic dark matter in total da...

  1. Non-relativistic Schroedinger theory on q-deformed quantum spaces I, Mathematical framework and equations of motion

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of these three papers (I, II, and III) is to develop a q-deformed version of non-relativistic Schroedinger theory. Paper I introduces the fundamental mathematical and physical concepts. The braided line and the three-dimensional q-deformed Euclidean space play the role of position space. For both cases the algebraic framework is extended by a time element. A short review of the elements of q-deformed analysis on the spaces under consideration is given. The time evolution operator is introduced in a consistent way and its basic properties are discussed. These reasonings are continued by proposing q-deformed analogs of the Schroedinger and the Heisenberg picture.

  2. Collisional interactions between self-interacting non-relativistic boson stars: effective potential analysis and numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cotner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Scalar particles are a common prediction of many beyond the Standard Model theories. If they are light and cold enough, there is a possibility they may form Bose-Einstein condensates, which will then become gravitationally bound. These boson stars are solitonic solutions to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations, but may be approximated in the non-relativistic regime with a coupled Schr\\"odinger-Poisson system. General properties of single soliton states are derived, including the possibility of quartic self-interactions. Binary collisions between two solitons are then studied, and the effects of different mass ratios, relative phases, self-couplings, and separation distances are characterized, leading to an easy conceptual understanding of how these parameters affect the collision outcome in terms of conservation of energy. Applications to dark matter are discussed.

  3. Effect of temperature anisotropy on various modes and instabilities for a magnetized non-relativistic bi-Maxwellian plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bashir, M F

    2012-01-01

    Using kinetic theory for homogeneous collisionless magnetized plasmas, we present an extended review of the plasma waves and instabilities and discuss the anisotropic response of generalized relativistic dielectric tensor and Onsager symmetry properties for arbitrary distribution functions. In general, we observe that for such plasmas only those electromagnetic modes whose magnetic field perturbations are perpendicular to the ambient magneticeld, i.e.,B1 \\perp B0, are effected by the anisotropy. However, in oblique propagation all modes do show such anisotropic effects. Considering the non-relativistic bi-Maxwellian distribution and studying the relevant components of the general dielectric tensor under appropriate conditions, we derive the dispersion relations for various modes and instabilities. We show that only the electromagnetic R- and L- waves, those derived from them and the O-mode are affected by thermal anisotropies, since they satisfy the required condition B1\\perpB0. By contrast, the perpendicular...

  4. Relativistic electron acceleration during HILDCAA events: are precursor CIR magnetic storms important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Brum, Christiano Garnett Marques; Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; Santolik, Ondrej

    2015-07-01

    We present a comparative study of high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events, both isolated and those occurring in the "recovery phase" of geomagnetic storms induced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The aim of this study is to determine the difference, if any, in relativistic electron acceleration and magnetospheric energy deposition. All HILDCAA events in solar cycle 23 (from 1995 through 2008) are used in this study. Isolated HILDCAA events are characterized by enhanced fluxes of relativistic electrons compared to the pre-event flux levels. CIR magnetic storms followed by HILDCAA events show almost the same relativistic electron signatures. Cluster 1 spacecraft showed the presence of intense whistler-mode chorus waves in the outer magnetosphere during all HILDCAA intervals (when Cluster data were available). The storm-related HILDCAA events are characterized by slightly lower solar wind input energy and larger magnetospheric/ionospheric dissipation energy compared with the isolated events. A quantitative assessment shows that the mean ring current dissipation is ~34 % higher for the storm-related events relative to the isolated events, whereas Joule heating and auroral precipitation display no (statistically) distinguishable differences. On the average, the isolated events are found to be comparatively weaker and shorter than the storm-related events, although the geomagnetic characteristics of both classes of events bear no statistically significant difference. It is concluded that the CIR storms preceding the HILDCAAs have little to do with the acceleration of relativistic electrons. Our hypothesis is that ~10-100-keV electrons are sporadically injected into the magnetosphere during HILDCAA events, the anisotropic electrons continuously generate electromagnetic chorus plasma waves, and the chorus then continuously accelerates the high-energy portion of this electron spectrum to MeV energies.

  5. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David A.; Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on observations of electron precipitation bursts observed in the morningside auroral zone with the J sensor, an electron detector aboard the Hilat satellite. The characteristics of these precipitation events are documented, and a theoretical explanation that could account for the observed properties is presented. According to this model, the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  6. Single event effects measurements on the electronics for the CMS muon barrel detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Dal Corso, F; Dallavalle, G M; De Giorgi, M; Fernández, C; Gonella, F; Lippi, I; Marin, J; Martinelli, R; Montanari, A; Odorici, F; Oller, J C; Pegoraro, M

    2002-01-01

    Several irradiation tests of the electronics of the CMS barrel muon detector were performed using neutrons, protons and heavy ions. The Single Event Upset rate on some tested devices was measured, while upper limits were obtained for devices having experienced no failure. Single Event Transients on front-end electronics and destructive effects on the High-voltage distribution electronics were observed. Overcurrent protection and error correction circuits were included in the irradiated boards and were tested.

  7. Study of the Enhancement Events of Relativistic Electron at the Geosynchronous Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. S. Xue

    2005-01-01

    The high flux of energetic electron on geostationary orbit can induce many kinds of malfunction of the satellite there, within which the bulk-charging is the most significant that several broadcast satellite failures were confirmed to be due to this effect. The electron flux on geostationary orbit varies in a large range even up to three orders accompanied the passage of interplanetary magnetic cloud and the following geomagnetic disturbances. Upon the investigation of electron flux enhancement events, two types of events were partitioned as recurrent events and random ones. Both of the two kinds of events relate to the interplanetary conditions such as solar wind parameters, IMF etc and their evolution characters as well. As for the recurrent events, we found that, (1) all of the events exhibits periodic recurrence about 27 days, (2) significant increase of electron flux relates to interplanetary index and characters of their distribution, (3) the electron flux also has relation to solar activity index. An artificial neural network was constructed to estimate the flux I day ahead. The random electron flux enhancement events are rare and present different distribution figures to the recurrent ones. The figure of the random events and the conditions of their occurrence is also discussed in this paper.

  8. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.A.; Burke, W.J. (Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)); Villalon, E. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1990-05-01

    Energy/time dispersion events have been observed in the precipitating electron data in the energy range from 630 eV to 20 keV recorded by the J sensor on the low-altitude, polar-orbiting HILAT satellite. The dispersions are such that the higher-energy electrons are observed earlier in time than the lower-energy electrons The time interval for single dispersion event is from 1 to 2 s. Within an auroral pass in which such energy/time dispersion events are observed, there are typically several such events, and they can be spaced within the pass in either a periodic or aperiodic manner. The events are typically observed within and toward the equatorward edge of the region of diffuse auroral electron precipitation. During a given pass the events can be observed over a wide range of L shells. The occurrence of these events maximizes in the interval 0600-1,200 hours MLT. The energy/time dispersion is generally consistent with the electrons originating from a common source. The events are seen at L shells from 3.7 to greater than 15. The source distance for the electrons is inferred to be generally beyond the equator for events at L shells less than approximately 8 and before the equator for events at higher L shells. Because of the low energies at which the dispersions are observed, it is unlikely that their occurrence can be explained by resonant interaction with VLF waves. Based on circumstantial evidence from other reported observations common to the morning sector, and alternative theoretical explanation is presented. According to this model the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense, asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear, ponderomotive force.

  9. Observation results of relativistic electrons detected by Fengyun-1 satellite and analysis of relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoChao; WANG Shidin

    2008-01-01

    The space particle component detector on Fengyun-1 satellite which works at the sun-synchronous orbit of about 870 km altitude has detected relativistic electrons for a long time.In comparison with the SAMPEX satellite observations during 1999--2004,the relativistic electron data from Fengyun-1 satellite from June 1999 to 2005 are used to analyze the relativistic electron enhancement (REE) events at the low earth orbit,and the possible correlation among REE events at the low earth orbit,high-speed solar wind and geomagnetic storms is discussed.The statistical result presents that 45 REE events are found in total during this time period,and the strong REE events with the maximum daily average flux > 400 cm-2.sr-1.s-1 occur mostly during the transition period from solar maximum to solar minimum.Among these 45 REE events,four strong REE events last a longer time period from 26- to 51-day and correlate closely with high speed solar wind and strong geo-magnetic storms.Meanwhile,several strong geomagnetic storms occur continu-ously before these REE events,and these continuous geomagnetic storms would be an important factor causing these long-lasting strong REE events.The correlation analysis for overall 45 events indicates that the strength of the REE events corre-lates with the solar wind speed and the strength of the geomagnetic storm,and the correlation for strong REE events is much stronger than that for weak REE events.

  10. Heavy flavor electron $R_\\text{AA}$ and $v_2$ in event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, Caio A G; Munhoz, Marcelo G; Noronha, Jorge; Suaide, Alexandre A P

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate how event-by-event hydrodynamics fluctuations affect the nuclear suppression factor and elliptic flow of heavy flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. We use a 2D+1 Lagrangian ideal hydrodynamic code on an event-by-event basis in order to compute local temperature and flow profiles. Using a strong coupling inspired energy loss parametrization on top of the evolving space-time energy density distributions we are able to propagate the heavy quarks inside the medium until the freeze-out temperature is reached and a Pythia modeling of hadronization takes place. The resulting D$^0$ and heavy-flavor electron yield is compared with recent experimental data for $R_\\text{AA}$ and $v_2$ from the STAR and Phenix collaborations. In addition we present preditions for the higher order Fourier harmonic coefficients $v_3(p_T)$ of heavy-flavor electrons at RHIC's $\\sqrt{S_\\text{NN}} = 200$ GeV collisions.

  11. On Weibull's Spectrum of Non-relativistic Energetic Particles at IP Shocks: Observations and Theoretical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallocchia, G.; Laurenza, M.; Consolini, G.

    2017-03-01

    Some interplanetary shocks are associated with short-term and sharp particle flux enhancements near the shock front. Such intensity enhancements, known as shock-spike events (SSEs), represent a class of relatively energetic phenomena as they may extend to energies of some tens of MeV or even beyond. Here we present an SSE case study in order to shed light on the nature of the particle acceleration involved in this kind of event. Our observations refer to an SSE registered on 2011 October 3 at 22:23 UT, by STEREO B instrumentation when, at a heliocentric distance of 1.08 au, the spacecraft was swept by a perpendicular shock moving away from the Sun. The main finding from the data analysis is that a Weibull distribution represents a good fitting function to the measured particle spectrum over the energy range from 0.1 to 30 MeV. To interpret such an observational result, we provide a theoretical derivation of the Weibull spectrum in the framework of the acceleration by “killed” stochastic processes exhibiting power-law growth in time of the velocity expectation, such as the classical Fermi process. We find an overall coherence between the experimental values of the Weibull spectrum parameters and their physical meaning within the above scenario. Hence, our approach based on the Weibull distribution proves to be useful for understanding SSEs. With regard to the present event, we also provide an alternative explanation of the Weibull spectrum in terms of shock-surfing acceleration.

  12. NOAA POES Observations of Relativistic Electron Precipitation during a Radiation Belt Depletion Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R. M.; Yando, K.; Green, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    We present POES observations of relativistic electron precipitation during an electron depletion event observed by GOES and GPS. On January 19, 2000 NOAA-15 passed very near the MAXIS balloon payload (L=4.7) which detected an intense duskside precipitation event (Millan et al., 2007). Recent work has shown that the NOAA MEPED proton detector responds to electrons above ~700 keV. We combine data from this high energy channel with data from the MEPED electron detector to examine the energy distribution and spatial extent of precipitation during this period. The results are compared with the MAXIS balloon observations.

  13. Investigation of EMIC Waves During Balloon Detected Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Multiple relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events were detected by balloon-borne instrumentation during the MAXIS 2000 and MINIS 2005 campaigns. It has been suggested that resonance with EMIC waves caused these precipitation events (Lorentzen et al, 2000 and Millan et al, 2002) due to their location in the dusk sector. We present observations of dusk-side relativistic electron precipitation events, and use supporting satellite and theoretical data to investigate the relationship between EMIC waves and the detected REP. Satellite data can provide direct measurements of not only the waves themselves but also important resonance condition parameters. The data will be presented collectively with each event to showcase similarities and differences between events and the challenges that arise in trying to understand the relationship between dusk-side relativistic electron precipitation and EMIC waves.

  14. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two electrons and two muons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event with two identified muons and two identified electrons from a proton- proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: one Z decays to two muons, the other to two electrons. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. The two muons are picked out as red tracks penetrating right through the detector. The two electrons are picked out as green tracks in the central, inner detector, matching narrow green clusters of energy in the barrel part of the calorimeters. The inset at the bottom right shows a map of the energy seen in the detector: the two big yellow spikes correspond to the two electrons.

  15. Observation of Long Ionospheric Recoveries from Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour Salut, M.; Cohen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lightning strokes induces lower ionospheric nighttime disturbances which can be detected through Very Low Frequency (VLF) remote sensing via at least two means: (1) direct heating and ionization, known as an Early event, and (2) triggered precipitation of energetic electrons from the radiation belts, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP). For each, the ionospheric recover time is typically a few minutes or less. A small class of Early events have been identified as having unusually long ionospheric recoveries (10s of minutes), with the underlying mechanism still in question. Our study shows for the first time that some LEP events also demonstrate unusually long recovery. The VLF events were detected by visual inspection of the recorded data in both the North-South and East-West magnetic fields. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) are used to determine the location and peak current of the lightning responsible for each lightning-associated VLF perturbation. LEP or Early VLF events are determined by measuring the time delay between the causative lightning discharges and the onset of all lightning-associated perturbations. LEP events typically possess an onset delay greater than ~ 200 msec following the causative lightning discharges, while the onset of Early VLF events is time-aligned (events are distinguished from ducted events based on the location of the causative lightning relative to the precipitation region. From 15 March to 20 April and 15 October to 15 November 2011, a total of 385 LEP events observed at Indiana, Montana, Colorado and Oklahoma VLF sites, on the NAA, NLK and NML transmitter signals. 46 of these events exhibited a long recovery. It has been found that the occurrence rate of ducted long recovery LEP events is higher than nonducted. Of the 46 long recovery LEP events, 33 events were induced by ducted whistlers, and 13 events were associated with nonducted obliquely propagating whistler waves. The occurrence

  16. ELRADGEN: Monte Carlo generator for radiative events in elastic electron-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A V; Ilyichev, A N; Niczyporuk, B B

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical approach and practical algorithms for simulation of radiative events in elastic ep-scattering. A new Monte Carlo generator for real photon emission events in the process of elastic electron-proton scattering is presented. We perform a few consistency checks and present numerical results.

  17. LHC collision event at CMS showing four high energy electrons (CMS Higgs search)

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    11sec animation of a Higgs->ZZ->4e candidate in CMS. Real CMS proton-proton collision events in which 4 high energy electrons (orange lines and towers) are observed. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of a Higgs boson but is also consistent with background Standard Model physics processes.

  18. Thermal and transport properties of a non-relativistic quantum gas interacting through a delta-shell potential

    CERN Document Server

    Postnikov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This work extends the seminal work of Gottfried on the two-body quantum physics of particles interacting through a delta-shell potential to many-body physics by studying a system of non-relativistic particles when the thermal De-Broglie wavelength of a particle is smaller than the range of the potential and the density is such that average distance between particles is smaller than the range. The ability of the delta-shell potential to reproduce some basic properties of the deuteron are examined. Relations for moments of bound states are derived. The virial expansion is used to calculate the first quantum correction to the ideal gas pressure in the form of the second virial coefficient. Additionally, all thermodynamic functions are calculated up to the first order quantum corrections. For small departures from equilibrium, the net flows of mass, energy and momentum, characterized by the coefficients of diffusion, thermal conductivity and shear viscosity, respectively, are calculated. Properties of the gas are...

  19. Major electron events and coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C; Matthews, S A; Dai, Y; Tang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    A statistical survey of 26 major electron events during the period 2002 February through the end of solar cycle 23 is presented. We have obtained electron solar onset times and the peak flux spectra for each event by fitting to a powerlaw spectrum truncated by an exponential high-energy tail. We also derived the coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions (ARs) from the potential-field source-surface model. It is found that (1) 10 of the 11 well-connected open field-line events are prompt events whose solar onset times coincide with the maxima of flare emission and 13 of the 14 closed field-line events are delayed events. (2) A not-wellconnected open field-line event and one of the closed field-line events are prompt events, they are both associated with large-scale coronal disturbances or dimming. (3)An averaged harder spectrum is found in open field-line events compared with the closed ones. Specifically, the averaged spectral index is of 1.6 +/- 0.3 in open field-line events and of ...

  20. High-energy emission from non-relativistic radiative shocks: application to gamma-ray novae

    CERN Document Server

    Vurm, Indrek

    2016-01-01

    Multiwavelength radiation from relativistic particles accelerated at shocks in novae and other astrophysical sources carries a wealth of information about the outflow properties and the microphysical processes at work near the shocks. The observation of GeV gamma-rays from novae by Fermi/LAT demonstrates that the shocks in these systems can accelerate particles to energies of at least $\\sim 10$ GeV. The low-energy extension of the same non-thermal particle distribution inevitably gives rise to emission extending into the X-ray band. Above $\\gtrsim 10$ keV this radiation can escape the system without significant absorption/attenuation, and can potentially be detected by NuSTAR. We present theoretical models for hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission from radiative shocks in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios, accounting for the rapid evolution of the downstream properties due to the fast cooling of thermal plasma. Due to strong Coulomb cooling of the mildly relativistic electrons nominally responsible for produci...

  1. The causes of the hardest electron precipitation events seen with SAMPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.; Casavant, Eric P.; Comess, Max D.; Liang, Xinqing; Bowers, Gregory S.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Millan, Robyn M.; Sample, John G.

    2016-09-01

    We studied the geomagnetic, plasmaspheric, and solar wind context of relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events seen with the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), Proton Electron Telescope (PET) to derive an exponential folding energy E0 for each event. Events with E0750 keV near dusk (1400 500 keV ("hard REP"), we estimate that roughly 45% of the whole population has the distributions of geomagnetic and solar wind parameters associated with EMIC waves, while 55% does not. We hypothesize that the latter events may be caused by current sheet scattering (CSS), which can be mistaken for EMIC wave scattering in that both simultaneously precipitate MeV electrons and keV protons. Since a large number of MeV electrons are lost in the near-midnight hard REP events, and in the large number of E0< 400 keV events that show no dusk-like peak at all, we conclude that CSS should be studied further as a possibly important loss channel for MeV electrons.

  2. The Solar injection of ten electron/3He-rich SEP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Krucker, S.; Mason, G. M.; Li, G.

    2016-12-01

    We have derived the particle injections at the Sun for ten good electron/3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events, using a 1.2 AU particle path length (suggested by analysis of the velocity dispersion). The inferred solar injections of high-energy ( 10 to 300 keV) electrons and of ˜MeV/nucleon ions (carbon and heavier) start with a delay of 17 ± 3 min and 75 ± 14 min, respectively, after the injection of low-energy ( 0.4 to 9 keV) electrons. The injection duration (averaged over energy) ranges from 200 to 550 min for ions, from 90 to 160 min for low-energy electrons, and from 10 to 30 min for high-energy electrons. Most of the selected events have no reported Hα flares or GOES SXR bursts, but all have type III radio bursts that typically start after the onset of a low-energy electron injection. All nine events with SOHO/LASCO coverage have a relatively fast (>570 km s-1), mostly narrow (seed electrons for the delayed high-energy electron acceleration. The delayed ion injections and high ionization states may suggest an ion acceleration along the lower altitude flanks, rather than at the nose of the CMEs.

  3. The injection of ten electron/3He-rich SEP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua; Mason, Glenn; Krucker, Samuel; Li, Gang

    2016-07-01

    We have derived the particle injections at the Sun for ten good electron/ ^{3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events, using a 1.2 AU particle path length (suggested by analysis of the velocity dispersion). The inferred solar injections of high-energy (˜10 to 300 keV) electrons and of ˜MeV/nucleon ions (carbon and heavier) start with a delay of 17±3 minutes and 75±±14 minutes, respectively, after the injection of low-energy (˜0.4 to 9 keV) electrons. The injection duration (averaged over energy) ranges from ˜200 to 550 minutes for ions, from ˜90 to 160 minutes for low-energy electrons, and from ˜10 to 30 minutes for high-energy electrons. Most of the selected events have no reported H_{α} flares or GOES SXR bursts, but all have type III radio bursts that typically start after the onset of a low-energy electron injection. All nine events with SOHO/LASCO coverage have a relatively fast (>570km/s), mostly narrow (≲30°), west-limb coronal mass ejection (CME) that launches near the start of the low-energy electron injection, and reaches an average altitude of ˜1.0 and 4.7 R _{S} , respectively, at the start of the high-energy electron injection and of the ion injection. The electron energy spectra show a continuous power law extending across the transition from low to high energies, suggesting that the low-energy electron injection may provide seed electrons for the delayed high-energy electron acceleration. The delayed ion injections and high ionization states may suggest an ion acceleration along the lower altitude flanks, rather than at the nose of the CMEs.

  4. The injection of ten electron/3He-rich SEP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua; Krucker, Säm; Mason, Glenn; Li, Gang

    2017-04-01

    We have derived the particle injections at the Sun for ten good electron/3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events, using a 1.2 AU particle path length (suggested by analysis of the velocity dispersion). The inferred solar injections of high-energy (˜10 to 300 keV) electrons and of ˜MeV/nucleon ions (carbon and heavier) start with a delay of 17±3 minutes and 75±14 minutes, respectively, after the injection of low-energy (˜0.4 to 9 keV) electrons. The injection duration (averaged over energy) ranges from ˜200 to 550 minutes for ions, from ˜90 to 160 minutes for low-energy electrons, and from ˜10 to 30 minutes for high-energy electrons. Most of the selected events have no reported Hα flares or GOES SXR bursts, but all have type III radio bursts that typically start after the onset of a low-energy electron injection. All nine events with SOHO/LASCO coverage have a relatively fast (>570km/s), mostly narrow (≲30°), west-limb coronal mass ejection (CME) that launches near the start of the low-energy electron injection, and reaches an average altitude of ˜1.0 and 4.7 RS, respectively, at the start of the high-energy electron injection and of the ion injection. The electron energy spectra show a continuous power law extending across the transition from low to high energies, suggesting that the low-energy electron injection may provide seed electrons for the delayed high-energy electron acceleration. The delayed ion injections and high ionization states may suggest an ion acceleration along the lower altitude flanks, rather than at the nose of the CMEs.

  5. Exact Solutions of the Dirac Equation for an Electron in a Magnetic Field with Shape Invariant Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. R. Setare; O. Hatami

    2008-01-01

    Based on the shape invariance property we obtain exact solutions of the Dirac equation for an electron moving in the presence of a certain varying magnetic field, then we also show its non-relativistic limit.

  6. First evaluation of neutron induced Single Events Effect on the CMS barrel muon electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Favalli, A; Lippi, Ivano; Martinelli, Roberto; Zotto, Pierluigi

    2000-01-01

    Neutron irradiation tests of the currently available electronics for the CMS barrel muon detector were performed using Thermal and fast neutrons at E< 11MeV. The Single Event Upset rate on the Static RAM was measured, while upper limits are derived for events having experienced no failure. The results are used to guess the upper limits on the mean time between failures in the whole barrel muon detector.

  7. Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.-Z.; Liu, J.; Mei, D.-M.

    2016-07-01

    We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

  8. Discrimination of nuclear and electronic recoil events using plasma effect in germanium detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, W -Z; Mei, D -M

    2016-01-01

    We report a new method of using the plasma time difference, which results from the plasma effect, between the nuclear and electronic recoil events in high-purity germanium detectors to distinguish these two types of events in the search for rare physics processes. The physics mechanism of the plasma effect is discussed in detail. A numerical model is developed to calculate the plasma time for nuclear and electronic recoils at various energies in germanium detectors. It can be shown that under certain conditions the plasma time difference is large enough to be observable. The experimental aspects in realizing such a discrimination in germanium detectors is discussed.

  9. The injection of ten electron/$^{3}$He-rich SEP events

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Linghua; Mason, Glenn M; Lin, Robert P; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We have derived the particle injections at the Sun for ten good electron/$^{3}$He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events, using a 1.2 AU particle path length (suggested by analysis of the velocity dispersion). The inferred solar injections of high-energy ($\\sim$10 to 300 keV) electrons and of $\\sim$MeV/nucleon ions (carbon and heavier) start with a delay of 17$\\pm$3 minutes and 75$\\pm$14 minutes, respectively, after the injection of low-energy ($\\sim$0.4 to 9 keV) electrons. The injection duration (averaged over energy) ranges from $\\sim$200 to 550 minutes for ions, from $\\sim$90 to 160 minutes for low-energy electrons, and from $\\sim$10 to 30 minutes for high-energy electrons. Most of the selected events have no reported H$\\alpha$ flares or GOES SXR bursts, but all have type III radio bursts that typically start after the onset of a low-energy electron injection. All nine events with SOHO/LASCO coverage have a relatively fast ($>$570km/s), mostly narrow ($\\lesssim$30$^{\\circ}$), west-limb coronal mass ej...

  10. Spacetime algebra and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, C J L; Gull, S F; Somaroo, S; Challinor, A D

    1996-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of geometric algebra to the physics of electrons. It first appeared in 1996 and is reproduced here with only minor modifications. Subjects covered include non-relativistic and relativistic spinors, the Dirac equation, operators and monogenics, the Hydrogen atom, propagators and scattering theory, spin precession, tunnelling times, spin measurement, multiparticle quantum mechanics, relativistic multiparticle wave equations, and semiclassical mechanics.

  11. Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ equation for non-relativistic sources derived from Einstein's inertial motion and the Newtonian law for relative acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    With Einstein's inertial motion (free-falling and non-rotating relative to gyroscopes), geodesics for non-relativistic particles can intersect repeatedly, allowing one to compute the space-time curvature $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ exactly. Einstein's $R^{\\hat{0} \\hat{0}}$ for strong gravitational fields and for relativistic source-matter is identical with the Newtonian expression for the relative radial acceleration of neighboring free-falling test-particles, spherically averaged.--- Einstein's field equations follow from Newtonian experiments, local Lorentz-covariance, and energy-momentum conservation combined with the Bianchi identity.

  12. Approximate, non-relativistic scattering phase shifts, bound state energies, and wave function normalization factors for a screened Coulomb potential of the Hulthen type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.

    1983-03-01

    Non-relativistic scattering phase shifts, bound state energies, and wave function normalization factors for a screened Coulomb potential of the Hulthen type are presented in the form of relatively simple analytic expressions. These formulae have been obtained by a suitable renormalization procedure applied to the quantities derived from an approximate Schroedinger equation which contains the exact Hulthen potential together with an approximate angular momentum term. When the screening exponent vanishes, our formulae reduce to the exact Coulomb expresions. The interrelation between our formulae and Pratt's analytic perturbation theory for screened Coulomb potentials' is discussed.

  13. Search for Electronic Recoil Event Rate Modulation with 4 Years of XENON100 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We report on a search for electronic recoil event rate modulation signatures in the XENON100 data accumulated over a period of 4 yr, from January 2010 to January 2014. A profile likelihood method, which incorporates the stability of the XENON100 detector and the known electronic recoil background model, is used to quantify the significance of periodicity in the time distribution of events. There is a weak modulation signature at a period of 43 1-14+16 day in the low energy region of (2.0-5.8) keV in the single scatter event sample, with a global significance of 1.9 σ ; however, no other more significant modulation is observed. The significance of an annual modulation signature drops from 2.8 σ , from a previous analysis of a subset of this data, to 1.8 σ with all data combined. Single scatter events in the low energy region are thus used to exclude the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation as being due to dark matter electron interactions via axial vector coupling at 5.7 σ .

  14. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  15. Local instability driving extreme events in a pair of coupled chaotic electronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gilson F.; Di Lorenzo, Orlando; de Silans, Thierry Passerat; Chevrollier, Martine; Oriá, Marcos; Cavalcante, Hugo L. D. de Souza

    2016-06-01

    For a long time, extreme events happening in complex systems, such as financial markets, earthquakes, and neurological networks, were thought to follow power-law size distributions. More recently, evidence suggests that in many systems the largest and rarest events differ from the other ones. They are dragon kings, outliers that make the distribution deviate from a power law in the tail. Understanding the processes of formation of extreme events and what circumstances lead to dragon kings or to a power-law distribution is an open question and it is a very important one to assess whether extreme events will occur too often in a specific system. In the particular system studied in this paper, we show that the rate of occurrence of dragon kings is controlled by the value of a parameter. The system under study here is composed of two nearly identical chaotic oscillators which fail to remain in a permanently synchronized state when coupled. We analyze the statistics of the desynchronization events in this specific example of two coupled chaotic electronic circuits and find that modifying a parameter associated to the local instability responsible for the loss of synchronization reduces the occurrence of dragon kings, while preserving the power-law distribution of small- to intermediate-size events with the same scaling exponent. Our results support the hypothesis that the dragon kings are caused by local instabilities in the phase space.

  16. Catalogue of electron precipitation events as observed in the long-duration cosmic ray balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Stozhkov, Yu. I.; Svirzhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.

    2016-11-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), the Lebedev Physical Institute performs the regular measurements of charged particle fluxes in the Earth's atmosphere (from the ground level up to 30-35 km) at several latitudes. The unique experimental data base obtained during 58 years of cosmic rays observations in the atmosphere allows to investigate temporal, spatial and energetic characteristics of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the role of charged particles in the atmospheric processes. Analysis of this data base also revealed a special class of numerous events caused by energetic electron precipitation recorded in the atmosphere at polar latitudes. In this paper we present Catalogue of electron precipitation events observed in the polar atmosphere during 1961-2014 and briefly outline the previous results of this data set analysis.

  17. Determination of electron trigger efficiencies using Z ---> e e events at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mattig, S; Schleper, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has designed a three-level trigger system in order to reduce the LHC bunch crossing frequency of 40 MHz to O(100 Hz ) which can be recorded. For several key measurements a good understanding of the performance of the trigger system is needed. In this thesis a method for the determination of electron trigger efficiencies from Z 0 → e +e − events, called Tag&Probe; , is presented. Results obtained by this method from simulated events are presented, including a detailed study of the electron trigger performance and a discussion of possible error sources of the method. It is demonstrated that the efficiencies as obtained from the Tag&Probe; method can be used to correct corresponding inefficiencies in other physics processes using the example of leptonic tt decays.

  18. Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2011-01-01

    Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

  19. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  20. Monitoring physicians' prescription patterns on electronic health record: the prescription pattern around clinical event (PACE) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Inwhee; Park, Man Young; Hong, Seung Kwon; Park, Rae Woong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have gained attention as a valuable data source for medical research, as its adoption rate continues to rise. However, no method for the monitoring of physicians' prescription patterns has been established. Since EHR maintain all prescription data as well as clinical events that occur during the care of patients, we hypothesized that a physician's prescription pattern can be monitored from EHR. In this study, we developed a novel algorithm named PACE, Prescription pattern Around Clinical Event. This algorithm analyzes distribution of the prescription of specific drugs around the time of a clinical event. In the proof of concept study, prescription changes with regard to hyperkalemia were well represented by the algorithm, and the observed patterns well correlated with the physician's knowledge on hyperkalemia (Cohen's kappa, 0.457-0.653). We expect that this algorithm can be used to monitor the guideline adherence of physicians.

  1. The use of discrete-event simulation modeling to compare handwritten and electronic prescribing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghany, Ahmad; Vassanji, Karim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Keshavjee, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) is expected to bring many benefits to Canadian healthcare, such as a reduction in errors and adverse drug reactions. As there currently is no functioning e-prescribing system in Canada that is completely electronic, we are unable to evaluate the performance of a live system. An alternative approach is to use simulation modeling for evaluation. We developed two discrete-event simulation models, one of the current handwritten prescribing system and one of a proposed e-prescribing system, to compare the performance of these two systems. We were able to compare the number of processes in each model, workflow efficiency, and the distribution of patients or prescriptions. Although we were able to compare these models to each other, using discrete-event simulation software was challenging. We were limited in the number of variables we could measure. We discovered non-linear processes and feedback loops in both models that could not be adequately represented using discrete-event simulation software. Finally, interactions between entities in both models could not be modeled using this type of software. We have come to the conclusion that a more appropriate approach to modeling both the handwritten and electronic prescribing systems would be to use a complex adaptive systems approach using agent-based modeling or systems-based modeling.

  2. Higgs boson candidate event from 2012 data (8 TeV) recorded by the CMS experiment: ZZ to four electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, both of which subsequently decay to a pair of electrons. The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  3. Higgs boson candidate event from 2012 data (8 TeV) recorded by the CMS experiment: ZZ to four electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, both of which subsequently decay to a pair of electrons. The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  4. Characteristics of Energetic Electron Events in Mercury's Magnetosphere at the 10-ms Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Goldsten, J. O.; Lawrence, D. J.; Starr, R. D.; Ho, G. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Gold, R. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Baker, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Throughout its orbital mission, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has detected energetic electrons at Mercury. The electrons have been measured by the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) component of the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS). Fewer, but related bursts of hard X-rays measured in the sensors of the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft are identified as bremsstrahlung from these electron events produced within the sensors of these instruments. After ~9500 h of problem-free operation, the cryogenic cooler used to cool the GRS high-purity germanium detector, which had an expected life of 8000 to 12,000 h, failed in June 2012, rendering the detector unusable and leaving GRS unable to measure individual elemental species in Mercury's surface materials. However, the GRS anticoincidence shield (ACS) of borated plastic remained fully functional and able to detect neutrons and energetic electron (EE) events. As part of the second extension of the MESSENGER mission, the GRS was repurposed for making high-time-resolution measurements of the energetic electrons. A software upload on 25 February 2013 allowed for intensity, but not energy information, to be obtained at a 10-ms cadence, compared with the 600-ms resolution of the energetic particle detector on Mariner 10. The large geometric factor of the ACS allows for good signal-to-noise ratios even at these short measurement intervals. Substantial intensity variations (up to ~30%) occur over short time intervals (≤ 30 ms) in the most 'bursty' of the events. In many of the EE events, marked structure is seen down to at least 100 ms, structure not resolvable in the earlier MESSENGER or Mariner 10 measurements. At typical spacecraft orbital speeds, the observed temporal variations map to spatial scales ~30 to 300 m. Comparison of the largest events with data from other MESSENGER instruments, which provide energy

  5. Electron distribution function behavior during localized transverse ion acceleration events in the topside auroral zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.A.; Arnoldy, R.L. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kintner, P.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Vago, J.L. [European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1994-02-01

    The Topaz3 auroral sounding rocket made the following observations concerning the transfer of precipitating auroral electron energy to transverse ion acceleration in the topside auroral zone. During the course of the flight, the precipitating electron beam was modified to varying degrees by interaction with VLF hiss, at times changing the beam into a field-aligned plateau. The electron distribution functions throughout the flight are classified according to the extent of this modification, and correspondences with ion acceleration events are sought. The hiss power during most of this rocket flight apparently exceeded the threshold for collapse into solitary structures. At the times of plateaued electron distributions, the collapse of these structures was limited by Landau damping through the ambient ions, resulting in a velocity-dependent acceleration of both protons and oxygen. This initial acceleration is sufficient to supply the number flux of upflowing ions observed at satellite altitudes. The bursty ion acceleration was anticorrelated, on 1-s or smaller timescales, with dispersive bursts of precipitating field-aligned electrons, although on longer timescales the bursty ions and the bursty electrons are correlated. 45 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Drug and alcohol-impaired driving among electronic music dance event attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, Debra; Voas, Robert B; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Miller, Brenda

    2006-10-15

    Drug-impaired driving has received increased attention resulting from development of rapid drug-screening procedures used by police and state laws establishing per se limits for drug levels in drivers. Venues that host electronic music dance events (EMDEs) provide a unique opportunity to assess drug-impaired driving among a high proportion of young adult drug users. EMDEs are late-night dance parties marked by a substantial number of young adult attendees and elevated drug involvement. No studies to date have examined drug-impaired driving in a natural environment with active drug and alcohol users. Six EMDEs were sampled in San Diego, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A random sample of approximately 40 attendees per event were administered surveys about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and driving status, given breath tests for alcohol, and asked to provide oral fluid samples to test for illicit drug use upon entering and exiting the events. Driving status reduced the level of alcohol use (including abstaining) but the impact on drug-taking was not significant. However, 62% of individuals who reported their intention to drive away from the events were positive for drugs or alcohol upon leaving. This suggests that these events and settings are appropriate ones for developing interventions for reducing risks for young adults.

  7. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  8. Search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Gando, A; Hachiya, T; Hayashi, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Karino, Y; Koga, M; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Obara, S; Oura, T; Ozaki, H; Shimizu, I; Shirahata, Y; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takai, T; Tamae, K; Teraoka, Y; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Kozolov, A; Takemoto, Y; Yoshida, S; Fushimi, K; Piepke, A; Banks, T I; Berger, B E; Fujikawa, B K; O'Donnell, T; Learned, J G; Maricic, J; Sakai, M; Winslow, L A; Krupczak, E; Ouellet, J; Efremenko, Y; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for low energy antineutrino events coincident with the gravitational wave events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012 using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale antineutrino detector. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within $\\pm 500$ seconds of either gravitational wave signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron antineutrino fluence and the luminosity of the astrophysical sources.

  9. Investigating the Relationship of EMIC Waves and Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; McCarthy, M. P.; Smith, D. M.; Sample, J. G.

    2007-05-01

    EMIC waves are generated and driven by anisotropic ring current protons. These unstable protons are injected into the inner magnetosphere by increased earthward convection during periods of elevated geomagnetic activity. A study by Meredith et al. (2003) showed EMIC wave events resonant with radiation belt electrons of energies less then 2MeV were located near the plasmapause in high density regions typical of the plasmaspheric plume. This study seeks to investigate the theory of relativistic electron precipitation (REP) due to wave particle interaction with EMIC waves. REP events were detected by balloon borne instrumentation during the MAXIS and MINIS balloon campaigns conducted in Jan. of 2000 and 2005 respectively. The location of these events with respect to the plasmapause will be explored using a plasmapause test particle simulation code and IMAGE EUV data. Also, data provided by the LANL satellite MPA instrument will be used to investigate the temperature anisotropy of ring current protons that may drive EMIC waves in the region of detected REP.

  10. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E J Armer

    Full Text Available The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM. The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism.

  11. Associated Electron-Muon Events from High-Energy Hadronic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaag, Robert Emil

    The inclusive reaction p + N (--->) e + (mu) + X was measured at an energy of 38.8 GeV (center of mass). Data representing a total luminosity of 13.4 inverse femtobarns (13.4 x 10('39) cm('-2)) were analyzed. Three associated electron-muon events were observed. The observed signal was 0.02 (+OR-) 0.015 of the Drell-Yan di-muon production. The expected number of e(mu) events from tau lepton pair production and decay was calculated to be 0.5 (+OR-) 0.1. A two sigma upper limit for (lepton family number violating) two body resonant decays to e + (mu) was obtained (physi- cally reasonable model. No prompt e(mu) events attributable to charm production and decay, or bottom production and decay, were seen. This corresponded to a two sigma upper limit for charm pair produc- tion of ) D + (')D (--->) e + K (--->) e + (mu) interpretation of these candidate events was consistent with the lower limit on charm production obtained with the prompt e(mu) rate.

  12. Response of the ionospheric electron density to different types of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The electron density data recorded by the Langmuir Probe Instrument (ISL, Instrument Sonde de Langmuir onboard the DEMETER satellite have been collected for nearly 4 yr (during 2006–2009 to perform a statistical analysis. During this time, more than 7000 earthquakes with a magnitude larger than or equal to 5.0 occurred all over the world. For the statistical studies, all these events have been divided into various categories on the basis of the seismic information, including Southern or Northern Hemisphere earthquakes, inland or sea earthquakes, earthquakes at different magnitude levels, earthquakes at different depth levels, isolated events and all events. To distinguish the pre-earthquake anomalies from the possible ionospheric anomalies related to the geomagnetic activity, the data were filtered with the Kp index. The statistical results obviously show that the electron density increases close to the epicentres both in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, but the position of the anomaly is slightly shifted to the north in the Northern Hemisphere and to the south in the Southern Hemisphere. The electron density related to both inland and sea earthquakes presents an anomaly approximately close to the epicentres, but the anomaly for sea earthquakes is more significant than for inland earthquakes. The intensity of the anomalies is enhanced when the magnitude increases and is reduced when the depth increases. A similar anomaly can also be seen in the statistical results concerning the isolated earthquakes. All these statistical results can help to better understand the preparation process of the earthquakes and their influence up to the ionospheric levels.

  13. Tool Monitoring and Electronic Event Logging for Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Heiserich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes some innovative solutions regarding sensor systems for tool monitoring in the sheet metal industry. Autonomous and tamper-proof sensors, which are integrated in the forming tools, can detect and count the strokes carried out by a sheet metal forming press. Furthermore, an electronic event logger for documentary purposes and quality control was developed. Based on this technical solution, new business models such as leasing of sheet metal forming tools can be established for cooperation among enterprises. These models allow usage-based billing for the contractors, taking the effectively produced number of parts into account.

  14. Development, Implementation and Use of Electronic Surveillance for Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetar, Ervina; McMullen, Kathleen M; Russo, Anthony J; Doherty, Joshua A; Gase, Kathleen A; Woeltje, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation provides an important, life-saving therapy for severely ill patients, but ventilated patients are at an increased risk for complications, poor outcomes, and death during hospitalization.1 The timely measurement of negative outcomes is important in order to identify potential issues and to minimize the risk to patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created an algorithm for identifying Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in adult patients for reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Currently, the primarily manual surveillance tools require a significant amount of time from hospital infection prevention (IP) staff to apply and interpret. This paper describes the implementation of an electronic VAE tool using an internal clinical data repository and an internally developed electronic surveillance system that resulted in a reduction of labor efforts involved in identifying VAE at Barnes Jewish Hospital (BJH).

  15. Generation of electric field by spin-currents in the U(1)xSU(2) gauge invariant Pauli-Schroedinger non-relativistic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.b [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR) (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.b [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-31

    The non-relativistic Pauli-Schroedinger theory has a richer gauge structure than usually expected, being invariant under the U(1)xSU(2) gauge group, which allows to define spin-current density vectors and obtains the relevant conserved quantities from Noether's theorem. The electromagnetic fields E and B play the role of the gauge potentials for the SU(2) sector of the gauge group and can possibly contribute with a corresponding invariant curvature self-energy term in the Lagrangian density. From the dynamics of the U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields we show that electric fields can be induced by spin-currents originated from the SU(2) gauge symmetry.

  16. Fine structure of Langmuir waves produced by a solar electron event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Williams, D. J.; Bolton, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of highly structured bursts of Langmuir waves produced by energetic electrons ejected from a solar flare using wideband plasma wave measurements on the Galileo spacecraft are reported. Attention is given to the solar flare that occurred on December 10, 1990, while the spacecraft was at a radial distance of 0.98 AU from the sun. This flare emitted a stream of energetic electrons and an associated type III radio event, both of which were detected by Galileo. A large number of intense Langmuir wave bursts were detected near the local electron plasma frequency, which was about 25 kHz. The bursts, which lasted about 1.5 hr, coincided with the arrival of the solar electrons. The bursts are highly structured and consist mainly of isolated wave packets with durations as short as 1 ms and beat-type waveforms with beat frequencies ranging from 200 to 500 Hz. The highly structured envelopes of these waves are strongly suggestive of nonlinear parametric decay processes such as those predicted by various theories dealing with the saturation of beam-driven electrostatic instabilities.

  17. GEOS-2 observations of energetic electrons in the morning sector during auroral radio absorption events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, P.N.; Korth, A.

    1985-04-01

    The temporal development of two auroral absorption events in the morning sector is compared with simultaneous observations of electrons from the satellite GEOS-2, utilizing the good energy resolution over the range 15-300 keV to show that the electrons effective in contributing to the observed radio absorption are confined to the range 30-130 keV. By far the most important are those below 80 keV, and as a geophysical monitor the riometer may be considered an efficient indicator of electron fluxes of energy typically of 60-70 keV. The ionospheric effects of the precipitated fluxes are predicted, and the results used to discuss the validity of the model atmosphere and of the profiles of effective recombination coefficient and specific absorption. Integration of the calculated profiles of incremental radio absorption yields total estimates within 30 percent of the observed intensities. The absorbing layer maximizes at altitudes of 85-90 km and has a typical half-height of 25 km. It is shown further that the electron-flux characteristics are consistent with gradient-curvature drift from a particle source in the midnight sector. 33 references.

  18. Magnetic field turbulence, electron heating, magnetic holes, proton cyclotron waves, and the onsets of bipolar pulse (electron hole events: a possible unifying scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two electron heating events have been identified on 20 May 1996 when Polar was in the polar cap/polar cusp boundary layer. The electron heating events were located within magnetic holes/cavities/bubbles and were accompanied by nonlinear ± 14 nT peak-to-peak (f ~ 0.6 to 0.7 fcp obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves. The electrons appear to be heated isotropically. Electric bipolar pulse (electron hole onset events were also detected within the heating events. We propose a scenario which can link the above phenomena. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, generated through cusp magnetic reconnection, propagate down magnetic field lines and locally heat electrons through the ponderomotive force. The magnetic cavity is created through the diamagnetic effect of the heated electrons. Ion heating also occurs through ponderomotive acceleration (but much less than the electrons and the protons generate the electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves through the loss cone instability. The obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves accelerate bi-streaming electrons, which are the source of free energy for the electron holes.

  19. Resonances of the confined hydrogen atom and the Lamb-Dicke effect in non-relativistic qed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faupin, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    We study a model describing a system of one dynamical nucleus and one electron confined by their center of mass and interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. We impose an ultraviolet cutoff and assume that the fine-structure constant is sufficiently small. Using a renormalization grou...... method (based on [3, 4]), we prove that the unperturbed eigenvalues turn into resonances when the nucleus and the electron are coupled to the radiation field. This analysis is related to the Lamb–Dicke effect....

  20. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  1. Mass-gathering Medicine: Risks and Patient Presentations at a 2-Day Electronic Dance Music Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A

    2015-06-01

    Music festivals, including electronic dance music events (EDMEs), increasingly are common in Canada and internationally. Part of a US $4.5 billion industry annually, the target audience is youth and young adults aged 15-25 years. Little is known about the impact of these events on local emergency departments (EDs). Drawing on prospective data over a 2-day EDME, the authors of this study employed mixed methods to describe the case mix and prospectively compared patient presentation rate (PPR) and ambulance transfer rate (ATR) between a first aid (FA) only and a higher level of care (HLC) model. There were 20,301 ticketed attendees. Seventy patient encounters were recorded over two days. The average age was 19.1 years. Roughly 69% were female (n=48/70). Forty-six percent of those seen in the main medical area were under the age of 19 years (n=32/70). The average length of stay in the main medical area was 70.8 minutes. The overall PPR was 4.09 per 1,000 attendees. The ATR with FA only would have been 1.98; ATR with HLC model was 0.52. The presence of an on-site HLC team had a significant positive effect on avoiding ambulance transfers. Twenty-nine ambulance transfers and ED visits were avoided by the presence of an on-site HLC medical team. Reduction of impact to the public health care system was substantial. Electronic dance music events have predictable risks and patient presentations, and appropriate on-site health care resources may reduce significantly the impact on the prehospital and emergency health resources in the host community.

  2. Lighting-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) Events versus Geomagnetic Activity: A Probe Tool to Re-Evaluate the Electron Radiation Belt Loss Mechanisms (P16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. H.; Raulin, J.-P.; Correia, E.; Brum, C. G. M.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first results of an incipient attempt to re-model the Van Allen electron radiation belts equilibrium mechanisms. During the 23rd cycle solar minimum period (1995-1997) the Lightning- induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events (electron precipitation from the geo-space to the upper Earth atmosphere) occurrence at the Antarctica Peninsula region was collected and studied. With statistical techniques we have reproduced the pattern of the events incidence during that period. The year 1998 was also analyzed and two well-defined geomagnetic storms (01-07 May and 26-31 Aug) were studied in association with the Trimpi events data. We have confirmed the narrow relationship between events occurrence rate and geomagnetic activity. The next step, in order to carry on the model, will be the modeling of the solar maximum LEP occurrence and to compute these results in the present radiation belts population models.

  3. The Effect of an Electronic SBAR Communication Tool on Documentation of Acute Events in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Rahul S; Albert, Ben; Messina, Catherine; Parker, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR) handoff tool is designed to improve communication. The effects of integrating an electronic medical record (EMR) with a SBAR template are unclear. The research team hypothesizes that an electronic SBAR template improves documentation and communication between nurses and physicians. In all, 84 patient events were recorded from 542 admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit. Three time periods were studied: (a) paper documentation only, (b) electronic documentation, and (c) electronic documentation with an SBAR template. Documentation quality was assessed using a 4-point scoring system. The frequency of event notes increased progressively during the 3 study periods. Mean quality scores improved significantly from paper documentation to EMR free-text notes and to electronic SBAR-template notes, as did nurse and attending physician notification. The implementation of an electronic SBAR note is associated with more complete documentation and increased frequency of documentation of communication among nurses and physicians.

  4. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-07-16

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km{sup 3} of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2} is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E{sup -2} in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  5. ELECTRON AND PROTON ACCELERATION DURING THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.; Sun, L. P. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Firoz, Kazi A. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Miroshnichenko, L. I., E-mail: lic@nju.edu.cn [N. V. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, 142190 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-10

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 {+-} 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 {+-} 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electrons by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active region has been performed to provide escape channels for flare-accelerated electrons. Meanwhile, relativistic protons are found to be released {approx}10 minutes later than the electrons, assuming their scatter-free travel along the same IMF path length. Combining multi-wavelength imaging data of the prominence eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME), we obtain evidence that GLE protons, with an estimated kinetic energy of {approx}1.12 GeV, are probably accelerated by the CME-driven shock when it travels to {approx}3.07 solar radii. The time-of-maximum spectrum of protons is typical for shock wave acceleration.

  6. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Berg, Melanie D.; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Violette, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  7. Energy shift of H-atom electrons due to Gibbons-Hawking thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by calculating an electron coupling to the Gibbons-Hawking electromagnetic field thermal bath. Energy shift of electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  8. Accelerated event-by-event Monte Carlo microdosimetric calculations of electrons and protons tracks on a multi-core CPU and a CUDA-enabled GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, Georgios; Tachibana, Hidenobu

    2014-01-01

    For microdosimetric calculations event-by-event Monte Carlo (MC) methods are considered the most accurate. The main shortcoming of those methods is the extensive requirement for computational time. In this work we present an event-by-event MC code of low projectile energy electron and proton tracks for accelerated microdosimetric MC simulations on a graphic processing unit (GPU). Additionally, a hybrid implementation scheme was realized by employing OpenMP and CUDA in such a way that both GPU and multi-core CPU were utilized simultaneously. The two implementation schemes have been tested and compared with the sequential single threaded MC code on the CPU. Performance comparison was established on the speed-up for a set of benchmarking cases of electron and proton tracks. A maximum speedup of 67.2 was achieved for the GPU-based MC code, while a further improvement of the speedup up to 20% was achieved for the hybrid approach. The results indicate the capability of our CPU-GPU implementation for accelerated MC microdosimetric calculations of both electron and proton tracks without loss of accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of evaluations of electronic event-based biosurveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Kimberly N; Peterson, Amy E; Chitale, Rohit A; Pavlin, Julie A; Russell, Kevin L; Chretien, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Electronic event-based biosurveillance systems (EEBS's) that use near real-time information from the internet are an increasingly important source of epidemiologic intelligence. However, there has not been a systematic assessment of EEBS evaluations, which could identify key uncertainties about current systems and guide EEBS development to most effectively exploit web-based information for biosurveillance. To conduct this assessment, we searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed evaluations of EEBS's. We included EEBS's that use publicly available internet information sources, cover events that are relevant to human health, and have global scope. To assess the publications using a common framework, we constructed a list of 17 EEBS attributes from published guidelines for evaluating health surveillance systems. We identified 11 EEBS's and 20 evaluations of these EEBS's. The number of published evaluations per EEBS ranged from 1 (Gen-Db, GODsN, MiTAP) to 8 (GPHIN, HealthMap). The median number of evaluation variables assessed per EEBS was 8 (range, 3-15). Ten published evaluations contained quantitative assessments of at least one key variable. No evaluations examined usefulness by identifying specific public health decisions, actions, or outcomes resulting from EEBS outputs. Future EEBS assessments should identify and discuss critical indicators of public health utility, especially the impact of EEBS's on public health response.

  10. A review of evaluations of electronic event-based biosurveillance systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly N Gajewski

    Full Text Available Electronic event-based biosurveillance systems (EEBS's that use near real-time information from the internet are an increasingly important source of epidemiologic intelligence. However, there has not been a systematic assessment of EEBS evaluations, which could identify key uncertainties about current systems and guide EEBS development to most effectively exploit web-based information for biosurveillance. To conduct this assessment, we searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed evaluations of EEBS's. We included EEBS's that use publicly available internet information sources, cover events that are relevant to human health, and have global scope. To assess the publications using a common framework, we constructed a list of 17 EEBS attributes from published guidelines for evaluating health surveillance systems. We identified 11 EEBS's and 20 evaluations of these EEBS's. The number of published evaluations per EEBS ranged from 1 (Gen-Db, GODsN, MiTAP to 8 (GPHIN, HealthMap. The median number of evaluation variables assessed per EEBS was 8 (range, 3-15. Ten published evaluations contained quantitative assessments of at least one key variable. No evaluations examined usefulness by identifying specific public health decisions, actions, or outcomes resulting from EEBS outputs. Future EEBS assessments should identify and discuss critical indicators of public health utility, especially the impact of EEBS's on public health response.

  11. Physical mechanism causing rapid changes in ultrarelativistic electron pitch angle distributions right after a shock arrival: Evaluation of an electron dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-J.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ma, Q.; Li, J.; Bortnik, J.; Nishimura, Y.; Chen, L.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-09-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain relativistic electron flux depletions (dropouts) in the Earth's outer radiation belt during storm times: adiabatic expansion of electron drift shells due to a decrease in magnetic field strength, magnetopause shadowing and subsequent outward radial diffusion, and precipitation into the atmosphere (driven by EMIC wave scattering). Which mechanism predominates in causing electron dropouts commonly observed in the outer radiation belt is still debatable. In the present study, we evaluate the physical mechanism that may be primarily responsible for causing the sudden change in relativistic electron pitch angle distributions during a dropout event observed by Van Allen Probes during the main phase of the 27 February 2014 storm. During this event, the phase space density of ultrarelativistic (>1 MeV) electrons was depleted by more than 1 order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the outer radiation belt (3 highly anisotropic (peaked in 90°), energy-dependent pitch angle distributions, which appear to be associated with the typical EMIC wave scattering, comparison of the modeled electron distribution to electron measurements indicates that drift shell splitting is responsible for this rapid change in electron pitch angle distributions. This further indicates that magnetopause loss is the predominant cause of the electron dropout right after the shock arrival.

  12. Counterstreaming suprathermal electron events upstream of corotating shocks in the solar wind beyond approximately 2 AU: Ulysses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced fluxes of suprathermal electrons are commonly observed upstream of corotating forward and reverse shocks in the solar wind at heliocentric distances beyond approximately 2 AU by the Los Alamos plasma experiment on Ulysses. The average duration of these events, which are most intense immediately upstream from the shocks and which fade with increasing distance from them, is approximately 2.4 days near 5 AU. These events are caused by the leakage of shock-heated electrons into the upstream region. The upstream regions of these shocks face back toward the Sun along the interplanetary magnetic field, so these leaked electrons commonly counterstream relative to the normal solar wind electron heat flux. The observations suggest that conservation of magnetic moment and scattering typically limit the sunward propagation of these electrons as beams to field-aligned distances of approximately 15 AU. Although it seems unlikely that these shock-associated events are an important source of counterstreaming events near 1 AU, remnants of the backstreaming beams may contribute importantly to the diffuse solar wind halo electron population there.

  13. Photoproduction of Prompt $J/\\psi$ in Association with a $c\\bar{c}$ Pair within the Framework of Non-relativistic QCD at the International Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhan; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematical study on the photoproduction of prompt $J/\\psi$ in association with a $c\\bar{c}$ pair within the framework of non-relativistic QCD at the future high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider - International Linear Collider, including both direct and feed-down contributions. For direct $J/\\psi$ production, the states with color-octet $c\\bar{c}$-components, especially $|c\\bar{c}[^3P^{[8]}_J]g\\rangle$ and $|c\\bar{c}[^1S^{[8]}_0]g\\rangle$, provide dominant contribution to the production cross-section, which are about sixty times over that of the color-singlet state $|c\\bar{c}[^3S^{[1]}_1]\\rangle$. This is clearly shown by the transverse momentum ($p_t$) and rapidity distributions. The feed-down contribution from $\\psi'$ and $\\chi_{cJ}$ ($J=0,1,2$) is sizable, which is $\\sim 20\\%$ to the total prompt cross-section. Besides the yields, we also calculate the $J/\\psi$ polarization parameter $\\lambda$. In small $p_t$ region, the polarization of the prompt $J/\\psi$ is longitudinal due to $|c\\bar{c}[^3P^{[...

  14. Properties of Z=120 nuclei and the \\alpha-decay chains of the (292,304)120 isotopes using relativistic and non-relativistic formalisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahamad, Shakeb; Patra, S K

    2012-01-01

    The ground state and first intrinsic excited state of superheavy nuclei with Z=120 and N=160-204 are investigated using both non-relativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock and the axially deformed Relativistic Mean Field formalisms. We employ a simple BCS pairing approach for calculating the energy contribution from pairing interaction. The results for isotopic chain of binding energy, quadrupole deformation parameter, two neutron separation energies and some other observables are compared with the FRDM and some recent macroscopic-microscopic calculations. We predict superdeformed ground state solutions for almost all the isotopes. Considering the possibility of magic neutron number, two different mode of \\alpha-decay chains (292)120 and (304)120 are also studied within these frameworks. The Q_{\\alpha}-values and the half-life T^{\\alpha}_{1/2} for these two different mode of decay chains are compared with FRDM and recent macroscopic-microscopic calculations. The calculation is extended for the \\alpha-decay chains of 29...

  15. ``Pheudo-cyclotron'' radiation and transport of non-relativistic particles in inhomogeneous sub-Larmor-scale electro-magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Plasma turbulence in some astrophysical objects (e.g., weakly magnetized collisionless shocks in GRBs and SN) has small-scale electro-magnetic field fluctuations. We study spectral characteristics of radiation produced by particles moving in such turbulence and relate it to transport properties (diffusion) of these particles. It was shown earlier that relativistic particles produce jitter radiation, which spectral characteristics are markedly different from synchrotron radiation. Here we study radiation produced by non-relativistic particles. Unlike radiation in homogeneous field, which spectrum consists of a single cyclotron harmonic, radiation in the sub-Larmor-scale turbulence reflects statistical properties of the underlying magnetic field. We present both analytical estimates and results of ab initio numerical simulations. We also show that particle propagation in such turbulence is diffusive and evaluate the diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient correlates with some spectral parameters. These results can be very valuable for remote diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  16. Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Røed, K; Helstrup, H; Natås, T

    2009-01-01

    Single Event Upsets in SRAM FPGA based readout electronics for the Time Projection Chamber in the ALICE experiment irradiation test results have been used to predict the single event upset rate expected during operation in the ALICE experiment. Due to the number of FPGAs utilized in the TPC front-end electronics, single event upsets can be a reliability concern. In order to reduce the probability of system malfunction, a reconfiguration solution was developed that enables the possibility to clear single event upsets in the configuration memory of the FPGA. Irradiation test results show that combined with additional system level mitigation techniques, this reconfiguration solution can be used to finally reduce the functional failure rate of the FPGA. Because irradiation testing can be time consuming, costly and sometimes even technically difficult, a software based fault injection solution has been implemented without any modification to the existing hardware setup. It provides an alternative and possibly syst...

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic-Particle-in-Cell Method for Coupling Cosmic Rays with a Thermal Plasma: Application to Non-relativistic Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a magnetohydrodynamic-particle-in-cell (MHD-PIC) method for describing the interaction between collisionless cosmic ray (CR) particles and a thermal plasma. The thermal plasma is treated as a fluid, obeying equations of ideal MHD, while CRs are treated as relativistic Lagrangian particles subject to the Lorentz force. Backreaction from CRs to the gas is included in the form of momentum and energy feedback. In addition, we include the electromagnetic feedback due to CR-induced Hall effect that becomes important when the electron-ion drift velocity of the background plasma induced by CRs approaches the Alfv\\'en velocity. Our method is applicable on scales much larger than the ion inertial length, bypassing the microscopic scales that must be resolved in conventional PIC methods, while retaining the full kinetic nature of the CRs. We have implemented and tested this method in the Athena MHD code, where the overall scheme is second-order accurate and fully conservative. As a first application, we des...

  18. Inelastic cross-sections and energy loss properties by non-relativistic heavy ions in zirconium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Jennifer, E-mail: Jennifer.schofield@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Pimblott, Simon M. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester Dalton Cumbrian Facility, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    A formalism for the inelastic cross-section for electronic collisions of protons and heavier ions in a material is developed based on a quadratic extrapolation of the experimentally based dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) of the material into the energy momentum plane. The approach is tested by calculating various energy loss properties in zirconium dioxide. Mean free path, stopping power and continuous slowing down approximation (csda) range are predicted as a function of ion energy for various incident ions, with the stopping powers compared to experimental data to assess the effectiveness of the methodology. The DOSD is straightforwardly obtained from the experimentally measured energy loss function data below 80 eV and atomic photo-absorption cross-section data above 100 eV. Agreement between the results of the calculation for stopping power and the experimental data is within 10% for all ions when compared for energies greater than the Bragg peak. The discrepancy is larger below the peak due to limitations in the methodology, especially the failure to make corrections for the Barkas and higher order effects and the lack of charge cycling cross-section data.

  19. Search for displaced supersymmetry in events with an electron and a muon with large impact parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Grebenyuk, A; Léonard, A; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Zenoni, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Dildick, S; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Dos Reis Martins, T; Mora Herrera, C; Pol, M E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Tao, J; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L

    2015-02-13

    A search for new long-lived particles decaying to leptons is presented using proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC at √[s]=8  TeV. Data used for the analysis were collected by the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7  fb(-1). Events are selected with an electron and muon with opposite charges that both have transverse impact parameter values between 0.02 and 2 cm. The search has been designed to be sensitive to a wide range of models with nonprompt e-μ final states. Limits are set on the "displaced supersymmetry" model, with pair production of top squarks decaying into an e-μ final state via R-parity-violating interactions. The results are the most restrictive to date on this model, with the most stringent limit being obtained for a top squark lifetime corresponding to cτ=2  cm, excluding masses below 790 GeV at 95% confidence level.

  20. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  1. Search for Displaced Supersymmetry in events with an electron and a muon with large impact parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-02-13

    A search for new long-lived particles decaying to leptons is presented using proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. Data used for the analysis were collected by the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. Events are selected with an electron and a muon that have transverse impact parameter values between 0.02 cm and 2 cm. The search has been designed to be sensitive to a wide range of models with non-prompt e-$\\mu$ final states. Limits are set on the ''displaced supersymmetry'' model, with pair production of top squarks decaying into an e-$\\mu$ final state via R-parity violating interactions. The results are the most restrictive to date on this model, with the most stringent limit being obtained for a top squark lifetime corresponding to $c\\tau$ = 2 cm, excluding masses below 790 GeV at 95% confidence level.

  2. Electron events from the scattering with solar neutrinos in the search of keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Hang

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work, we showed that it is possible to detect keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter νs in a β decay experiment using radioactive sources such as T3 or Ru106. The signals of this dark matter candidate are monoenergetic electrons produced in the neutrino capture process νs+ N'→N+e-. These electrons have energy greater than the maximum energy of the electrons produced in the associated decay process N'→N+e-+ν ¯e. Hence, signal electron events are well beyond the end point of the β decay spectrum and are not polluted by the β decay process. Another possible background, which is a potential threat to the detection of νs dark matter, is the electron event produced by the scattering of solar neutrinos with electrons in target matter. In this article, we study in detail this possible background and discuss its implications for the detection of keV scale sterile neutrino dark matter. In particular, bound state features of electrons in Ru atoms are considered with care in the scattering process when the kinetic energy of the final electron is the same order of magnitude of the binding energy.

  3. Energy Dependence of Near-relativistic Electron Spectrum at Geostationary Orbit during the SEP Events of 2005

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Chandrasekhar Reddy; Jatin Rathod; Girija Rajaram; Radharani Alyana; D. S. Misra; C. G. Patil; M. Y. S. Prasad; A. G. Ananth

    2008-03-01

    In view of the renewed interest in the study of energetic particles in the outer radiation belt of the earth, we feel it will be helpful in looking for the energy dependence of the electron energy spectrum at geostationary orbit. This may give us some insight into how we can safeguard geostationary satellites from functional anomalies of the deep dielectric charging type, which are caused by charge accumulation and subsequent discharge of relativistic electrons. In this study we examine whether there is any energy dependence in relativistic electron enhancements at geosynchronous altitudes during solar energetic proton events of 2005.

  4. Current Events via Electronic Media: An Instructional Tool in a General Education Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, T. P.

    2008-12-01

    St. Norbert College (SNC) is a liberal arts college in the Green Bay Metropolitan area with an enrollment of approximately 2100 students. All students are required to take one science course with a laboratory component as part of the general education program. Approximately 40% of all SNC students take introductory geology. Class size for this course is approximately 35 students. Each faculty member teaches one section per semester in a smart classroom A synthesis of current events via electronic media is an excellent pedagogical tool for the introductory geology course. An on-going informal survey of my introductory geology class indicates that between 75- 85% of all students in the class, mostly freshman and sophomores, do not follow the news on a regular basis in any format, i.e. print, internet, or television. Consequently, most are unaware of current scientific topics, events, trends, and relevancy. To address this issue, and develop a positive habit of the mind, a technique called In-the-News-Making-News (INMN) is employed. Each class period begins with a scientifically-related (mostly geology) online news article displayed on an overhead screen. The articles are drawn from a variety of sources that include international sites such as the BBC and CBC; national sites such as PBS, New York Times, and CNN; and local sites such as the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel and the Green Bay Press Gazette. After perusing the article, additional information is often acquired by "Google" to help supplement and clarify the original article. An interactive discussion follows. Topics that are typically covered include: global climate change, basic scientific and technological discoveries, paleontology/evolution, natural disasters, mineral/ energy/ water resources, funding for science, space exploration, and other. Ancillary areas that are often touched on in the conversation include ethics, politics, economics, philosophy, education, geography, culture, or other. INMN addresses

  5. Single-Event Transient Testing of the Crane Aerospace and Electronics SMHF2812D Dual DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to characterize the Crane Aerospace & Electronics (Crane) Interpoint SMHF2812D for single-event transient (SET) susceptibility. These data shall be used for flight lot evaluation, as well as qualification by similarity of the SMHF family of converters, all of which use the same active components.

  6. Statistical analysis of neutrino events from SN1987A neutrino burst: estimation of the electron antineutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, B I

    2007-01-01

    The method of the statistical sample moments was used for the analysis of neutrino events from SN1987A burst in Cherenkov detectors. In particular the coefficients of correlation $Q(E,t)$ between the energies $E$ of electron antineutrinos $\\bar \

  7. Electron-electron attractive interaction in Maxwell-Chern-Simons QED{sub 3} at zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: belich@cbpf.br; manojr@cbpf.br; helayel@gft.ucp.br; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica. E-mail: delcima@gft.ucp.br

    2001-04-01

    One discusses the issue of low-energy electron-electron bound states in the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model coupled to QED{sub 3} with spontaneous breaking of a local U(1)-symmetry. The scattering potential, in the non-relativistic limit, steaming from the electron-electron Moeller scattering, mediated by the Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Proca gauge field and the Higgs scalar, might be attractive by fine-tuning properly the physical parameters of the model. (author)

  8. Mesospheric observations with the EISCAT UHF radar during polar cap absorption events: 1. Electron densities and negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, P.N. (EISCAT Scientific Association Kiruna (SE)); Rietveld, M.T. (EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordbotn, (NO))

    1990-12-01

    Observations of mesospheric electron density were obtained by the EISCAT UHF radar during several polar cap absorption events (PCA's) in 1989. Both the latitudinal extent and the detailed vertical distribution of the excess ionisation were determined. Continuous observations over more than two days during one event allowed an investigation of the variations in electron density during four twilight intervals. It is shown that at sunrise, at heights above 70 km, electrons are released by ultraviolet photodetachment of a high-affinity negative ion, which may be NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Below 66 km altitude, the increase of electron density is delayed by about 30 min, indicating that the time taken for neutral oxygen species to build up is a controlling factor in producing the free electrons at these heights. Both these processes are operative between 66 and 70 km altitude. Nighttime profiles of the ratio of negative ion number density to electron number density are deduced, and empirical relationships of electron concentration at heights between 60 and 70 km are determined as a function of simultaneously observed proton flux.

  9. Non-relativistic quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Ravinder R.

    2017-01-01

    This book develops and simplifies the concept of quantum mechanics based on the postulates of quantum mechanics. The text discusses the technique of disentangling the exponential of a sum of operators, closed under the operation of commutation, as the product of exponentials to simplify calculations of harmonic oscillator and angular momentum. Based on its singularity structure, the Schrödinger equation for various continuous potentials is solved in terms of the hypergeometric or the confluent hypergeometric functions. The forms of the potentials for which the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable are derived in detail. The problem of identifying the states of two-level systems which have no classical analogy is addressed by going beyond Bell-like inequalities and separability. The measures of quantumness of mutual information in two two-level systems is also covered in detail. Offers a new approach to learning quantum mechanics based on the history of quantum mechanics and its postu...

  10. Simultaneous event-specific estimates of transport, loss, and source rates for relativistic outer radiation belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Tu, W.; Ali, A. F.; Li, X.; Godinez, H. C.; Turner, D. L.; Morley, S. K.; Henderson, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    The most significant unknown regarding relativistic electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt is the relative contribution of loss, transport, and acceleration processes within the inner magnetosphere. Detangling each individual process is critical to improve the understanding of radiation belt dynamics, but determining a single component is challenging due to sparse measurements in diverse spatial and temporal regimes. However, there are currently an unprecedented number of spacecraft taking measurements that sample different regions of the inner magnetosphere. With the increasing number of varied observational platforms, system dynamics can begin to be unraveled. In this work, we employ in situ measurements during the 13-14 January 2013 enhancement event to isolate transport, loss, and source dynamics in a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. We then validate the results by comparing them to Van Allen Probes and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations, indicating that the three terms have been accurately and individually quantified for the event. Finally, a direct comparison is performed between the model containing event-specific terms and various models containing terms parameterized by geomagnetic index. Models using a simple 3/Kp loss time scale show deviation from the event-specific model of nearly 2 orders of magnitude within 72 h of the enhancement event. However, models using alternative loss time scales closely resemble the event-specific model.

  11. Double strand breaks in DNA resulting from double-electron-emission events

    CERN Document Server

    Surdutovich, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A mechanism of double strand breaking (DSB) in DNA due to the action of two electrons is considered. These are the electrons produced in the vicinity of DNA molecules due to ionization of water molecules with a consecutive emission of two electrons, making such a mechanism possible. This effect qualitatively solves a puzzle of large yields of DSBs following irradiation of DNA molecules. The transport of secondary electrons, including the additional electrons, is studied in relation to the assessment of radiation damage due to incident ions. This work is a stage in the inclusion of Auger mechanism and like effects into the multiscale approach to ion-beam cancer therapy.

  12. Unexpected spatial intensity distributions and onset timing of solar electron events observed by closely spaced STEREO spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, A.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Müller-Mellin, R.

    2016-09-01

    We present multi-spacecraft observations of four solar electron events using measurements from the Solar Electron Proton Telescope (SEPT) and the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) on board the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, respectively, occurring between 11 October 2013 and 1 August 2014, during the approaching superior conjunction period of the two STEREO spacecraft. At this time the longitudinal separation angle between STEREO-A (STA) and STEREO-B (STB) was less than 72°. The parent particle sources (flares) of the four investigated events were situated close to, in between, or to the west of the STEREO's magnetic footpoints. The STEREO measurements revealed a strong difference in electron peak intensities (factor ≤12) showing unexpected intensity distributions at 1 AU, although the two spacecraft had nominally nearly the same angular magnetic footpoint separation from the flaring active region (AR) or their magnetic footpoints were both situated eastwards from the parent particle source. Furthermore, the events detected by the two STEREO imply a strongly unexpected onset timing with respect to each other: the spacecraft magnetically best connected to the flare detected a later arrival of electrons than the other one. This leads us to suggest the concept of a rippled peak intensity distribution at 1 AU formed by narrow peaks (fingers) superposed on a quasi-uniform Gaussian distribution. Additionally, two of the four investigated solar energetic particle (SEP) events show a so-called circumsolar distribution and their characteristics make it plausible to suggest a two-component particle injection scenario forming an unusual, non-uniform intensity distribution at 1 AU.

  13. Driving decisions when leaving electronic music dance events: driver, passenger, and group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B; Miller, Brenda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article was to identify characteristics of drivers and passengers that predicted peer groups whose drivers exit dance clubs with alcohol levels indicative of impairment (blood alcohol content [BAC] ≥ 0.05 g/dL). We used the portal survey methodology to randomly sample groups of electronic music dance event (EMDE) patrons as they entered and exited a club. From May through November 2010, data were collected from 38 EMDEs hosted by 8 clubs in the San Francisco Bay area. Data included in these analyses are results from breath samples for measuring BAC and self-report data on demographics, recent drinking history drinking, drinking intentions, travel to and from the clubs, and the familiarity/experience with other group members. These data were collected from a subset of 175 drivers and 272 passengers. Although drivers drank less than passengers, one driver in 5 groups had a BAC indicative of elevated crash risk (BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL). Groups of drivers and/or passengers with a recent history of binge drinking were more likely to have drivers with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One unanticipated finding was that drivers who knew more group members relatively well were more likely to exit the club with a BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Additionally, we found that groups with all female passengers were at greater risk for having a driver whose BAC was ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Some group characteristics predicted drivers who exit clubs with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One intervention strategy to promote safety might be to encourage group members to reconsider who is sober enough to drive away from the club; for some groups, a change of drivers would be a safer choice, because a passenger may have a relatively safe BAC. Groups of females appear to have a particularly elevated risk of having a driver whose BAC exceeds 0.05 g/dL, and new intervention efforts should be particularly directed to these at-risk groups.

  14. Event classification with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierholzer, Martin C.

    2012-02-15

    The OPERA experiment searches for {nu}{sub {mu}} <-> {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations in appearance mode. It uses the emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) technique for a high spatial resolution combined with on-line components for event localisation and muon identification. The analysis of events in an ECC detector takes considerable time, especially in case of {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} candidate events. A ranking of events by a probability for being a {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} event can speed up the analysis of the OPERA experiment. An algorithm for such an event ranking based on a classification-type neural network is presented in this thesis. Almost all candidate events can be found within the first 30% of the analysed events if the described ranking is applied. This event ranking is currently applied for testing purposes by the OPERA collaboration, a decision on a full application for the whole analysis is pending. A similar neural network is used for discrimination between neutral and charged current events. This is used to observe neutrino oscillations in disappearance mode with the on-line components of the OPERA detector by measuring the energy dependence of the fraction of neutral current interactions. The confidence level of the observed oscillation effect is 87%. Assuming full mixing, the mass splitting has been determined to vertical stroke {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} vertical stroke =2.8{sub -1.7}{sup +1.4}.10{sup -3}eV{sup 2}.

  15. Electron impact excitation of the states of Mg, Ca and Sr atoms: Complete experiment results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sachin Saxena; Kshamata Muktavat; Rajesh Srivastava

    2004-11-01

    We have used non-relativistic and relativistic distorted wave approximation methods to study the excitation of the 1 states of magnesium ( = 3), calcium ( = 4) and strontium ( = 5) from the ground 1 state. Calculations have been performed for the complete set of parameters $(, \\tilde{L}_{\\bot}^{+}, \\tilde{L}_{\\bot}^{-}, \\tilde{}^{+}, \\tilde{}^{-})$. The results are presented for electron impact energies of 20 and 40 eV. We compare our results obtained from both the non-relativistic and relativistic methods with each other. Good agreement is found on comparison and the importance of relativistic effects is also explored.

  16. Leptonic two-photon events measured with L3 at the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP)

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmelt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Virtual photons can fluctuate into diverse final states and among other processes, such fluctuations can yield muon-pairs. The fluctuation is a statistical process and can be described in terms of structure functions for photons. Apart from supplying another test of QED, purely leptonic processes provide a calibration fro the hadronic processes. We report on a measurement of dimuon events with single-tagged two-photon events from the LEP experiment L3, at c.m.s. energies between 189 GeV and 206 GeV, with an integrated luminosity of $\\mathcal{L}$ = 600 pb$^{-1}$. An overview of the fundamental physical processes, the detector and the anaytical tools, used for measuring dimuon events, and a discussion of the structure of dimuon events will be presented.

  17. Jet production in the CoLoRFulNNLO method: event shapes in electron-positron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Del Duca, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We present the CoLoRFulNNLO method to compute higher order radiative corrections to jet cross sections in perturbative QCD. We apply our method to the computation of event shape observables in electron-positron collisions at NNLO accuracy and validate our code by comparing our predictions to previous results in the literature. We also calculate for the first time jet cone energy fraction at NNLO.

  18. D-region electron density and effective recombination coefficients during twilight – experimental data and modelling during solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tereschenko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of electron density in the lower D-region (below 70 km altitude are rarely made. This applies both with regard to measurements by ground-based facilities and by sounding rockets, and during both quiet conditions and conditions of energetic electron precipitation. Deep penetration into the atmosphere of high-energy solar proton fluxes (during solar proton events, SPE produces extra ionisation in the whole D-region, including the lower altitudes, which gives favourable conditions for accurate measurements using ground-based facilities. In this study we show that electron densities measured with two ground-based facilities at almost the same latitude but slightly different longitudes, provide a valuable tool for validation of model computations. The two techniques used are incoherent scatter of radio waves (by the EISCAT 224 MHz radar in Tromsø, Norway, 69.6° N, 19.3° E, and partial reflection of radio-waves (by the 2.8 MHz radar near Murmansk, Russia, 69.0° N, 35.7° E. Both radars give accurate electron density values during SPE, from heights 57–60 km and upward with the EISCAT radar and between 55–70 km with the partial reflection technique. Near noon, there is little difference in the solar zenith angle between the two locations and both methods give approximately the same values of electron density at the overlapping heights. During twilight, when the difference in solar zenith angles increases, electron density values diverge. When both radars are in night conditions (solar zenith angle >99° electron densities at the overlapping altitudes again become equal. We use the joint measurements to validate model computations of the ionospheric parameters f+, λ, αeff and their variations during solar proton events. These parameters are important characteristics of the lower ionosphere structure which cannot be determined by other methods.

  19. Correlations in the impenetrable electron gas

    OpenAIRE

    Göhmann, F.; Its, A. R.; Korepin, V. E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider non-relativistic electrons in one dimension with infinitely strong repulsive delta function interaction. We calculate the long-time, large-distance asymptotics of field-field correlators in the gas phase. The gas phase at low temperatures is characterized by the ideal gas law. We calculate the exponential decay, the power law corrections and the constant factor of the asymptotics. Our results are valid at any temperature. They simplify at low temperatures, where they are easily re...

  20. Magnetic Field-Line Lengths in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Inferred From Energetic Electron Events (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    III burst association is rarely ambiguous, as shown in Figure 1 for two events. The timing fiducials for each event are the onset of the 14 MHz type...et al. 1998, Space Sci. Rev., 86, 541 Gopalswamy, N., Akiyama, S., Yashiro, S., Michalek, G., & Lepping, R. P. 2009a, J. Atmos. Sol.- Terr . Phys., 71...Geophys. Res., 110, A09S07 Gulisano, A. M., Dasso, S., Mandrini, C. H., & Démoulin, P. 2005, J. Atmos. Terr . Phys., 67, 1761 Haggerty, D. K., & Roelof, E

  1. Out-of-order parallel discrete event simulation for electronic system-level design

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    This book offers readers a set of new approaches and tools a set of tools and techniques for facing challenges in parallelization with design of embedded systems.? It provides an advanced parallel simulation infrastructure for efficient and effective system-level model validation and development so as to build better products in less time.? Since parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) has the potential to exploit the underlying parallel computational capability in today's multi-core simulation hosts, the author begins by reviewing the parallelization of discrete event simulation, identifyin

  2. Non-thermal Electrons at the Earth's Bow Shock: A `Gradual' Event

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, M; Fujimoto, M; Matsui, H; Kasaba, Y; Saitô, Y; Kojima, H; Matsumoto, H; Mukai, T

    2008-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is known to produce non-thermal electrons which are generally observed as a `spike' in their flux profile. Here, in this paper, we present an analysis of electron and whistler wave properties for a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing that is supercritical, but subcritical to the so-called whistler critical Mach number, M$^w_{\\rm crit}$, above which whistler waves cannot propagate upstream. We have found that the amplitudes of whistler waves increased exponentially as a function of time prior to the shock encounter, while the suprathermal ($>$ 2 keV) electron flux similarly increased with time, although with differing $e$-folding time scales. Comparison of the electron energy spectrum measured within the ramp with predictions from diffusive shock acceleration theory was poor, but the variation of pitch angle distribution showed scattering of non-thermal electrons in the upstream region. While not finding a specific mechanism to account for the electron diffusion, we suggest that the whistlers ...

  3. Exact Electromagnetic Response of Landau Level Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Dung Xuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method that allows to calculate the electromagnetic response of non-interacting electrons in strong magnetic field to arbitrary order in the gradients of external electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the method on both non-relativistic and massless Dirac electrons filling $N$ Landau levels. First, we derive an exact relation between the electromagnetic response of the non-relativistic and Dirac electrons in the lowest Landau level. Next, we obtain a closed form expression for the polarization operator in the large $N$ (or weak magnetic field) limit. We explicitly show that in the large $N$ limit the random phase approximation (RPA) computation of the polarization tensor agrees - in leading and sub-leading order in $N$ - with a Fermi liquid computation to {\\it all} orders in the gradient expansion and for arbitrary value of the $\\mathrm{g}$-factor. Finally, we show that in the large $N$ limit the non-relativistic polarization tensor agrees with Dirac's in the leading and sub-leading ...

  4. Characteristics of Electron Distributions Observed During Large Amplitude Whistler Wave Events in the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of electron distributions associated with large amplitude whistler waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere using waveform capture data as an addition of the study by Kellogg et al., [2010b]. We identified three types of electron distributions observed simultaneously with the whistler waves including beam-like, beam/flattop, and anisotropic distributions. The whistlers exhibited different characteristics dependent upon the observed electron distributions. The majority of the waveforms observed in our study have f/fce or = 8 nT pk-pk) whistler wave measured in the radiation belts. The majority of the largest amplitude whistlers occur during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT).

  5. How Accurately Can we count the number of $pp \\to ZX$ and $pp \\to WX$ events using decays to electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dissertori, Günther; Ehlers, Jan; Holzner, André

    2006-01-01

    This note describes an analysis of the reaction pp -> ZX and pp -> WX with Z and W decays to electrons, using the full CMS detector simulation and event reconstruction chain. Inclusive Z and W events with their decays to electrons are selected with robust and essentially background-free criteria. The aim of this analysis is to define some baseline selection such that the potential uncertainties from known detector inhomogeneities can be determined. In absence of sufficiently large di-jet event samples, no detailed background studies could be performed. However, it is known from previous CMS studies that the proposed selection criteria are rather insensitive to background and the "early" miscalibrations. This robust selection can thus be considered as especially useful for the CMS startup phase. Keeping these shortcomings in mind, a Z selection efficiency of about 60% is obtained, if the Z decay products end up within the barrel ECAL acceptance. The corresponding efficiency for W's is about 25%. Gaps between t...

  6. Metacognitive event identification on electronic mail from a Nursing Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Pereira Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sociometric survey was conducted to investigate the presence of written metacognitive events (WME in messages posted by members of a nursing virtual community. A discussion about nursing science and practice is presented. “Metacognitive event” was characterised on messages through evidence of reflexive activity indicating any level of awareness about author’s cognitive process. Content analysis was performed on 934 e-messages posted during the first six months period of this community. WME were classified non-uniquely as “person”, “strategy” and “task”. Two hundred and sixty six messages with metacognitive events were found, being 180 of them classified as “person”, 115 as “strategy” and 64 as “task”. It is concluded that WME are present and can be identified on posted messages in this virtual community. We believe that the same phenomenon may happen among other similar communities.

  7. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Aerosols Collected at Mauna Loa Observatory During Asian Dust Storm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a significant influence on global climate due to their ability to absorb and scatter incoming solar radiation. Size, composition, and morphology affect a particle’s radiative properties and these can be characterized by electron microscopy. Lo...

  8. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Aerosols Collected at Mauna Loa Observatory During Asian Dust Storm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a significant influence on global climate due to their ability to absorb and scatter incoming solar radiation. Size, composition, and morphology affect a particle’s radiative properties and these can be characterized by electron microscopy. Lo...

  9. Universal correlations of one-dimensional electrons at low density

    OpenAIRE

    Göhmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize results on the asymptotics of the two-particle Green functions of interacting electrons in one dimension. Below a critical value of the chemical potential the Fermi surface vanishes, and the system can no longer be described as a Luttinger liquid. Instead, the non-relativistic Fermi gas with infinite point-like repulsion becomes the universal model for the long-wavelength, low temperature physics of the one-dimensional electrons. This model, which we call the impenetrable electro...

  10. Highly relativistic radiation belt electron acceleration, transport, and loss: Large solar storm events of March and June 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Kanekal, S G; Foster, J C; Erickson, P J; Fennell, J F; Blake, J B; Zhao, H; Li, X; Elkington, S R; Henderson, M G; Reeves, G D; Spence, H E; Kletzing, C A; Wygant, J R

    2016-07-01

    Two of the largest geomagnetic storms of the last decade were witnessed in 2015. On 17 March 2015, a coronal mass ejection-driven event occurred with a Dst (storm time ring current index) value reaching -223 nT. On 22 June 2015 another strong storm (Dst reaching -204 nT) was recorded. These two storms each produced almost total loss of radiation belt high-energy (E ≳ 1 MeV) electron fluxes. Following the dropouts of radiation belt fluxes there were complex and rather remarkable recoveries of the electrons extending up to nearly 10 MeV in kinetic energy. The energized outer zone electrons showed a rich variety of pitch angle features including strong "butterfly" distributions with deep minima in flux at α = 90°. However, despite strong driving of outer zone earthward radial diffusion in these storms, the previously reported "impenetrable barrier" at L ≈ 2.8 was pushed inward, but not significantly breached, and no E ≳ 2.0 MeV electrons were seen to pass through the radiation belt slot region to reach the inner Van Allen zone. Overall, these intense storms show a wealth of novel features of acceleration, transport, and loss that are demonstrated in the present detailed analysis.

  11. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  12. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  13. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  14. Resurgence of $Z'$ from the single electron-muon event at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00072840; Tseng, Po-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent single $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ event at 2.1 TeV invariant mass from the ATLAS at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ luminosity, we propose an explanation using a $Z'$ gauge boson, which possesses lepton-flavor-changing neutral currents originated from non-universal couplings to charged leptons. We assume that the left-handed charged-lepton mixing matrix equals to the PMNS matrix and no mixing in the neutrino sector to make this phenomenological $Z'$ model more predictive. There are indeed some parameter regions, where the $Z'$ can generate a large enough $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ production cross section, while at the same time satisfies various observables from lepton-flavor violation and other constraints from the LHC.

  15. The Tendency of the Crest Factor Helps Detect Nascent Events; Electronic Circuit, Software and Applications to Signals from Diverse Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez-Pérez Ricardo Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the signal analysis techniques in the time domain, the crest factor (CF is undoubtedly one of the most simple and fast to implement using electronic circuits and/or software. That's why it has been used reliably to care for machinery and to evaluate the quality of supply. One of the major manufacturers of instruments for these purposes is Bruel and Kjaer and defines the crest factor of voltage or repetitive current signal as the ratio of the peak level and its rms value during a certain period of time. In this paper, we try to find out experimentally the potential of CF and their tendency to detect the nascent and evolution of events in various fields of knowledge, either by generating it with a developed electronic circuit, or with calculations, through routines that are performed with the programs DADISP and LabVIEW. The results are validated and checked for all the above factors and trends through a comparison between them and the proposed features and specifications. The results were acceptable so that the tools were applied to detect early faults in electrical machines, to identify chaosity differences between the circuits with these dynamics, to detect abnormal respiratory distress or rales in patients and to detect harmful distortions in the electrical current, all this based on simulations and measurements for each of the 4 cases studied. Other CF original applications proposed are: a control of chaos in electronic circuits that stir/ mix industrial processes and b correct the power factor of non-linear and inductive loads. A medium-term study and use a CF that considers the maximum signal peak to peak is contemplated, and it is thought that it can improve event detection

  16. CMS Higgs Search in 2011 and 2012 data: candidate ZZ event (8 TeV) with two electrons and two muons

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, T

    2012-01-01

    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, one of which subsequently decays to a pair of electrons (green lines and green towers) and the other Z decays to a pair of muons (red lines). The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  17. Measurement of beauty photoproduction at threshold using di-electron events with the H1 detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Michel David

    2009-12-15

    The cross section of b anti b photoproduction in ep collisions has been measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Events containing b-quarks were identified through detection of two low momentum electrons in the nal state. Semileptonic decays b anti b{yields}eeX were exploited in the kinematic range of the photon virtuality Q{sup 2}<1 GeV{sup 2}, the inelasticity 0.2electron trigger in the data period 2007, which combines track (Fast Track Trigger) and calorimeter information (Jet Trigger), and by mastering the experimental challenges of low p{sub T}-electron identification. (orig.)

  18. K-shell (e, 3e) double ionization of beryllium by relativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, M; Joulakian, B [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Member FR CNRS 2843 Jean Barriol 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2009-03-28

    The (e, 3e) process, producing hollow metastable Be{sup 2+}(2s{sup 2}) by very energetic electrons (>100 keV), is studied by using a relativistic procedure based on the application of the first term of the Born series for the determination of the corresponding fully differential cross section. The very fast projectile electron, impinging on the K shell of the neutral beryllium, is described by Dirac plane-wave solutions with the appropriate wave vectors. All atomic electrons and the two final-state-bound electrons are taken into account by non-relativistic Jastrow-type correlated functions. The two slow ejected electrons in the continuum are described by the fully correlated three-Coulomb (3C) function. The comparison of the results with those obtained by our recent non-relativistic approach shows the necessity of the introduction of the relativistic treatment.

  19. Searching for seismo-ionospheric earthquakes precursors: Total Electron Content disturbances before 2005-2006 seismic events

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovskaya, Yu V; Zolotov, O V; Starikova, N A; Lopatiy, V Z

    2012-01-01

    During earthquakes preparation periods significant disturbances in the ionospheric plasma density are often observed. These anomalies are caused by lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere interaction, particularly by the seismic electric field penetrating from the ground surface into the ionosphere. The seismic electric field produces electromagnetic EB drift changing plasma density over the epicenter region and magnetically conjugated area. The paper is devoted to analysis of regular Global Positioning System observations and revelation of seismo-ionospheric precursors of earthquakes in Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere. Global and regional relative TEC disturbances maps (%) have been plotted for 2005-2006 M6, D<60 km seismic events and analyzed in order to determine general features of precursors. The obtained results agree with the recent published case-study investigations.

  20. The impact of interoperability of electronic health records on ambulatory physician practices: a discrete-event simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The effect of health information technology (HIT on efficiency and workload among clinical and nonclinical staff has been debated, with conflicting evidence about whether electronic health records (EHRs increase or decrease effort. None of this paper to date, however, examines the effect of interoperability quantitatively using discrete event simulation techniques.Objective To estimate the impact of EHR systems with various levels of interoperability on day-to-day tasks and operations of ambulatory physician offices.Methods Interviews and observations were used to collect workflow data from 12 adult primary and specialty practices. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to represent patient flows and clinical and administrative tasks of physicians and staff members.Results High levels of EHR interoperability were associated with reduced time spent by providers on four tasks: preparing lab reports, requesting lab orders, prescribing medications, and writing referrals. The implementation of an EHR was associated with less time spent by administrators but more time spent by physicians, compared with time spent at paper-based practices. In addition, the presence of EHRs and of interoperability did not significantly affect the time usage of registered nurses or the total visit time and waiting time of patients.Conclusion This paper suggests that the impact of using HIT on clinical and nonclinical staff work efficiency varies, however, overall it appears to improve time efficiency more for administrators than for physicians and nurses.

  1. Special Relativity, the Source of Electron Deep Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, J. L.; Meulenberg, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we explicitly point out the reasons why Special Relativity must be considered as the source of electron deep orbits, and dominates their behavior. We show that the cause is the quadratic form of the relativistic expression of energy, and this clearly appears when we explicitly develop the relativistic Schrödinger equation and compare it with the non-relativistic one.

  2. Using electron beam radiation to simulate the dose distribution for whole body solar particle event proton exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Avery, Stephen; Kennedy, Ann R; McDonough, James

    2010-11-01

    As a part of the near solar system exploration program, astronauts may receive significant total body proton radiation exposures during a solar particle event (SPE). In the Center for Acute Radiation Research (CARR), symptoms of the acute radiation sickness syndrome induced by conventional radiation are being compared to those induced by SPE-like proton radiation, to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of SPE protons. In an SPE, the astronaut's whole body will be exposed to radiation consisting mainly of protons with energies below 50 MeV. In addition to providing for a potentially higher RBE than conventional radiation, the energy distribution for an SPE will produce a relatively inhomogeneous total body dose distribution, with a significantly higher dose delivered to the skin and subcutaneous tissues than to the internal organs. These factors make it difficult to use a (60)Co standard for RBE comparisons in our experiments. Here, the novel concept of using megavoltage electron beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation is described. In these studies, Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the dose distribution of electron beam radiation in small mammals such as mice and ferrets as well as large mammals such as pigs. These studies will help to better define the topography of the time-dose-fractionation versus biological response landscape for astronaut exposure to an SPE.

  3. Electron correlation energies in atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Shane Patrick

    This dissertation is a study of electron correlation energies Ec in atoms. (1) Accurate values of E c are computed for isoelectronic sequences of "Coulomb-Hooke" atoms with varying mixtures of Coulombic and Hooke character. (2) Coupled-cluster calculations in carefully designed basis sets are combined with fully converged second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) computations to obtain fairly accurate, non-relativistic Ec values for the 12 closed-shell atoms from Ar to Rn. The complete basis-set (CBS) limits of MP2 energies are obtained for open-shell atoms by computations in very large basis sets combined with a knowledge of the MP2/CBS limit for the next larger closed-shell atom with the same valence shell structure. Then higher-order correlation corrections are found by coupled-cluster calculations using basis sets that are not quite as large. The method is validated for the open-shell atoms from Al to Cl and then applied to get E c values, probably accurate to 3%, for the 4th-period open-shell atoms: K, Sc-Cu, and Ga-Br. (3) The results show that, contrary to quantum chemical folklore, MP2 overestimates |Ec| for atoms beyond Fe. Spin-component scaling arguments are used to provide a simple explanation for this overestimation. (4) Eleven non-relativistic density functionals, including some of the most widely-used ones, are tested on their ability to predict non-relativistic, electron correlation energies for atoms and their cations. They all lead to relatively poor predictions for the heavier atoms. Several novel, few-parameter, density functionals for the correlation energy are developed heuristically. Four new functionals lead to improved predictions for the 4th-period atoms without unreasonably compromising accuracy for the lighter atoms. (5) Simple models describing the variation of E c with atomic number are developed.

  4. Energy losses of positive and negative charged particles in electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, M. M.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    A heavy charged particle propagation through electron gas has been studied using combination of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Green’s functions method. The energy loss of a charged particle has been found in the case of large transferred momentum taking into account the interference term in the expression for the rate. The dependence of the energy loss of a charged particles in electron gas with nonzero temperature on the sign of the charge has been obtained.

  5. Improvement of depth resolution and detection efficiency by control of secondary-electrons in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo, Satoshi, E-mail: s-abo@stec.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Hamada, Yasuhisa [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Seidl, Albert [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Engineering Science and Industrial Design, Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences, Breitscheidstraße 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Wakaya, Fujio; Takai, Mikio [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    An improvement of a depth resolution and a detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is discussed on both simulation and experiment by control of secondary electron trajectories using sample bias voltage. The secondary electron, used for a start signal in single-event TOF-RBS, flies more directly to a secondary electron detector with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt than that without sample bias voltage in the simulation. The simulated collection efficiency of the secondary electrons also increases with the positive sample bias voltage of several tens of volt. These simulation results indicate the possibility of a smaller depth resolution and a shorter measurement time in single-event TOF-RBS with positive sample bias voltage. The measurement time for the Pt-stripe sample using single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 65% shorter than that without sample bias voltage, resulting in a less sample damage by a probe beam. The depth resolution for the Pt stripes under the 50-nm-thick SiO{sub 2} cover-layer with the sample bias voltage of +100 V is 4 nm smaller than that without sample bias voltage. Positive sample bias voltage improves the depth resolution and the detection efficiency in single-event three-dimensional TOF-RBS without an influence on the beam focusing.

  6. A study of the electron image due to ionizing events in a two-dimensional liquid argon TPC with a 24 cm drift gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, S.; Braggiotti, A.; Buckley, E.; Campanella, M.; Carugno, G.; Cecchet, G.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ciocio, A.; Cittolin, S.; Dainese, B.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gonidec, A.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meroni, E.; Muñoz, R.; Perreau, J.-M.; Pietropaolo, F.; Ptohos, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Schinzel, D.; Schmidt, W. F.; Seidl, W.

    1990-01-01

    We have tested a liquid argon time projection chamber with a novel wire configuration based on electrostatic focussing which allows the realization of a nondestructive detection of the electron image produced by ionizing events. The chamber was tested in a 5 GeV pion beam at the CERN proton synchrotron. The measured pulse shapes at both 200 V/cm and 500 V/cm were in very good agreement with the expected shapes, calculated taking into account the electron lifetime, the response of the electronics and the longitudinal diffusion of the electron cloud. The measured electron drift velocity was in good agreement with the results of other workers as well as with our previous measurements. We have also analysed a sample of events containing delta rays in order to study the behaviour of low-energy electrons in the liquid argon. We find that for electron energies greater than 5 MeV the measured energy spectrum agrees very well with the predicted spectrum after corrections for acceptance and energy loss, hence demonstrating the feasibility of recognizing low-energy electrons in liquid argon.

  7. Electron-electron bound states in parity-preserving QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas; Cima, O.M. del [Universidade Catolica do Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Fisica Teorica; Ferreira Junior, M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]|[Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2002-04-01

    By considering the Higgs mechanism in the framework of a parity-preserving Planar Quantum Electrodynamics, one shows that an attractive electron-electron interaction may dominate. The e{sup -}e{sup -} interaction potential emerges as the non-relativistic limit of the Moeller scattering amplitude and it results attractive with a suitable choice of parameters. Numerically values of the e{sup -}e{sup -} binding energy are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Schroedinger equation. The existence of bound states is a strong indicative that this model may be adopted to address the pairing mechanism of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. (author)

  8. Towards a spectroscopically accurate set of potentials for heavy hydride molecules: non-relativistic calculations of BaH X$^2\\Sigma^+$ and A$^2\\Pi$

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Keith; Lane, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    BaH is an attractive molecular candidate for laser cooling to ultracold temperatures and a potential precursor for the production of ultracold gases of hydrogen and deuterium. The theoretical challenge is to simulate the laser cooling cycle as reliably as possible and this paper addresses the generation of highly accurate ab initio potentials for such studies. The performance of various basis sets within the multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation with the Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) is tested and taken to the complete basis set limit. It is shown that the calculated molecular constants using a 46 electron Effective Core-Potential (ECP), the augmented polarized core-valence quintuplet basis set (aug-pCV5Z-PP) but only including three active electrons in the MRCI calculation are in close agreement with the available experimental values. The predicted dissociation energy D$_e$ for the X$^2\\Sigma^+$ state (extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit) is 16975.14 cm$^{-1}$ (2.099 eV...

  9. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n-distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2017-09-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n-distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n-distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n, reaching a minimum when n = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n-distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  10. Identification of Adverse Drug Events from Free Text Electronic Patient Records and Information in a Large Mental Health Case Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Electronic healthcare records (EHRs are a rich source of information, with huge potential for secondary research use. The aim of this study was to develop an application to identify instances of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs from free text psychiatric EHRs.We used the GATE Natural Language Processing (NLP software to mine instances of ADEs from free text content within the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS system, a de-identified psychiatric case register developed at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK. The tool was built around a set of four movement disorders (extrapyramidal side effects [EPSEs] related to antipsychotic therapy and rules were then generalised such that the tool could be applied to additional ADEs. We report the frequencies of recorded EPSEs in patients diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI and then report performance in identifying eight other unrelated ADEs.The tool identified EPSEs with >0.85 precision and >0.86 recall during testing. Akathisia was found to be the most prevalent EPSE overall and occurred in the Asian ethnic group with a frequency of 8.13%. The tool performed well when applied to most of the non-EPSEs but least well when applied to rare conditions such as myocarditis, a condition that appears frequently in the text as a side effect warning to patients.The developed tool allows us to accurately identify instances of a potential ADE from psychiatric EHRs. As such, we were able to study the prevalence of ADEs within subgroups of patients stratified by SMI diagnosis, gender, age and ethnicity. In addition we demonstrated the generalisability of the application to other ADE types by producing a high precision rate on a non-EPSE related set of ADE containing documents.The application can be found at http://git.brc.iop.kcl.ac.uk/rmallah/dystoniaml.

  11. Basic Concepts of a Quantum Event Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bostroem, K J

    2004-01-01

    A physical theory is proposed that obeys both the principles of special relativity and of quantum mechanics. Time and space are treated on exactly the same footing, namely as quantum mechanical observables on a Hilbert space. The theory is not based upon Lagrangian or Hamiltonian mechanics and cannot be formulated within the framework of unitary dynamics. As a most important aspect, the theory breaks with the concept of a continuously flowing time in favour of a discrete jump process in spacetime. All physical statements are formulated in terms of detector events rather than particle states. The physical object under consideration is a spinless particle in empty space. Yet the theory also accounts for particle-antiparticle pair creation and annihilation, and is therefore not a single-particle theory in the strict sense. The Maxwell equations are derived as a straightforward consequence of some fundamental commutation relations. In the non-relativistic limit, and in the limit of infinitely small time uncertain...

  12. Comparison of three-jet and radiative two-jet events in electron-positron annihilation at 29 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, P.D.

    1986-11-01

    By comparing 3-jet (e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. q anti q g) and radiative 2-jet (e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. q anti q ..gamma..) events from electron-positron annihilation, we have studied the local and global effects of the presence of a hard bremsstrahlung gluon in hadronic events. Detector and event selection efficiencies and biases affect these two kinds of events almost equally because they have very similar kinematics and topologies. Accurate comparisons of q anti q g and q anti q ..gamma.. events can therefore be made. Globally, we observe a depletion of hadrons in q anti q g events relative to q anti q ..gamma.. events on the opposite side of the event plane from the gluon, in the angular region between the q and anti q jets. This depletion is shown to be in agreement with the predictions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The existence of this effect demonstrates that the presence of a gluon significantly alters the color forces and hence the fragmentation process in hadronic events. We also use these q anti q ..gamma.. and q anti q g events to compare low energy (4.5 GeV) gluon and quark jets. Our data indicate that gluon jets have softer x/sub p/ distributions than quark jets, while the transverse momentum distributions of these two types of jets are identical within our errors. Although we are unable to determine if the multiplicities of gluon (n/sub /) and quark (n/sub q/) jets are different, the ratio n/sub g//n/sub q/ = 9/4 predicted asymptotically in QCD would not be consistent with our data.

  13. Equation of state of the relativistic free electron gas at arbitrary degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald

    2016-12-01

    We study the problem of the relativistic free electron gas at arbitrary degeneracy. The specific heat at constant volume and particle number CV and the specific heat at constant pressure and particle number CP are calculated. The question of equation of state is also studied. Non degenerate and degenerate limits are considered. We generalize the formulas obtained in the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic regimes.

  14. Mathisson's Spinning Electron Noncommutative Mechanics and Exotic Galilean Symmetry, 66 Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Horváthy, P A

    2003-01-01

    The acceleration-dependent system with noncommuting coordinates, proposed by Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski [Ann. Phys. 260 , 224 (1997)] is derived as the non-relativistic limit of Mathisson's classical electron [Acta Phys. Pol. 6 , 218 (1937)], further discussed by Weyssenhoff and Raabe [Acta Phys. Pol. 9 , 7 (1947)]. The two-parameter centrally extended Galilean symmetry of the model is recovered using elementary methods. The relation to Schroedinger's Zitternde Elektron is indicated.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  16. Measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in pp[over ]-->W+X-->enu+X events at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalk, J M; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-11-21

    We present a measurement of the electron charge asymmetry in pp[over ]-->W+X-->enu+X events at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using 0.75 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The asymmetry is measured as a function of the electron transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in the interval (-3.2, 3.2) and is compared with expectations from next-to-leading order calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. These measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions.

  17. Modeling of modified electron-acoustic solitary waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A. [Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2014-12-15

    The modeling of a theoretical and numerical study on the nonlinear propagation of modified electron-acoustic (mEA) solitary waves has been carried out in an unmagnetized, collisionless, relativistic, degenerate quantum plasma (containing non-relativistic degenerate inertial cold electrons, both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate hot electron and inertial positron fluids, and positively-charged static ions). A reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the planar and the nonplanar Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equations, which admit a localized wave solution for the solitary profile. The solitary wave's characteristics are found to have been influenced significantly for the non-relativistic and the ultra-relativistic limits. The mEA solitary waves are also found to have been significantly modified due to the effects of the degenerate pressure and the number densities of this dense plasma's constituents. The properties of the planar K-dV solitary wave are quite different from those of the nonplanar K-dV solitary wave. The relevance of our results to astrophysical objects (like white dwarfs and neutron stars), which are of scientific interest, is briefly mentioned.

  18. The impact of non-thermal electrons on event horizon scale images and spectra of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, S. Alwin; Dexter, Jason; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-12-01

    Decomposing an arbitrary electron energy distribution into sums of Maxwellian and power law components is an efficient method to calculate synchrotron emission and absorption. We use this method to study the effect of non-thermal electrons on submm images and spectra of the Galactic center black hole, Sgr A*. We assume a spatially uniform functional form for the electron distribution function and use a semi-analytic radiatively inefficient accretion flow and a 2D general relativistic MHD snapshot as example models of the underlying accretion flow structure. We develop simple analytic models which allow us to generalize from the numerical examples. A high energy electron component containing a small fraction (few per cent) of the total internal energy (e.g. a "power law tail") can produce a diffuse halo of emission, which modifies the observed image size and structure. A population of hot electrons with a larger energy fraction (e.g. resulting from a diffusion in electron energy space) can dominate the emission, so that the observed images and spectra are well approximated by considering only a single thermal component for a suitable choice of the electron temperature. We discuss the implications of these results for estimating accretion flow or black hole parameters from images and spectra, and for the identification of the black hole "shadow" in future mm-VLBI data. In particular, the location of the first minimum in visibility profiles does not necessarily correspond to the shadow size as sometimes assumed.

  19. Measurement of Single Electron Event Anisotropy in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Yu A; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S R; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Chenawi, K F; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L A; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V P; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A G; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarjan, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torie, H A; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L S

    2005-01-01

    The transverse momentum dependence of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v_2, the second harmonic of the azimuthal distribution, for electrons at mid-rapidity (|eta| < 0.35) has been measured with the PHENIX detector in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The measurement was made with respect to the reaction plane defined at high rapidities (|eta| = 3.1 -- 3.9). From the result we have measured the v_2 of electrons from heavy flavor decay after subtraction of the v_2 of electrons from other sources such as photon conversions and Dalitz decay from light neutral mesons. We observe a non-zero single electron v_2 with a 90% confidence level in the intermediate p_T region.

  20. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  1. Radiation spectrum of an electron moving in a spiralin medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.Konstantinovich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of the Doppler effect on the particularities of radiation power spectral distribution of an electron moving in a spiral in a medium has been investigated near the Cherenkov threshold. The fine structure of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at the Cherenkov threshold and the synchrotron-Cherenkov radiation spectrum for an electron moving along a spiral with non-relativistic longitudinal component of the velocity (i.e., the component parallel to the magnetic induction vector in a transparent isotropic medium have been obtained and studied.

  2. Measurement of $T_{20}$ in Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, M; Botto, T; Van den Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Dolfini, S M; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Higinbotham, D W; De Jager, C W; Lang, J; De Lange, D J; Papadakis, N H; Passchier, I; Poolman, H R; Six, E; Steijger, J J M; Vodinas, N P; De Vries, H; Zhou, Z L

    1999-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the tensor-analyzing power T20 in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in the range of four-momentum transfer from 1.8 to 3.2 fm-1. Electrons of 704 MeV were scattered from a polarized deuterium internal target. The tensor polarization of the deuterium nuclei was determined with an ion-extraction system, allowing an absolute measurement of T20. The data are described well by a non-relativistic calculation that includes the effects of meson-exchange currents.

  3. The impact of non-thermal electrons on event horizon scale images and spectra of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, S Alwin; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-01-01

    Decomposing an arbitrary electron energy distribution into sums of Maxwellian and power law components is an efficient method to calculate synchrotron emission and absorption. We use this method to study the effect of non-thermal electrons on submm images and spectra of the Galactic center black hole, Sgr A*. We assume a spatially uniform functional form for the electron distribution function and use a semi-analytic radiatively inefficient accretion flow and a 2D general relativistic MHD snapshot as example models of the underlying accretion flow structure. We develop simple analytic models which allow us to generalize from the numerical examples. A high energy electron component containing a small fraction (few per cent) of the total internal energy (e.g. a "power law tail") can produce a diffuse halo of emission, which modifies the observed image size and structure. A population of hot electrons with a larger energy fraction (e.g. resulting from a diffusion in electron energy space) can dominate the emissio...

  4. Persistent current of relativistic electrons on a Dirac ring in presence of impurities

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2014-08-01

    We study the behaviour of persistent current of relativistic electrons on a one dimensional ring in presence of attractive/repulsive scattering potentials. In particular, we investigate the persistent current in accordance with the strength as well as the number of the scattering potential. We find that in presence of single scatterer the persistent current becomes smaller in magnitude than the scattering free scenario. This behaviour is similar to the non-relativistic case. Even for a very strong scattering potential, finite amount of persistent current remains for a relativistic ring. In presence of multiple scatterer we observe that the persistent current is maximum when the scatterers are placed uniformly compared to the current averaged over random configurations. However if we increase the number of scatterers, we find that the random averaged current increases with the number of scatterers. The latter behaviour is in contrast to the non-relativistic case. © 2014 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Valence orbitals of W(CO)6 using electron momentum spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Le-Lei; Liu Kun; Luo Zhi-Hong; Ning Chuan-Gang; Deng Jing-Kang

    2011-01-01

    The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the outer valence orbitals of W(CO)6 have been studied by using electron momentum spectroscopy as well as non-relativistic,scalar relativistic and spin-orbital relativistic DFT-B3LYP calculations.The experimental momentum profiles of the outer valence orbitals obtained with the impact energies of 1200 eV and 2400 eV were compared with various theoretical calculation results.The relativistic calculations could provide better descriptions for the experimental momentum distributions than the non-relativistic ones.Moreover,a new ordering of orbitals 10t1u,3t2g,and 7eg,i.e.,10t1u < 3t2g <7eg <10a1g,is established in this work.

  6. Non-relativistic anyons from holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Jokela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We study generic types of holographic matter residing in Lifshitz invariant defect field theory as modeled by adding probe D-branes in the bulk black hole spacetime characterized by dynamical exponent z and with hyperscaling violation exponent θ. Our main focus will be on the collective excitations of the dense matter in the presence of an external magnetic field. Constraining the defect field theory to 2+1 dimensions, we will also allow the gauge fields become dynamical and study the properties of a strongly coupled anyonic fluid. We will deduce the universal properties of holographic matter and show that the Einstein relation always holds.

  7. Relativistic Langevin equation for runaway electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, J. A.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Sanchez, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Langevin approach to the kinetics of a collisional plasma is developed for relativistic electrons such as runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas. In this work, we consider Coulomb collisions between very fast, relativistic electrons and a relatively cool, thermal background plasma. The model is developed using the stochastic equivalence of the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations. The resulting Langevin model equation for relativistic electrons is an stochastic differential equation, amenable to numerical simulations by means of Monte-Carlo type codes. Results of the simulations will be presented and compared with the non-relativistic Langevin equation for RE electrons used in the past. Supported by MINECO (Spain), Projects ENE2012-31753, ENE2015-66444-R.

  8. Radiative interaction between the relativistic jet and optically thick envelope in tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbin; Krolik, Julian; Crumley, Patrick; Kumar, Pawan

    2017-10-01

    Reverberation observations yielding a lag spectrum have uncovered an Fe K α fluorescence line in the tidal disruption event (TDE) Swift J1644+57. The discovery paper used the lag spectrum to argue that the source of the X-ray continuum was located very close to the black hole (∼30 gravitational radii) and moved subrelativistically. We reanalyse the lag spectrum, pointing out that dilution effects cause it to indicate a geometric scale an order of magnitude larger than inferred by Kara et al. If the X-ray continuum is produced by a relativistic jet, as suggested by the rapid variability, high luminosity and hard spectrum, this larger scale predicts an Fe ionization state consistent with efficient K α photon production. Moreover, the momentum of the jet X-rays impinging on the surrounding accretion flow on this large scale accelerates a layer of gas to speeds ∼0.1-0.2c, consistent with the blueshifted line profile. Implications of our results on the global picture of jetted TDEs are discussed. A power-law γ/X-ray spectrum may be produced by external ultraviolet (UV)-optical photons being repetitively inverse-Compton scattered by cold electrons in the jet, although our model for the K α reverberation does not depend on the jet radiation mechanism (magnetic reconnection in a Poynting jet is still a viable mechanism). The non-relativistic wind driven by jet radiation may explain the late-time radio rebrightening in Swift J1644+57. This energy injection may also cause the thermal UV-optical emission from jetted TDEs to be systematically brighter than in non-jetted ones.

  9. Common data elements for secondary use of electronic health record data for clinical trial execution and serious adverse event reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bruland, P; McGilchrist, M.; Zapletal, E.; Acosta, D.; Proeve, J.; Askin, S.; Ganslandt, T.; Doods, J.; Dugas, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data capture is one of the most expensive phases during the conduct of a clinical trial and the increasing use of electronic health records (EHR) offers significant savings to clinical research. To facilitate these secondary uses of routinely collected patient data, it is beneficial to know what data elements are captured in clinical trials. Therefore our aim here is to determine the most commonly used data elements in clinical trials and their availability in hospital EHR systems...

  10. Measurement of Beauty Photoproduction near Threshold using Di-electron Events with the H1 Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2012-01-01

    The cross section for ep -> e b\\bar{b} X in photoproduction is measured with the H1 detector at the ep-collider HERA. The decay channel b\\bar{b} -> ee X' is selected by identifying the semi-electronic decays of the b-quarks. The total production cross section is measured in the kinematic range given by the photon virtuality Q^2 down to the threshold. The results are compared to next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  11. Bolometric calibration of a superfluid $^3$He detector for Dark Matter search: direct measurement of the scintillated energy fraction for neutron, electron and muon events

    CERN Document Server

    Winkelmann, C B; Collin, E; Elbs, J; Godfrin, H; Krusius, M; Bunkov, Yu.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the calibration of a superfluid $^3$He bolometer developed for the search of non-baryonic Dark Matter. Precise thermometry is achieved by the direct measurement of thermal excitations using Vibrating Wire Resonators (VWRs). The heating pulses for calibration were produced by the direct quantum process of quasiparticle generation by other VWRs present. The bolometric calibration factor is analyzed as a function of temperature and excitation level of the sensing VWR. The calibration is compared to bolometric measurements of the nuclear neutron capture reaction and heat depositions by cosmic muons and low energy electrons. The comparison allows a quantitative estimation of the ultra-violet scintillation rate of irradiated helium, demonstrating the possibility of efficient electron recoil event rejection.

  12. First evidence for correlations between electron fluxes measured by NOAA-POES satellites and large seismic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN-Trento Center for Fundamental Physics and Applications (TIPFA), Povo (Italy); Vitale, Vincenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. Perugia and ASI Science Data Center, Frascati (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    We present the result for the search of correlations between the precipitation of low energy electrons (E>0.3MeV) trapped within the Van Allen Belts and earthquakes with magnitude above 5 Richter scale. We used the electron data measured by the NOAA POES 15,16,17 and 18 satellites collected during a period of 13 years, corresponding to about 18 thousands M>5 earthquakes registered in the NEIC catalog of the U.S. Geological Survey. We defined Particle Burst (PB) the fluctuations of electrons counting rate having a probability <1% to be a background fluctuation. Within a time window of ±36 hours, we observe a clear correlation peak at −1.25±0.25 hours. This result is obtained using data driven algorithms independent from specific modelling of the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling and adding the data collected by each POES satellite. The significance of the observed correlation peak is 5.7 s.d. corresponding to a probability of 1.210{sup −6} of being a statistical fluctuation. The observed correlation involves about 1.410{sup −3} of the earthquakes in that period of time. It provides the first statistically convincing evidence for the existence of a detectable coupling mechanism between the lithosphere and the magnetosphere having well defined time characteristics.

  13. Primary events in the blue light sensor plant cryptochrome: intraprotein electron and proton transfer revealed by femtosecond spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immeln, Dominik; Weigel, Alexander; Kottke, Tilman; Pérez Lustres, J Luis

    2012-08-01

    Photoreceptors are chromoproteins that undergo fast conversion from dark to signaling states upon light absorption by the chromophore. The signaling state starts signal transduction in vivo and elicits a biological response. Therefore, photoreceptors are ideally suited for analysis of protein activation by time-resolved spectroscopy. We focus on plant cryptochromes which are blue light sensors regulating the development and daily rhythm of plants. The signaling state of these flavoproteins is the neutral radical of the flavin chromophore. It forms on the microsecond time scale after light absorption by the oxidized state. We apply here femtosecond broad-band transient absorption to early stages of signaling-state formation in a plant cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Transient spectra show (i) subpicosecond decay of flavin-stimulated emission and (ii) further decay of signal until 100 ps delay with nearly constant spectral shape. The first decay (i) monitors electron transfer from a nearby tryptophan to the flavin and occurs with a time constant of τ(ET) = 0.4 ps. The second decay (ii) is analyzed by spectral decomposition and occurs with a characteristic time constant τ(1) = 31 ps. We reason that hole transport through a tryptophan triad to the protein surface and partial deprotonation of tryptophan cation radical hide behind τ(1). These processes are probably governed by vibrational cooling. Spectral decomposition is used together with anisotropy to obtain the relative orientation of flavin and the final electron donor. This narrows the number of possible electron donors down to two tryptophans. Structural analysis suggests that a set of histidines surrounding the terminal tryptophan may act as proton acceptor and thereby stabilize the radical pair on a 100 ps time scale.

  14. Studies of electroweak interactions and searches for new physics using photonic events with missing energy at the Large Electron-Positron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gataullin, Marat I

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I study the production of photonic events with missing energy in e+e- collisions at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider. My analysis was based on 619 inverse picobarns of data collected by the L3 detector during 1998--2000 at center-of-mass energies between 189 and 208 GeV, the highest energies ever attained in an e+e- collider. I selected a high-purity sample of 2,022 well-reconstructed single- and multi-photon events with missing energy. I used this sample to study the pair-production of neutrinos accompanied by the emission of one or more photons. The average ratio of the measured to expected cross section was found to be R = 0.987±0.022(stat)±0.014 (syst). The number of light neutrino species was measured to be 2.98±0.05(stat)±0.04(syst), and the first direct evidence for the pair-production of electron neutrinos was found. The experimental errors in these results are smaller than those of comparable previous measurements. The selection results are also given in the form of table...

  15. Observed Benefits to On-site Medical Services during an Annual 5-day Electronic Dance Music Event with Harm Reduction Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Matthew Brendan; Lund, Adam; Golby, Riley; Turris, Sheila A

    2016-04-01

    With increasing attendance and media attention, large-scale electronic dance music events (EDMEs) are a subset of mass gatherings that have a unique risk profile for attendees and promoters. Shambhala Music Festival (Canada) is a multi-day event in a rural setting with a recognized history of providing harm reduction (HR) services alongside medical care. Study/Objective This manuscript describes the medical response at a multi-day electronic music festival where on-site HR interventions and dedicated medical care are delivered as parallel public health measures. This study was a descriptive case report. Medical encounters and event-related data were documented prospectively using an established event registry database. In 2014, Shambhala Music Festival had 67,120 cumulative attendees over a 7-day period, with a peak daily attendance of 15,380 people. There were 1,393 patient encounters and the patient presentation rate (PPR) was 20.8 per one thousand. The majority of these (90.9%) were for non-urgent complaints. The ambulance transfer rate (ATR) was 0.194 per one thousand and 0.93% of patient encounters were transferred by ambulance. No patients required intubation and there were no fatalities. Harm reduction services included mobile outreach teams, distribution of educational materials, pill checking facilities, a dedicated women's space, and a "Sanctuary" area that provided non-medical peer support for overwhelmed guests. More than 10,000 encounters were recorded by mobile and booth-based preventive and educational services, and 2,786 pills were checked on-site with a seven percent discard rate. Dedicated medical and HR services represent two complementary public health strategies to minimize risk at a multi-day electronic music festival. The specific extent to which HR strategies reduce the need for medical care is not well understood. Incorporation of HR practices when planning on-site medical care has the potential to inform patient management, reduce

  16. Measurement of beauty photoproduction near threshold using Di-electron events with the H1 detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2012-05-15

    The cross section for ep {yields} eb anti bX in photoproduction is measured with the H1 detector at the ep-collider HERA. The decay channel b anti b {yields} eeX' is selected by identifying the semi-electronic decays of the b-quarks. The total production cross section is measured in the kinematic range given by the photon virtuality Q{sup 2} {<=}1 GeV{sup 2}, the inelasticity 0.05{<=} y {<=}0.65 and the pseudorapidity of the b-quarks vertical stroke {eta}(b) vertical stroke, vertical stroke {eta}(anti b) vertical stroke {<=}2. The differential production cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum of the beauty quarks left angle P{sub T}(b) right angle down to the threshold. The results are compared to next-to-leading-order QCD predictions.

  17. Measurement of beauty photoproduction near threshold using di-electron events with the H1 detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Vazdik, Y. [and others; Collaboration: The H1 Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    The cross section for ep {yields}e b anti b X in photoproduction is measured with the H1 detector at the ep-collider HERA. The decay channel b anti b {yields}ee X' is selected by identifying the semi-electronic decays of the b-quarks. The total production cross section is measured in the kinematic range given by the photon virtuality Q {sup 2}{<=}1 GeV{sup 2}, the inelasticity 0.05{<=}y{<=}0.65 and the pseudorapidity of the b-quarks {eta}(b), {eta}(anti b){<=}2. The differential production cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum of the beauty quarks left angle P{sub T} (b) right angle down to the threshold. The results are compared to next-to-leading-order QCD predictions. (orig.)

  18. Association of Total Electron Content (TEC and foF2 variations with earthquake events at the anomaly crest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Depueva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to identify ionospheric parameters in association with earthquake at anomaly crest station through VHF Radio Beacon data and ground based ionosonde measurements while the Total Electron Content(TEC parameters from RB observations are based mainly on data taken over Guwahati (26.2°N, 91.75° E, foF2 data used in the analysis were collected at Ahmadabad (23.01°N, 72.36°E. The paper describes methods and techniques adopted to examine modifications on these parameters if any, due to earthquake preparatory processes at equatorial anomaly crest stations. The mechanism of inducement of density changes in the ionosphere is sought through the generation of strong fountain effect possibly by the development of electric field during the earthquake preparatory process.

  19. CMS Higgs Search in 2011 and 2012 data: candidate ZZ event (8 TeV) with two electrons and two muons: 3D perspective, r-phi and r-z views

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, T

    2012-01-01

    Event recorded with the CMS detector in 2012 at a proton-proton centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of the SM Higgs boson to a pair of Z bosons, one of which subsequently decays to a pair of electrons (green lines and green towers) and the other Z decays to a pair of muons (red lines). The event could also be due to known standard model background processes.

  20. Search for new physics in high-mass electron-positron events in pp[over] collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; DaRonco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vazquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-10-26

    We report the results of a search for a narrow resonance in electron-positron events in the invariant mass range of 150-950 GeV/c(2) using 1.3 fb(-1) of pp[over] collision data at square root s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. No significant evidence of such a resonance is observed and we interpret the results to exclude the standard-model-like Z' with a mass below 923 GeV/c(2) and the Randall-Sundrum graviton with a mass below 807 GeV/c(2) for k/M[over](pl) = 0.1, both at the 95% confidence level. Combining with diphoton data excludes the Randall-Sundrum graviton for masses below 889 GeV/c(2) for k/M[over](pl) = 0.1.

  1. Search for New Physics in High Mass Electron-Positron Events in ppbar Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P H; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Cilijak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Da Ronco, S; Datta, M; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Golossanov, A; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuno, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a search for a narrow resonance in electron-positron events in the invariant mass range of 150-950 GeV/c^2 using 1.3 fb^-1 of ppbar collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. No significant evidence of such a resonance is observed and we interpret the results to exclude the standard model-like Z' with a mass below 923 GeV/c^2 and the Randall-Sundrum graviton with a mass below 807 GeV/c^2 for k/M_pl=0.1, both at the 95% confidence level. Combining with di-photon data excludes the Randall-Sundrum graviton for masses below 889 GeV/c^2 for k/M_pl=0.1.

  2. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km.

    The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude.

  3. On the relations between proton influx and D-region electron densities during the polar-cap absorption event of 28-29 October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, J.K. [Dept. of Communication Systems, Univ. of Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Centre for Astrophysics, Univ. of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom); Birch, M.J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Univ. of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom); Dept. of Computing, Univ. of Central Lancashire, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Observations by incoherent-scatter radar have been applied to explore relationships between the fluxes of incident protons and the resulting D-region electron densities during a polar-cap radio-absorption event. Using proton flux data from a GOES geosynchronous satellite, the energy band having the greatest influence at a selected height is estimated by a process of trial and error, and empirical relationships are defined. The height profiles of the effective recombination coefficient are determined for day and night, and the transition over the evening twilight is investigated for the height range 60-70 km. The results show that the day-night change is confined to heights below 80 km, night-time values at the lower levels being consistent with a balance between negative ions and electrons controlled by 3-body attachment and collisional detachment. The daytime results confirm that, contrary to the prediction of some chemical models, a square-law continuity equation may be strictly applied. It is confirmed that, as previously reported, the timing of the sunset change varies with altitude. (orig.)

  4. Relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    CERN Document Server

    Attaourti, Y

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the coplanar binary geometry where it is justified to use plane wave solutions for the study of the $(e,2e)$ reaction and in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field, we introduce as a first step the DVRPWBA1 (Dirac-Volkov Plane Wave Born Approximation1) where we take into account only the relativistic dressing of the incident and scattered electrons. Then, we introduce the DVRPWBA2 (Dirac-Volkov Plane Wave Born Approximation2) where we take totally into account the relativistic dressing of the incident, scattered and ejected electrons. We then compare the corresponding triple differential cross sections for laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact both for the non relativistic and the relativistic regime.

  5. From Homogeneous to Heterogenized Solar Fuels Assemblies: Observation of Electron Transfer Events in Systems Containing Dye-Sensitized Semiconductors and Molecular Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamire, Rebecca Joy

    The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by simultaneously oxidizing water and reducing protons to hydrogen could provide a much-needed fuel source within a more sustainable energy economy. Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPECs) are capable of forming fuels using sunlight if photoexcited chromophores transfer charges to semiconductor electrodes and catalysts, and catalysis occurs, at rates exceeding those of charge recombination. The rational design of efficient DSPECs will require an understanding of the catalytic mechanisms and rate-limiting steps of the oxidative and reductive reactions. Here, we focus on how molecular and electrode design can be used to favor the desired charge transfer events from photoexcited perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (PMI) chromophores into semiconductor films and to molecular catalysts. Previous efforts with related chromophores have focused on charge transfer between dyes and catalysts in homogeneous covalent systems without the presence of a supporting electrode. In this work, femtosecond to millisecond transient absorption spectroscopies are utilized to identify a PMI derivative capable of injecting electrons into nanostructured semiconductor films with favorable rates and yields. The identified derivative is further used to oxidize covalently attached homogeneous water oxidation catalyst (WOC) precursor Cp*Ir III(ppy)Cl, where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, on TiO2 and then incorporated into several photoelectrodes for photodriven water oxidation and hydrogen production. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 following chromophore adsorption is employed to improve the chemical stability of the chromophores and to prevent rapid electron-hole recombination. The TiO2-based photoanodes contain a coadsorbed WOC [(Ir IV(pyalc)(H2O)R)2(micro-O)] +2, where pyalc = 2-(2'pyridyl)-2-propanolate, or its mononuclear precursor functionalized with a siloxane binding group. NiO-based photocathodes include molecular cobaloxime- or [Ni(P2N2) 2

  6. The Effects of Colchicine on Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality Among Patients with Gout: A Cohort Study Using Electronic Medical Records Linked with Medicare Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel H.; Liu, Chih-Chin; Kuo, I-Hsin; Zak, Agnes; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colchicine may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular (CV) disease, but there are sparse data on its CV effect among patients with gout. We examined the potential association between colchicine and CV risk and all-cause mortality in gout. Methods The analyses used data from an electronic medical record (EMR) database linked with Medicare claims (2006–2011). To be eligible for the study cohort, subjects must have had a diagnosis of gout in the EMR and Medicare claims. New users of colchicine were identified and followed-up from the first colchicine dispensing date. Non-users had no evidence of colchicine prescriptions during the study period and were matched to users on the start of follow-up, age, and gender. Both groups were followed for the primary outcome, a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) in Cox regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Results We matched 501 users with an equal number of non-users with a median follow-up of 16.5 months. During follow-up, 28 primary CV events were observed among users and 82 among non-users. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were 35.6 for users and 81.8 for non-users. After full adjustment, colchicine use was associated with a 49% lower risk (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30 – 0.88) in the primary CV outcome as well as a 73% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.27, 95% CI 017 – 0.43). Conclusion Colchicine use was associated with a reduced risk of a CV event among patients with gout. PMID:26582823

  7. Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C

    2008-01-01

    Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their......Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure...... in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron–hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion...... of electrons are coupled, thereby breaking all of these symmetries. This spin–orbit coupling is directly observed as a splitting of the four-fold degeneracy of a single electron in ultra-clean quantum dots. The coupling favours parallel alignment of the orbital and spin magnetic moments for electrons...

  8. Radiative Capture of Twisted Electrons by Bare Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Matula, Oliver; Serbo, Valeriy G; Surzhykov, Andrey; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of twisted electron beams with a subnanometer spot size offer unique opportunities to explore the role of orbital angular momentum (OAM) in basic atomic processes. In the present work, we address one of these processes: radiative recombination of twisted electrons with bare ions. Based on the density matrix formalism and the non-relativistic Schr\\"odinger theory, analytical expressions are derived for the angular distribution and the linear polarization of photons emitted due to the capture of twisted electrons into the ground state of (hydrogen-like) ions. We show that these angular and polarization distributions are sensitive to both, the transverse momentum and the topological charge of the electron beam. To observe in particular the value of this charge, we propose an experiment that makes use of the coherent superposition of two twisted beams.

  9. Search for new physics in high mass electron-positron events in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, Anthony Allen; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, Michael G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-01

    We report the results of a search for a narrow resonance in electron-positron events in the invariant mass range of 150-950 GeV/c{sup 2} using 1.3 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s=1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. No significant evidence of such a resonance is observed and we interpret the results to exclude the standard model-like Z{prime} with a mass below 923 GeV/c{sup 2} and the Randall-Sundrum graviton with a mass below 807 GeV/c{sup 2} for k/{bar M}{sub pl} = 0.1, both at the 95% confidence level. Combining with di-photon data excludes the Randall-Sundrum graviton for masses below 889 GeV/c{sup 2} for k/{bar M}{sub pl} = 0.1

  10. Ion-Acoustic Envelope Modes in a Degenerate Relativistic Electron-Ion Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    McKerr, M; Kourakis, I

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case - in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.

  11. RELATIVISTIC (E > 0.6, > 2.0, AND > 4.0 MeV) ELECTRON ACCELERATION AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT DURING HIGH-INTENSITY, LONG-DURATION, CONTINUOUS AE ACTIVITY (HILDCAA) EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12227-010 (Brazil); Tsurutani, Bruce T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Santolik, Ondrej, E-mail: rajkumarhajra@yahoo.co.in [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-20

    Radiation-belt relativistic (E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV) electron acceleration is studied for solar cycle 23 (1995-2008). High-intensity, long-duration, continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events are considered as the basis of the analyses. All of the 35 HILDCAA events under study were found to be characterized by flux enhancements of magnetospheric relativistic electrons of all three energies compared to the pre-event flux levels. For the E > 2.0 MeV electron fluxes, enhancement of >50% occurred during 100% of HILDCAAs. Cluster-4 passes were examined for electromagnetic chorus waves in the 5 < L < 10 and 0 < MLT < 12 region when wave data were available. Fully 100% of these HILDCAA cases were associated with enhanced whistler-mode chorus waves. The enhancements of E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons occurred ∼1.0 day, ∼1.5 days, and ∼2.5 days after the statistical HILDCAA onset, respectively. The statistical acceleration rates for the three energy ranges were ∼1.8 × 10{sup 5}, 2.2 × 10{sup 3}, and 1.0 × 10{sup 1} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} d{sup –1}, respectively. The relativistic electron-decay timescales were determined to be ∼7.7, 5.5, and 4.0 days for the three energy ranges, respectively. The HILDCAAs were divided into short-duration (D ≤ 3 days) and long-duration (D > 3 days) events to study the dependence of relativistic electron variation on HILDCAA duration. For long-duration events, the flux enhancements during HILDCAAs with respect to pre-event fluxes were ∼290%, 520%, and 82% for E > 0.6, > 2.0, and > 4.0 MeV electrons, respectively. The enhancements were ∼250%, 400%, and 27% respectively, for short-duration events. The results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of radiation-belt dynamics.

  12. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, J.-F.; Reeves, G. D.; Cunningham, G. S.; Loridan, V.; Denton, M.; Santolík, O.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Turner, D. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    We present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt "slot region" and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2-6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies and (c) an "S-shaped" energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in ~15 days, although the "S shape" can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. The highest-energy electrons (E > 300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L ~ 4-5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.

  13. What is the frequency of an electron wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Particle-wave duality is a central tenet of quantum physics, and an electron has wave-like properties. Introductory texts discuss the wavelength-momentum relationship λ =h/p, but do not discuss the frequency-energy relationship. This is curious since a wave is periodic both in space and time. The discussion in more advanced texts is not satisfactory either since two different expressions for the frequency are given based on the relativistic and non-relativistic expression for the electron energy. The relativistic expression yields the correct frequency, and we explain why the expression based on the Schrödinger equation gives the incorrect expression. We argue that the electron frequency should be discussed at the introductory level.

  14. Electron's anomalous magnetic moment effects on electron-hydrogen elastic collisions in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Elhandi, S; attaourti, Y; Manaut, B; Oufni, L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment on the relativistic electronic dressing for the process of electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions is investigated. We consider a laser field with circular polarization and various electric field strengths. The Dirac-Volkov states taking into account this anomaly are used to describe the process in the first order of perturbation theory. The correlation between the terms coming from this anomaly and the electric field strength gives rise to new results, namely the strong dependence of the spinor part of the differential cross section (DCS) with respect to these terms. A detailed study has been devoted to the non relativistic regime as well as the moderate relativistic regime. Some aspects of this dependence as well as the dynamical behavior of the DCS in the relativistic regime have been addressed.

  15. Event Management

    OpenAIRE

    Havlenová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Event is an experience that is perceived by all the senses. Event management is a process involving the various activities that are assigned to staffers. Organizing special events became an individual field. If the manager understand the events as a communication platform gets into the hands of a modern, multifunctional and very impressive tool. The procedure to implement a successful event in a particular area is part of this work. The first part explains the issues of event management on th...

  16. Spinor-electron wave guided modes in coupled quantum wells structures by solving the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Jesus [Area de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)], E-mail: suso.linares.beiras@usc.es; Nistal, Maria C. [Area de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Escola Universitaria de Optica e Optometria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2009-05-04

    A quantum analysis based on the Dirac equation of the propagation of spinor-electron waves in coupled quantum wells, or equivalently coupled electron waveguides, is presented. The complete optical wave equations for Spin-Up (SU) and Spin-Down (SD) spinor-electron waves in these electron guides couplers are derived from the Dirac equation. The relativistic amplitudes and dispersion equations of the spinor-electron wave-guided modes in a planar quantum coupler formed by two coupled quantum wells, or equivalently by two coupled slab electron waveguides, are exactly derived. The main outcomes related to the spinor modal structure, such as the breaking of the non-relativistic degenerate spin states, the appearance of phase shifts associated with the spin polarization and so on, are shown.

  17. Investigation of the Semicoa SCF9550 and the International Rectifier IRHM57260SE for Single-Event Gate Rapture and Single-Event Burnout : NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. TheSCF9550 from Semicoa and the IRHM57260SE from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition/standards and requirements.The IRHM57260SE performed much better when compared to previous testing. These initial results confirm that parts from the Temecula line are marginally comparable to the El Segundo line. The SCF9550 from Semicoa was also tested and represents the initial parts offering from this vendor. Both parts experienced single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB). All of the SEGR was from gate to drain.

  18. Laser-Assisted Semi Relativistic Excitation of Atomic Hydrogen by Electronic Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Taj, S; Idrissi, M El; Oufni, L

    2012-01-01

    The excitation of H ($1s-2s$) by electron impact in the presence and in the absence of the laser field is studied in the framework of the first Born approximation. The angular variation of the laser-assisted differential cross section (DCS) for atomic hydrogen by electronic impact is presented at various kinetic energies for the incident electron. The use of Darwin wave function as a semirelativistic state to represent the atomic hydrogen gives interesting results when the condition $z/c\\ll1$ is fulfilled. A comparison with the non relativistic theory and experimental data gives good agreement. It was observed that beyond (2700 $eV$) which represents the limit between the two approaches, the non relativistic theory does not yield close agreement with our theory and that, over certain ranges of energy, it can be in error by several orders of magnitude. The sum rule given by Bunkin and Fedorov and by Kroll and Watson \\cite{22} has been verified in both nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes.

  19. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  20. Weak measurement from the electron displacement current: new path for applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, D.; Colomés, E.; Zanghì, N.; Oriols, X.

    2015-10-01

    The interest on weak measurements is rapidly growing during the last years as a unique tool to better understand and predict new quantum phenomena. Up to now many theoretical and experimental weak-measurement techniques deal with (relativistic) photons or cold atoms, but there is much less investigation on (non-relativistic) electrons in up-to-date electronics technologies. We propose a way to perform weak measurements in nanoelectronic devices through the measurement of the total current (particle plus displacement component) in such devices. We study the interaction between an electron in the active region of a electron device with a metal surface working as a sensing electrode by means of the (Bohmian) conditional wave function. We perform numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations to reconstruct the Bohmian trajectories in the iconic double slit experiment. This work opens new paths for understanding the quantum properties of an electronic system as well as for exploring new quantum engineering applications in solid state physics.

  1. Methods, algorithms and computer codes for calculation of electron-impact excitation parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovich, P; Stonys, D

    2015-01-01

    We describe the computer codes, developed at Vilnius University, for the calculation of electron-impact excitation cross sections, collision strengths, and excitation rates in the plane-wave Born approximation. These codes utilize the multireference atomic wavefunctions which are also adopted to calculate radiative transition parameters of complex many-electron ions. This leads to consistent data sets suitable in plasma modelling codes. Two versions of electron scattering codes are considered in the present work, both of them employing configuration interaction method for inclusion of correlation effects and Breit-Pauli approximation to account for relativistic effects. These versions differ only by one-electron radial orbitals, where the first one employs the non-relativistic numerical radial orbitals, while another version uses the quasirelativistic radial orbitals. The accuracy of produced results is assessed by comparing radiative transition and electron-impact excitation data for neutral hydrogen, helium...

  2. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  3. Analysis on Relativistic Electron Flux Enhancement Event at GEO in April 2010%2010年4月地球同步轨道相对论电子增强事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金磊; 钟秋珍; 陈良旭; 刘四清; 丁铸

    2012-01-01

    The relativistic electron flux enhancement event at GEO in April 2010 is analyzed in contrasting with other 6 similar events from 2004 to 2010. Solar wind and geomagnetic conditionswhich might trigger this event were analyzed. Analytical results indicate that the relatively weaker magnetic storms were prone to make the high flux part of relativistic electrons closer to GEO orbit, and whistler wave acceleration mechanism probably played important roles. The injection depth of seed electrons was closely related to magnetic storm intensity. Dst index curve is well fitted with the lower edge of higher flux region of 30-100keV electrons. The injection depth of seed electrons determined the region where mass of 〉 300 keV electrons appeared. Because of the relatively weak storms in the relativistic electron flux enhancement event, the seed electrons injected into a shallow region which was close to geosynchronous orbit, leading to relativistic electron flux abnormally enhancement in geosynchronous orbit. The intense substorms in relativistic electron flux enhancement event at GEO in April 2010, which generated sufficient seed electrons and enhanced the wave-particle interaction, was an essential factor leading to relativistic electrons flux enhancement.%为研究2010年4月地球同步轨道相对论电子通量异常增强事件的原因,选取了2004-2010年之间高速太阳风下7个类似事件进行对比分析.探讨了多种可能导致此次异常事件的太阳风和地磁条件.结果表明,较弱的磁暴使得相对论电子高通量区域更接近同步轨道,此外,哨声波加速很可能在2010年4月地球同步轨道相对论电子通量异常增强事件中起到重要作用.磁暴强度与种子电子的注入深度密切相关,表现为Dst指数曲线的形态与能量为30-100keV的电子高通量区域的下边缘高度吻合.能量为30-100keV电子的注入深度影响了能量大于300keV的电子出现的磁层区域

  4. Electron microprobe chemical U-Th-Pb and La-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events recorded in minerals of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira, E-mail: alochaves@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria (Brazil); Tubrett, Michael [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Avelar, Simone Cristina Pires; Rios, Francisco Javier; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Alves, James Vieira; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Prates, Sonia Pinto [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto Chaves [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (IG/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Matos, Evando Carele de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil, Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2009-05-15

    Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites are rocks which went through multiple modifications after formation. Electron microprobe chemical U-Th-Pb and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of minerals of albitites reveal protolith (U-bearing sodic syenites) crystallization and isochemical metamorphism at ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga during the final stages of the Orosirian orogenic event, when the first generation of uraninites was formed. Multiple uranium and lead mobilization promoted by at least five hydrothermal events (ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.5 Ga, ca. 1.3 Ga, ca. 1.1 Ga, and ca. 1.0 Ga) was detected in the albitites. A probable formation of a second uraninite group and/or resetting of UPb clock of older uraninites during the Brasiliano orogenic event at ca. 0.5 Ga also took place.(author)

  5. Electron-pair densities with time-dependent quantum Monte-Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use sets of de Broglie-Bohm trajectories to describe the quantum correlation effects which take place between the electrons in helium atom due to exchange and Coulomb interactions. A short-range screening of the Coulomb potential is used to modify the repulsion between the same spin electrons in physical space in order to comply with the Pauli's exclusion principle. By calculating the electron-pair density for ortho-helium we found that the shape of the exchange hole can be controlled uniquely by a simple screening parameter. For para-helium the inter-electronic distance, and hence the Coulomb hole, results from the combined action of the Coulomb repulsion and the non-local quantum correlations. In this way a robust and self-interaction-free approach is present to find both the ground state and the time evolution of non-relativistic quantum systems.

  6. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  7. Current-voltage and kinetic energy flux relations for relativistic field-aligned acceleration of auroral electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent spectroscopic observations of Jupiter's "main oval" auroras indicate that the primary auroral electron beam is routinely accelerated to energies of ~100 keV, and sometimes to several hundred keV, thus approaching the relativistic regime. This suggests the need to re-examine the classic non-relativistic theory of auroral electron acceleration by field-aligned electric fields first derived by Knight (1973, and to extend it to cover relativistic situations. In this paper we examine this problem for the case in which the source population is an isotropic Maxwellian, as also assumed by Knight, and derive exact analytic expressions for the field-aligned current density (number flux and kinetic energy flux of the accelerated population, for arbitrary initial electron temperature, acceleration potential, and field strength beneath the acceleration region. We examine the limiting behaviours of these expressions, their regimes of validity, and their implications for auroral acceleration in planetary magnetospheres (and like astrophysical systems. In particular, we show that for relativistic accelerating potentials, the current density increases as the square of the minimum potential, rather than linearly as in the non-relativistic regime, while the kinetic energy flux then increases as the cube of the potential, rather than as the square.

  8. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  9. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  10. Direct laser acceleration of electrons in free-space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajo, Sergio; Wong, Liang Jie; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are versatile and powerful tools of unarguable relevance on societal grounds for the diverse purposes of science, health, security, and technology because they bring enormous practicality to state-of-the-art achievements of conventional radio-frequency accelerators. Current benchmarking laser-based technologies rely on a medium to assist the light-matter interaction, which impose material limitations or strongly inhomogeneous fields. The advent of few cycle ultra-intense radially polarized lasers has materialized an extensively studied novel accelerator that adopts the simplest form of laser acceleration and is unique in requiring no medium to achieve strong longitudinal energy transfer directly from laser to particle. Here we present the first observation of direct longitudinal laser acceleration of non-relativistic electrons that undergo highly-directional multi-GeV/m accelerating gradients. This demonstration opens a new frontier for direct laser-driven particle accelerati...

  11. Radio Observations of the Tidal Disruption Event XMMSL1 J0740‑85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K. D.; Wieringa, M. H.; Berger, E.; Saxton, R. D.; Komossa, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present radio observations of the tidal disruption event candidate (TDE) XMMSL1 J0740‑85 spanning 592 to 875 days post X-ray discovery. We detect radio emission that fades from an initial peak flux density at 1.6 GHz of 1.19 ± 0.06 mJy to 0.65 ± 0.06 mJy, suggesting an association with the TDE. This makes XMMSL1 J0740‑85 at d = 75 Mpc the nearest TDE with detected radio emission to date and only the fifth TDE with radio emission overall. The observed radio luminosity rules out a powerful relativistic jet like that seen in the relativistic TDE Swift J1644+57. Instead, we infer from an equipartition analysis that the radio emission most likely arises from a non-relativistic outflow similar to that seen in the nearby TDE ASASSN-14li, with a velocity of about 104 km s‑1 and a kinetic energy of about 1048 erg, expanding into a medium with a density of about 102 cm‑3. Alternatively, the radio emission could arise from a weak initially relativistic but decelerated jet with an energy of ∼ 2× {10}50 erg, or (for an extreme disruption geometry) from the unbound debris. The radio data for XMMSL1 J0740‑85 continues to support the previous suggestion of a bimodal distribution of common non-relativistic isotropic outflows and rare relativistic jets in TDEs (in analogy with the relation between Type Ib/c supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts). The radio data also provide a new measurement of the circumnuclear density on a sub-parsec scale around an extragalactic supermassive black hole.

  12. Quantum simulation of a spin polarization device in an electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Karimi, Ebrahim; Zanella, Riccardo; Santamato, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A proposal for an electron-beam device that can act as an efficient spin-polarization filter has been recently put forward (Karimi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 044801). It is based on combining the recently developed diffraction technology for imposing orbital angular momentum to the beam with a multipolar Wien filter inducing a sort of artificial non-relativistic spin-orbit coupling. Here we reconsider the proposed device with a fully quantum-mechanical simulation of the electron-beam propagation, based on the well-established multi-slice method, supplemented with a Pauli term for taking into account the spin degree of freedom. Using this upgraded numerical tool, we study the feasibility and practical limitations of the proposed method for spin polarizing a free electron beam.

  13. Clarifying the covariant formalism for the SZ effect due to relativistic non-thermal electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Celine

    2008-01-01

    We derive the covariant formalism associated with the relativistic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect due to a non-thermal population of high energy electrons in clusters of galaxies. More precisely, we show that the formalism proposed by Wright in 1979, based on an empirical approach (but widely used in the literature) to compute the inverse Compton scattering of a population of relativistic electrons on CMB photons, can actually be re-interpreted as a Boltzmann-like equation, in the single scattering approximation. Although this would tend to reconcile Wright's approach with the latest works on the relativistic corrections of the thermal SZ effect, we find that the squared matrix amplitude derived by Wright by applying a relativistic Lorentz boost on Chandrasekhar's non-relativistic formula is incorrect (it is not equivalent to the well-known Compton scattering squared matrix amplitude in the limit of relativistic incoming electrons and low energy photons). This has important consequences. In particular, this modifi...

  14. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display (side view) of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. Electron clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  15. NORSE: A solver for the relativistic non-linear Fokker-Planck equation for electrons in a homogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A.; Landreman, M.; Embréus, O.; Fülöp, T.

    2017-03-01

    Energetic electrons are of interest in many types of plasmas, however previous modeling of their properties has been restricted to the use of linear Fokker-Planck collision operators or non-relativistic formulations. Here, we describe a fully non-linear kinetic-equation solver, capable of handling large electric-field strengths (compared to the Dreicer field) and relativistic temperatures. This tool allows modeling of the momentum-space dynamics of the electrons in cases where strong departures from Maxwellian distributions may arise. As an example, we consider electron runaway in magnetic-confinement fusion plasmas and describe a transition to electron slide-away at field strengths significantly lower than previously predicted.

  16. NORSE: A solver for the relativistic non-linear Fokker-Planck equation for electrons in a homogeneous plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, A; Embréus, O; Fülöp, T

    2016-01-01

    Energetic electrons are of interest in many types of plasmas, however previous modelling of their properties have been restricted to the use of linear Fokker-Planck collision operators or non-relativistic formulations. Here, we describe a fully non-linear kinetic-equation solver, capable of handling large electric-field strengths (compared to the Dreicer field) and relativistic temperatures. This tool allows modelling of the momentum-space dynamics of the electrons in cases where strong departures from Maxwellian distributions may arise. As an example, we consider electron runaway in magnetic-confinement fusion plasmas and describe a transition to electron slide-away at field strengths significantly lower than previously predicted.

  17. Holographic Schwinger effect in non-relativistic backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir, E-mail: kbitaghsir@gmail.com; Saiedi, Fateme, E-mail: fatimasaiedi@yahoo.com [Physics Department, University of Shahrood, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-22

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the Schwinger effect in strongly coupled theories with an anisotropic scaling symmetry in time and spatial directions. We consider Lifshitz and hyperscaling violation theories and use their gravity duals. It is shown that the shape of the potential barrier depends on the parameters of theory. One concludes that the production rate for the pair creation of particle and antiparticle will be easier in the Lifshitz theory.

  18. Holographic Schwinger effect in non-relativistic backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Saiedi, Fateme [University of Shahrood, Physics Department, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the Schwinger effect in strongly coupled theories with an anisotropic scaling symmetry in time and spatial directions. We consider Lifshitz and hyperscaling violation theories and use their gravity duals. It is shown that the shape of the potential barrier depends on the parameters of theory. One concludes that the production rate for the pair creation of particle and antiparticle will be easier in the Lifshitz theory. (orig.)

  19. Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter

    CERN Document Server

    Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M

    2015-01-01

    There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativisitic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one can not impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativis...

  20. "Non-Relativistic" Behavior of Massive Gravity Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S

    2014-01-01

    We exhibit novel effects (absent in GR) of sources in massive gravity. First, we show that removing its ghost mode forces a field-current identity: The metric's trace is locally proportional to that of its stress tensor; a point source implies a metric singularity enhanced by the square of the graviton's range. Second, exterior solutions acquire spatial stress hair--their metric components depend on the interior T_ij(r). Also, in contrast to naive expectations, the Newtonian potential of a source is now determined by both its interior's spatial stress and mass. Our explicit results are obtained at linear, Fierz-Pauli, level, but ought to persist nonlinearly.

  1. Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF$_4$, CS$_2$ and $^{3}$He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.

  2. Intrinsic limits on resolutions in muon- and electron-neutrino charged-current events in the KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Mart, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijerf, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Leisos, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălas, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pleinert, M.-O.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rauch, T.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-05-01

    Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit the obtainable resolution in both energy and direction in charged-current neutrino events in the ORCA detector are investigated. These processes include the composition of the hadronic fragmentation products, the subsequent particle propagation and the photon-sampling fraction of the detector. GEANT simulations of neutrino interactions in seawater produced by GENIE are used to study the effects in the 1-20 GeV range. It is found that fluctuations in the hadronic cascade in conjunction with the variation of the inelasticity y are most detrimental to the resolutions. The effect of limited photon sampling in the detector is of significantly less importance. These results will therefore also be applicable to similar detectors/media, such as those in ice. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C;

    2008-01-01

    Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure...... in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron–hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion...... and antiparallel alignment for holes. Our measurements are consistent with recent theories that predict the existence of spin–orbit coupling in curved graphene and describe it as a spin dependent topological phase in nanotubes. Our findings have important implications for spin-based applications in carbon- based...

  4. Low-energy electron impact cross-sections and rate constants of $NH_2$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANAND BHARADVAJA; SAVINDER KAUR; K L BALUJA

    2017-08-01

    This systematic study reports various electron impact cross-sections, rate constants and transport properties of $NH_2$ radical in the low-energy limit. The collision study is based on $R$-matrix formalism and involves the use of various scattering models employing different active spaces. Both electron excited inelasticcross-sections and resonances are found influenced by correlation and polarization effects. The non-relativistic molecular bremsstrahlung radiation cross-section for soft photons, binary encounter Bethe model-based ionization cross-sections and a few molecular properties of the target radical are also reported. The present calculations are found to be in agreement with the available results. This theoretical study provides a pathway to understand collision dynamics and generates data required in various fields of applied physics.

  5. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  6. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  7. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  8. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  9. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  10. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  11. Electron kinetic effects on optical diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Parke, E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Brower, D. L., E-mail: vvmirnov@wisc.edu; Ding, W. X. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2014-08-21

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP) and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. We calculate electron thermal corrections to the interferometric phase and polarization state of an EM wave propagating along tangential and poloidal chords (Faraday and Cotton-Mouton polarimetry) and perform analysis of the degree of polarization for incoherent TS. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sup e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  12. Atomic ionization by twisted photons: Angular distribution of emitted electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Matula, Oliver; Serbo, Valeriy G; Surzhykov, Andrey; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of electrons that are emitted in the ionization of hydrogen-like ions by twisted photons. Analysis is performed based on the first-order perturbation theory and the non-relativistic Schr\\"odinger equation. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the electron emission pattern on the impact parameter b of the ion with respect to the centre of the twisted wave front. In order to explore such a dependence, detailed calculations were carried out for the photoionization of the 1s ground and 2 py excited states of neutral hydrogen atoms. Based on these calculations, we argue that for relatively small impact parameters the electron angular distributions may be strongly affected by altering the position of the atom within the wave front. In contrast, if the atom is placed far from the front centre, the emission pattern of the electrons is independent on the impact parameter b and resembles that observed in the photoionization by plane wave photons.

  13. On the structure of the energy-momentum and the spin currents in Dirac's electron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, F W; Mielke, E W; Obukhov, Yu N; Obukhov, Yu.N.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a classical Dirac field in flat Minkowski spacetime. We perform a Gordon decomposition of its canonical energy-momentum and spin currents, respectively. Thereby we find for each of these currents a convective and a polarization piece. The polarization pieces can be expressed as exterior covariant derivatives of the two-forms $\\check M_\\alpha$ and $M_{\\alpha\\beta}=-M_{\\beta\\alpha}$, respectively. In analogy to the magnetic moment in electrodynamics, we identify these two-forms as gravitational moments connected with the translation group and the Lorentz group, respectively. We point out the relation between the Gordon decomposition of the energy-momentum current and its Belinfante-Rosenfeld symmetrization. In the non-relativistic limit, the translational gravitational moment of the Dirac field is found to be proportional to the spin covector of the electron.

  14. First principle electronic, structural, elastic, and optical properties of strontium titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu E. Ekuma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report self-consistent ab-initio electronic, structural, elastic, and optical properties of cubic SrTiO3 perovskite. Our non-relativistic calculations employed a generalized gradient approximation (GGA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO formalism. The distinctive feature of our computations stem from solving self-consistently the system of equations describing the GGA, using the Bagayoko-Zhao-Williams (BZW method. Our results are in agreement with experimental ones where the later are available. In particular, our theoretical, indirect band gap of 3.24 eV, at the experimental lattice constant of 3.91 Å, is in excellent agreement with experiment. Our predicted, equilibrium lattice constant is 3.92 Å, with a corresponding indirect band gap of 3.21 eV and bulk modulus of 183 GPa.

  15. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  16. Discovery of an outflow from radio observations of the tidal disruption event ASASSN-14li

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Kate D; Guillochon, James; Zauderer, Bevin A; Williams, Peter K G

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBH) lights up dormant systems and can be used to probe accretion and outflow processes. Theoretical calculations indicate that most tidal disruption events (TDEs) lead to super-Eddington accretion, which in turn drives outflows. The discovery of luminous radio emission from the $\\gamma$-ray TDE Sw J1644+57 revealed the formation of a relativistic jetted outflow, but such events represent $\\lesssim 1\\%$ of the TDE population. Direct evidence for outflows in the bulk of the TDE population, discovered through optical, ultraviolet (UV), and X-ray observations, has been lacking. Here we report the discovery of transient radio emission from the nearby optically-discovered TDE ASASSN-14li (distance of 90 Mpc), making it the first normal TDE detected in the radio, and unambiguously pointing to the formation of a non-relativistic outflow with a kinetic energy of $\\approx 10^{48}$ erg, a velocity of $\\approx 12,000-39,000$ km s$^{-1}$, and a mass of $\\approx ...

  17. Electron Capture in 163Ho and Overlap plus Exchange Corrections and the Neutrino Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand; Simkovic, M F

    2014-01-01

    Holmium offers perhaps the best chance to determine the neutrino mass by electron capture. This contribution treats the electron capture in 163Holmium completely relativistic for the overlap and exchange corrections. The theoretical expressions are derived consistently in second quantisation with the help of Wick's theorem assuming single Slater determinants for the initial Ho and the final Dy atoms with holes in the final ns1/2 and np1/2 states. No hand waving arguments are needed to derive the exchange terms. It seems, that for the first time the multiplicity of electrons in the orbital overlaps are included in the numerical treatment. Electron capture e + p --> n + neutrino is proportional to the probability to find the captured electron in the parent atom at the nucleus. Non-relativistically this is only possible for ns1/2 electron states. Relativistically also p1/2 electrons have a probability to be at the nucleus due to the lower part of the relativistic electron spinor, which does not disappear at the ...

  18. DFT reactivity indices in confined many-electron atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jorge Garza; Rubicelia Vargas; Norberto Aquino; K D Sen

    2005-09-01

    The density functional descriptors of chemical reactivity given by electronegativity, global hardness and softness are reported for a representative set of spherically confined atoms of IA, IIA, VA and VIIIA series in the periodic table. The atomic electrons are confined within the impenetrable spherical cavity defined by a given radius of confinement satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition such that the electron density vanishes at the radius of confinement. With this boundary condition the non-relativistic spin-polarized Kohn-Sham equations were solved. The electronegativity in a confined atom is found to decrease as the radius of confinement is reduced suggesting that relative to the free state the atom loses its capacity to attract electrons under confined conditions. While the global hardness of a confined atom increases as the radius of confinement decreases, due to the accompanying orbital energy level crossing, it does not increase infinitely. At a certain confinement radius, the atomic global hardness is even reduced due to such crossover. General trends of the atomic softness parameter under spherically confined conditions are reported and discussed.

  19. Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    The axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for the electron of frequency $m_a$ and strength $\\sim 10^{-32}$ e-cm, two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model constant limit. We give a detailed study of this phenomenon via the interaction of the cosmic axion, through the electromagnetic anomaly, with particular emphasis on the decoupling limit of the axion, $\\partial_t a(t)\\propto m_a \\rightarrow 0$. The general form of the action involves a local contact interaction and a nonlocal contribution that enforces the decoupling limit. We derive the effective action in the Pauli-Schroedinger non-relativistic formalism, and in Georgi's heavy quark formalism adapted to the "heavy electron" (heavy compared to $m_a$). We compute the electric dipole radiation emitted by stationary electrons, and we discuss a number of experimental configurations that may yield detectable signals. Phased array radiators with $N^2$ unit cell magn...

  20. Sequential and Coupled Proton and Electron Transfer Events in the S2 → S3 Transition of Photosynthetic Water Oxidation Revealed by Time-Resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Haumann, Michael

    2016-12-20

    The choreography of electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) in the S-state cycle at the manganese-calcium (Mn4Ca) complex of photosystem II (PSII) is pivotal for the mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation. Time-resolved room-temperature X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Mn K-edge was employed to determine the kinetic isotope effect (KIE = τD2O/τH2O) of the four S transitions in a PSII membrane particle preparation in H2O and D2O buffers. We found a small KIE (1.2-1.4) for manganese oxidation by ET from Mn4Ca to the tyrosine radical (YZ(•+)) in the S0(n) → S1(+) and S1(n) → S2(+) transitions and for manganese reduction by ET from substrate water to manganese ions in the O2-evolving S3(n) → S0(n) step, but a larger KIE (∼1.8) for manganese oxidation in the S2(n) → S3(+) step (subscript, number of accumulated oxidizing equivalents; superscript, charge of Mn4Ca). Kinetic lag phases detected in the XAS transients prior to the respective ET steps were assigned to S3(+) → S3(n) (∼150 μs, H2O; ∼380 μs, D2O) and S2(+) → S2(n) (∼25 μs, H2O; ∼120 μs, D2O) steps and attributed to PT events according to their comparatively large KIE (∼2.4, ∼4.5). Our results suggest that proton movements and molecular rearrangements within the hydrogen-bonded network involving Mn4Ca and its bound (substrate) water ligands and the surrounding amino acid/water matrix govern to different extents the rates of all ET steps but affect particularly strongly the S2(n) → S3(+) transition, assigned as proton-coupled electron transfer. Observation of a lag phase in the classical S2 → S3 transition verifies that the associated PT is a prerequisite for subsequent ET, which completes Mn4Ca oxidation to the all-Mn(IV) level.

  1. Regularly timed events amid chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Jonathan N.; Cooper, Roy M.; Corron, Ned J.

    2015-11-01

    We show rigorously that the solutions of a class of chaotic oscillators are characterized by regularly timed events in which the derivative of the solution is instantaneously zero. The perfect regularity of these events is in stark contrast with the well-known unpredictability of chaos. We explore some consequences of these regularly timed events through experiments using chaotic electronic circuits. First, we show that a feedback loop can be implemented to phase lock the regularly timed events to a periodic external signal. In this arrangement the external signal regulates the timing of the chaotic signal but does not strictly lock its phase. That is, phase slips of the chaotic oscillation persist without disturbing timing of the regular events. Second, we couple the regularly timed events of one chaotic oscillator to those of another. A state of synchronization is observed where the oscillators exhibit synchronized regular events while their chaotic amplitudes and phases evolve independently. Finally, we add additional coupling to synchronize the amplitudes, as well, however in the opposite direction illustrating the independence of the amplitudes from the regularly timed events.

  2. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  3. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  4. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  5. Radio observations of the tidal disruption event XMMSL1 J0740$-$85

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Kate D; Berger, Edo; Saxton, Richard D; Komossa, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    We present radio observations of the tidal disruption event candidate (TDE) XMMSL1 J0740$-$85 spanning 592 to 875 d post X-ray discovery. We detect radio emission that fades from an initial peak flux density at 1.6 GHz of $1.19\\pm 0.06$ mJy to $0.65\\pm 0.06$ mJy suggesting an association with the TDE. This makes XMMSL1 J0740$-$85 at $d=75$ Mpc the nearest TDE with detected radio emission to date and only the fifth TDE with radio emission overall. The observed radio luminosity rules out a powerful relativistic jet like that seen in the relativistic TDE Swift J1644+57. Instead we infer from an equipartition analysis that the radio emission most likely arises from a non-relativistic outflow similar to that seen in the nearby TDE ASASSN-14li, with a velocity of about $10^4$ km s$^{-1}$ and a kinetic energy of about $10^{48}$ erg, expanding into a medium with a density of about $10^2$ cm$^{-3}$. Alternatively, the radio emission could arise from a weak initially-relativistic but decelerated jet with an energy of $...

  6. Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmeth, F; Ilani, S; Ralph, D C; McEuen, P L

    2008-03-27

    Electrons in atoms possess both spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, these are independent, resulting in large degeneracies in atomic spectra. However, relativistic effects couple the spin and orbital motion, leading to the well-known fine structure in their spectra. The electronic states in defect-free carbon nanotubes are widely believed to be four-fold degenerate, owing to independent spin and orbital symmetries, and also to possess electron-hole symmetry. Here we report measurements demonstrating that in clean nanotubes the spin and orbital motion of electrons are coupled, thereby breaking all of these symmetries. This spin-orbit coupling is directly observed as a splitting of the four-fold degeneracy of a single electron in ultra-clean quantum dots. The coupling favours parallel alignment of the orbital and spin magnetic moments for electrons and antiparallel alignment for holes. Our measurements are consistent with recent theories that predict the existence of spin-orbit coupling in curved graphene and describe it as a spin-dependent topological phase in nanotubes. Our findings have important implications for spin-based applications in carbon-based systems, entailing new design principles for the realization of quantum bits (qubits) in nanotubes and providing a mechanism for all-electrical control of spins in nanotubes.

  7. Chemical kinetics and relaxation of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by energetic photon and electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulois, Melissa; Ribière, Maxime; Eichwald, Olivier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Azaïs, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The comprehension of electromagnetic perturbations of electronic devices, due to air plasma-induced electromagnetic field, requires a thorough study on air plasma. In the aim to understand the phenomena at the origin of the formation of non-equilibrium air plasma, we simulate, using a volume average chemical kinetics model (0D model), the time evolution of a non-equilibrium air plasma generated by an energetic X-ray flash. The simulation is undertaken in synthetic air (80% N2 and 20% O2) at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. When the X-ray flash crosses the gas, non-relativistic Compton electrons (low energy) and a relativistic Compton electron beam (high energy) are simultaneously generated and interact with the gas. The considered chemical kinetics scheme involves 26 influent species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutral atoms and molecules in their ground or metastable excited states) reacting following 164 selected reactions. The kinetics model describing the plasma chemistry was coupled to the conservation equation of the electron mean energy, in order to calculate at each time step of the non-equilibrium plasma evolution, the coefficients of reactions involving electrons while the energy of the heavy species (positive and negative ions and neutral atoms and molecules) is assumed remaining close to ambient temperature. It has been shown that it is the relativistic Compton electron beam directly created by the X-ray flash which is mainly responsible for the non-equilibrium plasma formation. Indeed, the low energy electrons (i.e., the non-relativistic ones) directly ejected from molecules by Compton collisions contribute to less than 1% on the creation of electrons in the plasma. In our simulation conditions, a non-equilibrium plasma with a low electron mean energy close to 1 eV and a concentration of charged species close to 1013 cm-3 is formed a few nanoseconds after the peak of X-ray flash intensity. 200 ns after the flash

  8. Problems in event based engine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Jensen, Michael; Chevalier, Alain Marie Roger

    1994-01-01

    Physically a four cycle spark ignition engine operates on the basis of four engine processes or events: intake, compression, ignition (or expansion) and exhaust. These events each occupy approximately 180° of crank angle. In conventional engine controllers, it is an accepted practice to sample...... the engine variables synchronously with these events (or submultiples of them). Such engine controllers are often called event-based systems. Unfortunately the main system noise (or disturbance) is also synchronous with the engine events: the engine pumping fluctuations. Since many electronic engine...... problems on accurate air/fuel ratio control of a spark ignition (SI) engine....

  9. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  10. A NEUTRINO INDUCED FOUR LEPTON EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveless, R. J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Benada, R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Duffy, M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Fry, W. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; McCabe, P. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Minette, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Ngai, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Reeder, D. D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Ballagh, H. C. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Bingham, H H [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Fretter, W. B. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Lawry, T. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Lynch, G. R. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Lys, J. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Marriner, J. P. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Orthel, J. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Stevenson, M. L. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Sokoloff, M. D. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; Yost, G. P. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley Lab, University of California Berkeley, CA; et al.,

    1978-05-01

    We report observation of a neutrino (antineutrino)-induced event with two electrons, one positron, one positively charged muon, a neutral K meson, and seven gammas in an experiment performed in the FNAL 15-ft. bubble chamber with a 47% atomic mixture of neon in hydrogen. Estimated experimental electron backgrounds are ~10⁻⁴ per track. At present we have no plausible interpretation of this event.

  11. Polypharmacy in chronic diseases-Reduction of Inappropriate Medication and Adverse drug events in older populations by electronic Decision Support (PRIMA-eDS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönnichsen, Andreas; Trampisch, Ulrike S; Rieckert, Anja; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Vögele, Anna; Flamm, Maria; Johansson, Tim; Esmail, Aneez; Reeves, David; Löffler, Christin; Höck, Jennifer; Klaassen-Mielke, Renate; Trampisch, Hans Joachim; Kunnamo, Ilkka

    2016-01-29

    Multimorbidity is increasing in aging populations with a corresponding increase in polypharmacy as well as inappropriate prescribing. Depending on definitions, 25-50 % of patients aged 75 years or older are exposed to at least five drugs. Evidence is increasing that polypharmacy, even when guidelines advise the prescribing of each drug individually, can potentially cause more harm than benefit to older patients, due to factors such as drug-drug and drug-disease interactions. Several approaches reducing polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing have been proposed, but evidence showing a benefit of these measures regarding clinically relevant endpoints is scarce. There is an urgent need to implement more effective strategies. We therefore set out to develop an evidence-based electronic decision support (eDS) tool to aid physicians in reducing inappropriate prescribing and test its effectiveness in a large-scale cluster-randomized controlled trial. The "Polypharmacy in chronic diseases-Reduction of Inappropriate Medication and Adverse drug events in older populations" (PRIMA)-eDS tool is a tool comprising an indication check and recommendations for the reduction of polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing based on systematic reviews and guidelines, the European list of inappropriate medications for older people, the SFINX-database of interactions, the PHARAO-database on adverse effects, and the RENBASE-database on renal dosing. The tool will be evaluated in a cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 325 general practitioners (GPs) and around 3500 patients across five study centres in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria and Italy. GP practices will be asked to recruit 11 patients aged 75 years or older who are taking at least eight medications and will be cluster-randomized after completion of patient recruitment. Intervention GPs will have access to the PRIMA-eDS tool, while control GPs will treat their patients according to current guidelines (usual care

  12. Tracking transient events through geosynchronous orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korotova, G.I.; Sibeck, D.G.; Moretto, T.

    1999-01-01

    Impulsive events in high-latitude dayside ground magnetograms provide evidence for one or more modes of unsteady solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. We use geosynchronous magnetic field and energetic electron observations to demonstrate that the events correspond to abrupt global variations in ...

  13. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  14. The exact solution of one-dimensional nonrelativistic Vlasov equation: Antitropic electron beams and Landau damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Nikolay S.; Zelekson, Lev A.

    2017-03-01

    The exact stationary solution of one-dimensional non-relativistic Vlasov equation is obtained in the article. It is shown that in the energy exchange with the self-consistent longitudinal electric field, both wave trapped charged particles and the passing ones take part. It is proved that the trapped electron distribution is fundamentally different from distribution functions described by other authors, which used the Bernstein, Greene, and Kruskal method. So, the correct distribution function is characterized by its sudden change at the equality of wave and electrons' velocity but not on the edges of the potential well. This jump occurs for any arbitrary small value of wave potential. It was also found that the energy density of fast electrons trapped by the wave is less than the energy density of slow trapped electrons. This leads to the fact that the energy of the self-consistent electric field may both increase and decrease due to the nonlinear Landau damping. The conditions under which a similar effect can be observed are defined. Also for the first time, it is shown that the self-generated strong electric field always produces antitropic electron beams.

  15. The stationary non-equilibrium plasma of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The statistical properties of the two-component plasma of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons measured by the AMS-02 experiment on the International Space Station and the HESS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes are analyzed. Stationary non-equilibrium distributions defining the relativistic electron-positron plasma are derived semi-empirically by performing spectral fits to the flux data and reconstructing the spectral number densities of the electronic and positronic components in phase space. These distributions are relativistic power-law densities with exponential cutoff, admitting an extensive entropy variable and converging to the Maxwell-Boltzmann or Fermi-Dirac distributions in the non-relativistic limit. Cosmic-ray electrons and positrons constitute a classical (low-density high-temperature) plasma due to the low fugacity in the quantized partition function. The positron fraction is assembled from the flux densities inferred from least-squares fits to the electron and positron spectra and is subjected to test by comparing with the AMS-02 flux ratio measured in the GeV interval. The calculated positron fraction extends to TeV energies, predicting a broad spectral peak at about 1 TeV followed by exponential decay.

  16. Holter and Event Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Holter and Event Monitors Also known as ambulatory EKG; continuous EKG; EKG event monitors. Holter and event monitors are small, portable electrocardiogram devices ...

  17. Solar Eruptive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  18. Keterlibatan Event Stakeholders pada Keberhasilan Event PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Wati Evelina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine how event organizers collaborate with stakeholders including the media, particular community, sponsors, participants, venue providers, accommodation providers, carteres, legal and finance personnel, production, local trade, transportation providers, government and associations for implementation Public Relations event. This paper discusses about the things that must be done for the cooperation and the benefits of cooperation undertaken. The method used in this paper is qualitative research method based on observations, literature and case studies. The results of this research note that the event organizers or companies can together with the stakeholders (the other party make an event as mutually beneficial Public Relations. This means that all parties can achieve through the event. At the conclusion of an event Public Relations, all stakeholders involved for their own purposes. Event organizer must ensure that all stakeholders work together effectively in accordance with the agreed schedule and budget. One important feature of the agreement is to maintain a good flow of communication according to the needs of its stakeholders. All information is documented to avoid misunderstandings. Collaboration between stakeholders continuously until the event is completed. Discussion of issues that arise during the event takes place between the committee with various stakeholders is an important thing for the evaluation and response to the events that occurred.

  19. Cardiac event monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ECG) - ambulatory; Continuous electrocardiograms (EKGs); Holter monitors; Transtelephonic event monitors ... attached. You can carry or wear a cardiac event monitor up to 30 days. You carry the ...

  20. Study of local response effects in interatomic collisions with two active electrons in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory; Untersuchung lokaler Responseffekte in interatomaren Stoessen mit zwei aktiven Elektronen im Rahmen zeitabhaengiger Dichtefunktionaltheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, M.

    2005-07-01

    In the present thesis response effects in interatomic collisions with two active electrons are studied in the range of non-relativistic collision energies. The starting point is the mapping of the time-dependent interacting many-electron sytem on an effective one-particle picture on the base of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). By means of the basis generator method the one-particle equations aring in the framework of the TDDFT concept are solved in a finite-dimensional model space. In the study of ionization cross section in the collisional systeem anti p+He it is shown that by response effects an essential diminuishing of the cross sections in comparison to the no-response case is reached. Analoguously the ionization cross sections for the collisional systems p-He, He{sup 2+}-He, Li{sup 3+}-He and p-Li{sup +} behave.

  1. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V V; Brower, D L; Den Hartog, D J; Ding, W X; Duff, J; Parke, E

    2014-11-01

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = Te/mec(2) model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ(2)-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  2. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry, polarimetry and Thomson scattering measurements in burning plasmas (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Parke, E. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin - Madison and the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP), and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH, and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of the degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sub e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  3. Multi-scale modelling and numerical simulation of electronic kinetic transport; Modelisation et simulation numerique multi-echelle du transport cinetique electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duclous, R

    2009-11-15

    This research thesis which is at the interface between numerical analysis, plasma physics and applied mathematics, deals with the kinetic modelling and numerical simulations of the electron energy transport and deposition in laser-produced plasmas, having in view the processes of fuel assembly to temperature and density conditions necessary to ignite fusion reactions. After a brief review of the processes at play in the collisional kinetic theory of plasmas, with a focus on basic models and methods to implement, couple and validate them, the author focuses on the collective aspect related to the free-streaming electron transport equation in the non-relativistic limit as well as in the relativistic regime. He discusses the numerical development and analysis of the scheme for the Vlasov-Maxwell system, and the selection of a validation procedure and numerical tests. Then, he investigates more specific aspects of the collective transport: the multi-specie transport, submitted to phase-space discontinuities. Dealing with the multi-scale physics of electron transport with collision source terms, he validates the accuracy of a fast Monte Carlo multi-grid solver for the Fokker-Planck-Landau electron-electron collision operator. He reports realistic simulations for the kinetic electron transport in the frame of the shock ignition scheme, the development and validation of a reduced electron transport angular model. He finally explores the relative importance of the processes involving electron-electron collisions at high energy by means a multi-scale reduced model with relativistic Boltzmann terms.

  4. Molecular structure calculations: a unified quantum mechanical description of electrons and nuclei using explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and the global vector representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus

    2012-07-14

    We elaborate on the theory for the variational solution of the Schrödinger equation of small atomic and molecular systems without relying on the Born-Oppenheimer paradigm. The all-particle Schrödinger equation is solved in a numerical procedure using the variational principle, Cartesian coordinates, parameterized explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with polynomial prefactors, and the global vector representation. As a result, non-relativistic energy levels and wave functions of few-particle systems can be obtained for various angular momentum, parity, and spin quantum numbers. A stochastic variational optimization of the basis function parameters facilitates the calculation of accurate energies and wave functions for the ground and some excited rotational-(vibrational-)electronic states of H(2) (+) and H(2), three bound states of the positronium molecule, Ps(2), and the ground and two excited states of the (7)Li atom.

  5. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  6. HELAC-Onia 2.0: An upgraded matrix-element and event generator for heavy quarkonium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We present an upgraded version (denoted as version 2.0) of the program HELAC-ONIA for the automated computation of heavy-quarkonium helicity amplitudes within non-relativistic QCD framework. The new code has been designed to include many new and useful features for practical phenomenological simulations. It is designed for job submissions under cluster environment for parallel computations via PYTHON scripts. We have interfaced HELAC-ONIA to the parton shower Monte Carlo programs PYTHIA 8 and QEDPS to take into account the parton-shower effects. Moreover, the decay module guarantees that the program can perform the spin-entangled (cascade-)decay of heavy quarkonium after its generation. We have also implemented a reweighting method to automatically estimate the uncertainties from renormalization and/or factorization scales as well as parton-distribution functions to weighted or unweighted events. A further update is the possibility to generate one-dimensional or two-dimensional plots encoded in the analysis files on the fly. Some dedicated examples are given at the end of the writeup.

  7. HELAC-Onia 2.0: an upgraded matrix-element and event generator for heavy quarkonium physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Hua-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We present an upgraded version (denoted as version 2.0) of the program HELAC-Onia for the automated computation of heavy-quarkonium helicity amplitudes within non-relativistic QCD framework. The new code has been designed to include many new and useful features for practical phenomenological simulations. It is designed for job submissions under cluster enviroment for parallel computations via Python scripts. We have interfaced HELAC-Onia to the parton shower Monte Carlo programs Pythia 8 and QEDPS to take into account the parton-shower effects. Moreover, the decay module guarantees that the program can perform the spin-entangled (cascade-)decay of heavy quarkonium after its generation. We have also implemented a reweighting method to automatically estimate the uncertainties from renormalization and/or factorization scales as well as parton-distribution functions to weighted or unweighted events. A futher update is the possiblity to generate one-dimensional or two-dimensional plots encoded in the analysis file...

  8. The global event system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  9. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  10. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse......-probability-of-selection weighting scheme is suggested. The ability of the methods to correct for the bias due to selection is investigated with simulations. Furthermore, the methods are applied to affective disease data from a register-based study (Kessing et al. Br J Psychiatry 185:372-377, 2004a) and from a long-term clinical...

  11. Analytical model of Weibel-mediated electron-ion collisionless shock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bonnaud, G.; Riconda, C.

    2015-11-01

    We address the formation of ion-electron collisionless shocks in the non-relativistic regime. The shocks formed by the non-linear evolution of the Weibel-type instabilities, arise during plasma collisions in numerous high-energy astrophysical scenario such as pulsar wind nebulae or supernova remnants. For the first time, a predictive fully analytical model of the ion Weibel saturation based on the coalescence of filaments is presented and allows to describe the evolution of the plasma and its characteristics until shock-formation. It is compared successfully to Weibel-mediated shock simulations until quasi-isotropisation of the ions, and close to shock formation. Our model compares well with two different recent experiments and allows us to pinpoint the role of the electron screening on the ion-Weibel dynamics. Our theoretical results, supported by both experiments and simulations, proves for the first time the effect of an artificially low ion to electron mass ratio on the formation of collisionless shocks commonly used in many numerical works.

  12. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stabbing of a person Sudden death of a parent or trusted caregiver Hospitalization Examples of traumatic events that your child experiences over and over are: Physical or emotional abuse Sexual abuse Gang violence War Terrorist events

  13. Measurement of jet activity produced in top-quark events with an electron, a muon and two b-tagged jets in the final state in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antrim, D J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Bajic, M; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossio Sola, J D; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burger, A M; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Calvente Lopez, S; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carlson, B T; Carminati, L; Carney, R M D; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerda Alberich, L; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; 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Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of jet activity in top-quark pair events produced in proton-proton collisions are presented, using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are chosen by requiring an opposite-charge [Formula: see text] pair and two b-tagged jets in the final state. The normalised differential cross-sections of top-quark pair production are presented as functions of additional-jet multiplicity and transverse momentum, [Formula: see text]. The fraction of signal events that do not contain additional jet activity in a given rapidity region, the gap fraction, is measured as a function of the [Formula: see text] threshold for additional jets, and is also presented for different invariant mass regions of the [Formula: see text] system. All measurements are corrected for detector effects and presented as particle-level distributions compared to predictions with different theoretical approaches for QCD radiation. While the kinematics of the jets from top-quark decays are described well, the generators show differing levels of agreement with the measurements of observables that depend on the production of additional jets.

  14. Measurement of jet activity produced in top-quark events with an electron, a muon and two b-tagged jets in the final state in pp collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-04-15

    Measurements of jet activity in top-quark pair events produced in proton-proton collisions are presented, using 3.2 fb{sup -1} of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are chosen by requiring an opposite-charge eμ pair and two b-tagged jets in the final state. The normalised differential cross-sections of top-quark pair production are presented as functions of additional-jet multiplicity and transverse momentum, p{sub T}. The fraction of signal events that do not contain additional jet activity in a given rapidity region, the gap fraction, is measured as a function of the p{sub T} threshold for additional jets, and is also presented for different invariant mass regions of the eμb anti b system. All measurements are corrected for detector effects and presented as particle-level distributions compared to predictions with different theoretical approaches for QCD radiation. While the kinematics of the jets from top-quark decays are described well, the generators show differing levels of agreement with the measurements of observables that depend on the production of additional jets. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of jet activity produced in top-quark events with an electron, a muon and two $b$-tagged jets in the final state in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello

    2017-04-07

    Measurements of jet activity in top-quark pair events produced in proton--proton collisions are presented, using 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are chosen by requiring an opposite-charge $e\\mu$ pair and two $b$-tagged jets in the final state. The normalised differential cross-sections of top-quark pair production are presented as functions of additional-jet multiplicity and transverse momentum, $p_T$. The fraction of signal events that do not contain additional jet activity in a given rapidity region, the gap fraction, is measured as a function of the $p_T$ threshold for additional jets, and is also presented for different invariant mass regions of the $e\\mu b\\bar{b}$ system. All measurements are corrected for detector effects and presented as particle-level distributions compared to predictions with different theoretical approaches for QCD radiation. While the kinematics of the jets from top-qua...

  16. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  17. Event generators at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Rong-Gang

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief remark and introduction to event generators for tau-charm physics currently used at BESⅢ,including KKMC,BesEvtGen,Bhlumi,Bhwide,Babayaga and inclusive Monte-Carlo event generators.This paper provides basic information on event generators for BESⅢ users.

  18. Hot electron refluxing in the short intense laser pulse interactions with solid targets and its influence on K-α radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horný Vojtěch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast electrons created as a result of the laser beam interaction with a solid target penetrate into the target material and initialize processes leading to the generation of the characteristic X-ray K-α radiation. Due to the strong electric field induced at the rear side of a thin target the transmitted electrons are redirected back into the target. These refluxing electrons increase the K-α radiation yield, as well as the duration of the X-ray pulse and the size of the radiation emitting area. A model describing the electron refluxing was verified via particle-in-cell simulations for non-relativistic electron energies. Using this model it was confirmed that the effect of the electron refluxing on the generated X-ray radiation depends on the target thickness and the target material. A considarable increase of the number of the emitted K-α photons is observed especially for thin targets made of low-Z materials, and for higher hot electron temperatures.

  19. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Electronic Transmission of Postmarket Individual Case Safety Reports for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines; Availability of Food and Drug Administration Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Reporting to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. Notice of Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) Regional Implementation Specifications for the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2B(R3) Specification. FDA is making this technical specifications document available to assist interested parties in electronically submitting individual case safety reports (ICSRs) (and ICSR attachments) to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). This document, entitled "FDA Regional Implementation Specifications for ICH E2B(R3) Implementation: Postmarket Submission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) for Drugs and Biologics, Excluding Vaccines" supplements the "E2B(R3) Electronic Transmission of Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) Implementation Guide--Data Elements and Message Specification" final guidance for industry and describes FDA's technical approach for receiving ICSRs, for incorporating regionally controlled terminology, and for adding region-specific data elements when reporting to FAERS.

  2. EventThread: Visual Summarization and Stage Analysis of Event Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shunan; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Rongwen; Gotz, David; Zha, Hongyuan; Cao, Nan

    2017-08-29

    Event sequence data such as electronic health records, a person's academic records, or car service records, are ordered series of events which have occurred over a period of time. Analyzing collections of event sequences can reveal common or semantically important sequential patterns. For example, event sequence analysis might reveal frequently used care plans for treating a disease, typical publishing patterns of professors, and the patterns of service that result in a well-maintained car. It is challenging, however, to visually explore large numbers of event sequences, or sequences with large numbers of event types. Existing methods focus on extracting explicitly matching patterns of events using statistical analysis to create stages of event progression over time. However, these methods fail to capture latent clusters of similar but not identical evolutions of event sequences. In this paper, we introduce a novel visualization system named EventThread which clusters event sequences into threads based on tensor analysis and visualizes the latent stage categories and evolution patterns by interactively grouping the threads by similarity into time-specific clusters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of EventThread through usage scenarios in three different application domains and via interviews with an expert user.

  3. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green.

  4. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  5. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Performance of the CMS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Jean-marc Olivier; Branson, James; Brummer, Philipp Maximilian; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; Craigs, Benjamin Gordon; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gigi, Dominique; Gladki, Maciej Szymon; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Janulis, Mindaugas; Jimenez Estupinan, Raul; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrova, Petia; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Zejdl, Petr; Hamburg; California; San Diego; California; Chicago; Illinois; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Cambridge; Massachusetts; also at Vilnius University; Vilnius; Lithuania; also at

    2017-01-01

    The data acquisition system (DAQ) of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) assembles events at a rate of 100 kHz. It transports event data at an aggregate throughput of ~100 GB/s to the high-level trigger (HLT) farm. The CMS DAQ system has been completely rebuilt during the first long shutdown of the LHC in 2013/14. The new DAQ architecture is based on state-of-the-art network technologies for the event building. For the data concentration, 10/40 Gb/s Ethernet technologies are used together with a reduced TCP/IP protocol implemented in FPGA for a reliable transport between custom electronics and commercial computing hardware. A 56 Gb/s Infiniband FDR CLOS network has been chosen for the event builder. We report on the performance of the event builder system and the steps taken to exploit the full potential of the network technologies.

  7. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  8. Cross-field gradients: general concept, importance of multi-spacecraft measurements and study at 1 AU of the source intensity gradient for E > 30 keV solar event electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Chaizy

    Full Text Available Three main physical processes (and associated properties are currently used to describe the flux and anisotropy time profiles of solar energetic par- ticle events, called SEP profiles. They are (1 the particle scattering (due to magnetic waves, (2 the particle focusing (due to the decrease of the amplitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF with the radial distance to the Sun and (3 the finite injection profile at the source. If their features change from one field line to another, i.e. if there is a cross IMF gradient (CFG, then the shape of the SEP profiles will depend, at onset time, on the relative position of the spacecraft to the IMF and might vary significantly on small distance scale (e.g. 106 km. One type of CFG is studied here. It is called intensity CFG and considers variations, at the solar surface, only of the intensity of the event. It is shown here that drops of about two orders of magnitude over distances of ~104 km at the Sun (1° of angular distance can influence dramatically the SEP profiles at 1 AU. This CFG can lead to either an under or overestimation of both the parallel mean free path and of the injection parameters by factor up to, at least, ~2-3 and 18, respectively. Multi-spacecraft analysis can be used to identify CFG. Three basic requirements are proposed to identify, from the observation, the type of the CFG being measured.

    Key words: Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections - Space plasma physics (transport processes

  9. The Terrorist Event

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Bill

    2007-01-01

    In his article "The Terrorist Event," Bill Nichols examines how the US media attempted to make meaning of the events of 9/11. How were news anchors and producers to explain an event that escaped their comprehension? Without context or historical equivalence in the US, news outlets groped for a narrative in which to frame the event even if that meant creating the meaning themselves. In their attempt to create meaning, what sorts of fetishes and fantasies did they draw-on and in turn create? Th...

  10. The PHENIX Event Builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David

    2004-10-01

    The PHENIX Event Builder is a critical part of the back-end of the PHENIX DAQ. It is reponsible for assembling event fragments from each subsystem into complete events ready for archiving. It allows subsystems to be read out either in parallel or simultaneously while supporting a high rate of archiving. Additionally, it implements an environment where Level-2 trigger algorithms may be optionally executed, providing the ability to tag and/or filter rare physics events. Up to and including RHIC Run-4, the Event Builder was implemented as a set of three Windows NT/2000 multithreaded executables that run on a farm of over 100 dual-cpu 1U servers connected via a Foundry Layer2/3 Gigabit switch. Under this architecture it has been capable of recording a wide range of event sizes from central Au-Au to p-p interactions, with data archiving rates of over 400 MB/s at 2 KHz event rates. Between Runs 4 and 5, the Event Builder will be ported to Linux. Preliminary work has shown we can expect great improvements in performance when moving to this platform for Run 5. The PHENIX Event Builder design and implementation, as well as performance and plans for future development, will be discussed.

  11. Electron and Ion Acceleration in Relativistic Shocks with Applications to GRB Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Donald C; Bykov, Andrei M; Lee, Shiu-Hang

    2015-01-01

    We have modeled the simultaneous first-order Fermi shock acceleration of protons, electrons, and helium nuclei by relativistic shocks. By parameterizing the particle diffusion, our steady-state Monte Carlo simulation allows us to follow particles from particle injection at nonthermal thermal energies to above PeV energies, including the nonlinear smoothing of the shock structure due to cosmic-ray (CR) backpressure. We observe the mass-to-charge (A/Z) enhancement effect believed to occur in efficient Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks and we parameterize the transfer of ion energy to electrons seen in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a given set of environmental and model parameters, the Monte Carlo simulation determines the absolute normalization of the particle distributions and the resulting synchrotron, inverse-Compton, and pion-decay emission in a largely self-consistent manner. The simulation is flexible and can be readily used with a wide range of parameters typical of gamma-ray burst ...

  12. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  13. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  14. Event alignment, warping between running speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Douglas, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from 60 to 120 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection...

  15. Destructive Single-Event Effects in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the observed single-event effects in a variety of types of diodes. In addition, we conduct failure analysis on several Schottky diodes that were heavy-ion irradiated. High- and low-magnitude optical microscope images, infrared camera images, and scanning electron microscope images are used to identify and describe the failure locations.

  16. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  17. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  18. CHED Events: Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2008-08-01

    These Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings and events are planned for the Fall 2008 ACS Meeting in Philadelphia. Most will take place in the Sheraton Philadelphia City Center Hotel, 17th and Race Streets: This includes the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event; there will be no CHED Banquet.

  19. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts...

  20. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  1. Activating Event Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  2. The ATLAS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Vandelli, W; Battaglia, A; Beck, H P; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W; Haberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, B; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2008-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz to $sim$3~kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to $sim$200~Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and Event Filter PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for Event Building for the ATLAS experiment.

  3. Accurate Ionization Potentials and Electron Affinities of Acceptor Molecules I. Reference Data at the CCSD(T) Complete Basis Set Limit

    KAUST Repository

    Richard, Ryan M.

    2016-01-05

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. In designing organic materials for electronics applications, particularly for organic photovoltaics (OPV), the ionization potential (IP) of the donor and the electron affinity (EA) of the acceptor play key roles. This makes OPV design an appealing application for computational chemistry since IPs and EAs are readily calculable from most electronic structure methods. Unfortunately reliable, high-accuracy wave function methods, such as coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] in the complete basis set (CBS) limit are too expensive for routine applications to this problem for any but the smallest of systems. One solution is to calibrate approximate, less computationally expensive methods against a database of high-accuracy IP/EA values; however, to our knowledge, no such database exists for systems related to OPV design. The present work is the first of a multipart study whose overarching goal is to determine which computational methods can be used to reliably compute IPs and EAs of electron acceptors. This part introduces a database of 24 known organic electron acceptors and provides high-accuracy vertical IP and EA values expected to be within ±0.03 eV of the true non-relativistic, vertical CCSD(T)/CBS limit. Convergence of IP and EA values toward the CBS limit is studied systematically for the Hartree-Fock, MP2 correlation, and beyond-MP2 coupled cluster contributions to the focal point estimates.

  4. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  5. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  6. Event-Specific Quantification of Radiation Belt Radial Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, W.; Sarris, T. E.; Ozeke, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been a great emphasis on developing event-specific inputs for radiation belt models, since they are proven critical for reproducing the observed radiation belt dynamics during strong events. For example, our DREAM3D simulation of the 8-9 October 2012 storm demonstrates that event-specific chorus wave model and seed population are critical to reproduce the strong enhancement of MeV electrons in this event. However, the observed fast electron dropout preceding the enhancement was not captured by the simulation, which could be due to the combined effects of fast outward radial diffusion of radiation belt electrons with magnetopause shadowing and enhanced electron precipitation. Without an event-specific quantification of radial diffusion, we cannot resolve the relative contribution of outward radial diffusion and precipitation to the observed electron dropout or realistically reproduce the dynamics during the event. In this work, we provide physical quantification of radial diffusion specific to the October 2012 event by including both real-time and global distributions of ULF waves from a constellation of wave measurements and event-specific estimation of ULF wave mode structure. The global maps of ULF waves during the event are constructed by combining the real-time measurements from the Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and GOES satellites in space and a large array of ground magnetometers. The real-time ULF wave mode structure is then estimated using the new Cross-Wavelet Transform technique, applied to various azimuthally aligned pairs of ULF wave measurements that are located at the same L shells. The cross power and phase differences between the time series are calculated using the technique, based on which the wave power per mode number is estimated. Finally, the physically estimated radial diffusion coefficients specific to the event are applied to the DREAM3D model to quantify the relative contribution of radial diffusion to the electron dynamics

  7. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  8. CCG - News & Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  9. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  10. Paroxysmal Nonepileptic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal events that mimic epilepsy, and their precipitants, prodromes, and distinguishing features are reviewed by researchers at Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, and American University of Beirut, New York.

  11. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  12. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  13. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  14. Electrifying Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip

    1980-01-01

    The author describes how he has adapted the television quiz show format of "College Bowl" to current events study for junior high school students. An insert explains use of the same technique with fourth graders. (SJL)

  15. Event Filter Dataflow Software

    CERN Document Server

    Meessen, C; Bosman, M; Karr, K M; Pacheco, A; Qian, Z; Touchard, F

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the software handling the flow of events through the Event Filter. This is the fourth iteration of the implementation of the code. When compared to previous versions, enhancements come from the feedback by users and can be seen as simplifications while the interfaces have been kept identical. The high level design of the dataflow is briefly reminded. Then, the details of the implementation of the components are given.

  16. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  17. CHED Events: New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2008-03-01

    These Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings and events are planned for the Spring 2008 ACS Meeting in New Orleans. Most will take place in the Hilton Riverside Hotel, 2 Poydras Street; this includes the Sunday evening Reception and Social Event; there will be no CHED Banquet. Exceptions are the Sunday evening Poster Session and the Undergraduate Poster Sessions, which will be in Hall A of the Morial Convention Center.

  18. Detecting Priming News Events

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Di; Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We study a problem of detecting priming events based on a time series index and an evolving document stream. We define a priming event as an event which triggers abnormal movements of the time series index, i.e., the Iraq war with respect to the president approval index of President Bush. Existing solutions either focus on organizing coherent keywords from a document stream into events or identifying correlated movements between keyword frequency trajectories and the time series index. In this paper, we tackle the problem in two major steps. (1) We identify the elements that form a priming event. The element identified is called influential topic which consists of a set of coherent keywords. And we extract them by looking at the correlation between keyword trajectories and the interested time series index at a global level. (2) We extract priming events by detecting and organizing the bursty influential topics at a micro level. We evaluate our algorithms on a real-world dataset and the result confirms that ou...

  19. Kilometric shock-associated events and microwave bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The peak times of impulsive microwaves bursts are compared with those of shock-associated (SA) kilometric radio events. The first peaks in these two frequency regimes are usually well-correlated in time, but the last peaks of the SA events observed at 1 MHz occur an average of 20 min after the last impulsive microwave peaks. In some cases, the SA events overlap in time with the post-burst increases of microwave bursts; sometimes there is general correspondence in their intensity time profiles. These observations suggest that the earlier components of the SA events are usually caused by electrons accelerated in or near the microwave source region. The possibility that the later components of some SA events could be associated with nonthermal electrons responsible for microwave post-burst increases, although they have traditionally been attributed to electrons accelerated at type II burst producing shocks in the upper corona is discussed.

  20. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebele, H. [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  1. Predicting Pt-195 NMR chemical shift using new relativistic all-electron basis set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, D; Guerra, C Fonseca; de Oliveira, M A L; Ramalho, T C; Dos Santos, H F

    2016-10-01

    Predicting NMR properties is a valuable tool to assist the experimentalists in the characterization of molecular structure. For heavy metals, such as Pt-195, only a few computational protocols are available. In the present contribution, all-electron Gaussian basis sets, suitable to calculate the Pt-195 NMR chemical shift, are presented for Pt and all elements commonly found as Pt-ligands. The new basis sets identified as NMR-DKH were partially contracted as a triple-zeta doubly polarized scheme with all coefficients obtained from a Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) second-order scalar relativistic calculation. The Pt-195 chemical shift was predicted through empirical models fitted to reproduce experimental data for a set of 183 Pt(II) complexes which NMR sign ranges from -1000 to -6000 ppm. Furthermore, the models were validated using a new set of 75 Pt(II) complexes, not included in the descriptive set. The models were constructed using non-relativistic Hamiltonian at density functional theory (DFT-PBEPBE) level with NMR-DKH basis set for all atoms. For the best model, the mean absolute deviation (MAD) and the mean relative deviation (MRD) were 150 ppm and 6%, respectively, for the validation set (75 Pt-complexes) and 168 ppm (MAD) and 5% (MRD) for all 258 Pt(II) complexes. These results were comparable with relativistic DFT calculation, 200 ppm (MAD) and 6% (MRD). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P; Paterson, M J

    2013-01-01

    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) [1,2] is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of the nitrogen molecule and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these non-variational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with FCI results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo [3,4] and `exact' non-relativistic results [3,4]. We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculati...

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Electron acceleration in the aurora and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, K. G.

    1999-08-01

    measurements of flare accelerated electrons at the Earth's orbit, despite acknowledging that uncertainties in propagation effects make it very difficult to reconstruct conditions at the Sun from such measurements. Similar remarks apply to the final chapter, on acceleration of cosmic ray electrons. Again, attention is focused almost exclusively on measurements of particles rather than the radiation signature of those particles, in this case synchrotron radiation by ultrarelativistic electrons. No mention is made of radio and X ray data, indicating that electrons with energies of up to around 1014eV are being accelerated at shocks associated with shell type supernova remnants. Interestingly, resonant acceleration of electrons by lower hybrid waves has been invoked by A.A. Galeev [Sov. Phys.-JETP 59 (1984) 965] as a mechanism for the production of cosmic ray electrons: although Galeev's paper is not cited in this book, the process he describes is very similar to that proposed by Dr Bryant for electron acceleration in the aurora and other near Earth plasma environments. The book contains a number of physics errors. For example, on page 17 the time derivative of a magnetic field is equated to an induced electric field, rather than the curl of one. On page 21, the author invokes Larmor's formula for the power radiated by a non-relativistic charged particle, and then combines it with the relativistic relation between acceleration and energy to estimate the maximum acceleration rate. The book has also been badly proofread. For example, Figure 1.15 appears twice: where it is first used, on page 8, it is clear that the accompanying caption and text refer to a different figure. I found several errors in the reference list (one of my own publications is cited as two separate papers, with both citations containing inaccuracies). Having said that, the reference list is impressively comprehensive and eclectic. It includes, for example, Swift's `Gulliver's Travels': a spacecraft in the

  4. Verification steps for the CMS event-builder software

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The CMS event-builder software is used to assemble event fragments into complete events at 100 kHz. The data originates at the detector front-end electronics, passes through several computers and is transported from the underground to the high-level trigger farm on the surface. I will present the testing and verifications steps a new software version has to pass before it is deployed in production. I will discuss the current practice and possible improvements.

  5. Space Borne Event Timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Space Borne Event Timer is a part of the NASA laser ranging system that is intended to operate aboard the Space Shuttle orbiting over California. The object is to measure, by laser ranging, the earth movement along the San Andreas fault and possibly forecast future earthquakes. A number of cube reflector targets will be placed along both sides of the fault. The ranging system aboard the Space Shuttle will fire a burst of laser pulses at each target and detect the reflected light. Time differences between pulses from the two sides of the fault will indicate earth displacements. The Space Borne Event Timer is a CAMAC compatible system that provides extremely accurate timing data and controls the operation of the ranging system. For each event the time is given in 19.53 increments from the instant of firing the laser to the instant the reflected light is received back, within a range of 130 days.

  6. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik;

    2012-01-01

    is not shut down for its protection. We also found that there is a a large spread across the various turbines within a wind park, in the amount of icing. This is currently not taken into account by our model. Evaluating and adding these small scale differences to the model will be undertaken as future work....... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine......In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...

  7. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  8. Detection of anomalous events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  9. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  10. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  11. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Medina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE. A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic components for SEE.

  12. Television Ceremonial Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Daniel; Katz, Elihu

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of televised ceremonies (such as the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana) as "media events" which allow viewers to vicariously enter into the ceremony. Compares them with cult movies that, over repeated viewing, encourage audience "participation." Focuses on the narrator's/commentator's role in shaping…

  13. The Pluto++ Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Hejny, V; Holzmann, R; Kagarlis, M; Kühn, W; Messchendorp, J G; Metag, V; Pleier, M -A; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Ritman, J; Salabura, P; Stroth, J; Sudol, M

    2007-01-01

    Pluto is a Monte-Carlo event generator designed for hadronic interactions from Pion production threshold to intermediate energies of a few GeV per nucleon, as well as for studies of heavy ion reactions. This report gives an overview of the design of the package, the included models and the user interface.

  14. Language As Social Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  15. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  16. Brief resolved unexplained event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Claudius, Ilene; Goldman, Ran D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Question For many years, the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) was associated with sudden infant death syndrome, and parents who described an acute event in their infants were sent to the hospital for admission. I understand that for infants new terminology is recommended. What is the current approach to a near-death experience of an infant? Answer A recent clinical practice guideline revised the name and definition of an ALTE to a brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE). The diagnosis of BRUE in infants younger than 1 year of age is made when infants experience 1 of the following BRUE symptoms: a brief episode (ie, less than 1 minute and usually less than 20 to 30 seconds) that is entirely resolved (infant is at baseline), which remains unexplained after the history and physical examination are completed, and includes an event characterized by cyanosis or pallor; absent, decreased, or irregular breathing; hypertonia or hypotonia; or altered responsiveness. Low-risk infants should not be admitted to the hospital and overtesting is discouraged. PMID:28115439

  17. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  18. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW mod

  19. The CMS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Brigljevic, V; Cano, E; Cittolin, Sergio; Csilling, Akos; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sphicas, Paris; ODell, V; Suzuki, I; Berti, L; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Ninane, A; Erhan, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider will employ an event builder which will combine data from about 500 data sources into full events at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. Several architectures and switch technologies have been evaluated for the DAQ Technical Design Report by measurements with test benches and by simulation. This paper describes studies of an EVB test-bench based on 64 PCs acting as data sources and data consumers and employing both Gigabit Ethernet and Myrinet technologies as the interconnect. In the case of Ethernet, protocols based on Layer-2 frames and on TCP/IP are evaluated. Results from ongoing studies, including measurements on throughput and scaling are presented. The architecture of the baseline CMS event builder will be outlined. The event builder is organised into two stages with intelligent buffers in between. The first stage contains 64 switches performing a first level of data concentration by building super-fragments from fragmen...

  20. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  1. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  2. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  3. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  4. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  5. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  6. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  7. Half-metallicity and spin-contamination of the electronic ground state of graphene nanoribbons and related systems: an impossible compromise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzak, M; Deleuze, M S; Hajgató, B

    2011-09-14

    An analysis using the formalism of crystalline orbitals for extended systems with periodicity in one dimension demonstrates that any antiferromagnetic and half-metallic spin-polarization of the edge states in n-acenes, and more generally in zigzag graphene nanoislands and nanoribbons of finite width, would imply a spin contamination S(2) that increases proportionally to system size, in sharp and clear contradiction with the implications of Lieb's theorem for compensated bipartite lattices and the expected value for a singlet (S = 0) electronic ground state. Verifications on naphthalene, larger n-acenes (n = 3-10) and rectangular nanographene islands of increasing size, as well as a comparison using unrestricted Hartree-Fock theory along with basis sets of improving quality against various many-body treatments demonstrate altogether that antiferromagnetism and half-metallicity in extended graphene nanoribbons will be quenched by an exact treatment of electron correlation, at the confines of non-relativistic many-body quantum mechanics. Indeed, for singlet states, symmetry-breakings in spin-densities are necessarily the outcome of a too approximate treatment of static and dynamic electron correlation in single-determinantal approaches, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock or Density Functional Theory. In this context, such as the size-extensive spin-contamination to which it relates, half-metallicity is thus nothing else than a methodological artefact.

  8. Events and subjective well-being: only recent events matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, E; Diener, E; Fujita, F

    1996-05-01

    The effect of life events on subjective well-being (SWB) was explored in a 2-year longitudinal study of 115 participants. It was found that only life events during the previous 3 months influenced life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Although recent life events influenced SWB even when personality at Time 1 was controlled, distal life events did not correlate with SWB. SWB and life events both showed a substantial degree of temporal stability. It was also found that good and bad life events tend to covary, both between individuals and across periods of the lives of individuals. Also, when events of the opposite valence were controlled, events correlated more strongly with SWB. The counterintuitive finding that good and bad events co-occur suggests an exciting avenue for explorations of the structure of life events.

  9. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  10. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. The entanglement spectrum and R\\'enyi entropies of non-relativistic conformal fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, William J

    2016-01-01

    We characterize non-perturbatively the R\\'enyi entropies of degree n=2,3,4, and 5 of three-dimensional, strongly coupled many-fermion systems in the scale-invariant regime of short interaction range and large scattering length, i.e. in the unitary limit. We carry out our calculations using lattice methods devised recently by us. Our results show the effect of strong pairing correlations on the entanglement entropy, which modify the sub-leading behavior for large subsystem sizes (as characterized by the dimensionless parameter x=kF L_A, where kF is the Fermi momentum and L_A the linear subsystem size), but leave the leading order unchanged relative to the non-interacting case. Moreover, we find that the onset of the sub-leading asymptotic regime is at surprisingly small x=2-4. We provide further insight into the entanglement properties of this system by analyzing the spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian of the two-body problem from weak to strong coupling. The low-lying entanglement spectrum displays clear...

  13. Viscosity spectral function of a scale invariant non-relativistic fluid from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the viscosity spectral function of a holographic 2+1 dimensional fluid with Schroedinger symmetry. The model is based on a twisted compactification of $Ads_5\\times S_5$. We numerically compute the spectral function of the stress tensor correlator for all frequencies, and analytically study the limits of high and low frequency. We compute the shear viscosity, the viscous relaxation time, and the quasi-normal mode spectrum in the shear channel. We find a number of unexpected results: The high frequency behavior is governed by a fractional 1/3 power law, the viscous relaxation time is negative, and the quasi-normal mode spectrum in the shear channel is not doubled.

  14. The many facets of the (non relativistic) Nuclear Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, G; Bonasera, A

    2013-01-01

    A nucleus is a quantum many body system made of strongly interacting Fermions, protons and neutrons (nucleons). This produces a rich Nuclear Equation of State whose knowledge is crucial to our understanding of the composition and evolution of celestial objects. The nuclear equation of state displays many different features; first neutrons and protons might be treated as identical particles or nucleons, but when the differences between protons and neutrons are spelled out, we can have completely different scenarios, just by changing slightly their interactions. At zero temperature and for neutron rich matter, a quantum liquid gas phase transition at low densities or a quark-gluon plasma at high densities might occur. Furthermore, the large binding energy of the $\\alpha$ particle, a Boson, might also open the possibility of studying a system made of a mixture of Bosons and Fermions, which adds to the open problems of the nuclear equation of state.

  15. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, D.; Becker, P.; Pastore, A.; Navarro, J.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin-orbit terms from the spin-isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin-orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  16. Operator Product Expansion and Conservation Laws in Non-Relativistic Conformal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Golkar, Siavash

    2014-01-01

    We explore the consequences of conformal symmetry for the operator product expansions in nonrelativistic field theories. Similar to the relativistic case, the OPE coefficients of descendants are related to that of the primary. However, unlike relativistic CFTs the 3-point function of primaries is not completely specified by conformal symmetry. Here, we show that the 3-point function between operators with nonzero particle number, where (at least) one operator has the lowest dimension allowed by unitarity, is determined up to a numerical coefficient. We also look at the structure of the family tree of primaries with zero particle number and discuss the presence of conservation laws in this sector.

  17. Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov–Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10^−27 to 10^−21cm2 . In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along...

  18. Numerical Calculation of Coupling Impedances in Kicker Modules for Non-Relativistic Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Doliwa, B

    2004-01-01

    In the context of heavy-ion synchrotrons, coupling impedances in ferrite-loaded structures (e.g. fast kicker modules) are known to have a significant influence on beam stability. While bench measurements are feasible today, it is desirable to have the coupling impedances in hands already during the design process of the respective components. To achieve this goal, as a first step, we have carried out numerical analyses of simple ferrite-containing test systems within the framework of the Finite Integration Technique[1]. This amounts to solving the full set of Maxwell's equations in frequency domain, the particle beam being represented by an appropriate excitation current. With the resulting electromagnetic fields, one may then readily compute the corresponding coupling impedances. Despite the complicated material properties of ferrites, our results show that their numerical treatment is possible, thus opening up a way to determine a crucial parameter of kicker devices before construction.

  19. Alternative Method for Determining the Feynman Propagator of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A direct procedure for determining the propagator associated with a quantum mechanical problem was given by the Path Integration Procedure of Feynman. The Green function, which is the Fourier Transform with respect to the time variable of the propagator, can be derived later. In our approach, with the help of a Laplace transform, a direct way to get the energy dependent Green function is presented, and the propagator can be obtained later with an inverse Laplace transform. The method is illustrated through simple one dimensional examples and for time independent potentials, though it can be generalized to the derivation of more complicated propagators.

  20. DC Conductivities from Non-Relativistic Scaling Geometries with Momentum Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Lu, Hong; Pope, C N

    2016-01-01

    We consider a gravitational theory with two Maxwell fields, a dilatonic scalar and spatially dependent axions. Black brane solutions to this theory are Lifshitz-like and violate hyperscaling. Working with electrically charged solutions, we calculate analytically the holographic DC conductivities when both gauge fields are allowed to fluctuate. We discuss some of the subtleties associated with relating the horizon to the boundary data, focusing on the role of Lifshitz asymptotics and the presence of multiple gauge fields. The axionic scalars lead to momentum dissipation in the dual holographic theory. Finally, we examine the behavior of the DC conductivities as a function of temperature. We comment on the cases in which one can obtain a linear resistivity, and we also obtain a holographic dual of the phase transition from a metal to a semiconductor.

  1. A non-relativistic logarithmic conformal field theory from a holographic point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Haan, Sjoerd; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We study a fourth-order derivative scalar field configuration in a fixed Lifshitz background. Using an auxiliary field we rewrite the equations of motion as two coupled second order equations. We specialize to the limit that the mass of the scalar field degenerates with that of the auxiliary field a

  2. Existence of a ground state for the confined hydrogen atom in non-relativistic QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amour, Laurent; Faupin, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    We consider a system of a hydrogen atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, we assume that the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke effect. After a brief review of the literat......We consider a system of a hydrogen atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, we assume that the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke effect. After a brief review...

  3. On the question of symmetries in non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariant theories

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariance has recently emerged as a powerful tool for investigating various phenomena. The flat limit of such an invariance which should yield the Galilean invariance is, surprisingly, riddled with ambiguities and anomalies. We show that our approach, based on Galilean gauge theory, resolves these shortcomings. As a spin-off, we provide a systematic and unique way of interpreting nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariance and Galilean invariance as appropriate nonrelativistic limits of relativistic invariances in curved and flat backgrounds, respectively. The complementary role of flat and nonrelativistic limits is highlighted.

  4. Path integral polymer propagator of relativistic and non-relativistic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Morales-Técotl, Hugo A; Ruelas, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    A recent proposal to connect the loop quantization with the spin foam model for cosmology via the path integral is hereby adapted to the case of mechanical systems within the framework of the so called polymer quantum mechanics. The mechanical models we consider are deparametrized and thus the group averaging technique is used to deal with the corresponding constraints. The transition amplitudes are written in a vertex expansion form used in the spin foam models, where here a vertex is actually a jump in position. Polymer Propagators previously obtained by spectral methods for a nonrelativistic polymer particle, both free and in a box, are regained with this method. Remarkably, the approach is also shown to yield the polymer propagator of the relativistic particle. This reduces to the standard form in the continuum limit for which the length scale parameter of the polymer quantization is taken to be small. Some possible future developments are commented upon.

  5. Thermal right-handed neutrino self-energy in the non-relativistic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    Recently the issue of radiative corrections to leptogenesis has been raised. Considering the "strong washout" regime, in which OPE-techniques permit to streamline the setup, we report the thermal self-energy matrix of heavy right-handed neutrinos at NLO (resummed 2-loop level) in Standard Model couplings. The renormalized expression describes flavour transitions and "inclusive" decays of chemically decoupled right-handed neutrinos. Although CP-violation is not addressed, the result may find use in existing leptogenesis frameworks.

  6. Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections....... Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov–Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10^−27 to 10^−21cm2 . In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along...

  7. Infinite matter properties and zero-range limit of non-relativistic finite-range interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davesne, D. [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Becker, P., E-mail: pbecker@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Pastore, A. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD (United Kingdom); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), Apartado Postal 22085, E-46.071-Valencia (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss some infinite matter properties of two finite-range interactions widely used for nuclear structure calculations, namely Gogny and M3Y interactions. We show that some useful informations can be deduced for the central, tensor and spin–orbit terms from the spin–isospin channels and the partial wave decomposition of the symmetric nuclear matter equation of state. We show in particular that the central part of the Gogny interaction should benefit from the introduction of a third Gaussian and the tensor parameters of both interactions can be deduced from special combinations of partial waves. We also discuss the fact that the spin–orbit of the M3Y interaction is not compatible with local gauge invariance. Finally, we show that the zero-range limit of both families of interactions coincides with the specific form of the zero-range Skyrme interaction extended to higher momentum orders and we emphasize from this analogy its benefits.

  8. On the MIT Bag Model in the Non-relativistic Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, N.; Le Treust, L.; Raymond, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the spectral investigation of the MIT bag model, that is, the Dirac operator on a smooth and bounded domain of R^3 with certain boundary conditions. When the mass m goes to {±∞}, we provide spectral asymptotic results.

  9. A Plethora of Negative-Refraction Phenomenons in Relativistic and Non-Relativistic Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with Snel's law of refraction, whether a plane wave is refracted in the negative sense or positive sense at a planar boundary between two homogenous mediums is determined solely by the orientation of the real parts of the wavevectors involved. Thus, negative refraction should be distinguished from the associated but independent phenomenons of negative phase velocity, counterposition and negative deflection of energy flux. None of these phenomenons is Lorentz covariant.

  10. Non-relativistic radiation mediated shock breakouts: III. Spectral properties of SN shock breakout

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Nir; Waxman, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation emitted following shock breakout from a star's surface with a power-law density profile $\\rho \\propto x^n$ is investigated. Assuming planar geometry, local Compton equilibrium and bremsstrahlung emission as the dominant photon production mechanism, numerical solutions are obtained for the photon number density and temperature profiles as a function of time, for hydrogen-helium envelopes. The temperature solutions are determined by the breakout shock velocity $v_0$ and the pre-shock breakout density $\\rho_0$, and depend weakly on the value of n. Fitting formulas for the peak surface temperature at breakout as a function of $v_0$ and $\\rho_0$ are provided, with $T_{peak}\\approx 9.44\\exp{[12.63(v_0/c)^{1/2}]}$ eV, and the time dependence of the surface temperature is tabulated. The time integrated emitted spectrum is a robust prediction of the model, determined by $\\mathcal{T}_{\\rm peak}$ and $v_0$ alone and insensitive to details of light travel time or slight deviations from spherical...

  11. Non-relativistic radiation mediated shock breakouts: I. Exact bolometric planar breakout solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Nir; Waxman, Eli

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a non-steady planar radiation mediated shock (RMS) breaking out from a surface with a power-law density profile, \\rho\\propto x^n, is numerically solved in the approximation of diffusion with constant opacity. For an appropriate choice of time, length and energy scales, determined by the breakout opacity, velocity and density, the solution is universal, i.e. depends only on the density power law index n. The resulting luminosity depends weakly on the value of n. An approximate analytic solution, based on the self-similar hydrodynamic solutions and on the steady RMS solutions, is constructed and shown to agree with the numerical solutions as long as the shock is far from the surface, \\tau>> c/v_{sh}. Approximate analytic expressions, calibrated based on the exact solutions, are provided, that describe the escaping luminosity as a function of time. These results can be used to calculate the bolometric properties of the bursts of radiation produced during supernova (SN) shock breakouts. For complet...

  12. Simulation study of the formation of a non-relativistic pair shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M. E.; Bret, A.

    2017-02-01

    We examine with a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation the collision of two equally dense clouds of cold pair plasma. The clouds interpenetrate until instabilities set in, which heat up the plasma and trigger the formation of a pair of shocks. The fastest-growing waves at the collision speed , where is the speed of light in vacuum, and low temperature are the electrostatic two-stream mode and the quasi-electrostatic oblique mode. Both waves grow and saturate via the formation of phase space vortices. The strong electric fields of these nonlinear plasma structures provide an efficient means of heating up and compressing the inflowing upstream leptons. The interaction of the hot leptons, which leak back into the upstream region, with the inflowing cool upstream leptons continuously drives electrostatic waves that mediate the shock. These waves heat up the inflowing upstream leptons primarily along the shock normal, which results in an anisotropic velocity distribution in the post-shock region. This distribution gives rise to the Weibel instability. Our simulation shows that even if the shock is mediated by quasi-electrostatic waves, strong magnetowaves will still develop in its downstream region.

  13. Non relativistic diffeomorphism and the geometry of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Rabin

    2015-01-01

    We show that our recently proposed method\\cite{BMM1,BMM2,BMM3,BM4} of constructing nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariant field theories by gauging the Galilean symmetry provides a natural connection with the geometry of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Specifically, the covariant derivative that appears on gauging, exactly reproduces the form that yields the Hall viscosity and Wen-Zee shift \\cite{CYF}.

  14. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The Lego plot inset indicates the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters. The second inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  15. Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 2e2mu candidate event with m(4l) = 122.6 (123.9) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 87.9 GeV and 19.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-Jun-2012, 11:07:47 CEST in run number 205113 as event number 12611816. Muon tracks are colored red, electron tracks and clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored green. The larger inset shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The smaller inset shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 leptons originate from the same primary vertex.

  16. Traumatic-event headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  17. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  18. PREVENTABLE ERRORS: NEVER EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narra Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  19. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  20. Solar extreme events

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of "extreme events," defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than $S^{-2}$, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial $^{14}$C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observation...