WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-rapid-eye-movement nrem sleep

  1. The effects of sleep deprivation in humans: topographical electroencephalogram changes in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep versus REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Curcio, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    Studies on homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation have been focussed upon non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and direct comparisons with regional changes in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are sparse. To this end, evaluation of electroencephalogram (EEG) changes in recovery sleep after extended waking is the classical approach for increasing homeostatic need. Here, we studied a large sample of 40 healthy subjects, considering a full-scalp EEG topography during baseline (BSL) and recovery sleep following 40 h of wakefulness (REC). In NREM sleep, the statistical maps of REC versus BSL differences revealed significant fronto-central increases of power from 0.5 to 11 Hz and decreases from 13 to 15 Hz. In REM sleep, REC versus BSL differences pointed to significant fronto-central increases in the 0.5-7 Hz and decreases in the 8-11 Hz bands. Moreover, the 12-15 Hz band showed a fronto-parietal increase and that at 22-24 Hz exhibited a fronto-central decrease. Hence, the 1-7 Hz range showed significant increases in both NREM sleep and REM sleep, with similar topography. The parallel change of NREM sleep and REM sleep EEG power is related, as confirmed by a correlational analysis, indicating that the increase in frequency of 2-7 Hz possibly subtends a state-aspecific homeostatic response. On the contrary, sleep deprivation has opposite effects on alpha and sigma activity in both states. In particular, this analysis points to the presence of state-specific homeostatic mechanisms for NREM sleep, limited to REM sleep and NREM sleep seem to share some homeostatic mechanisms in response to sleep deprivation, as indicated mainly by the similar direction and topography of changes in low-frequency activity.

  2. Effects of social stimuli on sleep in mice : non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is promoted by aggressive interaction but not by sexual interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Turek, Fred W.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is generally considered to be a process of recovery from prior wakefulness. In addition to being affected by the duration of the waking period, sleep architecture and sleep EEG also depend on the quality of wakefulness. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected by different

  3. Effects of social stimuli on sleep in mice : non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is promoted by aggressive interaction but not by sexual interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Turek, Fred W.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is generally considered to be a process of recovery from prior wakefulness. In addition to being affected by the duration of the waking period, sleep architecture and sleep EEG also depend on the quality of wakefulness. In the present experiment, we examined how sleep is affected by different

  4. Human regional cerebral glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement sleep in relation to waking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J; Miewald, Jean M; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Price, Julie C; Sembrat, Robert C; Ombao, Hernando; Reynolds, Charles F; Monk, Timothy H; Hall, Martica; Kupfer, David J; Moore, Robert Y

    2002-05-01

    Sleep is an essential human function. Although the function of sleep has generally been regarded to be restorative, recent data indicate that it also plays an important role in cognition. The neurobiology of human sleep is most effectively analysed with functional imaging, and PET studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In this study, PET was used to determine patterns of regional glucose metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking. We hypothesized that brain structures related to waking cognitive function would show a persistence of function into the NREM sleep state. Fourteen healthy subjects (age range 21-49 years; 10 women, 4 men) underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET scans during waking and NREM sleep. Whole-brain glucose metabolism declined significantly from waking to NREM sleep. Relative decreases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM sleep occurred in wide areas of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital association cortex, primary visual cortex, and in anterior/dorsomedial thalamus. After controlling for the whole-brain declines in absolute metabolism, relative increases in regional metabolism from waking to NREM were found bilaterally in the dorsal pontine tegmentum, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and extensive regions of the mesial temporal lobe, including the amygdala and hippocampus, and in the right dorsal parietal association cortex and primary somatosensory and motor cortices. The reductions in relative metabolism in NREM sleep compared with waking are consistent with prior findings from blood flow studies. The relative increases in glucose utilization in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, ventral striatum, amygdala, hippocampus and pontine reticular formation are new observations that are in accordance with the view that NREM sleep is important to brain

  5. The spectrum of the non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram following total sleep deprivation is trait-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-08-01

    The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spectrum is unique to an individual and stable across multiple baseline recordings. The aim of this study was to examine whether the sleep EEG spectrum exhibits the same stable characteristics after acute total sleep deprivation. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded in 20 healthy adults across consecutive sleep periods. Three nights of baseline sleep [12 h time in bed (TIB)] following 12 h of wakefulness were interleaved with three nights of recovery sleep (12 h TIB) following 36 h of sustained wakefulness. Spectral analysis of the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG (C3LM derivation) was used to calculate power in 0.25 Hz frequency bins between 0.75 and 16.0 Hz. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess stable individual differences for baseline and recovery night spectra separately and combined. ICCs were high across all frequencies for baseline and recovery and for baseline and recovery combined. These results show that the spectrum of the NREM sleep EEG is substantially different among individuals, highly stable within individuals and robust to an experimental challenge (i.e. sleep deprivation) known to have considerable impact on the NREM sleep EEG. These findings indicate that the NREM sleep EEG represents a trait.

  6. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: A high density EEG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, David T; Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M; Peterson, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new quantitative automatic method for the measurement of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic amplitude variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Novelli, Luana; Terzano, Mario G; Parrino, Liborio; Bruni, Oliviero

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to arrange an automatic quantitative measure of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal amplitude variability during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, correlated with the visually extracted cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. Ninety-eight polysomnographic EEG recordings of normal controls were used. A new algorithm based on the analysis of the EEG amplitude variability during NREM sleep was designed and applied to all recordings, which were also scored visually for CAP. All measurements obtained with the new algorithm correlated positively with corresponding CAP parameters. In particular, total CAP time correlated with total NREM variability time (r = 0.596; P < 1E-07), light sleep CAP time with light sleep variability time (r = 0.597; P < 1E-07) and slow wave sleep CAP time with slow wave sleep variability time (r = 0.809; P < 1E-07). Only the duration of CAP A phases showed a low correlation with the duration of variability events. Finally, the age-related modifications of CAP time and of NREM variability time were found to be very similar. The new method for the automatic analysis of NREM sleep amplitude variability presented here correlates significantly with visual CAP parameters; its application requires a minimum work time, compared to CAP analysis, and might be used in large studies involving numerous recordings in which NREM sleep EEG amplitude variability needs to be assessed.

  8. Odors enhance slow-wave activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Ofer; Arzi, Anat; Sela, Lee; Secundo, Lavi; Holtzman, Yael; Samnon, Perry; Oksenberg, Arie; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Most forms of suprathreshold sensory stimulation perturb sleep. In contrast, presentation of pure olfactory or mild trigeminal odorants does not lead to behavioral or physiological arousal. In fact, some odors promote objective and subjective measures of sleep quality in humans and rodents. The brain mechanisms underlying these sleep-protective properties of olfaction remain unclear. Slow oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) are a marker of deep sleep, and K complexes (KCs) are an EEG marker of cortical response to sensory interference. We therefore hypothesized that odorants presented during sleep will increase power in slow EEG oscillations. Moreover, given that odorants do not drive sleep interruption, we hypothesized that unlike other sensory stimuli odorants would not drive KCs. To test these hypotheses we used polysomnography to measure sleep in 34 healthy subjects (19 women, 15 men; mean age 26.5 ± 2.5 yr) who were repeatedly presented with odor stimuli via a computer-controlled air-dilution olfactometer over the course of a single night. Each participant was exposed to one of four odorants, lavender oil (n = 13), vetiver oil (n = 5), vanillin (n = 12), or ammonium sulfide (n = 4), for durations of 5, 10, and 20 s every 9–15 min. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that odor presentation during sleep enhanced the power of delta (0.5–4 Hz) and slow spindle (9–12 Hz) frequencies during non-rapid eye movement sleep. The increase was proportionate to odor duration. In addition, odor presentation did not modulate the occurrence of KCs. These findings imply a sleep-promoting olfactory mechanism that may deepen sleep through driving increased slow-frequency oscillations. PMID:26888107

  9. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  10. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  11. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  12. Adenosine in the tuberomammillary nucleus inhibits the histaminergic system via A1 receptors and promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yo; Huang, Zhi-Li; Fredholm, Bertil B; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2008-12-16

    Adenosine has been proposed to promote sleep through A(1) receptors (A(1)R's) and/or A(2A) receptors in the brain. We previously reported that A(2A) receptors mediate the sleep-promoting effect of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-inducing substance, and that activation of these receptors induces sleep and blockade of them by caffeine results in wakefulness. On the other hand, A(1)R has been suggested to increase sleep by inhibition of the cholinergic region of the basal forebrain. However, the role and target sites of A(1)R in sleep-wake regulation remained controversial. In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed that A(1)R was expressed in histaminergic neurons of the rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). In vivo microdialysis showed that the histamine release in the frontal cortex was decreased by microinjection into the TMN of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A(1)R agonist, adenosine or coformycin, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, which catabolizes adenosine to inosine. Bilateral injection of CPA into the rat TMN significantly increased the amount and the delta power density of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM; NREM) sleep but did not affect REM sleep. CPA-promoted sleep was observed in WT mice but not in KO mice for A(1)R or histamine H(1) receptor, indicating that the NREM sleep promoted by A(1)R-specific agonist depended on the histaminergic system. Furthermore, the bilateral injection of adenosine or coformycin into the rat TMN increased NREM sleep, which was completely abolished by coadministration of 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclopenthylxanthine, a selective A(1)R antagonist. These results indicate that endogenous adenosine in the TMN suppresses the histaminergic system via A(1)R to promote NREM sleep.

  13. Acute enhancement of non-rapid eye movement sleep in rats after drinking water contaminated with cadmium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Katsuya; Yamoto, Kurumi; Takeuchi, Kouhei; Kataoka, Aya; Ozaki, Tomoya; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Honda, Kazuki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal widely used or effused by industries. Serious environmental Cd pollution has been reported over the past two centuries, whereas the mechanisms underlying Cd-mediated diseases are not fully understood. Interestingly, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after Cd exposure has been shown. Our group has demonstrated that sleep is triggered via accumulation of ROS during neuronal activities, and we thus hypothesize the involvement of Cd poisoning in sleep-wake irregularities. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of Cd intake (1-100 ppm CdCl₂ in drinking water) on rats by monitoring sleep encephalograms and locomotor activities. The results demonstrated that 100 ppm CdCl₂ administration for 28 h was sufficient to increase non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and reduce locomotor activities during the night (the rat active phase). In contrast, free-running locomotor rhythms under constant dim red light and their re-entrainment to 12:12-h light/dark cycles were intact under chronic (1 month) 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations, suggesting a limited influence on circadian clock movements at this dosage. The relative amount of oxidized glutathione increased in the brain after the 28-h 100 ppm CdCl₂ administrations similar to the levels in cultured astrocytes receiving H₂O₂ or CdCl₂ in culture medium. Therefore, we propose Cd-induced sleep as a consequence of oxidative stress. As oxidized glutathione is an endogenous sleep substance, we suggest that Cd rapidly induces sleepiness and influences activity performance by occupying intrinsic sleep-inducing mechanisms. In conclusion, we propose increased non-REM sleep during the active phase as an index of acute Cd exposure.

  14. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during non-rapid eye movement sleep improves behavioral inhibition in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tobias Munz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral inhibition, which is a later-developing executive function (EF and anatomically located in prefrontal areas, is impaired in attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. While optimal EFs have been shown to depend on efficient sleep in healthy subjects, the impact of sleep problems, frequently reported in ADHD, remains elusive. Findings of macroscopic sleep changes in ADHD are inconsistent, but there is emerging evidence for distinct microscopic changes with a focus on prefrontal cortical regions and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM slow-wave sleep. Recently, slow oscillations (SO during non-REM sleep were found to be less functional and, as such, may be involved in sleep-dependent memory impairments in ADHD. Objective: By augmenting slow-wave power through bilateral, slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS, frequency = 0.75 Hz during non-REM sleep, we aimed to improve daytime behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD. Methods: 14 boys (10-14 yrs diagnosed with ADHD were included. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, patients received so-tDCS either in the first or in the second experimental sleep night. Inhibition control was assessed with a visuomotor go/no-go task. Intrinsic alertness was assessed with a simple stimulus response task. To control for visuomotor performance, motor memory was assessed with a finger sequence tapping task. Results: SO-power was enhanced during early non-REM sleep, accompanied by slowed reaction times and decreased standard deviations of reaction times, in the go/no-go task after so-tDCS. In contrast, intrinsic alertness and motor memory performance were not improved by so-tDCS. Conclusion: Since behavioral inhibition but not intrinsic alertness or motor memory was improved by so-tDCS, our results suggest that lateral prefrontal slow oscillations during sleep might play a specific role for executive functioning in ADHD.

  15. A novel non-rapid-eye movement and rapid-eye-movement parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies to IgLON5: a case series, characterisation of the antigen, and post-mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Lidia; Gaig, Carles; Gelpi, Ellen; Bataller, Luis; Lewerenz, Jan; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Contreras, Angeles; Giometto, Bruno; Compta, Yaroslau; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmunity might be associated with or implicated in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe the features of a novel neurological syndrome associated with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a neuronal antigen. In this observational study, we used clinical and video polysomnography to identify a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain, for abnormal sleep behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea. These patients had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen, which were also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been assessed with polysomnography, which was done in our sleep unit in one patient and the recording reviewed in a second patient. Two patients underwent post-mortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterise the antigen and develop an assay for antibody testing. Serum or CSF from 298 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as control samples. All eight patients (five women; median age at disease onset 59 years [range 52-76]) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviours and obstructive sleep apnoea, as confirmed by polysomnography. Six patients had chronic progression with a median duration from symptom onset to death or last visit of 5 years (range 2-12); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid progression with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died 2 months and 6 months, respectively, after symptom onset. In five of five patients, video polysomnography showed features of obstructive sleep apnoea, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture (undifferentiated non-rapid-eye-movement [non-REM] sleep or poorly structured

  16. The role of non-rapid eye movement slow-wave activity in prefrontal metabolism across young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Aizenstein, Howard J; Nofzinger, Eric A; James, Jeffrey A; Hasler, Brant P; Rosario-Rivera, Bedda L; Franzen, Peter L; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H; Kupfer, David J; Price, Julie C; Siegle, Greg J; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5-4 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is a marker for cortical reorganization, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. Greater slow wave activity during sleep may promote greater waking prefrontal metabolic rate and, in turn, executive function. However, this process may be affected by age. Here we examined whether greater NREM slow wave activity was associated with higher prefrontal metabolism during wakefulness and whether this relationship interacted with age. Fifty-two participants aged 25-61 years were enrolled into studies that included polysomnography and a (18) [F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography scan during wakefulness. Absolute and relative measures of NREM slow wave activity were assessed. Semiquantitative and relative measures of cerebral metabolism were collected to assess whole brain and regional metabolism, focusing on two regions of interest: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Greater relative slow wave activity was associated with greater dorsolateral prefrontal metabolism. Age and slow wave activity interacted significantly in predicting semiquantitative whole brain metabolism and outside regions of interest in the posterior cingulate, middle temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus, such that greater slow-wave activity was associated with lower metabolism in the younger participants and greater metabolism in the older participants. These results suggest that slow-wave activity is associated with cerebral metabolism during wakefulness across the adult lifespan within regions important for executive function.

  17. A social conflict increases EEG slow-wave activity during subsequent sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; de Bruin, EA; Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is widely viewed as an indicator of sleep debt and sleep intensity. In a previous study, we reported a strong increase in SWA during NREM sleep after a social conflict in rats. To test whether this

  18. Such stuff as NREM dreams are made on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicogna, PierCarla; Occhionero, Miranda

    2013-12-01

    The question that we deal with in this commentary is the need to clarify the synergistic role of different non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages (stages 2 and 3-4) with REM and while awake in elaborative encoding of episodic memory. If the assumption is that there is isomorphism between neuronal and cognitive networks, then more detailed analysis of NREM sleep and dreams is absolutely necessary.

  19. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  20. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujma, P.P.; Bodizs, R.; Gombos, F.; Stintzing, J.; Konrad, B.N.; Genzel, L.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fl

  1. Sleep board review questions: sleep disordered breathing that improves in REM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of question. Which of the following breathing disorders is usually less severe in rapid eye movement (REM sleep compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep?1.Sleep-related hypoxemia in COPD2.Obstructive Sleep Apnea3.Cheyne Stokes Breathing4.Hypoxemia in Pulmonary Hypertension

  2. Sleep board review question: epilepsy or parasomnia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Which of the following is the most helpful in differentiating nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE from non-rapid eye movement (NREM arousal parasomnias? 1. Onset during rapid eye movement (REM sleep. 2. Arousal preceding the event. 3. Stereotypy. 4. Concomitant presence of sleep apnea.

  3. Sleep board review question: epilepsy or parasomnia?

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiraja R

    2013-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Which of the following is the most helpful in differentiating nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal parasomnias? 1. Onset during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. 2. Arousal preceding the event. 3. Stereotypy. 4. Concomitant presence of sleep apnea.

  4. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    OpenAIRE

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the rol...

  5. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    OpenAIRE

    Roumen eKirov; Vasil eKolev; Rolf eVerleger; Juliana eYordanova

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dy...

  6. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  7. Sleep EEG Changes during Adolescence: An Index of a Fundamental Brain Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Irwin; Campbell, Ian G.

    2010-01-01

    Delta (1-4 Hz) EEG power in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep declines massively during adolescence. This observation stimulated the hypothesis that during adolescence the human brain undergoes an extensive reorganization driven by synaptic elimination. The parallel declines in synaptic density, delta wave amplitude and cortical metabolic rate…

  8. Effect of gender on the development of hypocapnic apnea/hypopnea during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X S; Shahabuddin, S; Zahn, B R; Babcock, M A; Badr, M S

    2000-07-01

    We hypothesized that a decreased susceptibility to the development of hypocapnic central apnea during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in women compared with men could be an explanation for the gender difference in the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. We studied eight men (age 25-35 yr) and eight women in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle (age 21-43 yr); we repeated studies in six women during the midfollicular phase. Hypocapnia was induced via nasal mechanical ventilation for 3 min, with respiratory frequency matched to eupneic frequency. Tidal volume (VT) was increased between 110 and 200% of eupneic control. Cessation of mechanical ventilation resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea, depending on the magnitude of hypocapnia. Nadir minute ventilation in the recovery period was plotted against the change in end-tidal PCO(2) (PET(CO(2))) per trial; minute ventilation was given a value of 0 during central apnea. The apneic threshold was defined as the x-intercept of the linear regression line. In women, induction of a central apnea required an increase in VT to 155 +/- 29% (mean +/- SD) and a reduction of PET(CO(2)) by -4.72 +/- 0.57 Torr. In men, induction of a central apnea required an increase in VT to 142 +/- 13% and a reduction of PET(CO(2)) by -3.54 +/- 0.31 Torr (P = 0.002). There was no difference in the apneic threshold between the follicular and the luteal phase in women. Premenopausal women are less susceptible to hypocapnic disfacilitation during NREM sleep than men. This effect was not explained by progesterone. Preservation of ventilatory motor output during hypocapnia may explain the gender difference in sleep apnea.

  9. Sleep spindles and hippocampal functional connectivity in human NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kátia C; Spoormaker, Victor I; Dresler, Martin; Wehrle, Renate; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G; Czisch, Michael

    2011-07-13

    We investigated human hippocampal functional connectivity in wakefulness and throughout non-rapid eye movement sleep. Young healthy subjects underwent simultaneous EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements at 1.5 T under resting conditions in the descent to deep sleep. Continuous 5 min epochs representing a unique sleep stage (i.e., wakefulness, sleep stages 1 and 2, or slow-wave sleep) were extracted. fMRI time series of subregions of the hippocampal formation (HF) (cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) were extracted based on cytoarchitectonical probability maps. We observed sleep stage-dependent changes in HF functional coupling. The HF was integrated to variable strength in the default mode network (DMN) in wakefulness and light sleep stages but not in slow-wave sleep. The strongest functional connectivity between the HF and neocortex was observed in sleep stage 2 (compared with both slow-wave sleep and wakefulness). We observed a strong interaction of sleep spindle occurrence and HF functional connectivity in sleep stage 2, with increased HF/neocortical connectivity during spindles. Moreover, the cornu ammonis exhibited strongest functional connectivity with the DMN during wakefulness, while the subiculum dominated hippocampal functional connectivity to frontal brain regions during sleep stage 2. Increased connectivity between HF and neocortical regions in sleep stage 2 suggests an increased capacity for possible global information transfer, while connectivity in slow-wave sleep is reflecting a functional system optimal for segregated information reprocessing. Our data may be relevant to differentiating sleep stage-specific contributions to neural plasticity as proposed in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  10. Frequency of REM sleep behavior disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Marko; Svetel Marina; Kostić Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Sleep is prompted by natural cycles of activity in the brain and consists of two basic states: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by violent motor and vocal behavior during REM sleep which represents dream enactment. The normal loss of muscle tone, with the exception of respiratory, sphincter, extra ocular and middle ear muscles, is absent in patients wit...

  11. Brain scale-free properties in awake rest and NREM sleep: a simultaneous EEG/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Wang, Yulin; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao

    2015-03-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed that spontaneous activity in the brain has scale-invariant properties, as indicated by a frequency spectrum that follows a power-law distribution. However, current knowledge about the exact relationship between scaling properties in EEG and fMRI signals is very limited. To address this question, we collected simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in healthy individuals during resting wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. For either of these conditions, we found that both EEG and fMRI power spectra followed a power-law distribution. Furthermore, the EEG and fMRI scaling exponents were highly variable across subjects, and sensitive to the choice of reference and nuisance variables in EEG and fMRI data, respectively. Interestingly, the EEG exponent of the whole brain selectively corresponded to the fMRI exponent of the thalamus during NREM sleep. Together, our findings suggest that scale-free brain activity is characterized by robust temporal structures and behavioral significance. This motivates future studies to unravel its physiological mechanisms, as well as its relevance to behavior.

  12. Towards a neurobiology of dysfunctional arousal in depression: the relationship between beta EEG power and regional cerebral glucose metabolism during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Price, J C; Meltzer, C C; Buysse, D J; Villemagne, V L; Miewald, J M; Sembrat, R C; Steppe, D A; Kupfer, D J

    2000-04-10

    This study sought to clarify the neurobiological basis of variations in one aspect of central nervous system 'arousal' in depression by characterizing the functional neuroanatomic correlates of beta electroencephalographic (EEG) power density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. First, nine healthy (n=9) subjects underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans during their first NREM period of sleep in order to generate hypotheses about specific brain structures that show a relationship between increased beta power and increased relative glucose metabolism. Second, brain structures identified in the healthy subjects were then used as a priori regions of interest in similar analyses from identical studies in 12 depressed subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify the relationship between beta power and relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) during NREM sleep. Regions that demonstrated significant correlations between beta power and relative cerebral glucose metabolism in both the healthy and depressed subjects included the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the right lateral inferior occipital cortex. During a baseline night of sleep, depressed patients demonstrated a trend toward greater beta power in relation to a separate age- and gender-matched healthy control group. In both healthy and depressed subjects, beta power negatively correlated with subjective sleep quality. Finally, in the depressed group, there was a trend for beta power to correlate with an indirect measure of absolute whole brain metabolism during NREM sleep. This study demonstrates a similar relationship between electrophysiological arousal and glucose metabolism in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in depressed and healthy subjects. Given the increased electrophysiological arousal in some depressed patients and the known anatomical relations between the ventromedial

  13. Dietary Prebiotics and Bioactive Milk Fractions Improve NREM Sleep, Enhance REM Sleep Rebound and Attenuate the Stress-Induced Decrease in Diurnal Temperature and Gut Microbial Alpha Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Roller, Rachel; Mika, Agnieszka; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Knight, Rob; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M.; Fleshner, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Severe, repeated or chronic stress produces negative health outcomes including disruptions of the sleep/wake cycle and gut microbial dysbiosis. Diets rich in prebiotics and glycoproteins impact the gut microbiota and may increase gut microbial species that reduce the impact of stress. This experiment tested the hypothesis that consumption of dietary prebiotics, lactoferrin (Lf) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) will reduce the negative physiological impacts of stress. Male F344 rats, postnatal day (PND) 24, received a diet with prebiotics, Lf and MFGM (test) or a calorically matched control diet. Fecal samples were collected on PND 35/70/91 for 16S rRNA sequencing to examine microbial composition and, in a subset of rats; Lactobacillus rhamnosus was measured using selective culture. On PND 59, biotelemetry devices were implanted to record sleep/wake electroencephalographic (EEG). Rats were exposed to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA, tail shocks) on PND 87 and recordings continued until PND 94. Test diet, compared to control diet, increased fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus colony forming units (CFU), facilitated non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep consolidation (PND 71/72) and enhanced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep rebound after stressor exposure (PND 87). Rats fed control diet had stress-induced reductions in alpha diversity and diurnal amplitude of temperature, which were attenuated by the test diet (PND 91). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between early-life Deferribacteres (PND 35) and longer NREM sleep episodes (PND 71/72). A diet containing prebiotics, Lf and MFGM enhanced sleep quality, which was related to changes in gut bacteria and modulated the impact of stress on sleep, diurnal rhythms and the gut microbiota. PMID:28119579

  14. Abnormal nocturnal heart rate variability response among chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients during wakefulness and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Ranpuria, Reena; Hall, Martica; Hotchkiss, John R.; Chan, Chris T.; Mark L Unruh; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Background. Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patient...

  15. Lucid dreaming during NREM sleep: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lucid dreams – dreams in which the dreamer is aware that is dreaming – most frequently occur during REM sleep, yet there is some evidence suggesting that lucid dreaming can occur during NREM sleep as well. By conducting a sleep laboratory study on lucid dreams, we found two possible instances of lucidity during NREM sleep which are reported here. While lucid dreaming during NREM sleep seems to be much rarer and more difficult to achieve, it appears to be possible and is most likely to occur d...

  16. Lucid dreaming during NREM sleep: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lucid dreams – dreams in which the dreamer is aware that is dreaming – most frequently occur during REM sleep, yet there is some evidence suggesting that lucid dreaming can occur during NREM sleep as well. By conducting a sleep laboratory study on lucid dreams, we found two possible instances of lucidity during NREM sleep which are reported here. While lucid dreaming during NREM sleep seems to be much rarer and more difficult to achieve, it appears to be possible and is most likely to occur d...

  17. Information processing during NREM sleep and sleep quality in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceklic, Tijana; Bastien, Célyne H

    2015-12-01

    Insomnia sufferers (INS) are cortically hyperaroused during sleep, which seems to translate into altered information processing during nighttime. While information processing, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs), during wake appears to be associated with sleep quality of the preceding night, the existence of such an association during nighttime has never been investigated. This study aims to investigate nighttime information processing among good sleepers (GS) and INS while considering concomitant sleep quality. Following a multistep clinical evaluation, INS and GS participants underwent 4 consecutive nights of PSG recordings in the sleep laboratory. Thirty nine GS (mean age 34.56±9.02) and twenty nine INS (mean age 43.03±9.12) were included in the study. ERPs (N1, P2, N350) were recorded all night on Night 4 (oddball paradigm) during NREM sleep. Regardless of sleep quality, INS presented a larger N350 amplitude during SWS (p=0.042) while GS showed a larger N350 amplitude during late-night stage 2 sleep (p=0.004). Regardless of diagnosis, those who slept objectively well showed a smaller N350 amplitude (p=0.020) while those who slept subjectively well showed a smaller P2 (pInformation processing seems to be associated with concomitant subjective and objective sleep quality for both GS and INS. However, INS show an alteration in information processing during sleep, especially for inhibition processes, regardless of their sleep quality.

  18. Neural Markers of Responsiveness to the Environment in Human Sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Poulsen, Andreas Trier; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-01-01

    could be related to modulation in sleep depth. InREMsleep, however, this relationship was reversed.Wetherefore propose that, in REM sleep, endogenously generated processes compete with the processing of external input. Sleep can thus be seen as a self-regulated process in which external information can......Sleep is characterized by a loss of behavioral responsiveness. However, recent research has shown that the sleeping brain is not completely disconnected from its environment. How neural activity constrains the ability to process sensory information while asleep is yet unclear. Here, we instructed...... by Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZc), a measure shown to track arousal in sleep and anesthesia. Neural activity related to the semantic content of stimuli was conserved in light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, these processes were suppressed in deep NREM sleep and, importantly, also in REM sleep...

  19. Sleep: A Novel Mechanistic Pathway, Biomarker, and Treatment Target in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mander, Bryce A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Winer, Joseph R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Jagust, William J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Bioimaging Div.; Walker, Matthew P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute

    2016-06-17

    Sleep disruption appears to be a major component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its pathophysiology. Signature abnormalities of sleep emerge before clinical onset of AD. Moreover, insufficient sleep facilitates accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), potentially triggering earlier cognitive decline and conversion to AD. Building on such findings, this review has four goals: evaluating (i) associations and plausible mechanisms linking non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep disruption, Aβ, and AD; (ii) a role for NREM sleep disruption as a novel factor linking cortical Aβ to impaired hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation; (iii) the potential diagnostic utility of NREM sleep disruption as a new biomarker of AD; and (iv) the possibility of sleep as a new treatment target in aging, affording preventative and therapeutic benefits.

  20. Ultradian cycles in mice: definitions and links with REMS and NREMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bon, O; Popa, D; Streel, E; Alexandre, C; Lena, C; Linkowski, P; Adrien, J

    2007-10-01

    Sleep can be organized in two quite different ways across homeothermic species: either in one block (monophasic), or in several bouts across the 24 h (polyphasic). Yet, the main relationships between variables, as well as regulating mechanisms, are likely to be similar. Correlations and theories on sleep regulation should thus be examined on both types of sleepers. In previous studies on monophasic humans, we have shown preferential links between the number of ultradian cycles and the rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) time, rather than with its counterpart non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Here, the sleep of 26 polyphasic mice was examined, both to better describe the NREMS distribution, which is far more complex than in humans, and to replicate the analyses performed on humans. As in humans, the strongest links with the number of cycles were with REMS. Links were not significant with NREMS taken as a whole, although positive correlations were found with the NREMS immediately preceding REMS episodes and inversely significant with the residue. This convergence between monophasic and polyphasic patterns supports the central role played by REMS in sleep alternation.

  1. Endocannabinoid modulation of cortical up-states and NREM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available Up-/down-state transitions are a form of network activity observed when sensory input into the cortex is diminished such as during non-REM sleep. Up-states emerge from coordinated signaling between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses and are modulated by systems that affect the balance between inhibition and excitation. We hypothesized that the endocannabinoid (EC system, a neuromodulatory system intrinsic to the cortical microcircuitry, is an important regulator of up-states and sleep. To test this hypothesis, up-states were recorded from layer V/VI pyramidal neurons in organotypic cultures of wild-type or CB1R knockout (KO mouse prefrontal cortex. Activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 with exogenous agonists or by blocking metabolism of endocannabinoids, anandamide or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, increased up-state amplitude and facilitated action potential discharge during up-states. The CB1 agonist also produced a layer II/III-selective reduction in synaptic GABAergic signaling that may underlie its effects on up-state amplitude and spiking. Application of CB1 antagonists revealed that an endogenous EC tone regulates up-state duration. Paradoxically, the duration of up-states in CB1 KO cultures was increased suggesting that chronic absence of EC signaling alters cortical activity. Consistent with increased cortical excitability, CB1 KO mice exhibited increased wakefulness as a result of reduced NREM sleep and NREM bout duration. Under baseline conditions, NREM delta (0.5-4 Hz power was not different in CB1 KO mice, but during recovery from forced sleep deprivation, KO mice had reduced NREM delta power and increased sleep fragmentation. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the EC system actively regulates cortical up-states and important features of NREM sleep such as its duration and low frequency cortical oscillations.

  2. NREM sleep parasomnia associated with Chiari I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftary, Ameet S; Walker, James M; Farney, Robert J

    2011-10-15

    Parasomnias are common sleep disorders in children, and most cases resolve naturally by adolescence.(1) They represent arousal disorders beginning in NREM sleep and are generally non-concerning in children. The diagnosis can usually be made by clinical assessment, and testing with polysomnography is not routinely indicated.(2) However, in certain cases with atypical features, polysomnography and more extensive neurologic evaluation are medically indicated.

  3. Effect of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Dan M; Kirkpatrick, Daniel R; Kerfeld, Mitchell J; Hambsch, Zakary J; Reisbig, Mark D; Agrawal, Devendra K; Youngblood, Charles F

    2014-11-01

    The perioperative care of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is currently receiving much attention due to an increased risk for complications. It is established that postoperative changes in sleep architecture occur and this may have pathophysiological implications for OSA patients. Upper airway muscle activity decreases during rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Severe OSA patients exhibit exaggerated chemoreceptor-driven ventilation during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), which leads to central and obstructive apnea. This article critically reviewed the literature relevant to preoperative screening for OSA, prevalence of OSA in surgical populations and changes in postoperative sleep architecture relevant to OSA patients. In particular, we addressed three questions in regard to the effects of sedative-hypnotics, anesthetics and analgesics on sleep architecture, the underlying mechanisms and the relevance to OSA. Indeed, these classes of drugs alter sleep architecture, which likely significantly contributes to abnormal postoperative sleep architecture, exacerbation of OSA and postoperative complications.

  4. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2 channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D.; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T.; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P.; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11–15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Cav3.3-type Ca2+ channels and Ca2+-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K+ channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-over-expressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared to wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow-waves (< 4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles. PMID:23035101

  5. Rhythmic tongue movements during sleep: a peculiar parasomnia in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Rubino, Marco; Vollono, Catello; Vasta, Isabella; Scarano, Emanuele; Mariotti, Paolo; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Mennuni, Gioacchino Francesco; Tonali, Pietro; Zampino, Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    We describe a peculiar parasomnia observed in four Costello infants, characterized by periodic rhythmic movements of the tongue. Ten Costello patients (4 male; age range 9 months to 29 years) underwent 1 full-night laboratory-based video polysomnography. The four youngest patients (2 male and 2 female; age range 9-31 months) presented during sleep repeated stereotyped movements of the tongue, producing a sucking-like or licking-like movement, mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Rhythmic tongue movements in Costello syndrome show the features of an NREM sleep parasomnia. Tongue movements during sleep probably originate from brainstem structures and could be facilitated by an impaired control of the oropharyngeal and tongue muscles.

  6. Cellular and neurochemical basis of sleep stages in the thalamocortical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P; Chauvette, Sylvain; Shamie, Isaac; Soltani, Sara; Timofeev, Igor; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-11-16

    The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings. We explained this discrepancy by the differences in the relative level of ACh. Overall, our study revealed the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms through which different neuromodulators acting in combination result in characteristic brain EEG rhythms and transitions between sleep stages.

  7. Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A; Klerman, E B

    2013-02-21

    Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-min ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed 'homeostatic mechanism', homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed 'circadian mechanism', the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the

  8. Emotional arousal modulates oscillatory correlates of targeted memory reactivation during NREM, but not REM sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Mick; Schreiner, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Rasch, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories. In contrast during REM sleep, solely cueing of neutral (but not emotional) memories was associated with increases in theta activity. Our results do not support a preferential role of REM sleep for emotional memories, but rather suggest that emotional arousal modulates memory replay and consolidation processes and their oscillatory correlates during NREM sleep. PMID:27982120

  9. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184 or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506 produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability. Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis.

  10. Role of Somatostatin-Positive Cortical Interneurons in the Generation of Sleep Slow Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chadd M; Peelman, Kayla; Bellesi, Michele; Marshall, William; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2017-09-20

    During non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep, cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods, characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods, characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves, the hallmark of NREM sleep, reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma. In freely moving male mice, we show that SOM+ cells can fire immediately before slow waves and their optogenetic stimulation during ON periods of NREM sleep triggers long OFF periods. Next, we show that chemogenetic activation of SOM+ cells increases slow-wave activity (SWA), slope of individual slow waves, and NREM sleep duration; whereas their chemogenetic inhibition decreases SWA and slow-wave incidence without changing time spent in NREM sleep. By contrast, activation of parvalbumin+ (PV+) cells, the most numerous population of cortical inhibitory neurons, greatly decreases SWA and cortical firing, triggers short OFF periods in NREM sleep, and increases NREM sleep duration. Thus SOM+ cells, but not PV+ cells, are involved in the generation of sleep slow waves. Whether Martinotti cells are solely responsible for this effect, or are complemented by other classes of inhibitory neurons, remains to be investigated.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cortical slow waves are a defining feature of non-rapid eye-movement (NREM) sleep and are thought to be important for many of its restorative benefits. Yet, the mechanism by which cortical neurons abruptly and synchronously cease firing, the

  11. The utility of polysomnography for the diagnosis of NREM parasomnias: an observational study over 4 years of clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Chiara; Wright, Mary-Anne S; Sechi, GianPietro; Walker, Matthew C; Eriksson, Sofia H

    2015-02-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias, however its diagnostic yield has been rarely reported. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of polysomnography in different categories of patients with suspected NREM parasomnia and define variables that can affect the outcome. 124 adults referred for polysomnography for suspected NREM parasomnia were retrospectively identified and divided into clinical categories based on their history. Each polysomnography was analysed for features of NREM parasomnia or different sleep disorders and for presence of potential precipitants. The impact on the outcome of number of recording nights and concomitant consumption of benzodiazepines and antidepressants was assessed. Overall, PSG confirmed NREM parasomnias in 60.5 % patients and showed a different sleep disorder in another 16 %. Precipitants were found in 21 % of the 124 patients. However, PSG showed limited value when the NREM parasomnia was clinically uncomplicated, since it rarely revealed a different diagnosis or unsuspected precipitants (5 % respectively), but became essential for people with unusual features in the history where different or overlapping diagnoses (18 %) or unsuspected precipitants (24 %) were commonly identified. Taking benzodiazepines or antidepressants during the PSG reduced the diagnostic yield. PSG has a high diagnostic yield in patients with suspected NREM parasomnia, and can reveal a different diagnosis or precipitants in over 40 % of people with complicated or atypical presentation or those with a history of epilepsy. We suggest that PSG should be performed for one night in the first instance, with leg electrodes and respiratory measurements and after benzodiazepine and antidepressant withdrawal.

  12. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  13. Coupling of Thalamocortical Sleep Oscillations Are Important for Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Niknazar

    Full Text Available Sleep, specifically non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of recent memories. Two main oscillatory activities observed during NREM, cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1.0 Hz and thalamic spindles (12-15 Hz, have been shown to independently correlate with memory improvement. Yet, it is not known how these thalamocortical events interact, or the significance of this interaction, during the consolidation process. Here, we found that systemic administration of the GABAergic drug (zolpidem increased both the phase-amplitude coupling between SO and spindles, and verbal memory improvement in humans. These results suggest that thalamic spindles that occur during transitions to the cortical SO Up state are optimal for memory consolidation. Our study predicts that the timely interactions between cortical and thalamic events during consolidation, contribute to memory improvement and is mediated by the level of inhibitory neurotransmission.

  14. Sleep loss and recovery after administration of drugs related to different arousal systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnik, T; Tóth, A; Szalontai, Ö; Pethő, M; Détári, L

    2016-09-01

    Sleep is homeostatically regulated suggesting a restorative function. Sleep deprivation is compensated by an increase in length and intensity of sleep. In this study, suppression of sleep was induced pharmacologically by drugs related to different arousal systems. All drugs caused non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep loss followed by different compensatory processes. Apomorphine caused a strong suppression of sleep followed by an intense recovery. In the case of fluoxetine and eserine, recovery of NREM sleep was completed by the end of the light phase due to the biphasic pattern demonstrated for these drugs first in the present experiments. Yohimbine caused a long-lasting suppression of NREM sleep, indicating that either the noradrenergic system has the utmost strength among the examined systems, or that restorative functions occurring normally during NREM sleep were not blocked. Arousal systems are involved in the regulation of various wakefulness-related functions, such as locomotion and food intake. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that activation of the different systems results in qualitatively different waking states which might affect subsequent sleep differently. These differences might give some insight into the homeostatic function of sleep in which the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems may play a more important role than previously suggested.

  15. Clonidine Has a Paradoxical Effect on Cyclic Arousal and Sleep Bruxism during NREM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Maria Clotilde; Macaluso, Guido M.; Rompré, Pierre H.; Huynh, Nelly; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: Clonidine disrupts the NREM/REM sleep cycle and reduces the incidence of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characteristic of sleep bruxism (SB). RMMA/SB is associated with brief and transient sleep arousals. This study investigates the effect of clonidine on the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in order to explore the role of cyclic arousal fluctuation in RMMA/SB. Design: Polysomnographic recordings from a pharmacological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratory. Participants and Interventions: Sixteen SB subjects received a single dose of clonidine or placebo at bedtime in a crossover design. Measurements and Results: Sleep variables and RMMA/SB index were evaluated. CAP was scored to assess arousal instability between sleep-maintaining processes (phase A1) and stronger arousal processes (phases A2 and A3). Paired t-tests, ANOVAs, and cross-correlations were performed. Under clonidine, CAP time, and particularly the number of A3 phases, increased (P ≤ 0.01). RMMA/SB onset was time correlated with phases A2 and A3 for both placebo and clonidine nights (P ≤ 0.004). However, under clonidine, this positive correlation began up to 40 min before the RMMA/SB episode. Conclusions: CAP phase A3 frequency increased under clonidine, but paradoxically, RMMA/SB decreased. RMMA/SB was associated with and facilitated in CAP phase A2 and A3 rhythms. However, SB generation could be influenced by other factors besides sleep arousal pressure. NREM/REM ultradian cyclic arousal fluctuations may be required for RMMA/SB onset. Citation: Carra MC; Macaluso GM; Rompré PH; Huynh N; Parrino L; Terzano MG; Lavigne GJ. Clonidine has a paradoxical effect on cyclic arousal and sleep bruxism during NREM sleep. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1711-1716. PMID:21120152

  16. NREM parasomnias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the systematic study of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias. This chapter focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, pathophysiology, associated sleep parameters, and clinical variants of the prototypic NREM sleep parasomnias, namely confusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. Whereas the occurrence of NREM parasomnias in children is frequently viewed as relatively benign, these disorders often pose greater problems, including sleep-related injuries, in affected adults. Most episodes arise from sudden but incomplete arousal from slow-wave sleep and sometimes from stage 2 sleep. Factors that deepen or fragment sleep can facilitate or precipitate NREM parasomnias in predisposed individuals. NREM parasomnias can be associated with various primary sleep disorders or with medical conditions. Diagnosis of NREM parasomnias can often be made based on a detailed history, although some patients may require more extensive evaluations, including polysomnographic study with an expanded EEG montage. Sleep deprivation and the presentation of auditory stimuli during slow-wave sleep are two techniques that can increase the occurrence of behavioral manifestations under laboratory conditions. A variety of nonpharmacological treatments have been recommended for long-term management of NREM parasomnias, whereas pharmacological agents should be considered only if the behaviors are hazardous or extremely disruptive.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea alters sleep stage transition dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt T Bianchi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed hypnograms from Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS participants using the following stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO, non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, and REM sleep. We show that individual patient hypnograms contain insufficient number of bouts to adequately describe the transition kinetics, necessitating pooling of data. We compared a control group of individuals free of medications, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, medical co-morbidities, or sleepiness (n = 374 with mild (n = 496 or severe OSA (n = 338. WASO, REM sleep, and NREM sleep bout durations exhibited multi-exponential temporal dynamics. The presence of OSA accelerated the "decay" rate of NREM and REM sleep bouts, resulting in instability manifesting as shorter bouts and increased number of stage transitions. For WASO bouts, previously attributed to a power law process, a multi-exponential decay described the data well. Simulations demonstrated that a multi-exponential process can mimic a power law distribution. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: OSA alters sleep architecture dynamics by decreasing the temporal stability of NREM and REM sleep bouts. Multi-exponential fitting is superior to routine mono-exponential fitting, and may thus provide improved predictive metrics of sleep continuity. However, because a single night of sleep contains insufficient transitions to characterize these dynamics, extended monitoring of sleep, probably at home, would be necessary for individualized clinical application.

  18. [Effect of obstructive sleep apnea on sleep architecture of acute ischemic stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y N; Li, J; Huang, J Y; Zhu, C; Mao, C J; Shen, Y; Liu, C F

    2017-03-28

    Objective: To investigate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on sleep architecture in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: Seventy AIS patients with polysomnography examination from June 2014 to April 2016 were included in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. Twenty-seven healthy controls during the same period were chosen as control group. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), AIS patients were divided into AIS group (AHIsleep time (TST) was significantly shorter and sleep efficiency (SE) was lower in AIS group than the control group (P=0.007, 0.008, respectively). AIS+ OSA group had longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM)1 than control group [24.9(21.3) vs 14.3(10.6), P=0.044]. Compared with AIS group, AIS+ OSA group had shorter NREM3 [13.0(13.2) vs 19.6(12.8), P=0.039]. There was no significant difference between the infarct location of AIS group and AIS+ OSA group. However, AIS+ OSA group had higher mRS score observed at 3 months through follow-up visit than AIS group (P=0.027). Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between unfavorable prognosis of stroke at 3 months and atrial fibrillation, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI), percentage of oxygen saturation Sleep architecture of cerebral infarction patients are disturbed with its characteristic of shorter total sleep time and lower sleep efficiency. Cerebral infarction patients with OSA have longer NREM1 and shorter NREM3.

  19. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen eKirov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and REM sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  20. Labile sleep promotes awareness of abstract knowledge in a serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf; Yordanova, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Sleep has been identified as a critical brain state enhancing the probability of gaining insight into covert task regularities. Both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been implicated with offline re-activation and reorganization of memories supporting explicit knowledge generation. According to two-stage models of sleep function, offline processing of information during sleep is sequential requiring multiple cycles of NREM and REM sleep stages. However, the role of overnight dynamic sleep macrostructure for insightfulness has not been studied so far. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that the frequency of interactions between NREM and REM sleep stages might be critical for awareness after sleep. For that aim, the rate of sleep stage transitions was evaluated in 53 participants who learned implicitly a serial reaction time task (SRTT) in which a determined sequence was inserted. The amount of explicit knowledge about the sequence was established by verbal recall after a night of sleep following SRTT learning. Polysomnography was recorded in this night and in a control night before and was analyzed to compare the rate of sleep-stage transitions between participants who did or did not gain awareness of task regularity after sleep. Indeed, individual ability of explicit knowledge generation was strongly associated with increased rate of transitions between NREM and REM sleep stages and between light sleep stages and slow wave sleep. However, the rate of NREM-REM transitions specifically predicted the amount of explicit knowledge after sleep in a trait-dependent way. These results demonstrate that enhanced lability of sleep goes along with individual ability of knowledge awareness. Observations suggest that facilitated dynamic interactions between sleep stages, particularly between NREM and REM sleep stages play a role for offline processing which promotes rule extraction and awareness.

  1. Does more sleep matter? Differential effects of NREM- and REM-dominant sleep on sleepiness and vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, D; Mairesse, O; Newell, J; Verbanck, P; Peigneux, P; Deliens, G

    2015-05-01

    We investigated effects of NREM and REM predominant sleep periods on sleepiness and psychomotor performances measured with visual analog scales and the psychomotor vigilance task, respectively. After one week of stable sleep-wake rhythms, 18 healthy sleepers slept 3hours of early sleep and 3hours of late sleep, under polysomnographic control, spaced by two hours of sustained wakefulness between sleep periods in a within subjects split-night, sleep interruption protocol. Power spectra analysis was applied for sleep EEG recordings and sleep phase-relative power proportions were computed for six different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, sigma, beta and gamma). Both sleep periods presented with similar sleep duration and efficiency. As expected, phasic NREM and REM predominances were obtained for early and late sleep conditions, respectively. Albeit revealing additive effects of total sleep duration, our results showed a systematic discrepancy between psychomotor performances and sleepiness levels. In addition, sleepiness remained stable throughout sustained wakefulness during both conditions, whereas psychomotor performances even decreased after the second sleep period. Disregarding exchanges for frequency bands in NREM or stability in REM, correlations between outcome measures and EEG power proportions further evidenced directional divergence with respect to sleepiness and psychomotor performances, respectively. Showing that the functional correlation pattern changed with respect to early and late sleep condition, the relationships between EEG power and subjective or behavioral outcomes might however essentially be related to total sleep duration rather than to the phasic predominance of REM or NREM sleep.

  2. Sleep and Arousal Mechanisms in Experimental Epilepsy: Epileptic Components of NREM and Antiepileptic Components of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, M. N.; Scordato, J. C.; Farber, P. R.

    2004-01-01

    Neural generators related to different sleep components have different effects on seizure discharge. These sleep-related systems can provoke seizure discharge propagation during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and can suppress propagation during REM sleep. Experimental manipulations of discrete physiological components were conducted in feline…

  3. Hierarchical nesting of slow oscillations, spindles and ripples in the human hippocampus during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Bergmann, Til Ole; Bonnefond, Mathilde; van der Meij, Roemer; Jensen, Ole; Deuker, Lorena; Elger, Christian E; Axmacher, Nikolai; Fell, Juergen

    2015-11-01

    During systems-level consolidation, mnemonic representations initially reliant on the hippocampus are thought to migrate to neocortical sites for more permanent storage, with an eminent role of sleep for facilitating this information transfer. Mechanistically, consolidation processes have been hypothesized to rely on systematic interactions between the three cardinal neuronal oscillations characterizing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Under global control of de- and hyperpolarizing slow oscillations (SOs), sleep spindles may cluster hippocampal ripples for a precisely timed transfer of local information to the neocortex. We used direct intracranial electroencephalogram recordings from human epilepsy patients during natural sleep to test the assumption that SOs, spindles and ripples are functionally coupled in the hippocampus. Employing cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling analyses, we found that spindles were modulated by the up-state of SOs. Notably, spindles were found to in turn cluster ripples in their troughs, providing fine-tuned temporal frames for the hypothesized transfer of hippocampal memory traces.

  4. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  5. Disruptions of Sleep/Wake Patterns in the Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) Null Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profitt, Maxine F; Deurveilher, Samuel; Robertson, George S; Rusak, Benjamin; Semba, Kazue

    2016-09-01

    Disruption of sleep/wake cycles is common in patients with schizophrenia and correlates with cognitive and affective abnormalities. Mice deficient in stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) show cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological deficits that resemble those seen in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about their sleep phenotype. We characterized baseline sleep/wake patterns and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation in STOP null mice. Polysomnography was conducted in adult male STOP null and wild-type (WT) mice under a 12:12 hours light:dark cycle before, during, and after 6 hours of sleep deprivation during the light phase. At baseline, STOP null mice spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) over a 24-hour period, with more frequent transitions between wake and NREMS, compared to WT mice, especially during the dark phase. The distributions of wake, NREMS and REMS across the light and the dark phases differed by genotype, and so did features of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Following sleep deprivation, both genotypes showed homeostatic increases in sleep duration, with no significant genotype differences in the initial compensatory increase in sleep intensity (EEG delta power). These results indicate that STOP null mice sleep less overall, and their sleep and wake periods are more fragmented than those of WT mice. These features in STOP null mice are consistent with the sleep patterns observed in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Time-of-day modulation of homeostatic and allostatic sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurveilher, S; Rusak, B; Semba, K

    2012-06-15

    To study sleep responses to chronic sleep restriction (CSR) and time-of-day influences on these responses, we developed a rat model of CSR that takes into account the polyphasic sleep patterns in rats. Adult male rats underwent cycles of 3 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and 1 h of sleep opportunity (SO) continuously for 4 days, beginning at the onset of the 12-h light phase ("3/1" protocol). Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recordings were made before, during, and after CSR. During CSR, total sleep time was reduced by ∼60% from baseline levels. Both rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during SO periods increased initially relative to baseline and remained elevated for the rest of the CSR period. In contrast, NREMS EEG delta power (a measure of sleep intensity) increased initially, but then declined gradually, in parallel with increases in high-frequency power in the NREMS EEG. The amplitude of daily rhythms in NREMS and REMS amounts was maintained during SO periods, whereas that of NREMS delta power was reduced. Compensatory responses during the 2-day post-CSR recovery period were either modest or negative and gated by time of day. NREMS, REMS, and EEG delta power lost during CSR were not recovered by the end of the second recovery day. Thus the "3/1" CSR protocol triggered both homeostatic responses (increased sleep amounts and intensity during SOs) and allostatic responses (gradual decline in sleep intensity during SOs and muted or negative post-CSR sleep recovery), and both responses were modulated by time of day.

  7. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  8. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1 in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  9. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  10. Circadian modulation of sleep in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasenkov, Roman; Deboer, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes. The sleep homeostat keeps track of the duration of prior sleep and waking and determines the intensity of sleep. In mammals, the homeostatic process is reflected by the slow waves in the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). The circadian process is controlled by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and provides the sleep homeostat with a circadian framework. This review summarizes the changes in sleep obtained after different chronobiological interventions (changes in photoperiod, light availability, and running wheel availability), the influence of mutations or lesions in clock genes on sleep, and research on the interaction between sleep homeostasis and the circadian clock. Research in humans shows that the period of consolidated waking during the day is a consequence of the interaction between an increasing homeostatic sleep drive and a circadian signal, which promotes waking during the day and sleep during the night. In the rat, it was shown that, under constant homeostatic sleep pressure, with similar levels of slow waves in the NREM sleep EEG at all time points of the circadian cycle, still a small circadian modulation of the duration of waking and NREM sleep episodes was observed. Under similar conditions, humans show a clear circadian modulation in REM sleep, whereas in the rat, a circadian modulation in REM sleep was not present. Therefore, in the rat, the sleep homeostatic modulation in phase with the circadian clock seems to amplify the relatively weak circadian changes in sleep induced by the circadian clock. Knowledge about the interaction between sleep and the circadian clock and the circadian modulation of sleep in other species than humans is important to better understand the underlying regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  12. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost.

  13. NREM sleep transient events in fronto-temporal dementia: beyond sleep stage architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Michelangelo; Carnicelli, Luca; Economou, Nicholas-Tiberio; Bonakis, Anastasios; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Sokratis T; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Di Coscio, Elisa; Tognoni, Gloria; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2015-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is increasingly becoming recognized as a major cause of early onset (sleep disorders significantly impair patients' and caregivers' quality of life in neurodegenerative diseases, polysomnographic data in FTD patients are scarce in literature. Aim of our study was to investigate sleep microstructure in FTD, by means of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), in a group of ten behavioral variant FTD patients (6 M, 4 F; mean age 61.2±7.3 years; disease duration: 1.4±0.7 years) and to compare them with cognitively intact healthy elderly. Sleep in FTD patients was altered at different levels, involving not only the conventional sleep stage architecture parameters (total sleep time, single stage percentage, NREM/REM cycle organization), but also microstructure. FTD subjects showed CAP disruption with decreased slow wave activity related phases (A1 index, n/h:14.5±6.8 vs 38.8±6.6; psleep variables and neuropsychological tests were found. Sleep impairment in FTD may be specifically related to the specific frontal lobe involvement in the neurodegenerative process. The pattern of alterations seems somewhat peculiar, probably due to the anatomical distribution of the neurodegenerative process with a major impact on frontal lobe generated sleep transients, and a substantial sparing of phenomena related to the posterior cortex.

  14. Word encoding during sleep is suggested by correlations between word-evoked up-states and post-sleep semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Mathis, Johannes; Roth, Corinne; Henke, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    To test whether humans can encode words during sleep we played everyday words to men while they were napping and assessed priming from sleep-played words following waking. Words were presented during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Priming was assessed using a semantic and a perceptual priming test. These tests measured differences in the processing of words that had been or had not been played during sleep. Synonyms to sleep-played words were the targets in the semantic priming test that tapped the meaning of sleep-played words. All men responded to sleep-played words by producing up-states in their electroencephalogram. Up-states are NREM sleep-specific phases of briefly increased neuronal excitability. The word-evoked up-states might have promoted word processing during sleep. Yet, the mean performance in the priming tests administered following sleep was at chance level, which suggests that participants as a group failed to show priming following sleep. However, performance in the two priming tests was positively correlated to each other and to the magnitude of the word-evoked up-states. Hence, the larger a participant's word-evoked up-states, the larger his perceptual and semantic priming. Those participants who scored high on all variables must have encoded words during sleep. We conclude that some humans are able to encode words during sleep, but more research is needed to pin down the factors that modulate this ability.

  15. Interrelations and circadian changes of electroencephalogram frequencies under baseline conditions and constant sleep pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasenkov, R; Deboer, T

    2011-04-28

    Similar to the nap-protocols applied in humans, the repeated short-sleep deprivation protocol in rats stabilizes slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) in the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), thus reflecting a constant sleep pressure or sleep homeostatic level, whereas higher frequencies (7-25 Hz) in these conditions preserve their daily rhythm, therefore demonstrating a strong input from an endogenous circadian clock. How different EEG frequencies in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and waking respond to these constant conditions, how they interrelate to each other within the different vigilance states, and which component of sleep regulation (homeostatic or circadian) is involved, remain unknown. To answer these questions, we applied power spectral analysis and correlation analysis to 1 Hz bin EEG frequency data for different vigilance states in freely moving rats in constant darkness, under baseline conditions and during the repeated short-sleep deprivation protocol. Our analysis suggests that (1) 0.5-5 Hz frequencies in NREM sleep and higher frequencies in REM sleep (above 19 Hz) and waking (above 10 Hz) are sleep-dependent, and thus seem to be under control of the sleep homeostat, while (2) faster frequencies in the NREM sleep EEG (7-25 Hz) and 3-7 Hz activity in the REM sleep EEG are under strong influence of the endogenous circadian clock. Theta activity in waking (5-7 Hz) seems to reflect both circadian and behavior dependent influences. NREM sleep EEG frequencies between 9 and 14 Hz showed both homeostatic and circadian components in their behavior. Thus, frequencies in the EEG of the different vigilance states seem to represent circadian and homeostatic components of sleep regulatory mechanisms, where REM sleep and waking frequency ranges behave similarly to each other and differently from NREM sleep frequencies.

  16. What Is Lost During Dreamless Sleep: The Relationship Between Neural Connectivity Patterns and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Klimova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep is characterised by reduced consciousness; thus, studying its neural characteristics acts as a useful indication of what is needed for conscious experience. The integrated information theory (Tononi, 2008 states that the ability of different thalamocortical regions to interact is crucial for consciousness, thereby motivating research concerning connectivity changes in the thalamocortical system that accompany changing consciousness levels. This review aims to discuss investigations of functional connectivity of resting-state and large-scale brain networks, applying correlational approaches to neuroimaging data as well as studies that used brain stimulation to investigate effective connectivity. Most findings suggest a reorganisation of functional brain networks where inter-region connectivity is reduced and intra-region connectivity is stronger in deep sleep than wakefulness.

  17. Topographical distribution of spindles: variations between and within nrem sleep cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, L; Ferrara, M; Bertini, M

    2000-01-01

    Spindle density, visually scored in the 12-15 Hz range over antero-posterior midline derivations, was assessed during a baseline night in ten normal subjects. Sleep spindles were found to be highly variable between subjects and more abundant during Stage 2. Topographical distribution of spindle density showed a centroparietal prevalence, stable between NREM sleep stages. Intra-night variations of spindle density exhibited a linear increase across consecutive NREM episodes, suggesting an inverse relation with the time course of slow wave sleep. Except for occipital leads reaching a maximum during the third NREM cycle and then decreasing, changes in spindle density across sleep cycles were similar over different derivations. Intra-cycle variations fit a fourth-order polynomial curve with a minimum in the middle part of each sleep episode (when most slow wave sleep is expressed); this intra-cycle trend also seems stable between derivations and consecutive sleep cycles. These results confirm and extend, to the level of macroscopic EEG, the reciprocal relationship between sigma and delta waves previously shown by spectral analysis of EEG frequencies and, at a neuronal level in the thalamocortical network, by changes of membrane potentials that oscillate in the frequency range of spindles or delta at different levels of hyperpolarization.

  18. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  19. Sleep Structure in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Gulcin; Oztura, Ibrahim; Hiz, Semra; Akdogan, Ozlem; Karaarslan, Dilay; Ozek, Handan; Akay, Aynur

    2015-10-01

    The authors evaluated basic sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep alterations in drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without psychiatric or other comorbidities. This cross-sectional case-control study included 28 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 15 healthy controls. This subjective studies revealed that children with ADHD had a worse sleep quality and increased daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography data showed that the sleep macrostructure was not significantly different in children with ADHD. Sleep microstructure was altered in ADHD children by means of reduced total cyclic alternating pattern rate and duration of cyclic alternating pattern sequences. This reduction was associated with a selective decrease of A1 index during stage 2 NREM. SpO2 in total sleep was slightly decreased; however, the incidence of sleep disordered breathing showed no significant difference. The authors suggest that cyclic alternating pattern scoring would provide a further insight to obtain a better understanding of the sleep structure in children with ADHD.

  20. Can sleep microstructure improve diagnosis of OSAS? Integrative information from CAP parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioli, Giulia; Bosi, Marcello; Grassi, Andrea; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Cortelli, Pietro; Poletti, Venerino; Parrino, Liborio

    2015-01-01

    The scoring of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) arousal is mandatory for the definition of respiratory event-related arousal (RERA). However there are other EEG activation phenomena, such as A phases of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) which are associated with respiratory events in non rapid eye movements (NREM) sleep. This study aims at quantifying the additional value of CAP for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS. Analysis of polysomnographic recordings from nineteen OSAS patients was carried out. Scoring was focused on investigation of the cerebral response to flow limitation (FL) events. For this purpose we used both CAP rules and AASM arousal criteria. While no difference was demonstrated in the arousal index between mild and moderate-severe OSAS patients, CAP time showed a progressive enhancement from normal subjects (152.5±20.76) to mild (180.64±34.76) and moderate-severe (282.27±58.02) OSAS patients. In NREM sleep, only 41.1% of FL events met the criteria for the definition of RERA, while, 75.5% of FL events ended with a CAP A phase and most FL CAP (69.1%) terminated with a CAP phase A3 subtype. Our data indicate that the RERA scoring has a limited accuracy in the detection of FL events. In NREM sleep, CAP rules provided more information than AASM arousal for the definition of respiratory events and sleep alterations in OSAS.

  1. EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON WHOLE NIGHT POLYSOMNOGRAPHY IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ze-ping; CHEN Xing-shi; WANG Ji-jun; ZHANG Ming-dao; WANG Hong-xing; HU Zhen-yu; LU Ying-zhi; ZHANG Zai-fu; GAN Jing-li; LOU Fei-ying; CHEN Chong; ZHANG Tian-hong; FAN Qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on the whole night polysomnography (PSG) in healthy young men.Methods The whole night PSG was recorded by using Neurofax-1518K (Nihon Kohden, Japan) system before and after 38 h of SD among 15 healthy male subjects.Results Compared with PSG before SD, post-SD PSG showed significantly shortened sleep latency (before SD: 19.7±9.3, after SD: 5.6±7.3, P<0.05), decreased stage 1 (S1) non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep [before SD: (9.2±1.9)%, after SD: (4.0±1.4)%, P<0.05], and increased stage 4 (S4) NREM sleep [before SD: (10.3±3.7)%, after SD: (26.2±4.3)%, P<0.01].Conclusion During post-SD sleep, the proportion of S4 NREM sleep was increased as compensation in healthy male. In addition, SD was proved to affect electrophysiological brain activities in normal people.

  2. The glycolytic metabolite methylglyoxal induces changes in vigilance by generating low-amplitude non-REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Curzi, M Letizia; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Hambsch, Boris; Landgraf, Rainer; Kimura, Mayumi

    2013-11-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG), an essential by-product of glycolysis, is a highly reactive endogenous α-oxoaldehyde. Although high levels of MG are cytotoxic, physiological doses of MG were shown to reduce anxiety-related behavior through selective activation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Because the latter play a major role in sleep induction, this study examined the potential of MG to regulate sleep. Specifically, we assessed how MG influences sleep-wake behavior in CD1 mice that received intracerebroventricular injections of either vehicle or 0.7 µmol MG at onset of darkness. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) recordings to monitor changes in vigilance states, sleep architecture and the EEG spectrum, for 24 h after receipt of injections. Administration of MG rapidly induced non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and, concomitantly, decreased wakefulness and suppressed EEG delta power during NREMS. In addition, MG robustly enhanced the amount and number of episodes of an unclassified state of vigilance in which EMG, as well as EEG delta and theta power, were very low. MG did not affect overall rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in a given 24-h period, but significantly reduced the power of theta activity during REMS. Our results provide the first evidence that MG can exert sleep-promoting properties by triggering low-amplitude NREMS.

  3. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  4. Automated NREM Sleep Staging Using the Electro-oculogram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Molina, G.; Abtahi, S.F.; Lagares-Lemos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic sleep staging from convenient and unobtrusive sensors hasreceived considerable attention lately because this can enable a large range of potential applications in the clinical and consumer fields. In this paper the focus is on achieving non REM sleep staging from ocular electrodes. From th

  5. Maternal Dietary Restriction Alters Offspring’s Sleep Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Noriyuki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nishi, Yuina; Harada, Saki; Iwaki, Yohei; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD) or 50% dietary restriction (DR) groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8–9 weeks), we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα) and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c) mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure. PMID:23741310

  6. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  7. Acoustic oddball during NREM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Czisch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A condition vital for the consolidation and maintenance of sleep is generally reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Despite this, the sleeper maintains a level of stimulus processing that allows to respond to potentially dangerous environmental signals. The mechanisms that subserve these contradictory functions are only incompletely understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using combined EEG/fMRI we investigated the neural substrate of sleep protection by applying an acoustic oddball paradigm during light NREM sleep. Further, we studied the role of evoked K-complexes (KCs, an electroencephalographic hallmark of NREM sleep with a still unknown role for sleep protection. Our main results were: (1 Other than in wakefulness, rare tones did not induce a blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signal increase in the auditory pathway but a strong negative BOLD response in motor areas and the amygdala. (2 Stratification of rare tones by the presence of evoked KCs detected activation of the auditory cortex, hippocampus, superior and middle frontal gyri and posterior cingulate only for rare tones followed by a KC. (3 The typical high frontocentral EEG deflections of KCs were not paralleled by a BOLD equivalent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed that rare tones lead to transient disengagement of motor and amygdala responses during light NREM sleep. We interpret this as a sleep protective mechanism to delimit motor responses and to reduce the sensitivity of the amygdala towards further incoming stimuli. Evoked KCs are suggested to originate from a brain state with relatively increased stimulus processing, revealing an activity pattern resembling novelty processing as previously reported during wakefulness. The KC itself is not reflected by increased metabolic demand in BOLD based imaging, arguing that evoked KCs result from increased neural synchronicity without altered metabolic demand.

  8. How do people with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy sleep? A clinical and video-EEG with EOG and submental EMG for sleep staging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Scarlatelli-Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess subjective and objective sleep parameters in a homogeneous group of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients through internationally validated clinical questionnaires, video-electroencephalographic (VEEG and polysomnographic (PSG studies. Fifty-six patients with definite diagnosis of MTLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent a detailed clinical history, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS, neurological examination, 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging, VEEG and PSG. Sixteen percent of patients reported significant daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS and 27% reported low levels of sleep quality as measured by PSQI. Patients with medically resistant epilepsy by MTLE showed increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO with mean ± standard deviation of 17.4 ± 15.6, longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM 1 (7.5 ± 4.6% and NREM3 sleep (26.6 ± 11.8%, abnormal rapid eye movement (REM latency in 30/56 patients, shorter REM sleep (16.7 ± 6.6%, and abnormal alpha delta patterns were observed in 41/56 patients. The analysis of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs evidenced highest spiking rate during NREM3 sleep and higher concordance with imaging data when IEDs were recorded in sleep, mainly during REM sleep. We concluded that patients with MTLE showed disrupted sleep architecture that may result in daytime dysfunction and sleep complaints. Furthermore, NREM sleep activated focal IEDs and them - when recorded during sleep - had higher localizing value.

  9. 5'-Ectonucleotidase-knockout mice lack non-REM sleep responses to sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Mark R; Taishi, Ping; Clinton, James M; Krueger, James M

    2012-06-01

    Adenosine and extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have multiple physiological central nervous system actions including regulation of cerebral blood flow, inflammation and sleep. However, their exact sleep regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Extracellular ATP and adenosine diphosphate are converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) by the enzyme ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, also known as CD39, and extracellular AMP is in turn converted to adenosine by the 5'-ectonuleotidase enzyme CD73. We investigated the role of CD73 in sleep regulation. Duration of spontaneous non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) was greater in CD73-knockout (KO) mice than in C57BL/6 controls whether determined in our laboratory or by others. After sleep deprivation (SD), NREMS was enhanced in controls but not CD73-KO mice. Interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) enhanced NREMS in both strains, indicating that the CD73-KO mice were capable of sleep responses. Electroencephalographic power spectra during NREMS in the 1.0-2.5 Hz frequency range was significantly enhanced after SD in both CD73-KO and WT mice; the increases were significantly greater in the WT mice than in the CD73-KO mice. Rapid eye movement sleep did not differ between strains in any of the experimental conditions. With the exception of CD73 mRNA, the effects of SD on various adenosine-related mRNAs were small and similar in the two strains. These data suggest that sleep is regulated, in part, by extracellular adenosine derived from the actions of CD73.

  10. Specific EEG sleep pattern in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Joy; Clochon, Patrice; Bertran, Françoise; Couque, Colette; Bulla, Jan; Denise, Pierre; Bocca, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    To assess the specific prefrontal activity in comparison to those in the other main cortical areas in primary insomnia patients and in good sleepers. Fourteen primary insomnia patients and 11 good sleepers were included in the analysis. Participants completed one night of polysomnography in the sleep lab. Power spectra were calculated during the NREM (Non-rapid eyes movements) and the REM (Rapid eyes movements) sleep periods at prefrontal, occipital, temporal and central electrode positions. During the NREM sleep, the power spectra did not differ between groups in the prefrontal cortex; while primary insomnia patients exhibited a higher beta power spectrum and a lower delta power spectrum compared to good sleepers in other areas. During the REM sleep, the beta1 power spectrum was lower in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia patients compared to good sleepers; while no significant difference between groups was obtained for the other areas. The present study shows a specific prefrontal sleep pattern during the whole sleep period. In addition, we suggest that primary insomnia patients displayed a dysfunction in the reactivation of the limbic system during the REM sleep and we give additional arguments in favor of a sleep-protection mechanism displayed by primary insomnia patients.

  11. Specific EEG sleep pattern in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Perrier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the specific prefrontal activity in comparison to those in the other main cortical areas in primary insomnia patients and in good sleepers. METHODS: Fourteen primary insomnia patients and 11 good sleepers were included in the analysis. Participants completed one night of polysomnography in the sleep lab. Power spectra were calculated during the NREM (Non-rapid eyes movements and the REM (Rapid eyes movements sleep periods at prefrontal, occipital, temporal and central electrode positions. RESULTS: During the NREM sleep, the power spectra did not differ between groups in the prefrontal cortex; while primary insomnia patients exhibited a higher beta power spectrum and a lower delta power spectrum compared to good sleepers in other areas. During the REM sleep, the beta1 power spectrum was lower in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia patients compared to good sleepers; while no significant difference between groups was obtained for the other areas. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows a specific prefrontal sleep pattern during the whole sleep period. In addition, we suggest that primary insomnia patients displayed a dysfunction in the reactivation of the limbic system during the REM sleep and we give additional arguments in favor of a sleep-protection mechanism displayed by primary insomnia patients.

  12. Modulation of the sympatho-vagal balance during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona eCabiddu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex state characterized by important changes in the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular activity. Heart rate variability (HRV greatly changes during different sleep stages, showing a predominant parasympathetic drive to the heart during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM and an increased sympathetic activity during rapid eye movement sleep (REM.Respiration undergoes important modifications as well, becoming deeper and more regular with deep sleep and shallower and more frequent during REM. The aim of the present study is to assess both autonomic cardiac regulation and cardiopulmonary coupling variations during different sleep stages in healthy subjects, using spectral and cross-spectral analysis of the HRV and respiration signals. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed in 11 healthy women and the HRV signal and the respiration signal were obtained. The spectral and cross-spectral parameters of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal were computed at low frequency (LF and at breathing frequency (high frequency, HF during different sleep stages. Results attested a sympatho-vagal balance shift towards parasympathetic modulation during NREM sleep and towards sympathetic modulation during REM sleep. Spectral analysis of the HRV signal and of the respiration signal indicated a higher respiration regularity during deep sleep, and a higher parasympathetic drive is also confirmed by an increase in the coherence between the HRV and the respiration signal in the HF band during NREM sleep. Our findings about sleep stage-dependent variations in the HRV signal and in the respiratory activity are in line with previous evidences and confirm spectral analysis of the HRV and the respiration signal to be a suitable tool for investigating cardiac autonomic modulation and respiration activity during sleep.

  13. The effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs on sleep variables in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jaime M; Torterolo, Pablo; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2017-06-01

    Insomnia is a common feature in schizophrenia, and is characterized by an increase of sleep latency (SL), as well as reductions in total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE). Regarding sleep architecture, non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep latency are decreased, whereas REM sleep tends to remain unchanged. According to polysomnographic studies, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone administration increased TST and/or SE in healthy subjects. Additionally, olanzapine and ziprasidone augmented SWS, while changes corresponding to REM sleep were inconsistent. Furthermore, administration of clozapine, olanzapine and paliperidone to patients with schizophrenia was followed in most instances by a significant reduction of SL and an increase of TST and SE. In addition, olanzapine and paliperidone augmented SWS and REM sleep. By contrast, quetiapine administration further disrupted sleep as judged by the increase of SL, wake time after sleep onset (WASO) and REM sleep latency, and the reduction of SWS and REM sleep. No consistent effects on sleep variables were obtained during treatment with risperidone. To date, no polysomnographic studies have been published on the effects of aripiprazole, asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on sleep in either healthy subjects or patients with schizophrenia. Taken together, this evidence supports the conclusion that second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) including clozapine, olanzapine and paliperidone may ameliorate insomnia in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. The circadian regulation of sleep: impact of a functional ADA-polymorphism and its association to working memory improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin F Reichert

    Full Text Available Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial effect remains largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent inter-individual differences in sleep-wake regulation depend on circadian phase and modulate the association between sleep and working memory. Here, sleep electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a 40-h multiple nap protocol, and working memory performance was assessed by the n-back task 10 times before and after each scheduled nap sleep episode. Twenty-four participants were genotyped regarding a functional polymorphism in adenosine deaminase (rs73598374, 12 G/A-, 12 G/G-allele carriers, previously associated with differences in sleep-wake regulation. Our results indicate that genotype-driven differences in sleep depend on circadian phase: heterozygous participants were awake longer and slept less at the end of the biological day, while they exhibited longer non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and slow wave sleep concomitant with reduced power between 8-16 Hz at the end of the biological night. Slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta EEG activity covaried positively with overall working memory performance, independent of circadian phase and genotype. Moreover, REM sleep duration benefitted working memory particularly when occurring in the early morning hours and specifically in heterozygous individuals. Even though based on a small sample size and thus requiring replication, our results suggest genotype-dependent differences in circadian sleep regulation. They further indicate that REM sleep, being under strong circadian control, boosts working memory performance according to genotype in a time-of-day dependent manner. Finally, our data provide first evidence that slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta activity, majorly regulated by sleep homeostatic mechanisms, is

  15. Sleep scoring made easy-Semi-automated sleep analysis software and manual rescoring tools for basic sleep research in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Polta, S; Gapp, J; Schuler, C; Kochs, E F; Fenzl, T

    2015-01-01

    Studying sleep behavior in animal models demands clear separation of vigilance states. Pure manual scoring is time-consuming and commercial scoring software is costly. We present a LabVIEW-based, semi-automated scoring routine using recorded EEG and EMG signals. This scoring routine is •designed to reliably assign the vigilance/sleep states wakefulness (WAKE), non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) to defined EEG/EMG episodes.•straightforward to use even for beginners in the field of sleep research.•freely available upon request. Chronic recordings from mice were used to design and evaluate the scoring routine consisting of an artifact-removal, a scoring- and a rescoring routine. The scoring routine processes EMG and different EEG frequency bands. Amplitude-based thresholds for EEG and EMG parameters trigger a decision tree assigning each EEG episode to a defined vigilance/sleep state automatically. Using the rescoring routine individual episodes or particular state transitions can be re-evaluated manually. High agreements between auto-scored and manual sleep scoring could be shown for experienced scorers and for beginners quickly and reliably. With small modifications to the software, it can be easily adapted for sleep analysis in other animal models.

  16. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J; Dinges, David F; Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336.

  17. Change in sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao zhongxin; Dong Xiaoli; Wu Weihua; Shao Fuyuan; Dong Shuzhen

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveAnalyzing change of sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy Methods The 24h ambulatory EEGs(AEEG) during interictal were monitored in 58 patients with epilepsy and control group (58 normal persons). Results 1. The sleep period tiae and time of REM (rapid eye movement sleep)were no marked difference between the epilepsy and control groups, 479.98±67. 4 min in epilepsy, 496. 33±57.62 min in control. 2. In coaparison with those of the control, the epilepsy group showed that the NREM ( non rapid eye movement sleep) stage Ⅰ- Ⅱ was longer(68±6.61% and 56.33±7.01 % respectively), the NREM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ was shorter (7. 03±5. 41% and 18.42±6. 94 % respectively) . There were a significance difference between the two groups (P<0。 01) . 3. The arousal times (268 times) in epilepsy were higher than those (15 times) of the control (P<0.01). 4. The results of correlated analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the arousal times and the frequency of epileptifora discharges in epilepsy (r=0.639, P<0. 01). 5. The sleep spindles in 12 patients (21%) decreased and asymmetrical, normal in the control. Conclusion: There were the sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy . The epileptic activity during interictal can obvious influences on sleep quality in patients with epilepsy.

  18. EEG beta power and heart rate variability describe the association between cortical and autonomic arousals across sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Cortical and autonomic arousals have been found to be closely associated. As arousal events are not evenly dispersed across sleep, we hypothesized the relationship between high frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) power and autonomic arousal indices differ between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. One night of polysomnographic recording was performed on a group of 18 subjects using a portable recorder. The EEG was collected from C3/Fz. Sleep stages and cortical arousals were visually scored. Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed from heart rate variability, where the high frequency power (HF) indicates parasympathetic modulation, and the low frequency to high frequency power ratio (LF/HF) represents sympathetic modulation. During NREM sleep, EEG beta power was significantly correlated with LF/HF (r=0.40 ± 0.06), and the relationships were more positive than during REM sleep (LF/HF: r=0.20 ± 0.08; EOG power: r=-0.13 ± 0.05). The relationship of beta power with LF/HF was associated with the incidence of cortical arousal, particularly during NREM sleep. With respect to alpha power, it was only marginally related to HF or LF/HF. In addition, the coefficients of determination were lower for alpha power than for beta power in terms of the relationships to HF, LF/HF and EOG power. This study shows a higher relationship between cortical and autonomic activation during NREM sleep, and the association is better described by beta power. This finding suggests NREM sleep may be of greater therapeutic potential in view of reducing cardiovascular disease associated with sleep fragmentation, and beta power may provide a better index to evaluate the effect.

  19. Probabilistic sleep architecture models in patients with and without sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matt T; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Mietus, Joseph; Peng, Chung-Kang; Thomas, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Sleep fragmentation of any cause is disruptive to the rejuvenating value of sleep. However, methods to quantify sleep architecture remain limited. We have previously shown that human sleep-wake stage distributions exhibit multi-exponential dynamics, which are fragmented by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting that Markov models may be a useful method to quantify architecture in health and disease. Sleep stage data were obtained from two subsets of the Sleep Heart Health Study database: control subjects with no medications, no OSA, no medical co-morbidities and no sleepiness (n = 374); and subjects with severe OSA (n = 338). Sleep architecture was simplified into three stages: wake after sleep onset (WASO); non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The connectivity and transition rates among eight 'generator' states of a first-order continuous-time Markov model were inferred from the observed ('phenotypic') distributions: three exponentials each of NREM sleep and WASO; and two exponentials of REM sleep. Ultradian REM cycling was accomplished by imposing time-variation to REM state entry rates. Fragmentation in subjects with severe OSA involved faster transition probabilities as well as additional state transition paths within the model. The Markov models exhibit two important features of human sleep architecture: multi-exponential stage dynamics (accounting for observed bout distributions); and probabilistic transitions (an inherent source of variability). In addition, the model quantifies the fragmentation associated with severe OSA. Markov sleep models may prove important for quantifying sleep disruption to provide objective metrics to correlate with endpoints ranging from sleepiness to cardiovascular morbidity.

  20. Effects of ibotenate and 192IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis/substantia innominata on spontaneous sleep and wake states and on recovery sleep after sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satvinder; Junek, Adrienne; Black, Michelle A; Semba, Kazue

    2008-01-09

    The basal forebrain (BF) is known for its role in cortical and behavioral activation, and has been postulated to have a role in compensatory mechanisms after sleep loss. However, specific neuronal phenotypes responsible for these roles are unclear. We investigated the effects of ibotenate (IBO) and 192IgG-saporin (SAP) lesions of the caudal BF on spontaneous sleep-waking and electroencephalogram (EEG), and recovery sleep and EEG after 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Relative to artificial CSF (ACSF) controls, IBO injections decreased parvalbumin and cholinergic neurons in the caudal BF by 43 and 21%, respectively, and cortical acetylcholinesterase staining by 41%. SAP injections nonsignificantly decreased parvalbumin neurons by 11%, but significantly decreased cholinergic neurons by 69% and cortical acetylcholinesterase by 84%. IBO lesions had no effect on sleep-wake states but increased baseline delta power in all states [up to 62% increase during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep]. SAP lesions transiently increased NREM sleep by 13%, predominantly during the dark phase, with no effect on EEG. During the first 12 h after SD, animals with IBO and SAP lesions showed lesser rebound NREM sleep (32 and 77% less, respectively) and delta power (78 and 53% less) relative to ACSF controls. These results suggest that noncholinergic BF neurons promote cortical activation by inhibiting delta waves, whereas cholinergic BF neurons play a nonexclusive role in promoting wake. Intriguingly, these results also suggest that both types of BF neurons play important roles, probably through different mechanisms, in increased NREM sleep and EEG delta power after sleep loss.

  1. Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ferrarelli

    Full Text Available Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG recordings in long-term meditators (LTM of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz, was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.

  2. Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.

  3. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17 acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  4. Investigation of the relationship between arterial stiffness and sleep architecture in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hang; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    A change in sleep architecture might increase the risk of hypertension and worsen target organs. This study thus aimed to study the features of sleep architecture and examine its relationship with pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, in patients with essential hypertension and healthy people aged 45-65 years (n = 106). We collected data on demographics, the serum index, overnight polysomnography, vascular testing and ambulatory blood pressure in addition to measuring arterial stiffness and monitoring sleep respiration. We found that patients with hypertension had longer sleep latency and shorter duration. Their sleep efficiency and the ratio of N3 in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement were lower, while the micro-arousal index (MI), N1 and N2 in NREM, and the apnea-hypopnea index were higher than normal people in controls. PWV raised with a decrease in N3 and an increase in the MI. In summary, there were notable changes in sleep architecture and with a decrease in N3 and increase in MI can accelerate arterial stiffness and then worsen target organ damage in patients with hypertension.

  5. Automatic sleep stage classification based on EEG signals by using neural networks and wavelet packet coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Mikaeili, Mohammad; Estrada, Edson; Nazeran, Homer

    2008-01-01

    Currently in the world there is an alarming number of people who suffer from sleep disorders. A number of biomedical signals, such as EEG, EMG, ECG and EOG are used in sleep labs among others for diagnosis and treatment of sleep related disorders. The usual method for sleep stage classification is visual inspection by a sleep specialist. This is a very time consuming and laborious exercise. Automatic sleep stage classification can facilitate this process. The definition of sleep stages and the sleep literature show that EEG signals are similar in Stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Therefore, in this work an attempt was made to classify four sleep stages consisting of Awake, Stage 1 + REM, Stage 2 and Slow Wave Stage based on the EEG signal alone. Wavelet packet coefficients and artificial neural networks were deployed for this purpose. Seven all night recordings from Physionet database were used in the study. The results demonstrated that these four sleep stages could be automatically discriminated from each other with a specificity of 94.4 +/- 4.5%, a of sensitivity 84.2+3.9% and an accuracy of 93.0 +/- 4.0%.

  6. Slow wave activity and slow oscillations in sleepwalkers and controls: effects of 38 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Sleepwalkers have been shown to have an unusually high number of arousals from slow wave sleep and lower slow wave activity (SWA) power during the night than controls. Because sleep deprivation increases the frequency of slow wave sleep (SWS) arousals in sleepwalkers, it may also affect the expression of the homeostatic process to a greater extent than shown previously. We thus investigated SWA power as well as slow wave oscillation (SWO) density in 10 sleepwalkers and nine controls at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. There was a significant increase in SWA during participants' recovery sleep, especially during their second non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period. SWO density was similarly increased during recovery sleep's first two NREM periods. A fronto-central gradient in SWA and SWO was also present on both nights. However, no group differences were noted on any of the 2 nights on SWA or SWO. This unexpected result may be related to the heterogeneity of sleepwalkers as a population, as well as our small sample size. SWA pressure after extended sleep deprivation may also result in a ceiling effect in both sleepwalkers and controls.

  7. Polygraphic Recording Procedure for Measuring Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yo; Takata, Yohko; Taguchi, Yujiro; Kohtoh, Sayaka; Urade, Yoshihiro; Lazarus, Michael

    2016-01-25

    Recording of the epidural electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in small animals, like mice and rats, has been pivotal to study the homeodynamics and circuitry of sleep-wake regulation. In many laboratories, a cable-based sleep recording system is used to monitor the EEG and EMG in freely behaving mice in combination with computer software for automatic scoring of the vigilance states on the basis of power spectrum analysis of EEG data. A description of this system is detailed herein. Steel screws are implanted over the frontal cortical area and the parietal area of 1 hemisphere for monitoring EEG signals. In addition, EMG activity is monitored by the bilateral placement of wires in both neck muscles. Non-rapid eye movement (Non-REM; NREM) sleep is characterized by large, slow brain waves with delta activity below 4 Hz in the EEG, whereas a shift from low-frequency delta activity to a rapid low-voltage EEG in the theta range between 6 and 10 Hz can be observed at the transition from NREM to REM sleep. By contrast, wakefulness is identified by low- to moderate-voltage brain waves in the EEG trace and significant EMG activity.

  8. Aging in mice reduces the ability to sustain sleep/wake states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu E Wimmer

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problems facing older individuals is difficulty staying asleep at night and awake during the day. Understanding the mechanisms by which the regulation of sleep/wake goes awry with age is a critical step in identifying novel therapeutic strategies to improve quality of life for the elderly. We measured wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in young (2-4 months-old and aged (22-24 months-old C57BL6/NIA mice. We used both conventional measures (i.e., bout number and bout duration and an innovative spike-and-slab statistical approach to characterize age-related fragmentation of sleep/wake. The short (spike and long (slab components of the spike-and-slab mixture model capture the distribution of bouts for each behavioral state in mice. Using this novel analytical approach, we found that aged animals are less able to sustain long episodes of wakefulness or NREM sleep. Additionally, spectral analysis of EEG recordings revealed that aging slows theta peak frequency, a correlate of arousal. These combined analyses provide a window into the mechanisms underlying the destabilization of long periods of sleep and wake and reduced vigilance that develop with aging.

  9. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  10. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirelli Chiara

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is regulated by both a circadian and a homeostatic process. The homeostatic process reflects the duration of prior wakefulness: the longer one stays awake, the longer and/or more intense is subsequent sleep. In mammals, the best marker of the homeostatic sleep drive is slow wave activity (SWA, the electroencephalographic (EEG power spectrum in the 0.5–4 Hz frequency range during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In mammals, NREM sleep SWA is high at sleep onset, when sleep pressure is high, and decreases progressively to reach low levels in late sleep. Moreover, SWA increases further with sleep deprivation, when sleep also becomes less fragmented (the duration of sleep episodes increases, and the number of brief awakenings decreases. Although avian and mammalian sleep share several features, the evidence of a clear homeostatic response to sleep loss has been conflicting in the few avian species studied so far. The aim of the current study was therefore to ascertain whether established markers of sleep homeostasis in mammals are also present in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, a migratory songbird of the order Passeriformes. To accomplish this goal, we investigated amount of sleep, sleep time course, and measures of sleep intensity in 6 birds during baseline sleep and during recovery sleep following 6 hours of sleep deprivation. Results Continuous (24 hours EEG and video recordings were used to measure baseline sleep and recovery sleep following short-term sleep deprivation. Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-sec epochs. EEG power spectra (0.5–25 Hz were calculated on consecutive 4-sec epochs. Four vigilance states were reliably distinguished based on behavior, visual inspection of the EEG, and spectral EEG analysis: Wakefulness (W, Drowsiness (D, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid-eye movement (REM sleep. During baseline, SWA during D, SWS, and NREM sleep (defined as D and SWS

  11. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-07-01

    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  12. Sleep EEG predictors and correlates of the response to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D; Edinger, Jack D

    2010-05-01

    Determine the relationship of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral measures and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in primary insomnia (PI). Patients with PI were randomly assigned to CBT or a placebo intervention (PC). Ambulatory polysomnography was performed before and after treatment. University medical center sleep laboratory. Thirty PI patients with sleep maintenance difficulty evident in subjective sleep measures. CBT and PC. CBT led to a more rapid decline in EEG delta power over the night, compared with PC. This change was associated with subjective improvement in response to CBT. Furthermore, lower pretreatment peak EEG delta power in the first NREM cycle and a more gradual decline in delta power predicted a better response to CBT. Increased wake time during the day produced by CBT was correlated with an increase in the steepness of the slope of EEG delta power and subjective improvement. Traditional polysomnography measures were associated with the subjective CBT response to a greater degree among patients whose total sleep time estimates better approximated polysomnography-derived total sleep time. In contrast, changes in all-night averaged NREM EEG spectral indices were more strongly related to subjective improvement in individuals who underestimated total sleep time to a greater extent. CBT led to a more rapid decline in EEG delta power over the night. This change is linked to the therapeutic effect of CBT, which appears to occur in conjunction with an increase in homeostatic sleep drive. Traditional polysomnography indices and all-night averaged NREM EEG measures appear to be related to subjective improvements with CBT in subsets of patients with PI.

  13. Cellular and neurochemical basis of sleep stages in the thalamocortical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P; Chauvette, Sylvain; Shamie, Isaac; Soltani, Sara; Timofeev, Igor; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings. We explained this discrepancy by the differences in the relative level of ACh. Overall, our study revealed the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms through which different neuromodulators acting in combination result in characteristic brain EEG rhythms and transitions between sleep stages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18607.001 PMID:27849520

  14. Overnight Changes in the Slope of Sleep Slow Waves during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattinger, Sara; Jenni, Oskar G.; Schmitt, Bernhard; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4.5 Hz) is a well-established marker for sleep pressure in adults. Recent studies have shown that increasing sleep pressure is reflected by an increased synchronized firing pattern of cortical neurons, which can be measured by the slope of sleep slow waves. Thus we aimed at investigating whether the slope of sleep slow waves might provide an alternative marker to study the homeostatic regulation of sleep during early human development. Design: All-night sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded longitudinally at 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after birth. Setting: Home recording. Patients or Participants: 11 healthy full-term infants (5 male, 6 female). Interventions: None Measurements and Results: The slope of sleep slow waves increased with age. At all ages the slope decreased from the first to the last hour of non rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, even when controlling for amplitude differences (P waves during infancy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):245-253. PMID:24497653

  15. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  16. Levels of Interference in Long and Short-Term Memory Differentially Modulate Non-REM and REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraize, Nicolas; Carponcy, Julien; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Salin, Paul-Antoine; Malleret, Gaël; Parmentier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information. We recorded sleep patterns of rats trained in a radial maze in three different tasks engaging either the long-term or short-term storage of information, as well as a gradual level of interference. We observed a transient increase in REMS amount on the day the animal learned the rule of a long-term/reference memory task (RM), and, in contrast, a positive correlation between the performance of rats trained in a WM task involving an important processing of interference and the amount of NREMS or slow wave activity. Various oscillatory events were also differentially modulated by the type of training involved. Notably, NREMS spindles and REMS rapid theta increase with RM training, while sharp-wave ripples increase with all types of training. These results suggest that REMS, but also rapid oscillations occurring during NREMS would be specifically implicated in the long-term memory in RM, whereas NREMS and slow oscillations could be involved in the forgetting of irrelevant information required for WM.

  17. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  18. Sleep and Endocrinology: Hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis and growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN is the primarily biological clock determining thecircadian rhythm. The neurons of the nucleus making this clock have inherent rhythmand set in biological day and night. These periods usually corresponds to day/night, andindirectly to sleep-wakefulness cycle, in most individuals. Retino-hypothalamic tractcarrying photic information from the retina provides the most important input tomaintain the inherent rhythm of the SCN. The rhythmic discharges from the SCN tovarious neurons of the central nervous system, including pineal gland andhypothalamus, translate into circadian rhythm characteristic of several hormones andmetabolites such as glucose. As a result there is a pattern of hormonal changesoccurring during cycle of sleep wakefulness. Most characteristic of these changes aresurge of melatonin with biological night, surge of growth hormone-releasing hormone(GHRHat onset of sleep and surge of corticotropin-releasinghormone(CRHduring late part of the sleep. The cause and effect relationship of the hypothalamicreleasing hormones and their target hormones on various phases of sleep includinginitial non rapid eye movement (NREM phase at onset of sleep, and rapid eyemovement (REM phase near awakening, is an upcoming research area. Sleepelectroencephalogram (EEG determining the onset of NREM and REM sleep is animportant tool complimenting the studies assessing relationship between varioushormones and phases of sleep. The slow wave activity (SWA corresponds to theintensity of sleep at its onset during the biological night of an individual. Besides,GHRH and CRH, several other peptide and steroid hormones such as growthhormone (GH, its secretagogues, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, estrogen anddehydroepiandrosterone sulfate are associated or have the potential to change phases ofsleep including initial slow wave-NREM sleep.

  19. The sleep EEG topography in children and adolescents shows sex differences in language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringli, Maya; Kurth, Salomé; Huber, Reto; Jenni, Oskar G

    2013-08-01

    The topographic distribution of slow wave activity (SWA, EEG power between 0.75 and 4.5 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was proposed to mirror cortical maturation with a typical age-related pattern. Here, we examined whether sex differences occur in SWA topography of children and adolescents (22 age-matched subjects, 11 boys, mean age 13.4 years, range: 8.7-19.4, and 11 girls, mean age 13.4 years, range: 9.1-19.0 years). In females, SWA during the first 60 min of NREM sleep was higher over bilateral cortical areas that are related to language functions, while in males SWA was increased over the right prefrontal cortex, a region also involved in spatial abilities. We conclude that cortical areas governing functions in which one sex outperforms the other exhibit increased sleep SWA and, thus, may indicate maturation of sex-specific brain function and higher cortical plasticity during development.

  20. Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sasaki

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurons expressing neuropeptide orexins are critically involved in the control of sleep and wakefulness. Although the activity of orexin neurons is thought to be influenced by various neuronal input as well as humoral factors, the direct consequences of changes in the activity of these neurons in an intact animal are largely unknown. We therefore examined the effects of orexin neuron-specific pharmacogenetic modulation in vivo by a new method called the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs approach (DREADD. Using this system, we successfully activated and suppressed orexin neurons as measured by Fos staining. EEG and EMG recordings suggested that excitation of orexin neurons significantly increased the amount of time spent in wakefulness and decreased both non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapid eye movement (REM sleep times. Inhibition of orexin neurons decreased wakefulness time and increased NREM sleep time. These findings clearly show that changes in the activity of orexin neurons can alter the behavioral state of animals and also validate this novel approach for manipulating neuronal activity in awake, freely-moving animals.

  1. Sleep and cognition at baseline and the effects of REM sleep diminution after 1 week of antidepressive treatment in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göder, Robert; Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen; Stingele, Karoline; Huchzermeier, Christian; Kropp, Cornelia; Palaschewski, Milena; Aldenhoff, Josef; Koch, Jakob

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is particularly important in promoting procedural learning. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pharmacological REM sleep suppression on performance in different neuropsychological tasks. For our baseline, we chose 41 moderately depressed patients (age range 19-44 years), who were not taking antidepressants. In the morning after polysomnography, we tested memory recall and cognitive flexibility by assessment of verbal and figural fluency, a shift of attention task and the Trail Making Test B. After recording baseline values, patients were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: medication with citalopram; medication with reboxetine; or exclusive treatment with psychotherapy. Retesting took place 1 week after onset of treatment. The main results were: (1) an association of slow-wave sleep with verbal memory performance at baseline; (2) a suppression of REM sleep in patients taking citalopram and reboxetine; (3) no differences regarding neuropsychological performance within the treatment groups; and (4) no association of REM sleep diminution with decreases in memory performance or cognitive flexibility in patients treated with citalopram or reboxetine. In line with other studies, our results suggest that there are no negative effects of a decrease in REM sleep on memory performance in patients taking antidepressants.

  2. Non-linear recurrence analysis of NREM human sleep microstructure discloses deterministic oscillation patterns related to sleep stage transitions and sleep maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priano, L; Saccomandi, F; Mauro, A; Guiot, C

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is a dynamic process aimed at obtaining the required neurophysiological states at certain times, according to circadian and homeostatic needs and despite external or internal interfering stimuli. In this context, peculiar transient synchronized EEG patterns (TSEP) are supposed to play the main role in the building up of EEG synchronization and in the flexible adaptation against perturbations Our study aimed at disclosing and quantifying attractor driven, hidden periodicity or, conversely, chaotic oscillation patterns in the series of these TSEP related to sleep stage transitions and sleep maintenance. At first we devised a multistep algorithm, able to capture TSEP from EEG during sleep in 10 healthy volunteers. The time series of TSEP were then analyzed according to the Recurrence Plot (RP). TSEP series showed to form a pseudo-periodic series which becomes progressively denser and more stable until steady slow wave NREM sleep is reached, but looses stability just before REM sleep starts. This suggests that deterministic oscillatory patterns maybe adequate descriptors of the balance between homeostatic needs for NREM sleep and REM sleep pressure, supported by different cortical neuronal populations interactions.

  3. Deficiency of FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51 alters sleep architecture and recovery sleep responses to stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Stefana; Romanowski, Christoph P N; Letizia Curzi, M; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Gassen, Nils C; Hartmann, Jakob; Schmidt, Mathias V; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Hausch, Felix; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Kimura, Mayumi

    2014-04-01

    FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, functionally linked to its activity via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Thus, FKBP51 plays an important regulatory role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis necessary for stress adaptation and recovery. Previous investigations illustrated that HPA functionality is influenced by polymorphisms in the gene encoding FKBP51, which are associated with both increased protein levels and depressive episodes. Because FKBP51 is a key molecule in stress responses, we hypothesized that its deletion impacts sleep. To study FKBP51-involved changes in sleep, polysomnograms of FKBP51 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were compared at baseline and in the recovery phase after 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) and 1-h restraint stress (RS). Using another set of animals, the 24-h profiles of hippocampal free corticosterone levels were also determined. The most dominant effect of FKBP51 deletion appeared as increased nocturnal wake, where the bout length was significantly extended while non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep were rather suppressed. After both SD and RS, FKBP51KO mice exhibited less recovery or rebound sleep than WTs, although slow-wave activity during NREMS was higher in KOs, particularly after SD. Sleep compositions of KOs were nearly opposite to sleep profiles observed in human depression. This might result from lower levels of free corticosterone in FKBP51KO mice, confirming reduced HPA reactivity. The results indicate that an FKBP51 deletion yields a pro-resilience sleep phenotype. FKBP51 could therefore be a therapeutic target for stress-induced mood and sleep disorders.

  4. The Neuronal Transition Probability (NTP) Model for the Dynamic Progression of Non-REM Sleep EEG: The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Merica, H

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has gone into linking to its neuronal substrates the dynamic structure of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, defined as the pattern of time-course power in all frequency bands across an entire episode. Using the spectral power time-courses in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), we showed in the typical first episode, several moves towards-and-away from deep sleep, each having an identical pattern linking the major frequency bands beta, sigma and delta. The neuronal transition probability model (NTP) - in fitting the data well - successfully explained the pattern as resulting from stochastic transitions of the firing-rates of the thalamically-projecting brainstem-activating neurons, alternating between two steady dynamic-states (towards-and-away from deep sleep) each initiated by a so-far unidentified flip-flop. The aims here are to identify this flip-flop and to demonstrate that the model fits well all NREM episodes, not just the first. Using published data on suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN...

  5. Sleep in children with autism with and without autistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Cerquiglini, Antonella; Vagnoni, Cristina; Valente, Donatella

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize and compare traditional sleep architecture and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep microstructure in a well-defined cohort of children with regressive and non-regressive autism, and in typically developing children (TD). We hypothesized that children with regressive autism would demonstrate a greater degree of sleep disruption either at a macrostructural or microstructural level and a more problematic sleep as reported by parents. Twenty-two children with non-regressive autism, 18 with regressive autism without comorbid pathologies and 12 with TD, aged 5-10years, underwent standard overnight multi-channel polysomnographic evaluation. Parents completed a structured questionnaire (Childrens' Sleep Habits Questionnaire-CSHQ). The initial hypothesis, that regressed children have more disrupted sleep, was supported by our findings that they scored significantly higher on CSHQ, particularly on bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration and night wakings CSHQ subdomains than non-regressed peers, and both scored more than typically developing controls. Regressive subjects had significantly less efficient sleep, less total sleep time, prolonged sleep latency, prolonged REM latency and more time awake after sleep onset than non-regressive children and the TD group. Regressive children showed lower cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) rates and A1 index in light sleep than non-regressive and TD children. Our findings suggest that, even though no particular differences in sleep architecture were found between the two groups of children with autism, those who experienced regression showed more sleep disorders and a disruption of sleep either from a macro- or from a microstructural viewpoint. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Sleep phenotyping in a mouse model of extreme trait anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimira Jakubcakova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that anxiety impairs sleep. However, due to high sleep variability in anxiety disorders, it has been difficult to state particular changes in sleep parameters caused by anxiety. Sleep profiling in an animal model with extremely high vs. low levels of trait anxiety might serve to further define sleep patterns associated with this psychopathology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sleep-wake behavior in mouse lines with high (HAB, low (LAB and normal (NAB anxiety-related behaviors was monitored for 24 h during baseline and recovery after 6 h sleep deprivation (SD. The amounts of each vigilance state, sleep architecture, and EEG spectral variations were compared between the mouse lines. In comparison to NAB mice, HAB mice slept more and exhibited consistently increased delta power during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Their sleep patterns were characterized by heavy fragmentation, reduced maintenance of wakefulness, and frequent intrusions of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In contrast, LAB mice showed a robust sleep-wake rhythm with remarkably prolonged sleep latency and a long, persistent period of wakefulness. In addition, the accumulation of delta power after SD was impaired in the LAB line, as compared to HAB mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Sleep-wake patterns were significantly different between HAB and LAB mice, indicating that the genetic predisposition to extremes in trait anxiety leaves a biological scar on sleep quality. The enhanced sleep demand observed in HAB mice, with a strong drive toward REM sleep, may resemble a unique phenotype reflecting not only elevated anxiety but also a depression-like attribute.

  7. Sleep-Wake Cycle Dysfunction in the TgCRND8 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: From Early to Advanced Pathological Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Colby-Milley

    Full Text Available In addition to cognitive decline, individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD can experience important neuropsychiatric symptoms including sleep disturbances. We characterized the sleep-wake cycle in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD, which overexpresses a mutant human form of amyloid precursor protein resulting in high levels of β-amyloid and plaque formation by 3 months of age. Polysomnographic recordings in freely-moving mice were conducted to study sleep-wake cycle architecture at 3, 7 and 11 months of age and corresponding levels of β-amyloid in brain regions regulating sleep-wake states were measured. At all ages, TgCRND8 mice showed increased wakefulness and reduced non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep during the resting and active phases. Increased wakefulness in TgCRND8 mice was accompanied by a shift in the waking power spectrum towards fast frequency oscillations in the beta (14-20 Hz and low gamma range (20-50 Hz. Given the phenotype of hyperarousal observed in TgCRND8 mice, the role of noradrenergic transmission in the promotion of arousal, and previous work reporting an early disruption of the noradrenergic system in TgCRND8, we tested the effects of the alpha-1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, on sleep-wake patterns in TgCRND8 and non-transgenic (NTg mice. We found that a lower dose (2 mg/kg of prazosin increased NREM sleep in NTg but not in TgCRND8 mice, whereas a higher dose (5 mg/kg increased NREM sleep in both genotypes, suggesting altered sensitivity to noradrenergic blockade in TgCRND8 mice. Collectively our results demonstrate that amyloidosis in TgCRND8 mice is associated with sleep-wake cycle dysfunction, characterized by hyperarousal, validating this model as a tool towards understanding the relationship between β-amyloid overproduction and disrupted sleep-wake patterns in AD.

  8. Changes in cerebral he modynamics during NREM sleep in healthy children%儿童非快速动眼睡眠相脑血流动力学改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭炳蔚; 李嘉铃; 梁秀琼; 郑志英; 麦坚凝

    2015-01-01

    内变异采用多变量的 Hotelling T2检验,以 P <0.05判为有统计学差异。再应用 LSD 法进行两两比较。结果每条血管的各参数值分布与年龄和性别无关。在 MCA 和 PCA,浅睡期收缩期和舒张期血流速度均明显高于清醒期和深睡期,深睡期和唤醒期的 PI 和 RI 明显高于浅睡期和清醒期。随脑电图同步的唤醒节律出现,唤醒期的收缩期和舒张期血流速度最低,同时 PI /RI 升高。而在 PCA,除了在深睡期收缩期血流速度减慢外,其它状态下的血流速度和 PI、RI 均无明显变化。结论我们研究的新发现证明了 TCD 能够很好的显示在睡眠期的血管神经藕联,特别对于剥夺睡眠后 NREM相的血流变化机制进行了很好的解释,这将促进今后对于发作间期放电下睡眠的生理机制进一步深入研究。%Objective To investigate cerebral hemodynamic changes during non-rapid eye movement(NREM)sleep following sleep deprivation in healthy children.Methods Thirty-two children with normal intelligence(full-scale intelligence quotient >80),5 ~14 years of age,were enrolled.Electroencephalograms(EEGs)were within the normal range.Each subject was deprived of routine night sleep then examined in the spontaneous sleep during daytime.Awake and sleep stages were evaluated u-sing EEGs according to Rechtschaffen and Kales.Each subject was woken up in stage IV sleep.Stable transcranial Doppler ultra-sonography(TCD)tracings through the temporal bone window were recorded for at least 30 seconds(s)per stage except the awak-en stage(only the left middle cerebral artery(LMCA)was examined because of twinkling moment).The mean systolic cerebral blood flow velocity(sCBFV),diastolic CBFV(dCBFV),pulsatility index(PI),and resistance index(RI)of each artery were ana-lyzed for 30 s per stage.Multivariant analysis of variance(MANOVA)was conducted to compare hemodynamic parameters in wa-king versus light sleep,deep sleep,and awaken stages.Results NREM sleep in

  9. Sleep quality alterations in healthy workers at high altitude in Yushu area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Li Wenxiang; Zhang Jianqing; Qi Shengui; Hao Lijuan; Wen Jialin

    2013-01-01

    During the period of reconstruction after Yushu Earthquake,a large number of sea-level or lowland workers ascended there and worked at altitudes between 3750 m and 4878 m which is a hypoxic environment.To investigate the sleep quality at that altitude,we performed two full polysomnographies (PSGs) in 10 volunteers,who were healthy male workers,aged 31±6.6,born and living at sea level,without experience of pre-altitude exposure.The assessment of subjective sleep quality was performed twice in each volunteer.The first investigations were carried out at sea level in Jinan city (pB=760 torr,1 torr=133.322 4 Pa).The second studies were performed at an altitude of 3750 m (pB=416 tonr) in Yushu Jiegu in the same 10 workers after they lived and worked at that altitude for 5 months.At sea level,workers presented a normal sleep structure and a higher oxygenation during sleep.However,as compared to sea-level sleep,at 3750 m,workers had a shorter total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.001),a longer stage 1 non-rapid eye movement (nREM) sleep (p < 0.05) and a shorter 3+4 nREM and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (p < 0.05) with a severe sleep hypoxemia (p < 0.01).Our data suggested that sea-level workers revealed a disturbed sleep and a bad sleep quality with a significant sleep hypoxemia at altitude of 3750 m.Strengthening the prevention and treatment are thereby sorely necessary.

  10. Long-term history and immediate preceding state affect EEG slow wave characteristics at NREM sleep onset in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, N; Mckillop, L E; Fisher, S P; Oliver, P L; Vyazovskiy, V V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of cortical activity across the 24-h day and at vigilance state transitions is regulated by an interaction between global subcortical neuromodulatory influences and local shifts in network synchrony and excitability. To address the role of long-term and immediate preceding history in local and global cortical dynamics, we investigated cortical EEG recorded from both frontal and occipital regions during an undisturbed 24-h recording in mice. As expected, at the beginning of the light period, under physiologically increased sleep pressure, EEG slow waves were more frequent and had higher amplitude and slopes, compared to the rest of the light period. Within discrete NREM sleep episodes, the incidence, amplitude and slopes of individual slow waves increased progressively after episode onset in both derivations by approximately 10-30%. Interestingly, at the beginning of NREM sleep episodes slow waves in the frontal and occipital derivations frequently occurred in isolation, as quantified by longer latencies between consecutive slow waves in the two regions. Notably, slow waves during the initial period of NREM sleep following REM sleep episodes were significantly less frequent, lower in amplitude and exhibited shallower slopes, compared to those that occurred in NREM episodes after prolonged waking. Moreover, the latencies between consecutive frontal and occipital NREM slow waves were substantially longer when they occurred directly after REM sleep compared to following consolidated wakefulness. Overall these data reveal a complex picture, where both time of day and preceding state contribute to the characteristics and dynamics of slow waves within NREM sleep. These findings suggest that NREM sleep initiates in a more "local" fashion when it occurs following REM sleep episodes as opposed to sustained waking bouts. While the mechanisms and functional significance of such a re-setting of brain state after individual REM sleep episodes remains to be

  11. State-dependent alterations in sleep/wake architecture elicited by the M4 PAM VU0467154 - Relation to antipsychotic-like drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Gong, Xuewen; Tsai, Erica; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wood, Michael R; Duggan, Mark E; Brandon, Nicholas J; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Ivarsson, Magnus; Noetzel, Meredith J; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates direct relationships between sleep abnormalities and the severity and prevalence of other symptom clusters in schizophrenia. Assessment of potential state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal relative to antipsychotic-like activity is critical for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Recently, we reported that VU0467154, a selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), exhibits robust APD-like and cognitive enhancing activity in rodents. However, the state-dependent effects of VU0467154 on sleep architecture and arousal have not been examined. Using polysomnography and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings from subcranial electrodes in rats, we evaluated the effects of VU0467154, in comparison with the atypical APD clozapine and the M1/M4-preferring mAChR agonist xanomeline. VU0467154 induced state-dependent alterations in sleep architecture and arousal including delayed Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep onset, increased cumulative duration of total and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, and increased arousal during waking periods. Clozapine decreased arousal during wake, increased cumulative NREM, and decreased REM sleep. In contrast, xanomeline increased time awake and arousal during wake, but reduced slow wave activity during NREM sleep. Additionally, in combination with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801, modeling NMDAR hypofunction thought to underlie many symptoms in schizophrenia, both VU0467154 and clozapine attenuated MK-801-induced elevations in high frequency gamma power consistent with an APD-like mechanism of action. These findings suggest that selective M4 PAMs may represent a novel mechanism for treating multiple symptoms of schizophrenia, including disruptions in sleep architecture without a sedative profile.

  12. [Pathophysiology of NREM parasomnias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Parasomnias are physical, behavioral and experiental phenomena ocurring during entry or along the sleep or on arousal/awakening. The behavior includes movements, emotional, perceptual or dreaming experience, frequently containing manifestations of autonomic nervous system. Parasomnias are devided into primary (ocurring etiher in NREM or REM sleep) and secondary (following organic system disease manifested during sleep). Primary parasomnias are further devided into those that appear during NREM, REM or states of consciousnes that do not respect boundaries between wake and sleep. Parasomnias represent an example of "dissocitaion of sleep stages" with the overlaping of wakefulness and NREM sleep (confusional arousals, somnambulism and night terrors) or wake and REM sleep (REM sleep behavior disorder parasomnia). NREM parasomnias are a significant clinical problem that appears with functional reorganization of the brain as it transits throuh different states of consciousness. Aside from the above dissociation there are other physiological phenomena that render behavior more complex during sleep such as 1) activation of locomotor centers during sleep, 2) sleep intertia (confusion and desorientation during transition from sleep to wakefulness) and 3) instability of sleep stages (rapid oscilation(s) between seleep and wake).

  13. The effects of trazodone with L-tryptophan on sleep-disordered breathing in the English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, S C; Fenik, P; Panckeri, K; Pack, A I; Hendricks, J C

    1999-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a prevalent disorder, for which there are no universally effective pharmacotherapeutics. We hypothesized that in OSAHS, excitatory serotoninergic influences are important for maintaining patency of the upper airway in waking, and that in sleep, reduced serotoninergic drive plays a significant role in upper airway collapse and OSAHS. The previously reported small responses in humans with OSAHS to serotoninergics may relate, in part, to study design and the drugs/doses selected. We therefore performed multitrials/dose, multidose, randomized sleep studies testing the effectiveness of a combination of serotoninergics, trazodone, and L-tryptophan, in our animal model of OSAHS, the English bulldog. Trazodone/L-tryptophan caused dose-dependent reductions in respiratory events in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). During NREMS, the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) +/- standard error was 6.3 +/- 1.4 events/h (placebo) and 0.9 +/- 0.3 (highest dose), p < 0.01. During REMS, the RDI was 31.4 +/- 6.1 events/h (placebo) and 11.5 +/- 4.3 (highest dose), p = 0.002. Trazodone/ L-tryptophan dose-dependently reduced sleep fragmentation, p = 0.03, increased sleep efficiency, p = 0.005, enhanced slow-wave sleep, p = 0.0004, and minimized sleep-related suppression of upper airway dilator activity, p < 0.02. Trazodone with L-tryptophan can treat sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in an animal model of OSAHS; the effectiveness of this therapy may be related to increased upper airway dilator activity in sleep and/or enhanced slow-wave sleep.

  14. CHOLINERGIC NEURONS OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN MEDIATE BIOCHEMICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; McCarley, Robert W.; Basheer, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The tight coordination of biochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlies the homeostatic sleep pressure (HSP) produced by sleep deprivation (SD). We have reported that during SD the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), extracellular nitric oxide (NO), adenosine [AD]ex, lactate [Lac]ex and pyruvate [Pyr]ex increase in the basal forebrain (BF). However, it is not clear whether all of them contribute to HSP leading to increased electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) recovery sleep (RS) following SD. Previously, we showed that NREM delta increase evident during RS depends on the presence of BF cholinergic (ChBF) neurons. Here, we investigated the role of ChBF cells in coordination of biochemical and EEG changes seen during SD and RS in the rat. Increases in low theta power (5–7Hz), but not high theta (7–9Hz), during SD correlated with the increase in NREM delta power during RS, and with the changes in nitrate/nitrite [NOx]ex and [AD]ex. Lesions of ChBF cells using IgG 192-saporin prevented increases in [NOx]ex, [AD]ex and low theta activity, during SD, but did not prevent increases in [Lac]ex and [Pyr]ex. Infusion of NO donor DETA NONOate into the saporin-treated BF failed to increase NREM RS and delta power, suggesting ChBF cells are important for mediating NO homeostatic effects. Finally, SD-induced iNOS was mostly expressed in ChBF cells, and the intensity of iNOS induction correlated with the increase in low theta activity. Together, our data indicate ChBF cells are important in regulating the biochemical and EEG mechanisms that contribute to HSP. PMID:25369989

  15. Daytime sleep enhances consolidation of the spatial but not motoric representation of motor sequence memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Albouy

    Full Text Available Motor sequence learning is known to rely on more than a single process. As the skill develops with practice, two different representations of the sequence are formed: a goal representation built under spatial allocentric coordinates and a movement representation mediated through egocentric motor coordinates. This study aimed to explore the influence of daytime sleep (nap on consolidation of these two representations. Through the manipulation of an explicit finger sequence learning task and a transfer protocol, we show that both allocentric (spatial and egocentric (motor representations of the sequence can be isolated after initial training. Our results also demonstrate that nap favors the emergence of offline gains in performance for the allocentric, but not the egocentric representation, even after accounting for fatigue effects. Furthermore, sleep-dependent gains in performance observed for the allocentric representation are correlated with spindle density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep of the post-training nap. In contrast, performance on the egocentric representation is only maintained, but not improved, regardless of the sleep/wake condition. These results suggest that motor sequence memory acquisition and consolidation involve distinct mechanisms that rely on sleep (and specifically, spindle or simple passage of time, depending respectively on whether the sequence is performed under allocentric or egocentric coordinates.

  16. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  17. Baclofen and gamma-hydroxybutyrate differentially altered behavior, EEG activity and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodor, A; Palchykova, S; Gao, B; Bassetti, C L

    2015-01-22

    Animal and human studies have shown that sleep may have an impact on functional recovery after brain damage. Baclofen (Bac) and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) have been shown to induce physiological sleep in humans, however, their effects in rodents are unclear. The aim of this study is to characterize sleep and electroencelphalogram (EEG) after Bac and GHB administration in rats. We hypothesized that both drugs would induce physiological sleep. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EEG/electromyogram (EMG) electrodes for sleep recordings. Bac (10 or 20 mg/kg), GHB (150 or 300 mg/kg) or saline were injected 1 h after light and dark onset to evaluate time of day effect of the drugs. Vigilance states and EEG spectra were quantified. Bac and GHB induced a non-physiological state characterized by atypical behavior and an abnormal EEG pattern. After termination of this state, Bac was found to increase the duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (∼90 and 10 min, respectively), reduce sleep fragmentation and affect NREM sleep episode frequency and duration (psleep in the frequencies 1.5-6.5 and 9.5-21.5 Hz compared to saline (psleep was enhanced 1.5-3-fold during the first 1-2 h following termination of the non-physiological state. The magnitude of drug effects was stronger during the dark phase. While both Bac and GHB induced a non-physiological resting state, only Bac facilitated and consolidated sleep, and promoted EEG delta oscillations thereafter. Hence, Bac can be considered a sleep-promoting drug and its effects on functional recovery after stroke can be evaluated both in humans and rats. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. RESULTS: Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01 accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS: Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing in unilateral diaphragm paralysis or severe weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, J; Jolley, C J; Seymour, J; Kaul, S; Luo, Y M; Rafferty, G F; Hart, N; Polkey, M I; Moxham, J

    2008-12-01

    Few data exist concerning sleep in patients with hemidiaphragm paralysis or weakness. Traditionally, such patients are considered to sustain normal ventilation in sleep. In the present study, diaphragm strength was measured in order to identify patients with unilateral paralysis or severe weakness. Patients underwent polysomnography with additional recordings of the transoesophageal electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm and surface EMG of extra-diaphragmatic respiratory muscles. These data were compared with 11 normal, healthy subjects matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). In total, 11 patients (six males, mean+/-sd age 56.5+/-10.0 yrs, BMI 28.7+/-2.8 kg x m(-2)) with hemidiaphragm paralysis or severe weakness (unilateral twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure 3.3+/-1.7 cmH(2)O (0.33+/-0.17 kPa) were studied. They had a mean+/-sd respiratory disturbance index of 8.1+/-10.1 events x h(-1) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and 26.0+/-17.8 events x h(-1) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (control groups 0.4+/-0.4 and 0.7+/-0.9 events x h(-1), respectively). The diaphragm EMG, as a percentage of maximum, was double that of the control group in NREM sleep (15.3+/-5.3 versus 8.9+/-4.9% max, respectively) and increased in REM sleep (20.0+/-6.9% max), while normal subjects sustained the same level of activation (6.2+/-3.1% max). Patients with unilateral diaphragm dysfunction are at risk of developing sleep-disordered breathing during rapid eye movement sleep. The diaphragm electromyogram, reflecting neural respiratory drive, is doubled in patients compared with normal subjects, and increases further in rapid eye movement sleep.

  20. The Role of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons in Adenosine-Mediated Homeostatic Control of Sleep: Lessons from 192 IgG-Saporin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; McCarley, Robert W.; Stenberg, Dag; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Basheer, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    A topic of high current interest and controversy is the basis of the homeostatic sleep response, the increase in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and NREM-delta activity following sleep deprivation (SD). Adenosine, which accumulates in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during SD, has been proposed as one of the important homeostatic sleep factors. It is suggested that sleep-inducing effects of adenosine are mediated by inhibiting the wake-active neurons of the BF, including cholinergic neurons. Here we examined the association between SD-induced adenosine release, the homeostatic sleep response and the survival of cholinergic neurons in the BF after injections of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (saporin) in rodents. We correlated SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and the homeostatic sleep response with the cholinergic cell loss 2 weeks after local saporin injections into the BF, as well as 2 and 3 weeks after intracerebroventricular (ICV) saporin injections. Two weeks after local saporin injection there was an 88% cholinergic cell loss, coupled with nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF, the homeostatic sleep response, and the sleep-inducing effects of BF adenosine infusion. Two weeks after ICV saporin injection there was a 59% cholinergic cell loss, correlated with significant increase in SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and an intact sleep response. Three weeks after ICV saporin injection there was an 87% cholinergic cell loss, nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF and the homeostatic response, implying that the time course of ICV saporin lesions is a key variable in interpreting experimental results. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cholinergic neurons in the BF are important for the SD-induced increase in adenosine as well as for its sleep-inducing effects and play a major, although not exclusive, role in sleep homeostasis. PMID:18805464

  1. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen;

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...... in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels. METHODS: Lumbar CSF and plasma were collected from 07:00 to 10:00 from 57 patients with narcolepsy (subtypes: 47 NT1; 10 NT2) diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition...

  2. Effects of gabapentin on brain hyperactivity related to pain and sleep disturbance under a neuropathic pain-like state using fMRI and brain wave analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Akira; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Furuya, Masaharu; Yanase, Makoto; Niikura, Keiichi; Imai, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Noboru; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsukiyama, Yoshi; Senba, Emiko; Matoba, Motohiro; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2011-07-01

    Neuropathic pain is the most difficult pain to manage in the pain clinic, and sleep problems are common among patients with chronic pain including neuropathic pain. In the present study, we tried to visualize the intensity of pain by assessing neuronal activity and investigated sleep disturbance under a neuropathic pain-like state in mice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG), respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of gabapentin (GBP) on these phenomena. In a model of neuropathic pain, sciatic nerve ligation caused a marked decrease in the latency of paw withdrawal in response to a thermal stimulus only on the ipsilateral side. Under this condition, fMRI showed that sciatic nerve ligation produced a significant increase in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in the pain matrix, which was significantly decreased 2 h after the i.p. injection of GBP. Based on the results of an EEG/EMG analysis, sciatic nerve-ligated animals showed a statistically significant increase in wakefulness and a decrease in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the light phase, and the sleep disturbance was almost completely alleviated by a higher dose of GBP in nerve-ligated mice. These findings suggest that neuropathic pain associated with sleep disturbance can be objectively assessed by fMRI and EEG/EMG analysis in animal models. Furthermore, GBP may improve the quality of sleep as well as control pain in patients with neuropathic pain.

  3. The relationships between memory systems and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis

    2005-06-01

    Sleep function remains elusive despite our rapidly increasing comprehension of the processes generating and maintaining the different sleep stages. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that sleep is involved in the off-line reprocessing of recently-acquired memories. In this review, we summarize the main results obtained in the field of sleep and memory consolidation in both animals and humans, and try to connect sleep stages with the different memory systems. To this end, we have collated data obtained using several methodological approaches, including electrophysiological recordings of neuronal ensembles, post-training modifications of sleep architecture, sleep deprivation and functional neuroimaging studies. Broadly speaking, all the various studies emphasize the fact that the four long-term memory systems (procedural memory, perceptual representation system, semantic and episodic memory, according to Tulving's SPI model; Tulving, 1995) benefit either from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (not just SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, or from both sleep stages. Tulving's classification of memory systems appears more pertinent than the declarative/non-declarative dichotomy when it comes to understanding the role of sleep in memory. Indeed, this model allows us to resolve several contradictions, notably the fact that episodic and semantic memory (the two memory systems encompassed in declarative memory) appear to rely on different sleep stages. Likewise, this model provides an explanation for why the acquisition of various types of skills (perceptual-motor, sensory-perceptual and cognitive skills) and priming effects, subserved by different brain structures but all designated by the generic term of implicit or non-declarative memory, may not benefit from the same sleep stages.

  4. Effect of dopamine D4 receptor agonists on sleep architecture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shunsuke; Nakamichi, Keiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ichihara, Junji

    2015-12-03

    Dopamine plays a key role in the regulation of sleep-wake states, as revealed by the observation that dopamine-releasing agents such as methylphenidate have wake-promoting effects. However, the precise mechanisms for the wake-promoting effect produced by the enhancement of dopamine transmission are not fully understood. Although dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors are known to have differential effects on sleep architecture, the role of D4 receptors (D4Rs), and particularly the influence of D4R activation on the sleep-wake state, has not been studied so far. In this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of two structurally different D4R agonists, Ro 10-5824 and A-412997, on the sleep-wake states in rats. We found that both D4R agonists generally increased waking duration, and conversely, reduced non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep duration in rats. The onset of NREM sleep was also generally delayed. However, only the A-412997 agonist (but not the Ro 10-5824) influenced rapid eye movement sleep onset and duration. Furthermore, these effects were accompanied with an enhancement of EEG spectral power in the theta and the gamma bands. Our results suggest the involvement of dopamine D4R in the regulation of sleep-wake states. The activation of the D4R could enhance the arousal states as revealed by the behavioral and electrophysiological patterns in this study. Dopamine D4R may contribute to the arousal effects of dopamine-releasing agents such as methylphenidate.

  5. Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Alejandra; Armony, Jorge L; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Trejo-Martínez, David; Conde, Ruben; Corsi-Cabrera, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

  6. Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Alejandra; Armony, Jorge L.; del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Trejo-Martínez, David; Conde, Ruben; Corsi-Cabrera, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D) on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or non-rapid eye movement sleep interruptions (NREM-I) as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 h after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline (BL) in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was, as expected, an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group when subjects performed the task the second time, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their BL level. Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness. PMID:22719723

  7. Wake and Sleep EEG in Patients With Huntington Disease: An eLORETA Study and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Carla; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Losurdo, Anna; Calandra Buonaura, Giovanna; Imperatori, Claudio; Cortelli, Pietro; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the EEG modifications in patients with Huntington disease (HD) compared with controls, by means of the exact LOw REsolution Tomography (eLORETA) software. We evaluated EEG changes during wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Moreover, we reviewed the literature concerning EEG modifications in HD. Twenty-three consecutive adult patients affected by HD were enrolled, 14 women and 9 men, mean age was 57.0 ± 12.4 years. Control subjects were healthy volunteers (mean age 58.2 ± 14.6 years). EEG and polygraphic recordings were performed during wake (before sleep) and during sleep. Sources of EEG activities were determined using the eLORETA software. In wake EEG, significant differences between patients and controls were detected in the delta frequency band (threshold T = ±4.606; P < .01) in the Brodmann areas (BAs) 3, 4, and 6 bilaterally. In NREM sleep, HD patients showed increased alpha power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in BAs 4 and 6 bilaterally; decreased theta power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in the BAs 23, 29, and 30; and decreased beta power (T = ±4.516; P < .01) in the left BA 30. During REM, HD patients presented decreased theta and alpha power (threshold T = ±4.640; P < .01) in the BAs 23, 29, 30, and 31 bilaterally. In conclusion, EEG data suggest a motor cortex dysfunction during wake and sleep in HD patients, which correlates with the clinical and polysomnographic evidence of increased motor activity during wake and NREM, and nearly absent motor abnormalities in REM. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  8. Connectivity measures in EEG microstructural sleep elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris eSakellariou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep (NREM the brain is relatively disconnected from the environment, while connectedness between brain areas is also decreased. Evidence indicates that these dynamic connectivity changes are delivered by microstructural elements of sleep: short periods of environmental stimuli evaluation followed by sleep promoting procedures. The connectivity patterns of the latter, among other aspects of sleep microstructure, are still to be fully elucidated.We suggest here a methodology for the assessment and investigation of the connectivity patterns of EEG microstructural elements, such as sleep spindles. The methodology combines techniques in the preprocessing, estimation, error assessing and visualization of results levels in order to allow the detailed examination of the connectivity aspects (levels and directionality of information flow over frequency and time with notable resolution, while dealing with the volume conduction and EEG reference assessment. The high temporal and frequency resolution of the methodology will allow the association between the microelements and the dynamically forming networks that characterise them, and consequently possibly reveal aspects of the EEG microstructure. The proposed methodology is initially tested on artificially generated signals for proof of concept and subsequently applied to real EEG recordings via a custom built MATLAB-based tool developed for such studies. Preliminary results from 843 fast sleep spindles recorded in whole night sleep of 5 healthy volunteers indicate a prevailing pattern of interactions between centroparietal and frontal regions.We demonstrate hereby an opening to our knowledge attempt to estimate the scalp EEG connectivity that characterizes fast sleep spindles via an EEG-element connectivity methodology we propose. The application of the latter, via a computational tool we developed suggests it is able to investigate the connectivity patterns related to the

  9. Effects of i.c.v. administration of interleukin-1 on sleep and body temperature of interleukin-6-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivadoti, M D; Opp, M R

    2008-04-22

    Cytokines in brain contribute to the regulation of physiological processes and complex behavior, including sleep. The cytokines that have been most extensively studied with respect to sleep are interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Administration of these cytokines into laboratory animals, or in some cases into healthy human volunteers, increases the amount of time spent in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Although antagonizing the IL-1 or TNF systems reduces the amount of time laboratory animals spend in NREM sleep, interactions among these three cytokine systems as they pertain to the regulation of physiological NREM sleep are not well understood. To further elucidate mechanisms in brain by which IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and/or IL-6 contribute to NREM sleep regulation, we injected recombinant murine interleukin-1beta (muIL-1beta) into C57BL/6J mice and into IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6 knockout, KO). IL-6 KO (B6.129S6-Il6(tm1Kopf); n=13) and C57BL/6J mice (n=14) were implanted with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) and core body temperature, as well as with indwelling guide cannulae targeted to one of the lateral ventricles. After recovery and habituation, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly just prior to dark onset on different days with either 0.5 microl vehicle (pyrogen-free saline; PFS) or with 0.5 microl PFS containing one of four doses of muIL-1beta (2.5 ng, 5 ng, 10 ng, 50 ng). No mouse received more than two doses of muIL-1beta, and administration of muIL-1beta doses was counter-balanced to eliminate potential order effects. Sleep-wake behavior was determined for 24 h after injections. i.c.v. administration of muIL-1beta increased in NREM sleep of both mouse strains in a dose-related fashion, but the maximal increase was of greater magnitude in C57Bl/6J mice. muIL-1beta induced fever in C57Bl/6J mice but not in IL-6 KO mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate IL-6 is necessary for IL-1 to induce

  10. Auditory responses and stimulus-specific adaptation in rat auditory cortex are preserved across NREM and REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Cirelli, Chiara; Banks, Matthew I; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    Sleep entails a disconnection from the external environment. By and large, sensory stimuli do not trigger behavioral responses and are not consciously perceived as they usually are in wakefulness. Traditionally, sleep disconnection was ascribed to a thalamic "gate," which would prevent signal propagation along ascending sensory pathways to primary cortical areas. Here, we compared single-unit and LFP responses in core auditory cortex as freely moving rats spontaneously switched between wakefulness and sleep states. Despite robust differences in baseline neuronal activity, both the selectivity and the magnitude of auditory-evoked responses were comparable across wakefulness, Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (pairwise differences sleep and wakefulness using an oddball paradigm. Robust stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) was observed following the onset of repetitive tones, and the strength of SSA effects (13-20%) was comparable across vigilance states. Thus, responses in core auditory cortex are preserved across sleep states, suggesting that evoked activity in primary sensory cortices is driven by external physical stimuli with little modulation by vigilance state. We suggest that sensory disconnection during sleep occurs at a stage later than primary sensory areas.

  11. 睡眠机制的研究进展%Research progress in sleeping mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2003-01-01

    @@ 现代人随着生活方式的改变,睡眠障碍[1]和与睡眠相关疾病的发生率也明显升高,严重影响人们的生活质量和生存时间,因此进一步加深对睡眠机制的研究和认识,将有助于睡眠障碍的防治.睡眠由两个时相组成,即快速眼动相睡眠(rapid eye movement sleep,REMs)和非快速眼动相睡眠(non-rapid eye movement sleep,NREMs).REMs以快速眼球运动为特征,伴梦和丰富的脑活动.根据脑电图(EEG)特点NREMs又分成4期,即Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ期,由于Ⅲ~Ⅳ期EEG表现以θ、δ波为主,故又称慢波睡眠(slow wave sleep,SWS).本文仅就目前对睡眠机制的认识和研究进展作一概要介绍.

  12. Effects of ambient temperature on sleep and cardiovascular regulation in mice: the role of hypocretin/orexin neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Lo Martire

    Full Text Available The central neural pathways underlying the physiological coordination between thermoregulation and the controls of the wake-sleep behavior and cardiovascular function remain insufficiently understood. Growing evidence supports the involvement of hypocretin (orexin peptides in behavioral, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. We investigated whether the effects of ambient temperature on wake-sleep behavior and cardiovascular control depend on the hypothalamic neurons that release hypocretin peptides. Orexin-ataxin3 transgenic mice with genetic ablation of hypocretin neurons (n = 11 and wild-type controls (n = 12 were instrumented with electrodes for sleep scoring and a telemetric blood pressure transducer. Simultaneous sleep and blood pressure recordings were performed on freely-behaving mice at ambient temperatures ranging between mild cold (20°C and the thermoneutral zone (30°C. In both mouse groups, the time spent awake and blood pressure were higher at 20°C than at 30°C. The cold-related increase in blood pressure was significantly smaller in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS than either in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS or wakefulness. Blood pressure was higher in wakefulness than either in NREMS or REMS at both ambient temperatures. This effect was significantly blunted in orexin-ataxin3 mice irrespective of ambient temperature and particularly during REMS. These data demonstrate that hypocretin neurons are not a necessary part of the central pathways that coordinate thermoregulation with wake-sleep behavior and cardiovascular control. Data also support the hypothesis that hypocretin neurons modulate changes in blood pressure between wakefulness and the sleep states. These concepts may have clinical implications in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, who lack hypocretin neurons.

  13. The effects of ondansetron on sleep-disordered breathing in the English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, S C; Chachkes, J; Fenik, P; Hendricks, J C

    2001-03-15

    Serotonin and serotoninergic drugs have significant effects on respiration, at many sites throughout the nervous system, and serotonin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, understanding the serotoninergic mechanisms underlying respiratory control may help discover novel pharmacotherapies for sleep-disordered breathing. Ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist selective for the 5-HT3 receptor subtype has recently been shown to suppress sleep-related central apneas in rats, particularly in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To evaluate the potential of ondansetron in the treatment of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing, we have performed randomized trials of two doses of ondansetron (20 and 40 mg orally) and placebo (4 studies for each of the 3 conditions) in our animal model of obstructive sleep apnea, the English Bulldog. Ondansetron significantly reduced the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) in REM sleep from 24.15+/-4.85 events/hour at placebo to 11.01+/-1.56 events/hour with high dose treatment, n=4, p<0.05. In contrast, the effects of drug on the RDI in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep (5.23+/-1.30 events/hour, placebo; 4.31+/-1.36, with 20 mg ondansetron and 2.89+/-1.30 with 40 mg ondansetron, n=4) were not significant. Ondansetron, however, had no effect on either sleep efficiency or sleep architecture, and there were no effects on either oxyhemoglobin saturation nadirs or on the sleep time with saturations <90%. Although a trend towards reduction in the latter measure of oxygenation was seen at the higher dose of ondansetron. These data suggest a therapeutic potential for ondansetron in obstructive sleep-disordered breathing, particularly REM sleep apnea.

  14. Cytokine-induced sleep: Neurons respond to TNF with production of chemokines and increased expression of Homer1a in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Maureen; Lopez, Martin Alexander; Meier, Daniel; Mikhail, Cyril; Ogunshola, Omolara O; Müller, Andreas Felix; Strauss, Laura; Tafti, Mehdi; Fontana, Adriano

    2015-07-01

    Interactions of neurons with microglia may play a dominant role in sleep regulation. TNF may exert its somnogeneic effects by promoting attraction of microglia and their processes to the vicinity of dendrites and synapses. We found TNF to stimulate neurons (i) to produce CCL2, CCL7 and CXCL10, chemokines acting on mononuclear phagocytes and (ii) to stimulate the expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF/Csf1), which leads to elongation of microglia processes. TNF may also act on neurons by affecting the expression of genes essential in sleep-wake behavior. The neuronal expression of Homer1a mRNA, increases during spontaneous and enforced periods of wakefulness. Mice with a deletion of Homer1a show a reduced wakefulness with increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep during the dark period. Recently the TNF-dependent increase of NREM sleep in the dark period of mice with CD40-induced immune activation was found to be associated with decreased expression of Homer1a. In the present study we investigated the effects of TNF and IL-1β on gene expression in cultures of the neuronal cell line HT22 and cortical neurons. TNF slightly increased the expression of Homer1a and IL-1β profoundly enhanced the expression of Early growth response 2 (Egr2). The data presented here indicate that the decreased expression of Homer1a, which was found in the dark period of mice with CD40-induced increase of NREM sleep is not due to inhibitory effects of TNF and IL-1β on the expression of Homer1a in neurons.

  15. EEG-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals rapid shifts in motor cortical excitability during the human sleep slow oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til O; Mölle, Matthias; Schmidt, Marlit A

    2012-01-01

    Evoked cortical responses do not follow a rigid input-output function but are dynamically shaped by intrinsic neural properties at the time of stimulation. Recent research has emphasized the role of oscillatory activity in determining cortical excitability. Here we employed EEG-guided transcranial...... magnetic stimulation (TMS) during non-rapid eye movement sleep to examine whether the spontaneous...

  16. Cardiac autonomic control in the obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouha Gammoudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sympathetic activation is considered to be the main mechanism involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The heart rate variability (HRV analysis represents a non-invasive tool allowing the study of the autonomic nervous system. The impairment of HRV parameters in OSA has been documented. However, only a few studies tackled the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients having OSA. Aims: To analyze the HRV over sleep stages and across sleep periods in order to clarify the impact of OSA on cardiac autonomic modulation. The second objective is to examine the nocturnal HRV of OSA patients to find out which HRV parameter is the best to reflect the symptoms severity. Methods: The study was retrospective. We have included 30 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography. Subjects were categorized into two groups according to apnea–hypopnea index (AHI: mild-to-moderate OSAS group (AHI: 5–30 and severe OSAS group (AHI>30. The HRV measures for participants with low apnea–hypopnea indices were compared to those of patients with high rates of apnea–hypopnea across the sleep period and sleep stages. Results: HRV measures during sleep stages for the group with low rates of apnea–hypopnea have indicated a parasympathetic activation during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. However, no significant difference has been observed in the high AHI group except for the mean of RR intervals (mean RR. The parasympathetic activity tended to increase across the night but without a statistical difference. After control of age and body mass index, the most significant correlation found was for the mean RR (p=0.0001, r=−0.248. Conclusion: OSA affects sympathovagal modulation during sleep, and this impact has been correlated to the severity of the disease. The mean RR seemed to be a better index allowing the sympathovagal balance appreciation during the night in OSA.

  17. Validation of non-REM sleep stage decoding from resting state fMRI using linear support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, A; Schröter, M S; Spoormaker, V I; Kiem, S A; Jordan, D; Ilg, R; Bullmore, E T; Greicius, M D; Czisch, M; Sämann, P G

    2016-01-15

    A growing body of literature suggests that changes in consciousness are reflected in specific connectivity patterns of the brain as obtained from resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). As simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) is often unavailable, decoding of potentially confounding sleep patterns from rs-fMRI itself might be useful and improve data interpretation. Linear support vector machine classifiers were trained on combined rs-fMRI/EEG recordings from 25 subjects to separate wakefulness (S0) from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 (S1), 2 (S2), slow wave sleep (SW) and all three sleep stages combined (SX). Classifier performance was quantified by a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation (LOSO-CV) and on an independent validation dataset comprising 19 subjects. Results demonstrated excellent performance with areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUCs) close to 1.0 for the discrimination of sleep from wakefulness (S0|SX), S0|S1, S0|S2 and S0|SW, and good to excellent performance for the classification between sleep stages (S1|S2:~0.9; S1|SW:~1.0; S2|SW:~0.8). Application windows of fMRI data from about 70 s were found as minimum to provide reliable classifications. Discrimination patterns pointed to subcortical-cortical connectivity and within-occipital lobe reorganization of connectivity as strongest carriers of discriminative information. In conclusion, we report that functional connectivity analysis allows valid classification of NREM sleep stages.

  18. Inhibition of central Na+/H+ exchanger type 3 can alleviate sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qimin; Zhou Rong; Zhang Cheng; Dong Hui; Ma Jing; Wang Guangfa

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies showed the central Na+/H+ exchanger type 3 (NHE3) has a close relationship with ventilation control.The objective of the study is to investigate the role of NHE3 in sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods A sleep study was performed on 20 male SD rats to analyze the correlation between the sleep apneic events and total NHE3 protein content and inactive NHE3(pS552) in the brainstem measured by Western blotting.Another 20 adult male SD rats received 3 days of sleep and respiration monitoring for 6 hours a day,with adaption on the first day,0.5% DMSO microinjection into the fourth ventricle on the second day,and AVE0657 (specific inhibitor of NHE3) microinjection on the third day.Rats were divided into two groups with injection of 5 μmol/L or 8 μmol/L AVE0657 before the sleep study.The effects of AVE0657 on sleep apnea and sleep structure of rats were analyzed through self-control.Results The total post-sigh apnea index (TPSAI) and post-sigh apnea index in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (NPSAI) and total apnea index (AI) in NREM sleep (NAI) were negatively correlated with NHE3(pS552) protein contents in the brainstem (r=-0.534,-0.547 and-0.505,respectively,P<0.05).The spontaneous apnea index in REM sleep (RSPAI) was positively correlated with the level of NHE3(pS552) protein expression in the brainstem (r=0.556,P<0.05).However,the sleep AI had no relationship with total NHE3 protein.Compared with the blank control and microinjection of 0.5% DMSO,5 μmol/L AVE0657 significantly reduced the total AI and NPSAI (both P<0.05) without a significant effect on sleep architecture.In contrast to blank control and microinjection of 0.5% DMSO,injection of 8 μmol/L AVE0657 significantly reduced the AI and PSAI in NREM and REM sleep (all P<0.05).Conclusions The severity of sleep apnea was negatively correlated with central inactive NHE3.A specific inhibitor of NHE3 decreased the sleep AI.Thus,our results indicate that central

  19. Spike wave location and density disturb sleep slow waves in patients with CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölsterli Heinzle, Bigna K; Fattinger, Sara; Kurth, Salomé; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Ringli, Maya; Bast, Thomas; Critelli, Hanne; Schmitt, Bernhard; Huber, Reto

    2014-04-01

    In CSWS (continuous spike waves during sleep) activation of spike waves during slow wave sleep has been causally linked to neuropsychological deficits, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unknown. In healthy subjects, the overnight decrease of the slope of slow waves in NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep has been linked to brain recovery to regain optimal cognitive performance. Here, we investigated whether the electrophysiologic hallmark of CSWS, the spike waves during sleep, is related to an alteration in the overnight decrease of the slope, and if this alteration is linked to location and density of spike waves. In a retrospective study, the slope of slow waves (0.5-2 Hz) in the first hour and last hour of sleep (19 electroencephalography [EEG] electrodes) of 14 patients with CSWS (3.1-13.5 years) was calculated. The spike wave "focus" was determined as the location of highest spike amplitude and the density of spike waves as spike wave index (SWI). There was no overnight change of the slope of slow waves in the "focus." Instead, in "nonfocal" regions, the slope decreased significantly. This difference in the overnight course resulted in a steeper slope in the "focus" compared to "nonfocal" electrodes during the last hour of sleep. Spike wave density was correlated with the impairment of the overnight slope decrease: The higher the SWI, the more hampered the slope decrease. Location and density of spike waves are related to an alteration of the physiologic overnight decrease of the slow wave slope. This overnight decrease of the slope was shown to be closely related to the recovery function of sleep. Such recovery is necessary for optimal cognitive performance during wakefulness. Therefore we propose the impairment of this process by spike waves as a potential mechanism leading to neuropsychological deficits in CSWS. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here. Wiley Periodicals

  20. The use of melatonin for treating sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan V

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Venkataramanujam Srinivasan,1 Domenico De Berardis,2,3 Timo Partonen,4 Rahimah Zakaria,5 Zahiruddin Othman6 1Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation, Coimbatore, India; 2Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, Giuseppe Mazzini Hospital, Teramo, 3Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, Gabriele d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy; 4Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; 5Department of Physiology, 6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Abstract: Most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience sleep-related problems, such as difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep fragmentation, reductions in non-rapid eye movement (NREM or rapid eye movement (REM sleep, and REM sleep behavior disorder. Although motor symptoms of PD are treated with dopaminergic drugs, the nonmotor symptoms pose a big problem, and they often precede the onset of the disease. Treating the nonmotor symptoms, such as sleep and associated behavioral disorders, is beneficial, for it not only relieves the symptoms but also helps to slow the progression of the disease. Treating PD patients with melatonin has been shown to be beneficial in treating sleep and behavior problems. The finding of reduced expression of the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in amygdalae and substantia nigra of PD patients supports the involvement of melatonergic system in the etiology of PD. Hence, the use of melatonin or its analogs may even be beneficial not only for improving sleep quality but also for enhancing neuroprotection in PD. Keywords: REM sleep-behavior disorder, insomnia, melatonin receptors, circadian dysregulation

  1. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO2) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO2 and minimum SaO2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO2 profiles showed transient TcCO2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A/2C agonist on the genioglossus activity and sleep apnea in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yi-jue; ZHANG Cheng; WANG Guang-fa

    2010-01-01

    Background 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a common neurotransmitter in the brain which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sleep apnea.Dysfunction of 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptors may lead to the collapse of the upper airway and the instability of respiratory control, which in turn produce apnea.Genioglossus (GG) is one of the most important oropharyngeal muscles maintaining the upper airway open.The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptor on GG activity and the sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods Microinjection probes were placed within the fourth ventricle of sixteen SD rats.After recovery for a week, the electromyogram (EMG) of GG was recorded in the anesthetized and vagotomized rats.The changes of GG activity before and after the microinjection of 5-HT or 5-HT2A/2c agonist -2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI)were observed.Probes were also laid in another eight SD rats.Electroencephalogram (EEG), EMG of neck muscle and respiration were recorded at the same time a week later.The effects of DOI on the occurrence of sleep apnea were explored.Results Both 5-HT and DOI significantly enhanced the activity of GG just 3 minutes after the completion of injection.The effect of 5-HT disappeared quickly and the effect of DOI lasted for more than 27 minutes.DOI also significantly decreased the post-sigh apnea index in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and decreased the spontaneous apnea index only in NREM sleep (P <0.05, respectively).Conclusion 5-HT and 5-HT2A/2c system correlated closely with the pathogenesis of the sleep apnea syndrome and 5-HT receptors may become the target of the drug treatment.

  3. Disrupted chronobiology of sleep and cytoprotection in obesity: possible therapeutic value of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Pagano, Eleonora S; Scacchi Bernasconi, Pablo A; Reynoso, Roxana; Scacchi, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    From a physiological perspective the sleep-wake cycle can be envisioned as a sequence of three physiological states (wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement, NREM, sleep and REM sleep) which are defined by a particular neuroendocrine-immune profile regulating the metabolic balance, body weight and inflammatory responses. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption in contemporary "24/7 Society" lead to the predominance of pro-orexic and proinflammatory mechanisms that contribute to a pandemic metabolic syndrome (MS) including obesity, diabetes and atherosclerotic disease. Thus, a successful management of MS may require a drug that besides antagonizing the trigger factors of MS could also correct a disturbed sleep-wake rhythm. This review deals with the analysis of the therapeutic validity of melatonin in MS. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent changing the phase and amplitude of the sleep/wake rhythm and having cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties useful to prevent a number of MS sequels. Several studies support that melatonin can prevent hyperadiposity in animal models of obesity. Melatonin at a low dose (2-5 mg/day) has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects (ramelteon, agomelatine, tasimelteon, TK 301). In clinical trials these analogs were employed in doses considerably higher than those usually employed for melatonin. In view that the relative potencies of the analogs are higher than that of the natural compound, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are needed to assess its therapeutic value in MS.

  4. Evaluating and Improving Automatic Sleep Spindle Detection by Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yin Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11–16 Hz measured by electroencephalography (EEG mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts. To resolve the problem, numerous computerized methods have been developed to automate the process of sleep spindle identification. Still, the performance of these automated sleep spindle detection methods varies inconsistently from study to study. There are two reasons: (1 the lack of common benchmark databases, and (2 the lack of commonly accepted evaluation metrics. In this study, we focus on tackling the second problem by proposing to evaluate the performance of a spindle detector in a multi-objective optimization context and hypothesize that using the resultant Pareto fronts for deriving evaluation metrics will improve automatic sleep spindle detection. We use a popular multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA, the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2, to optimize six existing frequency-based sleep spindle detection algorithms. They include three Fourier, one continuous wavelet transform (CWT, and two Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based algorithms. We also explore three hybrid approaches. Trained and tested on open-access DREAMS and MASS databases, two new hybrid methods of combining Fourier with HHT algorithms show significant performance improvement with F1-scores of 0.726–0.737.

  5. Event-related potentials as a measure of sleep disturbance: A tutorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews event-related potentials (ERPs the minute responses of the human brain that are elicited by external auditory stimuli and how the ERPs can be used to measure sleep disturbance. ERPs consist of a series of negative- and positive-going components. A negative component peaking at about 100 ms, N1, is thought to reflect the outcome of a transient detector system, activated by change in the transient energy in an acoustic stimulus. Its output and thus the amplitude of N1 increases as the intensity level of the stimulus is increased and when the rate of presentation is slowed. When the output reaches a certain critical level, operations of the central executive are interrupted and attention is switched to the auditory channel. This switching of attention is thought to be indexed by a later positivity, P3a, peaking between 250 and 300 ms. In order to sleep, consciousness for all but the most relevant of stimuli must be prevented. Thus, during sleep onset and definitive non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the amplitude of N1 diminishes to near-baseline level. The amplitude of P2, peaking from 180 to 200 ms, is however larger in NREM sleep than in wakefulness. P2 is thought to reflect an inhibitory process protecting sleep from irrelevant disturbance. As stimulus input becomes increasingly obtrusive, the amplitude of P2 also increases. With increasing obtrusiveness particularly when stimuli are presented slowly, a later large negativity, peaking at about 350 ms, N350, becomes apparent. N350 is unique to sleep, its amplitude also increasing as the stimulus becomes more obtrusive. Many authors postulate that when the N350 reaches a critical amplitude, a very large amplitude N550, a component of the K-Complex is elicited. The K-Complex can only be elicited during NREM sleep. The P2, N350 and N550 processes are thus conceived as sleep protective mechanisms, activated sequentially as the risk for disturbance increases. During REM sleep

  6. Relevance of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) in the regulation of NREM-REM sleep cycle and homeostasis: evidence from mGluR5 (-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnaou, A; Raeymaekers, L; Steckler, T; Drinkenbrug, W H I M

    2015-04-01

    Sleep is a homeostatically regulated behavior and sleep loss evokes a proportional increase in sleep time and delta slow wave activity. Glutamate and pharmacological modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) signaling have been implicated in the organization of vigilance states. Here, the role of the mGluR5 on homeostatic regulation of sleep-wake cycle and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was examined in mGluR5 (-/-) mice. We first characterized the sleep-wake EEG phenotype in mGluR5 (-/-) and wild-type (WT) littermates mice by continuous recording for 72h of EEG, body temperature (BT) and locomotor activity (LMA). Next, we investigated the influence of sleep deprivation on the recovery sleep and EEG slow wave activity (1-4Hz) during NREM sleep to assess whether mGluR5 deletion affects the sleep homeostasis process. Like the control animals, mGluR5 (-/-) mice exhibited a clear-cut circadian sleep-wake architecture, however they showed reduced REM sleep time during the light phase with shorter REM sleep bouts and reduced state transitions in the NREM sleep-REM sleep cycle during the first and last 24h of the spontaneous 72h recording period. In addition, mGluR5 (-/-) mice had decreased slow EEG delta power during NREM sleep and enhanced LMA associated with elevated BT during the dark phase. Moreover, mGluR5 (-/-) mice exhibited reduced slow wave activity and sleep drive after sleep deprivation, indicating altered sleep homeostatic processes. The findings strongly indicate that mGluR5 is involved in shaping the stability of NREM sleep-REM sleep state transitions, NREM slow wave activity and homeostatic response to sleep loss.

  7. Ambient temperature during torpor affects NREM sleep EEG during arousal episodes in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Ambient temperature (T-a) systematically affects the frequency of arousal episodes in mammalian hibernation. This variation might hypothetically be attributed to temperature effects on the rate of sleep debt increase in torpor. We studied this rate by recording sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in

  8. Bright morning light advances the human circadian system without affecting NREM sleep homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge; Lewy, Alfred J.

    1989-01-01

    Eight male subjects were exposed to either bright light or dim light between 0600 and 0900 h for 3 consecutive days each. Relative to the dim light condition, the bright light treatment advanced the evening rise in plasma melatonin and the time of sleep termination (sleep onset was held constant) fo

  9. Differential effects of lorazepam on sleep and activity in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangdong; Yang, Linghui; Fishback, Nancy F; Sanford, Larry D

    2009-09-01

    Compared to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice exhibit greater 'anxiousness' on behavioural tests of anxiety, and can show significantly longer sleep disruptions after exposure to anxiogenic situations. Relative to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice also have reduced benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor densities in the brain and fivefold less BZ receptor density in the amygdala, a region important in anxiety and in the control of arousal. Lorazepam is a BZ receptor full agonist and has been used to treat both anxiety and insomnia. Differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice raise the question of whether BZ agonists would impact sleep and activity differentially in the two strains. We examined the effects of two doses of lorazepam (0.5 and 1.5 mg kg(-1)) or saline alone (0.2 mL) on sleep and activity in C57BL/6 (n = 8) and BALB/c (n = 7) mice. Compared to saline, both doses of lorazepam significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and reduced activity in both strains. In C57BL/6 mice, rapid eye movement (REM) was increased at both doses. In BALB/c mice, the 0.5 mg kg(-1) dose had no significant influence on REM, whereas REM was reduced significantly after the 1.5 mg kg(-1) dose. The results demonstrate significant differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice in the effects of lorazepam on REM, whereas the effects on NREM and activity were similar. Strain differences in the number of BZ receptors in the amygdala, but not other brain regions, suggests possible site specificity in the effects of lorazepam on REM. These differences in BZ-binding sites in the amygdala could be a significant factor in differences in the sleep response between C57 and BALB/c mice.

  10. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density...

  11. A novel NREM and REM parasomnia with sleep breathing disorder associated with antibodies against IgLON5: a case series, pathological features, and characterization of the antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Lidia; Gaig, Carles; Gelpi, Ellen; Bataller, Luis; Lewerenz, Jan; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Contreras, Angeles; Giometto, Bruno; Compta, Yaroslau; Embid, Cristina; Vilaseca, Isabel; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Autoimmunity may be involved in sleep and neurodegenerative disorders. We aimed to describe a neurological syndrome with prominent sleep dysfunction and antibodies to a previously unknown neuronal antigen. Methods In this observational study, clinical and video-polysomnography (V- PSG) investigations identified a novel sleep disorder in three patients referred to the Sleep Unit of Hospital Clinic University of Barcelona for abnormal sleep behaviors and obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). They had antibodies against a neuronal surface antigen also present in five additional patients referred to our laboratory for antibody studies. These five patients had been evaluated with PSG and in two, the study was done or reviewed in our Sleep Unit. Two patients underwent postmortem brain examination. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the antigen and to develop a diagnostic test. Serum or CSF from 285 patients with neurodegenerative, sleep, or autoimmune disorders served as controls. Findings All eight patients (five women; range: 52–76 years, median 59) had abnormal sleep movements and behaviors and OSA confirmed by PSG. Six patients had a chronic evolution (range 2–12 years, median 5.5); in four the sleep disorder was the initial and most prominent feature, and in two it was preceded by gait instability, and followed by dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, or chorea. Two patients had a rapid evolution with disequilibrium, dysarthria, dysphagia, and central hypoventilation, and died two and six months after symptom onset. In 5/5 patients, the V-PSG reviewed in our Unit disclosed OSA, stridor, and abnormal sleep architecture with undifferentiated NREM sleep or poorly structured stage N2 with simple movements and finalistic behaviors, normalization of NREM sleep by the end of the night, and REM sleep behavior disorder. Four/4 patients carried the HLA-DRB1*1001 and HLA-DQB1*0501 alleles. All patients had antibodies (mainly IgG4

  12. Sleep-wake fluctuations and respiratory events during Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Robbi, Elena; Pizza, Fabio; Caporotondi, Angelo; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Maestri, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Fluctuations in sleep-wake state are thought to contribute to the respiratory instability of Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure by promoting the rhythmic occurrence of central apnea and ventilatory overshoot. There are no data, however, on the relationship between vigilance state and respiratory events. In this study we used a novel method to detect the occurrence of state transitions (time resolution: 0.25 s, minimum duration of state changes: 2 s) and to assess their time relationship with apnoeic events. We also evaluated whether end-apnoeic arousals are associated with a ventilatory overshoot. A polysomnographic, daytime laboratory recording (25 min) was performed during Cheyne-Stokes respiration in 16 patients with heart failure. Automatic state classification included wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep stages 1-2. As a rule, wakefulness occurred during hyperpnoeic phases, and non-rapid eye movement sleep occurred during apnoeic events. Ninety-two percent of the observed central apneas (N = 272) were associated with a concurrent wakefulness → non-rapid eye movement sleep → wakefulness transition. The delay between wakefulness → non-rapid eye movement sleep transitions and apnea onset was -0.3 [-3.1, 3.0] s [median (lower quartile, upper quartile); P = 0.99 testing the null hypothesis: median delay = 0], and the delay between non-rapid eye movement sleep → wakefulness transitions and apnea termination was 0.2 [-0.5, 1.2] s (P = 0.7). A positive/negative delay indicates that the state transition occurred before/after the onset or termination of apnea. Non-rapid eye movement sleep → wakefulness transitions synchronous with apnea termination were associated with a threefold increase in tidal volume and a twofold increase in ventilation (all P sleep → wakefulness transitions parallel apnoeic events during Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure. The relationships between state

  13. Sexual behaviour in sleep: an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovic, Nikola N; Mangan, Michael; Shapiro, Colin M

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the study was to provide further information related to newly described parasomnia variant, Sexual Behaviour in Sleep (SBS, sexsomnia). Previous studies dealt with selected population, typically middle-aged males, featuring extensive medico-legal exposure. At the same time, an anecdotal evidence suggested higher involvement of younger population, and skew towards balance between genders comparable to those seen in other non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias. The epidemiological information regarding this condition is still virtually non-existent. In order to sample this difficult-to-reach population, a 28-item Internet survey was posted on the sexsomnia reference site and the link was also sent to prospective respondents (mostly registered visitors to this site). The respondents were able to complete the survey anonymously, which resulted in a need for the screening of bogus and duplicate results. At the end, a total of 219 validated responses were collected and analysed. The results showed greater representation of females (31% of the total number), and wider age distribution (mean age of 30.4 years). The respondents typically reported multiple sexsomnia episodes, in most cases precipitated by body contact, stress and fatigue. Relatively small number of respondents reported involvement of legal authorities (8.6% of males and 3% of females) and participation of minors in their sexsomnia (6% of the total sample). In spite of known limitations of such surveys, the study provided much needed insight into this complex nocturnal behaviour. It confirmed the anecdotal evidence about the gender and age distribution, and provided information on some key features, such as precipitating factors, type of behaviour, medication use, personal medical history and medico-legal aspects.

  14. Combining time-frequency and spatial information for the detection of sleep spindles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindles are short (0.5-2.0 s bursts of activity in the 11-16 Hz band occurring during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. This sporadic activity is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, brain plasticity, and protection of sleep integrity. Many automatic detectors have been proposed to assist or replace experts for sleep spindle scoring. However, these algorithms usually detect too many events making it difficult to achieve a good tradeoff between sensitivity (Se and false detection rate (FDr. In this work, we propose a semi-automatic detector comprising a sensitivity phase based on well-established criteria followed by a specificity phase using spatial and spectral criteria.In the sensitivity phase, selected events are those which amplitude in the 10 – 16 Hz band and spectral ratio characteristics both reject a null hypothesis (p <0.1 stating that the considered event is not a spindle. This null hypothesis is constructed from events occurring during rapid eye movement (REM sleep epochs. In the specificity phase, a hierarchical clustering of the selected candidates is done based on events’ frequency and spatial position along the anterior-posterior axis. Only events from the classes grouping most (at least 80% spindles scored by an expert are kept. We obtain Se = 93.2% and FDr = 93.0% in the first phase and Se = 85.4% and FDr = 86.2% in the second phase. For these two phases, Matthew’s correlation coefficients are respectively 0.228 and 0.324. Results suggest that spindles are defined by specific spatio-spectral properties and that automatic detection methods can be improved by considering these features.

  15. Effects of thermoregulation on human sleep patterns: A mathematical model of sleep-wake cycles with REM-NREM subcircuit

    OpenAIRE

    Bañuelos, Selenne; Best, Janet; Huguet Casades, Gemma; Prieto-Langarica, Alicia; Pyzza, Pamela; Schmidt, Markus; Wilson, Shelby

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct a mathematical model of human sleep/wake regulation with thermoregulation and temperature e ects. Simulations of this model show features previously presented in experimental data such as elongation of duration and number of REM bouts across the night as well as the appearance of awakenings due to deviations in body temperature from thermoneutrality. This model helps to demonstrate the importance of temperature in the sleep cycle. Further modi cations of the model t...

  16. Randomised clinical trial of the effects of prolonged-release melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem on slow-wave activity during sleep in healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Emma L; Knurowska, Malgorzata; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2015-07-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for insomnia include benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics targeting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors, as well as agonists of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. Melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem are thought to exert their effect through different mechanisms of action, but whether this leads to differential effects on electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra during sleep in middle-aged people is currently not known. To establish whether the effects of prolonged-release melatonin (2 mg) on the nocturnal sleep EEG are different to those of temazepam (20 mg) and zolpidem (10 mg). Sixteen healthy men and women aged 55-64 years participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way cross-over trial. Nocturnal sleep was assessed with polysomnography and spectral analysis of the EEG. The effects of single oral doses of prolonged-release melatonin, temazepam and zolpidem on EEG slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz) and other frequencies during nocturnal non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were compared. In an entire night analysis prolonged-release melatonin did not affect SWA, whereas temazepam and zolpidem significantly reduced SWA compared with placebo. Temazepam significantly reduced SWA compared with prolonged-release melatonin. Prolonged-release melatonin only reduced SWA during the first third of the night compared with placebo. These data show that the effects of prolonged-release melatonin on the nocturnal sleep EEG are minor and are different from those of temazepam and zolpidem; this is likely due to the different mechanisms of action of the medications.

  17. Evidence for differential human slow-wave activity regulation across the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavada, Andrei; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Daan, Serge; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of the timing of sleep is thought to be linked to the temporal dynamics of slow-wave activity [SWA, electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power in the similar to 0.75-4.5 Hz range] in the cortical non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep EEG. In the two-process model of sleep regulation, SWA

  18. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them.

  19. Mecanismos do ciclo sono-vigília Sleep-wake cycle mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alóe

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Três sub-divisões hipotalâmicas são importantes no ciclo sono-vigília: o hipotálamo anterior (núcleos gabaérgicos e núcleos supraquiasmáticos, o hipotálamo posterior (núcleo túbero-mamilar histaminérgico e o hipotálamo lateral (sistema hipocretinas. O sistema gabaérgico inibitório do núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral (VLPO do hipotálamo anterior é responsável pelo início e manutenção do sono NREM. Os neurônios supraquiasmáticos (NSQs do hipotálamo anterior são responsáveis pelo ritmo circadiano do ciclo sono-vigília. Os núcleos aminérgicos, histaminérgicos, as hipocretinas e núcleos colinérgicos do prosencéfalo basal apresentam-se ativos durante a vigília, inibindo o núcleo pré-óptico ventro-lateral, promovendo a vigília. O processo de inibição-estimulação é a base do modelo da interação recíproca entre os grupos de células wake-off-sleep-on e células wake-off-sleep-on reguladores do ciclo sono-vigília. O modelo da interação recíproca também se aplica aos núcleos colinérgicos (células REM-on e aminérgicos (células REM-off do tronco cerebral no controle temporal do sono REM-NREM.Neurochemically distinct systems interact regulating sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness is promoted by aminergic, acetylcholinergic brainstem and hypothalamic systems. Each of these arousal systems supports wakefulness and coordinated activity is required for alertness and EEG activation. Neurons in the pons and preoptic area control rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating systems generate behavioral states. An up-to-date understanding of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  20. How to Manage Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Pera, Maria Carmela; Olivotto, Sara; De Giorgis, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Electrical status epilepticus in sleep is an age-dependent syndrome with the characteristic pattern of continuous spike and waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Most children can present developmental deterioration. The demonstration of the EEG pattern has to rely on all night long EEG recordings. A comprehensive neuropsychologic evaluation with periodic reassessment should be performed. For the idiopathic forms of electrical status epilepticus in sleep, clobazam could be considered as the first-line therapy; in the other cases, corticosteroids, in particular intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, remain the most effective and should be considered the therapy of choice.

  1. Signs of enhanced sleep and sleep-associated memory processing following the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines can promote sleep and neuronal processes underlying memory formation. However, this has mainly been revealed in animal studies. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject designed study, we examined how changes in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling affect sleep and sleep-associated memory consolidation in humans. After learning declarative memory tasks (word pairs, texts) and a procedural memory task (finger tapping) in the evening, 21 healthy young men orally received either 200 mg of the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline or placebo shortly before nocturnal sleep. Sleep was allowed between 23:00 and 07:00 h and recorded polysomnographically. Retrieval of memories was tested two days later. Because of outliers or missing data, final sample size was reduced to n = 14-19. Our data suggest that rather than weakening sleep as expected based on animal studies, the anti-inflammatory agent promoted sleep and memory consolidation. Specifically, minocycline increased slow-wave activity (0.68-4.0 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2 and selectively enhanced episodic aspects in memory (i.e. memory for the temporal order of events in the texts). In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that, in humans, reducing pro-inflammatory signalling can act towards deepening non-rapid eye movement sleep and enhancing its memory forming efficacy.

  2. 可卡因戒断对大鼠睡眠结构和脑电功率谱的影响%Effects of cocaine withdrawal on sleep architecture and cortical electroencephalogram power spectra in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪芬芳; 涂桂林; 杨树龙; 贺长生

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the characteristics of sleep disturbances resulting from cocaine withdrawal. METHODS: Adult rats were instrumented with sleep - wake recording electrodes.Polygraphic signs of undisturhed sleep - wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration, on withdrawal day 1 ( acute ), day 8 ( subacute ) ,and day 14 ( subchronic ) during cocaine treatment.RESULTS : The sleep - wake cycles increased on withdrawal day 1 ( P <0.05 ).Non - rapid eye movement ( NREM ) sleep increased during nighttime ( P <0.01 ) and daytime ( P < 0.05 ) on withdrawal day 8.The increase in NREM sleep was significant during nighttime ( P < 0.01 ) and slight during daytime on withdrawal day 14, whereas the rapid eye movement ( REM ) sleep was reduced during hoth daytime and nighttime ( P <0.01 ) on withdrawal day 8 and 14.In either daytime or nighttime period, no significant change was ohserved in the total sleep time during cocaine abstinence.During NREM and REM sleep as well as wakefulness, no difference was found in δ - , θ - and α - wave power density on withdrawal day 1, 8 and 14.CONCLUSION : Sleep disturbance induced by acute, subacute, or suhchronic cocaine withdrawal is predominantly due to abnormal alterations between NREM and REM sleep but not between sleep and wakefulness.The transition of sleep - wakefulness state is mostly disturbed during acute withdrawal, while sleep architecture dysfunction occurs during suhacute or subchronic withdrawal.%目的:探索可卡因戒断对睡眠觉醒活动的影响.方法:大鼠体内植入无线发射器,用药前、停药第1 d(急性)、8 d(亚急性)、14 d(亚慢性)记录自由活动大鼠脑电波24 h.结果:停药第1 d睡眠觉醒周期上升(P<0.05).停药第8 d夜晚和白天,非快动眼睡眠(NREM)增加(P<0.05),快动眼睡眠(REM)下降(P<0.01);停药第14 d,NREM睡眠夜晚显著增加(P<0.01)而白天仅略加强,白天和夜间REM睡眠均明显下降(P<0.01).停药期间白天和夜间

  3. A Thalamocortical Neural Mass Model of the EEG during NREM Sleep and Its Response to Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hong-Viet V.; Marshall, Lisa; Born, Jan; Martinetz, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Few models exist that accurately reproduce the complex rhythms of the thalamocortical system that are apparent in measured scalp EEG and at the same time, are suitable for large-scale simulations of brain activity. Here, we present a neural mass model of the thalamocortical system during natural non-REM sleep, which is able to generate fast sleep spindles (12–15 Hz), slow oscillations (sleep study in humans, where closed-loop auditory stimulation was applied. The model output relates directly to the EEG, which makes it a useful basis to develop new stimulation protocols. PMID:27584827

  4. Adenosine level of variation in rat ventrolateral preopic area after sleep deprivation%睡眠剥夺大鼠腹外侧视前区腺苷水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江传玮; 赵乐章; 张瑾; 尹豆; 吴芳; 王烈成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variational regulation of adenosine ( AD ) in ventrolateral preopic ( VL-PO ) area after sleep deprivation in rats. Methods Rats were randomly divided into control group and sleep deprivation group. Each group had 6 rats. The concentrations of AD in VLPO during baseline, sleep deprivation and sleep recovery period of two groups were studied by brain stereotaxic, microdialysis, polysomngraphy and high performance liquid chromatograph. Results Compared with the control group, the ratio of wake ( W ), non- rapid eye movement ( NREM ) sleep and rapid eye movement ( REM ) sleep had no significant difference during baseline period. The ratio of W was enhanced by 58. 5%( P <0. 01 ), NREM sleep was decreased by 55. 7% ( P <0. 01 ), and REM sleep was no significant change during sleep deprivation period. The ratio of W was decreased by 18. 4%( P < 0. 05 ), NREM sleep was enhanced by 17. 4% ( P < 0. 01 ), and REM sleep was no significant change during sleep recovery period. Compared with the control group, the mean of AD concentration had no significant difference in initial 2 h during sleep deprivation period, however, the mean of AD concentration increased significantly during subsequent 4 h sleep deprivation period( P < 0. 05 ), and during 3 h sleep recovery period, the mean of AD concentration decreased( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion AD in VLPO participates in the sleep-wakefulness cycle regulation.%目的 研究睡眠剥夺大鼠促睡眠中枢腹外侧视前区(VLPO)内腺苷变化规律.方法 将SD大鼠随机分为对照组和睡眠剥夺组.采用脑立体定位、微透析、多导睡眠描计技术和高效液相色谱法观察两组大鼠的睡眠剥夺前、睡眠剥夺期以及睡眠剥夺后恢复期VLPO内腺苷含量变化.结果 与对照组比较,睡眠剥夺组睡眠剥夺前觉醒(W)、非快速眼动(NREM)睡眠和快速眼动(REM)睡眠无明显变化;而在睡眠剥夺期W时间增加58.5%(P<0.01),NREM时间减少55.7%(P<0

  5. The Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatments of REM Sleep Disturbances in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Ze; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Most depressed patients suffer from sleep abnormalities, which are one of the critical symptoms of depression. They are robust risk factors for the initiation and development of depression. Studies about sleep electroencephalograms have shown characteristic changes in depression such as reductions in non-rapid eye movement sleep production, disruptions of sleep continuity and disinhibition of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep alterations include a decrease in REM sleep latency, an increase in REM sleep duration and REM sleep density with respect to depressive episodes. Emotional brain processing dependent on the normal sleep-wake regulation seems to be failed in depression, which also promotes the development of clinical depression. Also, REM sleep alterations have been considered as biomarkers of depression. The disturbances of norepinephrine and serotonin systems may contribute to REM sleep abnormalities in depression. Lastly, this review also discusses the effects of different antidepressants on REM sleep disturbances in depression.

  6. Sleep duration varies as a function of glutamate and GABA in rat pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2011-08-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) is a component of the ascending reticular activating system and plays a role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The PnO receives glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from many brain regions that regulate behavioral state. Indirect, pharmacological evidence has suggested that glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling within the PnO alters traits that characterize wakefulness and sleep. No previous studies have simultaneously measured endogenous glutamate and GABA from rat PnO in relation to sleep and wakefulness. The present study utilized in vivo microdialysis coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence to test the hypothesis that concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the PnO vary across the sleep/wake cycle. Concentrations of glutamate and GABA were significantly higher during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Regression analysis revealed that decreases in glutamate and GABA accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep episodes. These data provide novel support for the hypothesis that endogenous glutamate and GABA in the PnO contribute to the regulation of sleep duration.

  7. A study of sleep architecture and cognitive functions in dementia with Lewy bodies%路易体痴呆患者睡眠结构与认知功能的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭全; 宁玉萍; 施海姗; 郑东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sleep architecture in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB),and study the sleep architecture and cognitive functions in DLB.Methods We described polysomnography (PSG) findings in 34 consecutive subjects diagnosed with DLB.All the patients underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE),Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA),Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) to quantify cognitive functions.Results (1)Sleep architecture analysis:DLB group compared to normal control group,the sleep period time (SPT) was reduced (P < 0.05),total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE) were decreased,total wake time (TWT) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) were increased,1 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (TS1),2NREM sleep (TS2),total NREM sleep (TNREMS),and REM sleep (TREMS) time were significantly decreased (P <0.01).(2)The DLB patients were divided into groups based on MMSE,MoCA,qnd CDR scores,the sleep architecture of each group was no significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusions Patients with DLB exists sleep architecture disorder.The cognitive functions and sleep architecture changes in patients with DLB have no obvious correlation.It is different from other degenerative dementia.%目的 探讨路易体痴呆(DLB)患者的睡眠结构特点及其认知受损程度与睡眠结构的关系.方法 对临床诊断DLB患者34例行多导睡眠监测,用简易智能精神状态量表(MMSE)、蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)、临床痴呆评定量表(CDR)评定患者的认知功能.结果 (1)睡眠结构分析:与正常对照组相比,DLB组总睡眠间期时间(SPT)减少(P<0.05);总睡眠时间(TST)减少,睡眠效率(SE)下降,总醒觉时间(TWT)、入睡后清醒时间(WASO)增多,1期睡眠时间(TS1)、2期睡眠时间(TS2)、非快动眼(NREM)睡眠时间(TNREMS)和快动眼(REM)睡眠时间(TREMS)均明显减少(均P <0.01);(2)根据MMSE、MoCA、CDR评分结果将DLB组患者分组,组间的睡眠结构比较差异无统计学意义(均P

  8. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahesh K; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10-30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy.

  9. Triethylene glycol, an active component of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) leaves, is responsible for sleep induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice. We found that the alcoholic extract that contained high amount of active withanolides was ineffective to induce sleep in mice. However, the water extract which contain triethylene glycol as a major component induced significant amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep with slight change in rapid eye movement sleep. Commercially available triethylene glycol also increased non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice in a dose-dependent (10–30 mg/mouse) manner. These results clearly demonstrated that triethylene glycol is an active sleep-inducing component of Ashwagandha leaves and could potentially be useful for insomnia therapy. PMID:28207892

  10. Deep sleep after social stress : NREM sleep slow-wave activity is enhanced in both winners and losers of a conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Lancel, Marike; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is considered to be a recovery process of prior wakefulness. Not only duration of the waking period affects sleep architecture and sleep EEG, the quality of wakefulness is also highly important. Studies in rats have shown that social defeat stress, in which experimental animals are attacked an

  11. Tetrandrine, an alkaloid from S. tetrandra exhibits anti-hypertensive and sleep-enhancing effects in SHR via different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Cui, Su-Ying; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Cao, Qing; Ding, Hui; Song, Jin-Zhi; Hu, Xiao; Ye, Hui; Yu, Bin; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-He

    2016-12-15

    Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect. Sleep-wake behavior of the SHRs was detected by electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. Blood pressure was measured by noninvasive blood pressure tail cuff test. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the noradrenergic neuronal activity. The level of norepinephrine (NE) was detected by HPLC-ECD. Amlodipine (100mg/kg, i.g.), the well-known L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers (CCBs) exhibited remarkable antihypertensive activities in SHRs, but did not show effects on sleep of SHRs. Tetrandrine (30 and 60mg/kg/day, i.g.) significantly suppressed blood pressure of SHRs. Meanwhile, tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) remarkably increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) time, bouts and mean duration. The hypnotic effect of tetrandrine was potentiated by prazosin (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) but attenuated by yohimbine (2mg/kg, i.p.). Administration of tetrandrine (60mg/kg/day, i.g.) not only significantly decreased c-Fos positive ratio of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), but also significantly decrease NE in the endogenous sleep-wake regulating pathways including LC, hypothalamus and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). In spite of a good potency in blocking L-type Ca(2+) channel, the hypnotic effects of tetrandrine may be related to its suppressing effects on the noradrenergic system other than to block calcium channels. As a multi-targets drug, tetrandrine

  12. Physiological time structure of the tibialis anterior motor activity during sleep in mice, rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Lo Martire, Viviana; Salvadè, Agnese; Bastianini, Stefano; Ferri, Raffaele; Berteotti, Chiara; Baracchi, Francesca; Pace, Marta; Bassetti, Claudio L; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Manconi, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    The validation of rodent models for restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) and periodic limb movements during sleep requires knowledge of physiological limb motor activity during sleep in rodents. This study aimed to determine the physiological time structure of tibialis anterior activity during sleep in mice and rats, and compare it with that of healthy humans. Wild-type mice (n = 9) and rats (n = 8) were instrumented with electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram and electromyogram of neck muscles and both tibialis anterior muscles. Healthy human subjects (31 ± 1 years, n = 21) underwent overnight polysomnography. An algorithm for automatic scoring of tibialis anterior electromyogram events of mice and rats during non-rapid eye movement sleep was developed and validated. Visual scoring assisted by this algorithm had inter-rater sensitivity of 92-95% and false-positive rates of 13-19% in mice and rats. The distribution of the time intervals between consecutive tibialis anterior electromyogram events during non-rapid eye movement sleep had a single peak extending up to 10 s in mice, rats and human subjects. The tibialis anterior electromyogram events separated by intervals Willis-Ekbom disease. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. 老年期与非老年期抑郁症患者客观睡眠状况研究%A control study of senile and non senile depression patients with objective sleep condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晓明; 孙艳; 张丽; 谢成娟; 张许来; 洪青; 张洪琴; 胡英; 朱德发

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the situation of the characteristics of polysomnography ( PSG ) in depressed pa-tients of different age. Methods Polysomnography was used to assess the sleep condition, 43 elder patients( aged 60 years and above) and 28 adult patients( aged 18~59 years) and 20 healthy controls( aged 18~59 years) were included. Assessment was conducted with the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD)for three groups,polysomnograms was analyzed. Results Compared to the healthy controls,both adult and elder patients showed reduced actual sleep time ( AST ) , decreased rapid eye movement ( REM ) sleep duration and REM latency ( REML ) as well as percentage of REM sleep( REM%) . In the non-rapid eye movement( NREM) sleep,there was statistically significant difference between the healthy controls and two patients groups, such as the first period of NREM( N1 ) ,the percentage of N1 ( N1%) , the second period of NREM ( N2 ) , the percentage of N2 ( N2%) and the percentage of NREM sleep (NREM%)(P<0. 05). Compared to the adult patients,in elder patients, AST was shortened,sleep latency(SL) was prolonged, REML decreased,NREM duration and the third period of NREM( N3 ) decreased too,but NREM%increased,apnea-hyponea index( AHI) increased,mean and lowest saturation of blood oxygen of sleep decreased, mean saturation of blood oxygen of REM and NREM sleep decreased too, with a statistically significant difference (P<0. 05). Conclusion Compared to the healthy controls,both adult and elder patients have disordered sleep and respiration in sleep. The elder patients of depression have more serious sleep disorder and more abnormal respi-ration in sleep than adult patients.%目的 比较老年期与非老年期抑郁症患者客观睡眠情况的差别. 方法 对老年组(n=43)、非老年组(n=28)以及对照组(n=20)抑郁症患者进行多导睡眠监测(PSG)检查,获得客观睡眠数据. 将数据进行组间对比分析. 结果与对照组比较,老年组与

  14. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  15. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  16. Patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep share similar clinical features regardless of their focal or generalized sleep potentiation of epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Iván Sánchez; Peters, Jurriaan; Takeoka, Masanori; Rotenberg, Alexander; Prabhu, Sanjay; Gregas, Matt; Riviello, James J; Kothare, Sanjeev; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare qualitatively the clinical features of patients with electrical status epilepticus in sleep with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. We enrolled patients 2 to 20 years of age, studied between 2001 and 2009, and with sleep potentiated epileptiform activity defined as an increase of epileptiform activity of 50% or more during non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with wakefulness. Eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria, median age was 7.3 years, and 54 (63.5%) were boys. Sixty-seven (78.8%) patients had focal sleep potentiated epileptiform activity, whereas 18 (21.2%) had generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity. The 2 groups did not differ with respect to sex, age, presence of a structural brain abnormality, epilepsy, or other qualitative cognitive, motor, or behavioral problems. Our data suggest that there are no qualitative differences in the clinical features of patients with focal versus generalized sleep potentiated epileptiform activity.

  17. Cardiovascular-sleep interaction in drug-naïve patients with essential grade I hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Provini, Federica; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Annagrazia; Pierangeli, Giulia; Cortelli, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    patients and controls, coupling with the expected physiological peak time. BP and HR showed normal state-dependent modulation in hypertensive patients that, however, was higher in all sleep stages compared with controls. The lowering of systolic blood pressure (SBP) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 and 2 and REM sleep, relative to daytime wake values, was significantly attenuated in the hypertensive group, whereas it was comparable to controls during slow-wave sleep. In hypertensive patients, analysis of sleep and CV parameters in the 90 min following sleep onset and preceding morning awakening showed normal depressor effect during the first part of the night after sleep onset and significantly higher BP rise in the hours preceding morning awakening. These findings were associated with comparable sleep architecture, sleep fragmentation, incidence of arousals, and PLMS and PLMS arousals in patients and controls. Our data suggest that drug-naïve essential grade I hypertension is associated with signs of increased vascular sympathetic response to standardized stress of the Valsalva maneuver during the awake condition, and during sleep with a non-dipping BP profile plus higher BP surge preceding morning awakening, assessable only by around-the-clock ambulatory BP monitoring, both representing additional CV risk already in early-stage hypertension and, therefore, requiring proper selection of pharmacological treatment.

  18. Actions of ginsenosides on sleep architecture and cortical electroencephalogram power spectrum in rats%人参皂甙对大鼠睡眠结构和皮质脑电功率谱的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪芬芳; 贺长生; 涂桂林; 杨树龙

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of ginsenosides (GS) on spontaneous sleep architecture and Cortical EEG power spectrum. Methods 24 adult SD rats were randomly divided into the control, GS 10 and 100mg/kg groups ( n = 8). Rats were instrumented with sleep-wake recording electrodes. After recovery from surgical operation,rats were orally administered GS 10 and 100mg/kg or distilled water once per day for 6 days. On GS administration day 1 and 6,Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep-wake activities were recorded for 12 h after GS administration. Results On GS administration day 1 ,only 100mg/kg GS increased significantly total sleep and the non-rapid eye movement ( NREM ) sleep but decreased wakefulness [(9.40 ± 0.88 ) h, ( 8.00 ± 1. 21 ) h,(2.46 ±0.81)h s (7.55 ±1.59)h,(6.36±1.54)h,(4.38 ±1.62)h,(P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01),respectively] ;Low and high dose GS enhanced δ-wave power of NREM sleep and wakefulness (P< 0.05 ) but reduced θ-wave power of wakefulness (P<0.01) and-wave power during NREM, REM sleep and wakefulness (P < 0.01 ),moreover,Low and high dose GS lowered θ-wave power of REM and NREM stage(P<0.05 ) ,respectively. After 6days of GS administration, Low and high dose GS increased markedly total sleep(P<0.05 ) and NREM sleep(P<0.05 ) but decreased wakefulness (P <0.05 ) and sleep-wake cycles (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 ); moreover, Low and high dose GS enhanced δ-wave power during NREM sleep and wakefulness (P < 0. 05 ) but reduced θ-wave power of wakefulness(P < 0.05 ) and -wave power during NREM, NEM sleep and wakefulness (P < 0. 05 ), 10mg/kg GS also lowered θ-wave power of NREM sleep (P<0.01). Conclusion These results demonstrate that GS can regulate spontaneous sleep architecture in time dependent manner,as well as cortical EEG power spectrum in rats.%目的 研究人参皂甙(GS)调节自发睡眠结构和皮质脑电功率谱的作用.方法 SD大鼠24只随机分为对照、低(GS 10mg/kg)和高剂量(100mg

  19. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    OpenAIRE

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal ...

  20. 增龄对大鼠睡眠呼吸暂停影响的研究%Study on the effect of aging on sleep apnea syndrome in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 张成; 马靖; 王广发

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aging on the sleep apneas syndrome in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods 18 male SD rats in a SPF grade were divided into three groups:young (3-month-old rats,n=6),middle-aged(12-14-month-old rats,n=6) and old group (18-20-month-old rats,n=6).The rats were implanted with EEG and ECG electrodes and underwent sleep monitoring.Results During non-rapid eye movement (NREM),the spontaneous apnea index (SPAI) in young,middle-aged and old groups were increased with aging [0.41 (0.00-1.14)times/h,0.76(0.00-6.28)times/h,2.13(1.44-3.87)times/h respectively,(x2=8.801,P=0.012)].There were significant differences in the average time of post sigh apnea in NREM between the three groups [(3.51±0.18)sec vs.(3.84±0.57)sec vs.(4.36±0.57) sec,F=4.729,P=0.026].SPAI in NREM and the average time of post-sigh apnea in rapid eye movement (REM) as well as NREM showed an increase trend with aging,but there was no significant difference between groups (both P >0.05).Conclusions The apnea index,total time of sleep apneas and the average time of postsigh apnea are increased with aging,which is similar to that in human.%目的 研究增龄对大鼠睡眠呼吸暂停的影响. 方法 成年健康雄性清洁级SD大鼠,其中青年组(3月龄)、中年组(12~14月龄)、老年组(18~ 20月龄)每组6只,行手术安放脑电及肌电电极,在体描箱中进行睡眠呼吸监测. 结果 非快速动眼睡眠期(NREM)青、中、老年组自发性睡眠呼吸暂停指数(SPAI)分别为0.41(0.00,1.14)次/h、0.76(0.00,6.28)次/h、2.13(1.44,3.87)次/h,随增龄呈增加趋势(x2 =8.801,P=0.012).青、中、老年组NREM期每次叹息后呼吸暂停的时间依次为(3.51±0.18)s、(3.84±0.57)s、(4.36±0.57)s,各组间比较差异有统计学意义(F=4.729,P=0.026).快速动眼睡眠期(REM) SPAI、每次自发性呼吸暂停持续时间以及NREM期平均每次自发性呼吸暂停持续时间均随增龄有增加趋势,但各组间比较差

  1. An automatic sleep spindle detector based on wavelets and the teager energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Beena; Redissi, Amira; Tafreshi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Sleep spindles are one of the most important short-lasting rhythmic events occurring in the EEG during Non-Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Their accurate identification in a polysomnographic signal is essential for sleep professionals to help them mark Stage 2 sleep. Visual spindle scoring however is a tedious workload, as there are often a thousand spindles in an all-night recording. In this paper a novel approach for the automatic detection of sleep spindles based upon the Teager Energy Operator and wavelet packets has been presented. The Teager operator was found to accurately enhance periodic activity in epochs of the EEG containing spindles. The wavelet packet transform proved effective in accurately locating spindles in the time-frequency domain. The autocorrelation function of the resultant Teager signal and the wavelet packet energy ratio were used to identify epochs with spindles. These two features were integrated into a spindle detection algorithm which achieved an accuracy of 93.7%.

  2. Effects of sleep deprivation on polysomnography and executive function in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yingzhi; Ren Qingtao; Zong Li; Wu Yingli; Zhang Qinfeng; Ma Xiuqing; Pu Jinyu

    2014-01-01

    Backgorund Sleep deprivation (SD) has been used in treatment of depression disorder,and could effectively improve the patients' depressive symptoms.The aim of the study was to explore the effects of SD on electroencephalographic (EEG)and executive function changes in patients with depression.Methods Eighteen depression patients (DPs) and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in the present study.The whole night polysomnography (PSG) was recorded by Neurofax-1518K (Nihon Kohden,Japan) system before and after 36 hours of SD.The level of subjects' depression state was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS),and the executive function was assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST).Results Significantly decreased sleep latency (SL; before SD:(31.8±11.1) minutes,after SD:(8.8±5.2) minutes,P <0.01)and REM sleep latency (RL; before SD:(79.8±13.5) minutes,after SD:(62.9±10.2) minutes,P <0.01) were found after SD PSG in depression patients.Decreased Stage 1 (S1; before SD:(11.7±2.9)%,after SD:(7.3±1.1)%,P <0.01) and Stage 2(S2,before SD:(53.8±15.5)%,after SD:(42.3±14.7)%,P <0.05) of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep,and increased Stage 3 (S3,before SD:(11.8±5.5)%,after SD:(23.6±5.8)%,P<0.01) and Stage 4 (S4,before SD:(8.8±3.3)%,after SD:(27.4±4.8)%,P <0.01) NREM sleep were also found.After SD,the depression level in patients decreased from 6.7±2.1to 2.9±0.7 (P <0.01).In WCST,the patients showed significantly decreased Response errors (Re,before SD:22.3±2.4,after SD:18.3±2.7,P <0.01) and Response preservative errors (Rpe,before SD:11.6±3.6,after SD:9.3±2.9,P<0.05).Depression patients' RE (t=2.17,P <0.05) and Rpe (t=2.96,P <0.01) also decreased significantly compared to healthy controls.Conclusion SD can improve depression symptom and executive function in depression patients.

  3. [Effects of anti-dementia drugs on sleep-wake patterns in sleep-disturbed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Hirase, Masahiro; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-02-01

    Dementia is a neurologic disorder presenting memory impairment as a main symptom. It is well known that patients often complain of sleep disturbance as an associated symptom in dementia. It has been reported that donepezil caused sleep disturbance, but little is known about the effect of galantamine on sleep-wake patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of anti-dementia drugs on sleep-wake patterns in sleep-disturbed rats. Single administration of donepezil and galantamine caused no significant effect on sleep-wake patterns at doses used in the present study in rats. On the other hand, piracetam caused a significant decrease in sleep latency at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Next, we examined the changes in sleep-wake patterns from repeated administration of donepezil, galantamine and piracetam. Donepezil caused significant increases in sleep latency and total wake time and decrease in total non-rapid eye movement sleep time at a dose of 1 mg/kg. However, galantamine caused no effect on sleep-wake patterns. Piracetam caused significant decreases in sleep latency and total wake time at a dose of 500 mg/kg. From these results, it is concluded that donepezil deteriorated sleep disturbance, and piracetam caused somnolence. In addition, galantamine showed no influence on the sleep.

  4. Rapid eye movement-related and none rapid eye movement-related classification in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征快动眼与非快动眼分型的多道睡眠图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴丽萍; 谢绚; 曾宇慧; 王章锋; 涂秀平

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过比较阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS)快动眼(REM)与非快动眼(NREM)分型的多道睡眠图(PSG)分析,探讨OSHAS的发生机制.方法 采用Siddiqui方法,将137例成年OSAHS患者根据不同睡眠期的呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHI)分为REM型(REM期AHI/NREM期AHI>1)及NREM型(REM期AHI/NREM期AHI0.05).OSAHS轻、中、重3组中,REM型的构成比呈下降趋势,分别为77.8%、61.5%、37.3%;NREM型的构成比则逐渐升高,分别为22.7%、38.5%、62.7%(x~2=16.996,P0.05).重度组中NREM型患者的AHI高于REM型,而LSaO_2、REM期LSaO_2及NREM期LSaO_2则低于REM型,差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为-4.943、2.574、1.996和3.571,P值均≤0.05).两型OSAHS患者的睡眠潜伏期、睡眠有效率差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).结论 REM型主要分布于轻、中度OSAHS,而NREM型主要分布于重度OSAHS,NREM型患者的呼吸事件发生率、缺氧情况可能更重些.发生于不同睡眠分期的呼吸暂停可能对患者的睡眠结构、睡眠效率及睡眠潜伏期影响不大.%Objective To study the value of a new measurement that divided obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) into rapid-eye-movement (REM) related and non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) related subgroups.Methods According to Siddiqui classification, 137 adult patients with OSHAS were diagnosed as REM-related OSAHS [REM apnea hyponea index (AHI)/NREM AHI > 1] or NREM-related OSAHS (REM AHI/NREM AHI 0.05).③Given the severity of OSHAS, the constituent ratio of REM-related OSAHS decreased (77.8% ,61.5%, 37.3%) from mild to severe OSAHS, while that of NREM-related OSAHS rose (22.7% ,38.5% ,62.7% ; X~2 = 16.996, P < 0.01). In mild and moderate groups, REM LSaO_2 of REM-related OSAHS was significantly lower than those in NREM-related OSAHS (t were -4.273 and -2.136, P < 0.05), while the differences of total AHI and LSaO_2 ,NREM LSaO_2 between these two types were not significant.In severe group

  5. Facilitation of epileptic activity during sleep is mediated by high amplitude slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Avoli, Massimo; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic discharges in focal epilepsy are frequently activated during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Sleep slow waves are present during this stage and have been shown to include a deactivated ('down', hyperpolarized) and an activated state ('up', depolarized). The 'up' state enhances physiological rhythms, and we hypothesize that sleep slow waves and particularly the 'up' state are the specific components of non-rapid eye movement sleep that mediate the activation of epileptic activity. We investigated eight patients with pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsies who underwent combined scalp-intracerebral electroencephalography for diagnostic evaluation. We analysed 259 frontal electroencephalographic channels, and manually marked 442 epileptic spikes and 8487 high frequency oscillations during high amplitude widespread slow waves, and during matched control segments with low amplitude widespread slow waves, non-widespread slow waves or no slow waves selected during the same sleep stages (total duration of slow wave and control segments: 49 min each). During the slow waves, spikes and high frequency oscillations were more frequent than during control segments (79% of spikes during slow waves and 65% of high frequency oscillations, both P ∼ 0). The spike and high frequency oscillation density also increased for higher amplitude slow waves. We compared the density of spikes and high frequency oscillations between the 'up' and 'down' states. Spike and high frequency oscillation density was highest during the transition from the 'up' to the 'down' state. Interestingly, high frequency oscillations in channels with normal activity expressed a different peak at the transition from the 'down' to the 'up' state. These results show that the apparent activation of epileptic discharges by non-rapid eye movement sleep is not a state-dependent phenomenon but is predominantly associated with specific events, the high amplitude widespread slow waves that are frequent, but not

  6. Sleep Disturbance Induced by Cocaine Abstinence Involving in A2A Receptor over-Expression in Rat Hypothalamus%可卡因戒断致大鼠睡眠结构失调涉及下丘脑腺苷A2A受体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪芬芳; 刘晓军; 贺长生; 杨树龙

    2012-01-01

    本实验于大鼠体内植入无线发射器,在可卡因用药前、停药第1(急性戒断)、第8(亚急性戒断)和第14 d(亚慢性戒断)记录自由活动大鼠脑电活动24 h.Western blot法检测腺苷受体在下丘脑和小脑组织表达水平,初步探索可卡因戒断致睡眠失调与腺苷受体之间的关系.结果发现可卡因停药第8d夜晚和白天,非快眼动(NREM)睡眠增加(P<0.05),快眼动(REM)睡眠下降(P<0.01);停药第14 d,NREM睡眠夜晚显著增加(P<0.01)而白天仅略加强,但白天和夜间REM睡眠均明显下降(P<0.01).可卡因戒断第8d和第14d下丘脑腺苷A2A受体表达明显增高(P<0.05),而腺苷A1受体在可卡因戒断仅第14 d降低(P<0.05),停药第1、第8和第14d腺苷A2B亚基表达变化不明显(P>0.05).而小脑腺苷A1、A2A和A2B受体表达均未见明显改变.这些证据提示亚急性和亚慢性可卡因戒断导致睡眠失调可能部分涉及大鼠下丘脑腺苷A2A受体过表达.%Adult rats were implanted with sleep-wake recording electrodes in our experiments. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep-wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration, cocaine withdrawal day 1 (a-cute), day 8 (subacute), and day 14 (subchronic). Western blot method was performed to examine the expression levels of adenosine receptor subtypes in hypothalamus and cerebellum. Non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was significantly increased during nighttime (P<0. 01) and daytime (P<0. 05) on withdrawal day 8. The increase of NREM sleep was significant during nighttime (P<0. 01) and slight during daytime on withdrawal day 14, whereas both daytime and nighttime rapid eye movement (REM) sleeps were reduced markedly (P<0. 01) on withdrawal day 8 and 14. In addition, A2A receptor level was significantly enhanced on cocaine withdrawal day 8 and day 14 (P< 0. 05), whereas A1 receptor level reduced markedly on withdrawal day 14 (P<0. 05). However, compared with that in the

  7. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with a Kampo-formula, San'o-shashin-to: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisanaga, A; Saitoh, O; Fukuda, H; Kurokawa, K; Okabe, A; Tachibana, H; Hagino, H; Mita, T; Yamashita, I; Tsutsumi, M; Kurachi, M; Itoh, T

    1999-04-01

    The following describes a 76-year-old male with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome successfully treated with a Kampo-formula, San'o-shashin-to (Formula medicamentorum tres ad dispellendi cordis). Polysomnography, performed before and after administration of San'o-shashin-to, revealed that the apnea index decreased from 11.1 events/hour to 4.1 events/hour, and that the apnea plus hypopnea index decreased from 18.4 events/hour to 10.7 events/hour. The patient was normo-weight (body mass index: 20.4 kg/m2), and events of sleep apnea and hypopnea were mostly noted during a non-rapid eye movement sleep. It is possible that San'o-shashin-to has some alleviating effects on the upper airway resistance during sleep.

  8. Effects of interface pressure distribution on human sleep quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyong Chen

    Full Text Available High sleep quality promotes efficient performance in the following day. Sleep quality is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, sound and smell. Here, we investigated whether differences in the interface pressure distribution on healthy individuals during sleep influenced sleep quality. We defined four types of pressure models by differences in the area distribution and the subjective feelings that occurred when participants slept on the mattresses. One type of model was showed "over-concentrated" distribution of pressure; one was displayed "over-evenly" distributed interface pressure while the other two models were displayed intermediate distribution of pressure. A polysomnography analysis demonstrated an increase in duration and proportion of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stages 3 and 4, as well as decreased number of micro-arousals, in subjects sleeping on models with pressure intermediately distributed compared to models with over-concentrated or over-even distribution of pressure. Similarly, higher scores of self-reported sleep quality were obtained in subjects sleeping on the two models with intermediate pressure distribution. Thus, pressure distribution, at least to some degree, influences sleep quality and self-reported feelings of sleep-related events, though the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The regulation of pressure models imposed by external sleep environment may be a new direction for improving sleep quality. Only an appropriate interface pressure distribution is beneficial for improving sleep quality, over-concentrated or -even distribution of pressure do not help for good sleep.

  9. Effects of 5-HT2 agonist/antagonist on sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley rats%5-羟色胺2受体激动剂及拮抗剂对大鼠睡眠呼吸暂停的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟益珏; 张成; 王广发

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of 5-HT2 agonist/antagonist Ketanserin on sleep apnea in Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats. Methods Twenty adult male SD rats were operated for implantation of EEG and EMG electrodes and a microinjection probe was placed within the fourth ventricle. After recovery for a week, rats were monitored for sleep and respiration in three continuous days. There is no intervention on the first day. Before monitoring,40μl ACSF were microinjected into the Ⅳ ventricle of the rats on the second day. On the third day before monitoring,40μl DOI were microinjected into the Ⅳ ventricle of ten rats and 40μl Ketanserin into another ten ones. Results Compared with blank control and microinjection of ACSF, DOI significantly reduced the total apnea index (AI) from 18. 3(11.1,20.3)times/h and 15.2(11.4,18.0) times/h to 10.8(3.1,14.1)times/h(P = 0.005 and 0.005, respectively). Post sign apnea index (PSAI) during non-rapid eye movement(NREM) and rapid eye movement(REM) sleep as well as spontaneous apnea index (SPAI)during NREM sleep were all significantly decreased; (P 0.05). Neither sleep efficiency (the percent of total sleep time in total monitoring time) nor the time ratio of NREM sleep and REM sleep was significantly changed. In contrast to blank control and microinjection of ACSF, Ketanserin significantly reduced the total apnea index (AI) from 19.2(13.7,20.9) times/h and 19.0(12.9,21.6)times/h to 13.1(9.5,14.9) times/h(P = 0.005and 0.005, respectively). PSAI during NREM and REM sleep were significantly decreased (P 0.05, respectively). It also had no effects on sleep efficiency and the time ratio of NREM sleep and REM sleep. Conclusion Both 5-HT2 agonist and antagonist decreased the sleep apnea index and had no effects on sleep structure. It shows that the role of 5-HT2 receptor in the respiratory regulation during sleep is complex. The mechanisms involved remain to be studied in future.%目的 研究5-羟色胺2(5-HT2)受体激动剂及拮抗剂对SD

  10. Prion病与睡眠障碍%Prion diseases and sleep disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹淑琴; 郭彩凤; 王玉平; 贾建平

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases (PrD) are a group of encephalopathies with neurodegenerative changes caused by prion protein (PrP) whose characteristic datum is transmissibility.In most cases they occur in a sporadic form although a group of them are familial associated with mutations in PrP gene.Phenotypic variability of fatal familial insomnia (FFI) versus familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease178 (fCJD178) seems to determine the different methionine-valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PrP gene.Sleep disorders is one of the important clinical features for the diagnosis and definition of PrD.FFI,a hereditary disorder characterized by loss of physiological sleep with oneiric stupor,autonomic and motor hyperactivity.The polysomnography (PSG) shows disappearance of the physiological pattern of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep,as well as sleep spindles and K-complexes were absent.The hypothesis of the origin of these disorders is thalamic neuronal loss,especially in the anterior and dorsomedial nuclei,described in the neuropathology of these patients; besides,PET reveals hypofunction of thalamic nuclei,centres responsible for controlling wake-sleep.In CJD the wake-sleep disorders is not considered characteristic; nonetheless,frequent alterations have been found in the electroencephalographic registers of sleep.Besides thalamic neurodegeneration,there could be common etiopathogenic mechanisms in PrD in relation to the biological function of PrP.%Prion病是由传染性朊蛋白侵袭中枢神经系统引起的致死性神经变性脑病,睡眠障碍在Prion病中十分常见,也是其诊断特征之一.其中致死性家族性失眠症表现为严重的生理睡眠缺失及特殊梦幻状态、自主神经功能失调和过度运动;多导睡眠图早期睡眠纺锤波和K复合波消失,无法产生快速眼动和非快速眼动睡眠生理循环.除PET扫描呈现丘脑低代谢,神经病理学观察可见丘脑神经元大量缺失,尤其是丘脑

  11. Hypertension and sleep: overview of a tight relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Anne-Laure; Tamisier, Renaud; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Levy, Patrick; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Autonomic cardiovascular control changes across sleep stages. Thus, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance progressively decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Any deterioration in sleep quality or quantity may be associated with an increase in nocturnal BP which could participate in the development or poor control of hypertension. In the present report, sleep problems/disorders, which impact either the quality or quantity of sleep, are reviewed for their interaction with BP regulation and their potential association with prevalent or incident hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, sleep duration/deprivation, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy are successively reviewed. Obstructive sleep apnea is clearly associated with the development of hypertension that is only slightly reduced by continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Shorter and longer sleep durations are associated with prevalent or incident hypertension but age, gender, environmental exposures and ethnic differences are clear confounders. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration, restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy may impact BP control, needing additional studies to establish their impact in the development of permanent hypertension. Addressing sleep disorders or sleep habits seems a relevant issue when considering the risk of developing hypertension or the control of pre-existent hypertension. Combined sleep problems may have potential synergistic deleterious effects.

  12. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity.

  13. Differences of Heart Rate Variability between Different Sleeping Stages in Healthy Subjects%健康人不同睡眠时相心率变异性的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 江成璠; 王素霞; 汪飞; 邢智慧

    2015-01-01

    0.05)。Spearman 秩相关分析结果显示, RMSSD、pNN50与 HF 呈正相关(rs =0.95、0.94,P <0.001);RRIV 与 LF 呈正相关(rs =0.79,P <0.001);SDNN与 TP 呈正相关(rs =0.98,P <0.001);RMSSD 与 pNN50呈正相关(rs =0.98,P <0.001)。结论 NREM 期副交感神经兴奋性高,REM 期交感神经兴奋性占主导,时域法和频域法指标均能反映不同睡眠时相 HRV 的差异。%Objective To investigate the differences of heart rate variability(HRV)between different sleeping stages in healthy subjects. Methods The test data were taken from Sleep Heart Rate and Stroke Volume Data Bank including the sleep sinus rhythm RR interval(RRI)sequence and sleep phase data of 45 healthy subjects. RRI sequence was extracted from the ECG data whose sampling rate was 500 Hz. Sleep phase data were divided into 3 time phases:WAKE,rapid eye movement (REM),non - rapid eye movement( NREM). The sleep RRI sequence was separated into time slices(5 min as a unit). HRV indictors of each unit were calculated. The indicators of frequency domain method( FDM) included very low frequency (VLF),low frequency(LF),high frequency(HF),total energy(TP)and LF and HF ratio(LF/ HF). The time domain method(TDM)indicators included 5 min mean HR,standard deviation of all normal - to - normal intervals( SDNN),root mean square of successive differences(RMSSD),percentage of differences exceeding 50 ms between adjacent normal number of intervals(pNN50)and R - R interval variation(RRIV). The sleep time phase number contained in time slices were recorded.Results A total of 3 952 units of time slices,1 477 eligible were enrolled including 240(16. 2% )in WAKE,233(15. 8% ) in REM,1 004(68. 0% ) in NREM. There was significant difference in HRV indicators between varying sleep time phase FDMs(P < 0. 05),there into NREM was different from WAKE in VLF,LF,TP,LF/ HF(P < 0. 05);NREM different from REM in VLF,LF,HF,TP,LF/ HF(P < 0. 05),REM different from

  14. Sleep-Promoting Effects and Possible Mechanisms of Action Associated with a Standardized Rice Bran Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Um, Min Young; Lee, Jaekwang; Jung, Jonghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Yun-Tai; Kwon, Sangoh; Kim, Boknam; Cho, Suengmok

    2017-01-01

    Natural sleep aids are becoming more popular due to the widespread occurrence of sleep disorders. The objective of this study was to assess the sleep-promoting effects of rice bran—a product that is considered as a functional ingredient. To evaluate the sleep-promoting effects of a standardized rice bran supplement (RBS), we employed a pentobarbital-induced sleep test and conducted analyses of sleep architecture. In addition, the effect of RBS on a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance was investigated. Oral administration of RBS (500 and 1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Moreover, both RBS (1000 mg/kg) and doxepin hydrochloride (histamine H1 receptor antagonist, 30 mg/kg) counteracted a caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. In terms of sleep phases, RBS (500 mg/kg) promoted non-rapid eye movement sleep for the first 3 h following its administration. Lastly, we unveiled a possible mechanism for RBS action as the hypnotic effect of RBS was blocked by a histamine H1 receptor agonist. The present study revealed sleep-promoting effects of RBS using various animal assays. Such effects seem to be mediated through the histaminergic system. Our findings suggest that RBS may be a promising natural aid for relieving sleep problems. PMID:28524102

  15. Frequency of REM sleep behavior disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Sleep is prompted by natural cycles of activity in the brain and consists of two basic states: rapid eye movement (REM sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by violent motor and vocal behavior during REM sleep which represents dream enactment. The normal loss of muscle tone, with the exception of respiratory, sphincter, extra ocular and middle ear muscles, is absent in patients with RBD. The origin of RBD is frequently unknown, but can be associated with degenerative neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD patients do not necessarily express features of RBD, which is identified in approximately third to a half of them. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RBD in a cohort of PD patients, as well as to identify risk-factors for its development. Methods. In the period from December 2010 to September 2011 we recruited 97 consecutive PD outpatients, treated in the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. After establishing the diagnosis, all the patients filled out a specially constructed questionnaire with the following items: actual age, sex, age at disease onset, disease duration, form of the disease, type of treatment, duration of treatment, the presence of constipation, lessening of smell sense, and family history of PD. At entring the study, patients disability was scored using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (motor part - UPDRS. Cognitive abilities were assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE scale, and depression symptoms by the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The patients with PD were dichotomized to those with and without RBD using the RBD Questionnaire - Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK in the manner of an interview. Forms of PD, mode of treatment, sex, constipation and family history were investigated using the Fishers χ2 test. Symptoms and treatment duration, the presence of

  16. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans.

  17. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep.

  18. Sleep quality assessment using polysomnography in children on regular hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M El-Refaey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining sleep patterns in children on hemodialysis (HD are lacking. This cross-sectional, control-matched group study was performed to assess the sleep quality in children on HD. The assessment was made using a subjective sleep assessment and sleep questionnaire and objective analysis was made using full night polysomnography. A total of 25 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on HD were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The average age of the cases was 14 ± 4 years, 52% were males and the mean body mass index was 20 ± 3.8 kg/m². The average duration on dialysis was 2.6 ± 2 years. Analysis of subjective data revealed markedly affected sleep quality in HD patients, as evidenced by excessive day time sleepiness (P <0.005, night awakening (P <0.005, difficult morning arousal (P <0.005 and limb pains (P <0.005. Objective analysis showed differences in sleep architecture, less slow wave sleep in HD children, similar rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement, more sleep disordered breathing (P <0.0001 and more periodic limb movement disorders (P <0.0001. Our study suggests that children on regular HD have markedly affected objective as well as subjective quality of sleep.

  19. 睡眠过程中内膝体神经元的听反应后抑制%Post-response Inhibition on Medial Geniculate Neurons in Sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟现凯; 孙文健; 徐新秀; 张子聪; 贺菊芳

    2013-01-01

    内侧膝状体神经元接受来自离皮层系统的兴奋和抑制两种神经调节.听觉刺激诱发的内膝体神经元起始反应后会伴随着一段长时抑制.在可自由活动的大鼠上研究了内膝体神经元的听反应后抑制现象.利用植入电极阵列技术,记录了大鼠在睡眠过程中的脑电、肌电以及内膝体神经元胞外放电活动,发现在睡眠的快速眼动时期和非快速眼动时期内膝体神经元存在着听反应后抑制现象,并发现这种抑制更多地出现在非快速眼动睡眠期.在睡眠过程中,丘脑网状核听觉分区的失活会导致内膝体神经元的听反应后抑制消失或减弱.因此,我们推测丘脑网状核神经元参与了内膝体神经元在睡眠中的听反应后抑制,它在非快速眼动睡眠中对内膝体施加了更强的抑制作用.%The medial geniculate body (MGB, the auditory thalamus) receives strong corticofugal modulation that includes facilitation and inhibition. Auditory stimuli evoke an onset response that in many neurons followed by a lasting post response inhibition in MGB neurons. In the present study, we investigated the post response inhibition of MGB neurons in sleeping rats. Chronically implanted electrodes were used to record the neuronal activities of the MGB, as well as, the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electromyography (EMG) from the rats in different stages of sleep. Both ON and ON-OFF neurons in the MGB showed prolonged post-response inhibition of over 50 ms. The post-response inhibition showed a shorter duration in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than that in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. After the auditory sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) was reversibly inactivated by local application of lidocaine, the post-response inhibition of MGB neurons disappeared or decreased. Based on these results, we concluded that the TRN was involved in the post response inhibition of the MGB in sleep. The TRN applied stronger

  20. Coordinated infraslow neural and cardiac oscillations mark fragility and offline periods in mammalian sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecci, Sandro; Fernandez, Laura M J; Weber, Frederik D; Cardis, Romain; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Born, Jan; Lüthi, Anita

    2017-02-01

    Rodents sleep in bouts lasting minutes; humans sleep for hours. What are the universal needs served by sleep given such variability? In sleeping mice and humans, through monitoring neural and cardiac activity (combined with assessment of arousability and overnight memory consolidation, respectively), we find a previously unrecognized hallmark of sleep that balances two fundamental yet opposing needs: to maintain sensory reactivity to the environment while promoting recovery and memory consolidation. Coordinated 0.02-Hz oscillations of the sleep spindle band, hippocampal ripple activity, and heart rate sequentially divide non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep into offline phases and phases of high susceptibility to external stimulation. A noise stimulus chosen such that sleeping mice woke up or slept through at comparable rates revealed that offline periods correspond to raising, whereas fragility periods correspond to declining portions of the 0.02-Hz oscillation in spindle activity. Oscillations were present throughout non-REM sleep in mice, yet confined to light non-REM sleep (stage 2) in humans. In both species, the 0.02-Hz oscillation predominated over posterior cortex. The strength of the 0.02-Hz oscillation predicted superior memory recall after sleep in a declarative memory task in humans. These oscillations point to a conserved function of mammalian non-REM sleep that cycles between environmental alertness and internal memory processing in 20- to 25-s intervals. Perturbed 0.02-Hz oscillations may cause memory impairment and ill-timed arousals in sleep disorders.

  1. Atypical presentation of NREM arousal parasomnia with repetitive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanovic, N N; Shapiro, C M; Ong, A

    2007-08-01

    The case report describes a distinct variant of non-REM (Rapid Eye Movement) arousal parasomnia, sleepwalking type, featuring repetitive abrupt arousals, mostly from slow-wave sleep, and various automatisms and semi-purposeful behaviours. The frequency of events and distribution throughout the night presented as a continuous status of parasomnia ('status parasomnicus'). The patient responded well to treatment typically administered for adult NREM parasomnias, and after careful review of the clinical presentation, objective findings and treatment outcome, sleep-related epilepsy was ruled out in favour of parasomnia.

  2. Sleep architecture changes during a trek from 1400 to 5000 m in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pamela L; Edwards, Natalie; Burgess, Keith R; Sullivan, Colin E

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sleep architecture at high altitude and its relationship to periodic breathing during incremental increases in altitude. Nineteen normal, sea level-dwelling volunteers were studied at sea level and five altitudes in the Nepal Himalaya. Morning arterial blood gases and overnight polysomnography were performed in 14 subjects at altitudes: 0, 1400, 3500, 3900, 4200 and 5000 m above sea level. Subjects became progressively more hypoxic, hypocapnic and alkalinic with increasing altitude. As expected, sleep architecture was affected by increasing altitude. While time spent in Stage 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep increased at 3500 m and higher (P sleep (SWS) decreased as altitude increased. Time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was well preserved. In subjects who developed periodic breathing during sleep at one or more altitudes (16 of 19), arousals because of periodic breathing predominated, contributing to an increase in the total arousal index. However, there were no differences in sleep architecture or sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation between subjects who developed periodic breathing and those who did not. As altitude increased, sleep architecture became progressively more disturbed, with Stage 1 and SWS being affected from 3500 m, while REM sleep was well preserved. Periodic breathing was commonplace at all altitudes, and while associated with increases in arousal indices, did not have any apparent effect on sleep architecture.

  3. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis—an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms.Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values.Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006 and second (p = 0.014 nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016, compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue.Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  4. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  5. Short-term response of sleep-potentiated spiking to high-dose diazepam in electric status epilepticus during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Eksioglu, Yaman; Peters, Jurriaan M; Takeoka, Masanori; Tas, Emir; Abdelmoumen, Imane; Rotenberg, Alexander; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Riviello, James J; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2012-05-01

    We describe the short-term effects of high-dose oral diazepam on sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity in patients with electric status epilepticus during sleep. We enrolled patients treated with high-dose oral bedtime diazepam from 2001-2009. We defined spike percentage as the percentage of 1-second bins containing at least one spike, and calculated it during three randomly selected 5-minute samples of wakefulness throughout the day and during the first 5 minutes of every hour of non-rapid eye movement sleep at night. In this study, patients were considered to demonstrate sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity when their spike percentage during sleep was increased by ≥50% compared with wakefulness. Twenty-nine children (18 boys) were included (median age, 7.4 years). Twenty-four hours after receiving high-dose diazepam, epileptiform activity was significantly reduced (76.7% at baseline vs 40.8% 24 hours after high-dose diazepam; Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Z = -4.287, P status epilepticus during sleep.

  6. Impact of traumatic brain injury on sleep structure, electrocorticographic activity and transcriptome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Meriem; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Freyburger, Marlène; Massart, Renaud; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Jaber, Manar; Gosselin, Nadia; Mongrain, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (mTBI), is importantly associated with vigilance and sleep complaints. Because sleep is required for learning, plasticity and recovery, we here evaluated the bidirectional relationship between mTBI and sleep with two specific objectives: (1) Test that mTBI rapidly impairs sleep-wake architecture and the dynamics of the electrophysiological marker of sleep homeostasis (i.e., non-rapid eye movement sleep delta (1-4Hz) activity); (2) evaluate the impact of sleep loss following mTBI on the expression of plasticity markers that have been linked to sleep homeostasis and on genome-wide gene expression. A closed-head injury model was used to perform a 48h electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording in mice submitted to mTBI or Sham surgery. mTBI was found to immediately decrease the capacity to sustain long bouts of wakefulness as well as the amplitude of the time course of ECoG delta activity during wakefulness. Significant changes in ECoG spectral activity during wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep were observed mainly on the second recorded day. A second experiment was performed to measure gene expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after a mTBI followed either by two consecutive days of 6h sleep deprivation (SD) or of undisturbed behavior (quantitative PCR and next-generation sequencing). mTBI modified the expression of genes involved in immunity, inflammation and glial function (e.g., chemokines, glial markers) and SD changed that of genes linked to circadian rhythms, synaptic activity/neuronal plasticity, neuroprotection and cell death and survival. SD appeared to affect gene expression in the cerebral cortex more importantly after mTBI than Sham surgery including that of the astrocytic marker Gfap, which was proposed as a marker of clinical outcome after TBI. Interestingly, SD impacted the hippocampal expression of the plasticity elements Arc and EfnA3 only after mTBI. Overall, our

  7. Neuronal activity in the preoptic hypothalamus during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Aftab; Kumar, Sunil; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md Noor; Szymusiak, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n = 11) and VLPO (n = 13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8 ± 29.5% and 59.4 ± 17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6 ± 15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in non-REM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5 ± 7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n = 16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in non-REM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO, are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.

  8. 注意缺陷多动障碍儿童睡眠结构变化%The sleep structure of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凌云; 张建昭; 刘肖予; 王芳; 李冬青; 王立文; 杨健

    2015-01-01

    ], and among them there were 55 cases of ADHD-combined type, 25 cases of ADHD-inattentive type, and 10 cases of ADHD-hyperactive impulsive type.Thirty healthy children whose age and sex matched with ADHD group,came from Beijing and the surrounding area,were selected as the healthy control group,including 23 boys and 7 girls,6-14 years old [(9.2 ± 2.9) years old].Two groups underwent full overnight sleep assessment.Results The latency of rapid eye movement(REM) in children with ADHD was (146.58 ± 47.28) minutes, and the sleep latency was 19.00 minutes [(8.25-37.50) minutes];while the latency of REM in healthy control group was (87.55-± 13.59) minutes, and the sleep latency was 9.00 minutes [(3.50-13.63)minutes].Compared with healthy control group, children with ADHD demonstrated the increased latency REM and sleep latency, and decreased sleep efficiency,the increasing times of awakening and total duration,and these differences were all statistically significant(all P < 0.05).The percentage of non-rapid eye movement(NREM) phase Ⅱ in ADHD hybrid was lower than the ADHD attention-deficit(t =2.012,P < 0.05).Sleep latency in ADHD attention-deficit was longer than the ADHD hybrid(t =2.964,P < 0.05).No statistical differences were found among the various types in other indicators.The prevalence of periodic limb movements in sleep(PLMS) was 27.78% (25/90 cases) in ADHD group and the prevalence of PLMS was 3.30% (1/30 cases) in the healthy control group.The differences in prevalence between 2 groups were statistically significant (x2 =8.053, P < 0.05).Conclusions Children with ADHD significantly display more problems with sleep.Sleep latency and NREM Ⅱ are different between ADHD attention-deficit and ADHD hybrid.

  9. Effects of the 5-HT(1A) Receptor Agonist Tandospirone on ACTH-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ryuki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Sendo, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Kamei, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist tandospirone versus that of the benzodiazepine hypnotic flunitrazepam in a rat model of long-term adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced sleep disturbance. Rats implanted with electrodes for recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram were injected with ACTH once daily at a dose of 100 µg/rat. Administration of ACTH for 10 d caused a significant increase in sleep latency, decrease in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep time, and increase in wake time. Tandospirone caused a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in non-REM sleep time in rats treated with ACTH. The effect of tandospirone on sleep patterns was antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. In contrast, flunitrazepam had no significant effect on sleep parameters in ACTH-treated rats. These results clearly indicate that long-term administration of ACTH causes sleep disturbance, and stimulating the 5-HT1A receptor by tandospirone may be efficacious for improving sleep in cases in which benzodiazepine hypnotics are ineffective.

  10. Effect of Paroxetine on Sleep Apneas in Sprague-Dawley Rats%帕罗西汀对Sprague-Dawley大鼠睡眠呼吸暂停的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑶; 王广发; 张成

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on sleep apneas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods Thirty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups (15 rats in each group).The treatment group and the control group were injected intraperitoneally with paroxetine (10 mg · kg-1·d-1) and sterile distilled water (2 mL · kg-1 · d-1) for 7 days respectively.Parameters about sleep apnea and sleep structure were measured before and after the treatment.Results In the treatment group, there was a significant reduction of apnea index (AI) from (12.4±3.7) times/hour to (7.4±2.2) tmes/hour (P = 0.000).Both post sigh apnea index (PSAI) and spontaneous apnea index (SPAI) were decreased significantly (P = 0.000 and 0.021 respectively) in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, but not in REM sleep.REM sleep was reduced from 8.6% to 8.0% (P = 0.013) and its latency was increased from (54.1±48.4) rain to (110.9±43.4) min (P = 0.001) in the treatment group,as well as the sleep-onset latency [from (20.7±9.1) rain to (30.0±15.7) rain, P = 0.038].Conclusion Paroxetine can reduce sleep apneas in SD rats during NREM sleep.Its effects on sleep structure include reducing REM time,increasing REM latency and sleep-onset latency.%目的 研究选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)帕罗西汀对SD大鼠睡眠呼吸暂停的影响.方法 30只成年雄性SD大鼠随机分为帕罗西汀治疗组及对照组,每组15只,分别给予腹腔注射帕罗西汀(10 mg·kg-1·d-1)及灭菌蒸馏水(2 mL·kg-1·d-1)共7 d.给药前后分别进行睡眠监测,观察睡眠呼吸暂停指数(AI)及睡眠结构的变化.结果 帕罗西汀治疗组AI由(12.4±3.7)次/h降至(7.4±2.2)次/h(P=0.000),非快动眼睡眠(NREM)期叹息后呼吸暂停指数(PSAI)及自发呼吸暂停指数(SPAI)均有显著性下降(P=0.000,0.021),快动眼睡眠(REM)期呼吸暂停指数的下降无统计学意义.给予帕罗西汀后REM睡眠由8.6%降至8.0%(P

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation does not affect fear memory reconsolidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Huang, Fulian; Li, Peng; Ouyang, Xinping; Li, Zengbang; Deng, Haifeng; Yang, Yufeng

    2009-09-29

    There is increasing evidence that sleep may be involved in memory consolidation. However, there remain comparatively few studies that have explored the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. At present study, we tested the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the reconsolidation of cued (experiment 1) and contextual (experiment 2) fear memory in rats. Behaviour procedure involved four training phases: habituation, fear conditioning, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation or 6h later. The control rats were returned to their home cages immediately after reactivation and left undisturbed. Contrary to those hypotheses speculating a potential role of sleep in reconsolidation, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on the reconsolidation of both cued and contextual fear memory. However, our present results did not exclude the potential roles of non-rapid eye movement sleep in the reconsolidation of fear memory or sleep in the reconsolidation of other memory paradigms.

  12. Symbolic transfer entropy analysis of sleep stage classification%睡眠分期的符号转移熵分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井晓茹; 胡晏婷; 王俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 睡眠分期是衡量睡眠质量和诊治睡眠障碍性疾病的重要途径,转移熵是一个量化2个序列相关程度的参数.本文将基于符号化技术的符号转移熵首次应用在睡眠分期研究中,克服了以往方法对参数之间协调性要求高以及对噪声敏感的缺点.方法 通过提取相同个体相同时刻的清醒期和非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ期的EEG、ECG信号,分别进行符号化、相空间重构后,计算符号转移熵,对两个睡眠阶段的符号转移熵进行t检验及多样本验证.结果 实验结果表明清醒期符号转移熵大于非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ期的符号转移熵.经t检验表明这两个阶段的符号转移熵值有显著性差异,并通过多样本验证.随着睡眠加深,身体单元不断偶合,符号转移熵减小,与理论分析相符合.结论 清醒期和非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ期的符号转移熵很好地体现了睡眠状态的变化,因此符号转移熵可用于睡眠分期,并成为研究睡眠自动化分期的极具潜力的分析工具.%Sleep stage classification is important to the evaluation of sleep quality, the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. Transfer entropy is a parameter to measure the relevance of two time sequences symbolic transfer entropy (STE) , which is based on the technique of symbolization, may be the first application in the study of sleep stage classification. This method overcomes the drawbacks of requirement for the coordination between parameters and the sensitivity to noise contributions. Methods The EEG and EGG signals about the wake stage and the first stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep are extracted from the same people at the same time. After symbolic and space reconstruction, we compute the STE and test by t test with multi-samples. Results The STE of wake stage is larger than that of the first stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep and the difference between the two sleep stages is significant in t test. Brain cells and

  13. Individual differences in the effects of mobile phone exposure on human sleep: rethinking the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Sarah P; McKenzie, Raymond J; Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Croft, Rodney J

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phone exposure-related effects on the human electroencephalogram (EEG) have been shown during both waking and sleep states, albeit with slight differences in the frequency affected. This discrepancy, combined with studies that failed to find effects, has led many to conclude that no consistent effects exist. We hypothesised that these differences might partly be due to individual variability in response, and that mobile phone emissions may in fact have large but differential effects on human brain activity. Twenty volunteers from our previous study underwent an adaptation night followed by two experimental nights in which they were randomly exposed to two conditions (Active and Sham), followed by a full-night sleep episode. The EEG spectral power was increased in the sleep spindle frequency range in the first 30 min of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep following Active exposure. This increase was more prominent in the participants that showed an increase in the original study. These results confirm previous findings of mobile phone-like emissions affecting the EEG during non-REM sleep. Importantly, this low-level effect was also shown to be sensitive to individual variability. Furthermore, this indicates that previous negative results are not strong evidence for a lack of an effect and, given the far-reaching implications of mobile phone research, we may need to rethink the interpretation of results and the manner in which research is conducted in this field.

  14. Sleep stage classification based on average energy dissipation%基于平均能量耗散的睡眠分期研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦东来; 冯昊; 姚凤华; 孟浩; 井晓茹; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of sleep has a great relationship with health. The result of sleep stage classification is an important indicator to measure the quality of sleep and treat sleep disorders. Methods The EEG signals about wake and the first stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep we used in this paper are extracted from the same person at the same time. After the symbolization, we compute the average energy dissipations and make the statistical analysis and multi-sample analysis. Results The average energy dissipation reflects the changes of sleep stages, which is higher in wake stage than in the first stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep, and is confirmed by statistical analysis and multi-sample experiments. Conclusions The average energy dissipation can be applied into automatic sleep stage classification. Multi-parameter analysis could achieve a higher accuracy of sleep stage classification.%目的 睡眠质量影响身体健康与工作效率,睡眠分期结果是衡量睡眠质量的重要指标和诊治睡眠障碍性疾病的重要途径.方法 通过提取相同个体相同时刻的清醒期和非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ期的EEG信号,分别符号化后计算平均能量耗散,对两个睡眠阶段的相对熵进行统计分析及多样本验证.结果 研究结果表明,平均能量耗散很好地反映了睡眠状态的变化,在清醒期较大,在非快速眼动睡眠Ⅰ期较小,并通过差异显著性检验和多样本验证.结论 平均能量耗散可以作为睡眠自动化分期参数补充到睡眠分期研究中来,在临床上可通过多参数分析,提高睡眠分期的准确性.

  15. Objective sleep structure and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder%帕金森病合并快速眼球运动睡眠行为障碍患者的客观睡眠结构及认知功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈赟; 毛成洁; 熊康平; 龚艳; 韩菲; 胡伟东; 黄隽英; 刘春风

    2013-01-01

    's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD),and then explore the correlation between sleep structure and cognitive function in PD patients with RBD.Methods It was a cross-sectional study.Ninety-seven patients in our sleep center,including 39 PD patients with RBD and 21 age-and sex-matched idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients (control group),37 PD patients without RBD (control group),underwent video-polysomnography to acquire sleep parameters.Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) on the same day.A multiple linear regression model was used to find the score of cognition correlated with sleep structure.Results (1) The sleep efficiency,total sleep time,non-rapid eye movement (NREM)2 and REM sleep time were all significantly decreased in PD patients with RBD than those in iRBD patients (60.9% ± 16.9% vs 77.8% ± 16.9%,(329.7±96.5) min vs (397.1±88.9) min,(127.6 ±67.6) min vs (188.0 ±94.7) min,(45.3±33.2) min vs (70.6 ± 25.9) min,all P < 0.05),respectively.There were no significant differences of these above parameters compared to PD patients without RBD(61.3% ± 21.7%,(324.9 ± 134.6) min,(132.6 ± 65.6) min,(47.1 ± 31.9) min).There was no statistical significance in sleep latency,REMsleep latency,NREM1 time,the percentage of slow wave sleep,oxygen desaturation index,apnea hyponea index and periodic leg movement in sleep among three groups.(2) PD patients with RBD had the lowest MoCA scores.The score of visuospatial and executive function in PD patients with RBD was lower than that in iRBD (3.8 ± 1.1 vs 4.4 ± 0.7 ; F =3.426,P < 0.05).(3) Multiple linear regression analysis showed that there was correlation between the score of visuospatial and executive functions and the course of RBD,sleep efficiency and NREM2 in PD patients with RBD.Conclusions The PD patients with RBD have the worst sleep efficiency and cognitive function,the shortest total sleep time,NREM2 and REM sleep time

  16. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L

    2011-12-01

    In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.

  17. Cells of a common developmental origin regulate REM/non-REM sleep and wakefulness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yu; Kashiwagi, Mitsuaki; Yasuda, Kosuke; Ando, Reiko; Kanuka, Mika; Sakai, Kazuya; Itohara, Shigeyoshi

    2015-11-20

    Mammalian sleep comprises rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. To functionally isolate from the complex mixture of neurons populating the brainstem pons those involved in switching between REM and NREM sleep, we chemogenetically manipulated neurons of a specific embryonic cell lineage in mice. We identified excitatory glutamatergic neurons that inhibit REM sleep and promote NREM sleep. These neurons shared a common developmental origin with neurons promoting wakefulness; both derived from a pool of proneural hindbrain cells expressing Atoh1 at embryonic day 10.5. We also identified inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing neurons that act downstream to inhibit REM sleep. Artificial reduction or prolongation of REM sleep in turn affected slow-wave activity during subsequent NREM sleep, implicating REM sleep in the regulation of NREM sleep.

  18. Physiology of Normal Sleep: From Young to Old

    OpenAIRE

    V Mohan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Human sleep, defined on the basis of electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram(EMG) and electrooculogram (EOG), is divided into rapid eye movement (REM) sleepand four stages of non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Collective monitoring andrecording of physiological data during sleep is called polysomnography. Sleep whichnormally starts with a period of NREM alternates with REM, about 4-5 times, everynight. Sleep pattern changes with increasing age. Newborns sleep for about 14-16hours in a da...

  19. 光通过自主感光视网膜神经节细胞调节睡眠活动%Light induced sleep is mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 王烈成; 吴芳; 李晓凤; 洪艳; 丁正霞; 许奇; 张瑾; 薛天; 鲍进

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the light modulates sleep and wakefulness of rodents through intrinsi-cally photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Methods Mice were divided into four groups, including C57BL/6(WT), melanopsin knock out (MKO), melanopsin only (MO) and coneless, rodless and melanopsin knock out ( TKO) . The normal 12 h∶ 12 h light dark cycle and 3 h light pulse administered at 1 h after the turning off of light (21:00) were used to detect the variation of sleep activity. Results In the normal 12 h ∶ 12 h light dark cycle, WT, MKO and MO mice had a regular day-night rhythm and no significant difference in wakefulness, rapid eye movement ( REM) and non-rapid eye movement ( NREM) . However, TKO mice could not be entrained according to the light-dark cycle and exhibited free-running rhythm. During 3 h light pulse, the amount of wakeful-ness in WT mice decreased ( P<0. 01 ) along with an increase of REM ( P<0. 01 ) , NREM ( P<0. 01 ) and total sleep time (TST) (P<0. 01) compared with the corresponding time of the normal 12 h ∶ 12 h light dark cycle. MO mice exhibited a similar effect with a decrease of wakefulness (P<0. 01) and an increase of REM, NREM and TST (P<0. 05, P< 0. 05, P<0. 01, respectively). Both MKO and TKO mice had no significant changes for all stages during the light pulse. Conclusion Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells play an important role in light induced sleep of mice.%目的:利用不同基因型小鼠,探讨有无自主感光视网膜神经节细胞( ipRGCs )的小鼠在光的调节下对睡眠-觉醒活动的影响。方法四种不同基因型小鼠,分别为野生型(C57BL/6,WT),ipRGCs不感光型(MKO),仅保留ipRGCs型( MO )和视杆、视锥细胞缺失且 ipRGCs 不感光型( TKO)。记录小鼠在12 h ∶12 h明暗交替下24 h睡眠量和觉醒量以及在关灯后1 h (即21:00)给予3 h光照,观察其在光照期间(21:00~24:00)睡眠量和觉醒量的变化。结果在12 h ∶12 h

  20. 快动眼睡眠相关阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征的睡眠监测特点%Polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome associated with rapid eye movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪松; 后农生; 郝锐

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨与快动眼(rapid eye movement,REM)睡眠期密切相关的阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OSAHS),即REM OSAHS患者的临床及睡眠监测特点.方法 回顾在我院进行多道睡眠图(PSG)监测诊断为OSAHS的患者,根据REM睡眠期呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHIREM)和慢动眼睡眠期(non-rapid eye movement,NREM)呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHINREM)将其分为两组,AHIREM/AHINREM>2为REM OSAHS组,AHIREM/AHINREM≤2为NREM OSAHS组,比较REM OSAHS与NREM OSAHS临床睡眠监测指标的差异.结果 159例OSAHS患者中,REM OSAHS占19.5%,其中男性占58.1%,女性占41.9%:REM OSAHS组与NREM OSAHS组年龄比较差异具有显著性[(34.9±13.5)岁vs(39.6±9.6)岁];两组体块指数(BMI)比较,差异无显著性[(28.1±2.5)kg/m2 vs(28.8±3.4)kg/m2];两组总睡眠呼吸暂停低通气指数(AHITST)比较,差异具有显著性[(32.2±29.8)次/h vs(53.0±27.5)次/h].结论 REM OSAHS女性与男性发病率相近,且年龄较轻,病情较轻.

  1. Sleep Impairment and Reduced Interneuron Excitability in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalume, Franck; Oakley, John C.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Gile, Jennifer; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Dravet Syndrome (DS) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Our genetic mouse model of DS recapitulates its severe seizures and premature death. Sleep disturbance is common in DS, but its mechanism is unknown. Electroencephalographic studies revealed abnormal sleep in DS mice, including reduced delta wave power, reduced sleep spindles, increased brief wakes, and numerous interictal spikes in Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep. Theta power was reduced in Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep. Mice with NaV1.1 deleted specifically in forebrain interneurons exhibited similar sleep pathology to DS mice, but without changes in circadian rhythm. Sleep architecture depends on oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical network generated by excitatory neurons in the ventrobasal nucleus (VBN) of the thalamus and inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RNT). Whole-cell NaV current was reduced in GABAergic RNT neurons but not in VBN neurons. Rebound firing of action potentials following hyperpolarization, the signature firing pattern of RNT neurons during sleep, was also reduced. These results demonstrate imbalance of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in this circuit. As predicted from this functional impairment, we found substantial deficit in homeostatic rebound of slow wave activity following sleep deprivation. Although sleep disorders in epilepsies have been attributed to anti-epileptic drugs, our results show that sleep disorder in DS mice arises from loss of NaV1.1 channels in forebrain GABAergic interneurons without drug treatment. Impairment of NaV currents and excitability of GABAergic RNT neurons are correlated with impaired sleep quality and homeostasis in these mice. PMID:25766678

  2. Essential Thalamic Contribution to Slow Waves of Natural Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, François; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Taylor, Hannah L.; Orban, Gergely; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Uebele, Victor N.; Renger, John J.; Lambert, Régis C.; Leresche, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Slow waves represent one of the prominent EEG signatures of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and are thought to play an important role in the cellular and network plasticity that occurs during this behavioral state. These slow waves of natural sleep are currently considered to be exclusively generated by intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms within neocortical territories, although a role for the thalamus in this key physiological rhythm has been suggested but never demonstrated. Combining neuronal ensemble recordings, microdialysis, and optogenetics, here we show that the block of the thalamic output to the neocortex markedly (up to 50%) decreases the frequency of slow waves recorded during non-REM sleep in freely moving, naturally sleeping-waking rats. A smaller volume of thalamic inactivation than during sleep is required for observing similar effects on EEG slow waves recorded during anesthesia, a condition in which both bursts and single action potentials of thalamocortical neurons are almost exclusively dependent on T-type calcium channels. Thalamic inactivation more strongly reduces spindles than slow waves during both anesthesia and natural sleep. Moreover, selective excitation of thalamocortical neurons strongly entrains EEG slow waves in a narrow frequency band (0.75–1.5 Hz) only when thalamic T-type calcium channels are functionally active. These results demonstrate that the thalamus finely tunes the frequency of slow waves during non-REM sleep and anesthesia, and thus provide the first conclusive evidence that a dynamic interplay of the neocortical and thalamic oscillators of slow waves is required for the full expression of this key physiological EEG rhythm. PMID:24336724

  3. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mrdalj

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min or brief maternal separation (10 min. Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  4. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  5. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yao Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11, mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10, moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference, and polysomnographic (PSG data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5 and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10. Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001. Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis.

  6. Intelligence measures and stage 2 sleep in typically-developing and autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Lambert, Andréane; Chicoine, Marjolaine; Scherzer, Peter; Soulières, Isabelle; Godbout, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between intelligence measures and 2 EEG measures of non-rapid eye movement sleep, sleep spindles and Sigma activity, was examined in 13 typically-developing (TD) and 13 autistic children with normal IQ and no complaints of poor sleep. Sleep spindles and Sigma EEG activity were computed for frontal (Fp1, Fp2) and central (C3, C4) recording sites. Time in stage 2 sleep and IQ was similar in both groups. Autistic children presented less spindles at Fp2 compared to the TD children. TD children showed negative correlation between verbal IQ and sleep spindle density at Fp2. In the autistic group, verbal and full-scale IQ scores correlated negatively with C3 sleep spindle density. The duration of sleep spindles at Fp1 was shorter in the autistic group than in the TD children. The duration of sleep spindles at C4 was positively correlated with verbal IQ only in the TD group. Fast Sigma EEG activity (13.25-15.75 Hz) was lower at C3 and C4 in autistic children compared to the TD children, particularly in the latter part of the night. Only the TD group showed positive correlation between performance IQ and latter part of the night fast Sigma activity at C4. These results are consistent with a relationship between EEG activity during sleep and cognitive processing in children. The difference between TD and autistic children could derive from dissimilar cortical organization and information processing in these 2 groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Adult-onset NREM parasomnia with hypnopompic hallucinatory pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoan, Laura; Eriksson, Sofia H; Nisbet, Angus P; Walker, Matthew C

    2013-02-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with nocturnal episodes of pain and screaming during sleep starting at age 30. There was no childhood or family history of parasomnia. The events had gradually become more frequent over the years, occurring in the first half of the night within 2 h of sleep onset. There were no triggers, and she had partial amnesia for the events. A diagnosis of adult-onset sleep terrors was made on clinical grounds and supported polysomnographically. Seizures and periodic limb movements were excluded as triggering factors. There was some mild sleep disordered breathing (predominantly non-desaturating hypopnea with a propensity for REM sleep of debatable significance). Imaging of the brain and spine and neurophysiological investigations ruled out lesions, entrapments, or neuropathies as possible causes of pain. Treatment (clonazepam, paroxetine, or gabapentin) was poorly tolerated and made no difference to the nocturnal episodes, while trazodone worsened them. This is the first report of hypnopompic psychic pain in association with a NREM parasomnia. We hypothesize that the pain may represent a sensory hallucination analogous to the more commonly recognized visual NREM parasomnia-associated hypnopompic visual hallucinations and that, as such, it may arise during arousal of the sensory neocortex as confabulatory response.

  8. Distinctive features of NREM parasomnia behaviors in parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro-Luca Ratti

    Full Text Available To characterize parasomnia behaviors on arousal from NREM sleep in Parkinson's Disease (PD and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA.From 30 patients with PD, Dementia with Lewy Bodies/Dementia associated with PD, or MSA undergoing nocturnal video-polysomnography for presumed dream enactment behavior, we were able to select 2 PD and 2 MSA patients featuring NREM Parasomnia Behviors (NPBs. We identified episodes during which the subjects seemed to enact dreams or presumed dream-like mentation (NPB arousals versus episodes with physiological movements (no-NPB arousals. A time-frequency analysis (Morlet Wavelet Transform of the scalp EEG signals around each NPB and no- NPB arousal onset was performed, and the amplitudes of the spectral frequencies were compared between NPB and no-NPB arousals.19 NPBs were identified, 12 of which consisting of 'elementary' NPBs while 7 resembling confusional arousals. With quantitative EEG analysis, we found an amplitude reduction in the 5-6 Hz band 40 seconds before NPBs arousal as compared to no-NPB arousals at F4 and C4 derivations (p<0.01.Many PD and MSA patients feature various NREM sleep-related behaviors, with clinical and electrophysiological differences and similarities with arousal parasomnias in the general population.This study help bring to attention an overlooked phenomenon in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Caffeine in the neonatal period induces long-lasting changes in sleep and breathing in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, Gaspard; Horner, Richard L; Kinkead, Richard; Bairam, Aida

    2009-11-15

    Caffeine is commonly used clinically to treat apnoeas and unstable breathing associated with premature birth. Caffeine antagonizes adenosine receptors and acts as an efficient respiratory stimulant in neonates. Owing to its persistent effects on adenosine receptor expression in the brain, neonatal caffeine administration also has significant effects on maturation of the respiratory control system. However, since adenosine receptors are critically involved in sleep regulation, and sleep also modulates breathing, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal caffeine treatment disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in the adult rat. Neonatal caffeine treatment (15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was administered from postnatal days 3-12. At adulthood (8-10 weeks old), sleep and breathing were measured with a telemetry system and whole-body plethysmography respectively. In adult rats treated with caffeine during the neonatal period, sleep time was reduced, sleep onset latency was increased, and non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep was fragmented compared to controls. Ventilation at rest was higher in caffeine-treated adult rats compared to controls across sleep/wake states. Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were significantly reduced in caffeine-treated rats compared to control rats across sleep/wake states. Additional experiments in adult anaesthetized rats showed that at similar levels of arterial blood gases, phrenic nerve activity was enhanced in caffeine-treated rats. This study demonstrates that administration of caffeine in the neonatal period alters respiratory control system activity in awake and sleeping rats, as well as in the anaesthetized rats, and also has persistent disrupting effects on sleep that are apparent in adult rats.

  10. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3

  11. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-05

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered.

  12. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Hofman; L.M. Talamini

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in t

  13. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications. PMID:23130910

  14. Brain targeted transcranial administration of diazepam and shortening of sleep latency in healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pathirana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of medicated oils on scalp had been practiced for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in diseases associated with the central nervous system. It is possible that the effectiveness of the therapy may be a result of targeted delivery of active compounds to the brain transcranially. Evidence also comes from two previous studies with positive results on brain targeted transcranial delivery of methadone base and diazepam on rat models. Possibility of transcranial drug delivery was investigated in healthy human volunteers using electroencephalography techniques by assessing the ability of transcranially administered diazepam in bringing about β activity in the electroencephalographic wave patterns and shortening of the sleep latency period. Non polar drug molecules dissolved in a non-aqueous sesame oil based vehicle is a significant feature in the transcranial dosage design. The study was under taken in two phases. In the Phase-I study scalp application of a single dose of 2 mg/3 ml of the oil was employed and in the Phase-II study repeat application of three doses 24 h apart were employed. Sleep latency changes were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests with 5 naps employing the standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. Sleep onset was identified with the first epoch of any sleep stage non rapid eye movement 1, 2, 3, 4 or rapid eye movement using electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography criteria. In both phases of the study there was significant reduction in the sleep latencies. It was much more pronounced in the Phase-II study. None of the subjects however displayed beta activity in the electroencephalography. Sleep latency reduction following scalp application in both the phases are suggestive of transcranial migration of diazepam molecules to the receptor sites of the nerve tissue of the brain eliciting its pharmacological effect of sedation

  15. Effect of clonazepam and clonidine on primary sleep bruxism: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takuro; Kato, Takafumi; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Yoshida, Yuya; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Ishii, Masakazu; Kawana, Fusae; Kiuchi, Yuji; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of clonazepam and clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in young adults with primary sleep bruxism, as well as accompanying effects on sleep architecture and cardiac activity. This study used a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Polysomnography was performed on 19 subjects [nine men and 10 women; mean age (±SE): 25.4 ± 2.7 years] for 5 nights. The first 2 nights were used for the habituation and diagnosis of sleep bruxism. The other 3 nights were randomly assigned for clonazepam (1.0 mg), clonidine (0.15 mg) or placebo (all administered 30 min before bedtime). Sleep, oromotor activity and cardiac activity variables were assessed and compared among the three drug conditions. Clonidine significantly reduced the median percentage of time spent in the rapid eye movement sleep stage compared with placebo and clonazepam. The number of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes was reduced with clonidine by >30% compared with placebo and clonazepam. The reduction of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity index by clonidine was associated with an increase of mean RR intervals (slower heart rate) during quiet sleep periods and during a 70-s period before the onset of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes. However, no changes in cardiac activity variables were observed for clonazepam. In young adults with primary sleep bruxism, clonidine was significantly more effective in suppressing sleep bruxism than clonazepam. The acute effects of clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes may be mediated by suppression of autonomic nervous system activity and non-rapid eye movement-rapid eye movement sleep processes.

  16. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition.

  17. Pilot study on the differences of young male's sleep structure and quality between indigenous Tibetans and longtime Han residents in high altitude area%高原地区世居藏族与久居汉族青年男性睡眠结构及质量差异的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉红; 乌仁塔娜; 嘎琴; 关巍; 格日力

    2015-01-01

    awakening ((1.9 ± 0.8) vs (4.1 ± 1.3)/h) and micro-awakening ((23.4 ± 5.8) vs (28.7 ± 4.1)/h),the oxygen reduction index ((11.7 ± 4.8) vs (16.3 ± 7.5)/h),apnea hypoventilation index (AHI) ((5.8 ± 2.3) vs (9.6 ± 4.2)/h) and average heart rate ((66.9 ± 8.3) vs (79.9 ± 6.7)/min) of Tibetans were significantly lower than Hans (all P <0.05).Tibetans had longer slow wave sleep (20.1% ±7.2% vs 8.8% ±3.3%) and the Hans had longer stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (31.1% ± 11.9% vs 18.4% ± 6.7%) and shallow sleep (76.1 ± 11.7 vs 70.8 ± 11.2) (all P < 0.05).Conclusion Tibetans have better sleep quality and higher sleep efficiency than Han residents at high altitude.

  18. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  19. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Hong; Qu, Wei-Min; Bian, Min-Juan; Huang, Fang; Fei, Jian; Urade, Yoshihiro; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2013-01-01

    GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO) mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM) sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  20. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  1. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone reduces sleep during dark phase and suppresses orexin A but not orexin B in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pingfu; Akladious, Afaf A; Hu, Yufen; Raslan, Yousef; Feng, James; Smith, Phillip J

    2015-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) binds to Tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) receptors that regulate synaptic strength and plasticity in the mammalian nervous system. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) is a recently identified small molecule Trk B agonist that has been reported to ameliorate depression, attenuate the fear response, improve memory consolidation, and exert neuroprotective effects. Poor and disturbed sleep remains a symptom of major depressive disorder and most current antidepressants affect sleep. Therefore, we conducted sleep/wake recordings and concomitant measurement of brain orexins, endogenous peptides that suppress sleep, in mice for this study. Baseline polysomnograph recording was performed for 24 h followed by treatment with either 5 mg/kg of DHF or vehicle at the beginning of the dark phase. Animals were sacrificed the following day, one hour after the final treatment with DHF. Orexin A and B were quantified using ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Total sleep was significantly decreased in the DHF group, 4 h after drug administration in the dark phase, when compared with vehicle-treated animals. This difference was due to a significant decrease of non-rapid eye movement sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep. DHF increased power of alpha and sigma bands but suppressed power of gamma band during sleep in dark phase. Interestingly, hypothalamic levels of orexin A were also significantly decreased in the DHF group (97 pg/mg) when compared with the vehicle-treated group (132 pg/mg). However, no significant differences of orexin B were observed between groups. Additionally, no change was found in immobility tests.

  2. Characterisation of the effects of caffeine on sleep in the rat: a potential model of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, L M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Hutson, P H; Ivarsson, M

    2009-07-01

    Caffeine is known to disrupt sleep and its administration to human subjects has been used to model sleep disruption. We previously showed that its effects on sleep onset latency are comparable between rats and humans. This study evaluated the potential use of caffeine as a model of sleep disruption in the rat, by assessing its effects on sleep architecture and electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency spectrum, and using sleep-promoting drugs to reverse these effects. Rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices for body temperature, EEG, electromyogram and locomotor activity. Following recovery, animals were dosed with caffeine (10 mg/kg) alone or in combination with zolpidem (10 mg/kg) or trazodone (20 mg/kg). Sleep was scored for the subsequent 12 h using automated analysis software. Caffeine dose-dependently disrupted sleep: it increased WAKE time, decreased NREM (non-REM) sleep time and NREM bout duration (but not bout number), and decreased delta activity in NREM sleep. It also dose-dependently increased locomotor activity and body temperature. When given alone, zolpidem suppressed REM whilst trazodone increased NREM sleep time at the expense of WAKE, increased NREM bout duration, increased delta activity in NREM sleep and reduced body temperature. In combination, zolpidem attenuated caffeine's effects on WAKE, whilst trazodone attenuated its effects on NREM sleep, NREM bout duration, delta activity, body temperature and locomotor activity. Caffeine administration produced many of the signs of insomnia that were improved by two of its most successful current treatments. This model may therefore be useful in the study of new drugs for the treatment of sleep disturbance.

  3. Pediatric parasomnias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Thornton B A; Pack, Allan I

    2007-02-01

    Parasomnias in childhood are common, and often more frequent than in adults. The large number of parasomnias underscore that sleep is not simply a quiescent state, but can involve complex episodes of movement, ranging from subtle to dramatic and complex. Clinicians should be aware that many pediatric parasomnias are benign, self-limited, and may not persist into late childhood or adolescence. Importantly, parasomnias in childhood often differ in type from adults. Nevertheless, parasomnias across ages can be classified as: 1) disorders of arousal (from non-rapid eye movement, or NREM, sleep); 2) parasomnias usually associated with REM sleep; and 3) other parasomnias. We detail here issues in the clinical diagosis, evaluation, and management of multiple pediatric parasomnias. The further study of parasomnias in children may help elucidate the multi-factorial etiologies of these fascinating conditions, shedding light on the potential genetic bases as well as environmental contributions.

  4. NREM parasomnias: arousal disorders and differentiation from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Ferini-Strambi, L

    2000-09-01

    Parasomnias emerging from NREM sleep such as sleep walking, sleep terrors and confusional arousals are considered arousal disorders. Nocturnal video-polysomnography is the gold standard to diagnosing and differentiating parasomnias from other arousals with atypical motor behaviors such as nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). This form of nocturnal seizures with prominent dystonic-dyskinetic components, in some cases genetic, has been recently identified by means of detailed video-analysis of movements during sleep. The clinical picture of parasomnias (with onset in early childhood, rare episodes of long duration, absence of stereotypy, general disappearance after puberty) is different from that of NFLE (which first occurs between the age of 10 and 20, manifests frequent complex and repetitive behaviors of short duration excluding rare prolonged seizures, nocturnal agitation, some daytime complaints such as fatigue or sleepiness, persistence into adulthood). Patients show no difference from classical sleep parameters whilst microstructure analysis shows sleep instability and arousal fluctuations in parasomnias and NFLE. In children as well, at least in our experience, the differential diagnosis between the two disorders is difficult and requires one or more complete nocturnal video-polygraphic recording. In any case the diagnosis of NFLE should be considered in children with nocturnal motor episodes or nocturnal motor agitation, when the attacks persist; this diagnosis is probably more frequent than expected.

  5. NREM-related parasomnias in Machado-Joseph disease: clinical and polysomnographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselle Melo Fontes; Pedroso, José Luiz; Dos Santos, Diogo Fernandes; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Do Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes; De Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Barsottini, Orlando G P; Do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes

    2016-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that affect the cerebellum and its connections, and have a marked clinical and genetic variability. Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3)--MJD/SCA3--is the most common SCA worldwide. MJD/SCA3 is characterized classically by progressive ataxia and variable other motor and non-motor symptoms. Sleep disorders are common, and include rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), restless legs syndrome (RLS), insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, excessive fragmentary myoclonus and sleep apnea. This study aims to focus upon determining the presence or not of non-REM (NREM)-related parasomnias in MJD/SCA 3, using data from polysomnography (PSG) and clinical evaluation. Forty-seven patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of MJD/SCA3 and 47 control subjects were evaluated clinically and by polysomnography. MJD/SCA3 patients had a higher frequency of arousals from slow wave sleep (P parasomnia complaints (confusional arousal/sleep terrors, P = 0.001; RBD, P parasomnias must be included in the spectrum of sleep disorders in MJD/SCA3 patients.

  6. Adult NREM parasomnia associated with lancinating throat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušková, Jitka; Sonka, Karel

    2014-08-15

    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman presenting with dangerous nocturnal NREM episodes with the clinical feature of lancinating throat pain. We hypothesize that the pain may have represented sensory hallucination analogous to commonly recognized visual images associated with NREM parasomnias. This case is also unusual for probable psychological triggers that could play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, as evidenced by successful psychotherapy.

  7. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  8. Basic values for heart and respiratory rates during different sleep stages in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Konrad; Heussen, Nicole; Vaeßen, Peter; Wallmeier, Cathrin; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Wenzl, Tobias G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically register data for respiratory and heart rates (RR and HR, respectively) during different sleep stages [active (AS, i.e., rapid eye movement) and quiet (QS, i.e., non-rapid eye movement) sleep] and age in a large number of healthy infants (277) during the first year of life to simplify polysomnography. The reference values in this age group differ significantly between the number of patients and age at time of investigation. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the measurement of polysomnography included HR (beats per minute, or bpm), RR (breaths per minute, or breaths/min), brain waves, SO2, sound, and video. Data recording and evaluation occurred via Alice 3®/3.5®(Respironics®), classification into AS and QS sleep according to maturity. For RR, the 5th-95th percentiles during AS decreased from 25.8-47.7 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-27.7 breaths/min (>9 months). During QS, RR ranged from 27.4-51.5 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-29.2 breaths/min (>9 months). HR decreased during AS from 118.3-150.6 bpm (1st month) to 100.9-126.4 bpm (>9 months). During QS, HR decreased from 116.0-149.9 bpm (1st month) to 93.7-119.8 bpm (>9 months). The mean HR and RR significantly decreased with age in both sleep stages (psleep stages during the first year of life.

  9. Sleep EEG spectral analysis in a diurnal rodent : Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, DJ; DAAN, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Sleep was studied in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. Analysis of the distribution of wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over the 24 h period (LD 12:12) showed that total sleep time was 27.5%

  10. Sustaining sleep spindles through enhanced SK2-channel activity consolidates sleep and elevates arousal threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Ralf D; Astori, Simone; Bond, Chris T; Rovó, Zita; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Adelman, John P; Franken, Paul; Lüthi, Anita

    2012-10-03

    Sleep spindles are synchronized 11-15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during nonrapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Ca(v)3.3-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K(+) channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection against environmental noise in human NREMS. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism through which spindle power is selectively extended and we probed the actions of intensified spindling in the naturally sleeping mouse. Using electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices from SK2 channel-overexpressing (SK2-OE) mice, we found that nRt bursting was potentiated and thalamic circuit oscillations were prolonged. Moreover, nRt cells showed greater resilience to transit from burst to tonic discharge in response to gradual depolarization, mimicking transitions out of NREMS. Compared with wild-type littermates, chronic EEG recordings of SK2-OE mice contained less fragmented NREMS, while the NREMS EEG power spectrum was conserved. Furthermore, EEG spindle activity was prolonged at NREMS exit. Finally, when exposed to white noise, SK2-OE mice needed stronger stimuli to arouse. Increased nRt bursting thus strengthens spindles and improves sleep quality through mechanisms independent of EEG slow waves (<4 Hz), suggesting SK2 signaling as a new potential therapeutic target for sleep disorders and for neuropsychiatric diseases accompanied by weakened sleep spindles.

  11. Sleep stability and transitions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Jennum, Poul; Koch, Henriette;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). As wake/sleep-regulation is thought to involve neurons located in the brainstem and hypothalamic areas, we hypothesize that the neurodegeneration in i...... with periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD) and 23 controls. Measures were computed based on manual scorings and data-driven labeled sleep staging. Results: Patients with PD showed significantly lower REM stability than controls and patients with PLMD. Patients with iRBD had significantly lower REM stability......RBD/PD is likely to affect wake/sleep and REM/non-REM (NREM) sleep transitions. Methods: We determined the frequency of wake/sleep and REM/NREM sleep transitions and the stability of wake (W), REM and NREM sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) in 27 patients with PD, 23 patients with iRBD, 25 patients...

  12. Sleep stage and obstructive apneaic epoch classification using single-lead ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Bülent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysomnography (PSG is used to define physiological sleep and different physiological sleep stages, to assess sleep quality and diagnose many types of sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. However, PSG requires not only the connection of various sensors and electrodes to the subject but also spending the night in a bed that is different from the subject's own bed. This study is designed to investigate the feasibility of automatic classification of sleep stages and obstructive apneaic epochs using only the features derived from a single-lead electrocardiography (ECG signal. Methods For this purpose, PSG recordings (ECG included were obtained during the night's sleep (mean duration 7 hours of 17 subjects (5 men with ages between 26 and 67. Based on these recordings, sleep experts performed sleep scoring for each subject. This study consisted of the following steps: (1 Visual inspection of ECG data corresponding to each 30-second epoch, and selection of epochs with relatively clean signals, (2 beat-to-beat interval (RR interval computation using an R-peak detection algorithm, (3 feature extraction from RR interval values, and (4 classification of sleep stages (or obstructive apneaic periods using one-versus-rest approach. The features used in the study were the median value, the difference between the 75 and 25 percentile values, and mean absolute deviations of the RR intervals computed for each epoch. The k-nearest-neighbor (kNN, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA, and support vector machines (SVM methods were used as the classification tools. In the testing procedure 10-fold cross-validation was employed. Results QDA and SVM performed similarly well and significantly better than kNN for both sleep stage and apneaic epoch classification studies. The classification accuracy rates were between 80 and 90% for the stages other than non-rapid-eye-movement stage 2. The accuracies were 60 or 70% for that specific stage

  13. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  14. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  15. Changes in cerebral hemodynamics during a sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bingwei; Li, Jialing; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xiuqiong; Zheng, Zhiying; Mai, Jianning

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the cerebral hemodynamic changes during a routine sleep-deprived video-electroencephalogram (SD-VEEG) in healthy children. Forty-two children with normal intelligence were examined. The children were 5-14 years of age, and their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were within the normal range. Each subject was deprived of a routine night's sleep and then examined during non-drug-induced sleep in the daytime. The awake and sleep stages were evaluated using EEGs, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Stable transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) tracings through real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring were recorded. The mean systolic cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), diastolic CBFV, pulsatility index and resistance index of each artery were analyzed for 30 s per stage. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to compare the hemodynamic parameters for the awake stage versus light sleep and deep sleep stages. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was associated with an increased CBFV in the middle (164.38  ±  27.28) and anterior cerebral artery (131.81  ±  21.55) during light sleep (stages N1 and N2) (P  =  0.0001), a reduced systolic CBFV in all vascular arteries (LMCA, 138.73  ±  20.64; LACA, 108.33  ±  22.33; LPCA, 83.9  ±  18.6) during deep sleep (stage N3) compared with light sleep (P  =  0.0001), and a sustained increased PI (LMCA, 0.92  ±  0.13; LACA, 0.964  ±  0.18) during deep sleep (P  <  0.05). These findings indicate distinct cerebral hemodynamic alterations during SD-VEEG in children. This study utilized real-time TCD-VEEG monitoring during SD-EEG to further investigate neurovascular coupling in interictal epileptic discharges and understand its potential influence on cognition in the developing brain.

  16. Fast sleep spindle reduction in schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives: association with impaired cognitive function and potential intermediate phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Claudia; Schlipf, Manuel; Spietzack, Simone; Rausch, Franziska; Eisenacher, Sarah; Englisch, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Haller, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Deuschle, Michael; Tost, Heike; Zink, Mathias; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schredl, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles. We investigated fast and slow sleep spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in a total of 47 subjects comprising 17 patients with schizophrenia, 13 healthy first-degree relatives and 17 healthy volunteers. Groups were balanced for age, gender, years of education and estimated verbal IQ. A subsample of relatives received additional testing for memory performance. Compared to healthy volunteers, fast spindle density was reduced in patients with schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives following a pattern consistent with an assumed genetic load for schizophrenia. The deficit in spindle density was specific to fast spindles and was associated with decreased memory performance. Our findings indicate familial occurrence of this phenotype and thus support the hypothesis that deficient spindle activity relates to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Furthermore, spindle reductions predict impaired cognitive function and are specific to fast spindles. This physiological marker should be further investigated as an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. It could also constitute a target for drug development, especially with regard to cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Light sleep versus slow wave sleep in memory consolidation: a question of global versus local processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, Lisa; Kroes, Marijn C W; Dresler, Martin; Battaglia, Francesco P

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is strongly involved in memory consolidation, but its role remains unclear. 'Sleep replay', the active potentiation of relevant synaptic connections via reactivation of patterns of network activity that occurred during previous experience, has received considerable attention. Alternatively, sleep has been suggested to regulate synaptic weights homeostatically and nonspecifically, thereby improving the signal:noise ratio of memory traces. Here, we reconcile these theories by highlighting the distinction between light and deep nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Specifically, we draw on recent studies to suggest a link between light NREM and active potentiation, and between deep NREM and homeostatic regulation. This framework could serve as a key for interpreting the physiology of sleep stages and reconciling inconsistencies in terminology in this field.

  18. Parasomnias in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2009-04-01

    Common childhood parasomnias, including those occurring at sleep onset and during rapid eye movement sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep and their ontogeny are discussed. The events may be distressing to both the patient and family members. Stereotypic movements characteristic of some parasomnias most likely arise from disinhibition of subcortical central pattern generators. Genetic predisposition, an inherent instability of non-rapid eye movement sleep and underlying sleep disturbances such as obstructive sleep apnea may predispose to the activation of confusional arousals, sleep walking or sleep terrors. Many parasomnias can be recognized by history alone, but some require nocturnal polysomnography for appropriate diagnosis and management. A scheme to distinguish non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias from nocturnal seizures is provided. Behavioral therapy has a role in the management of many childhood parasomnias, but evidence based recommendations are as yet unavailable.

  19. A role for cryptochromes in sleep regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Aziz

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cryptochrome 1 and 2 genes (cry1 and cry2 are necessary for the generation of circadian rhythms, as mice lacking both of these genes (cry1,2-/- lack circadian rhythms. We studied sleep in cry1,2-/- mice under baseline conditions as well as under conditions of constant darkness and enforced wakefulness to determine whether cryptochromes influence sleep regulatory processes. Results Under all three conditions, cry1,2-/- mice exhibit the hallmarks of high non-REM sleep (NREMS drive (i.e., increases in NREMS time, NREMS consolidation, and EEG delta power during NREMS. This unexpected phenotype was associated with elevated brain mRNA levels of period 1 and 2 (per1,2, and albumin d-binding protein (dbp, which are known to be transcriptionally inhibited by CRY1,2. To further examine the relationship between circadian genes and sleep homeostasis, we examined wild type mice and rats following sleep deprivation and found increased levels of per1,2 mRNA and decreased levels of dbp mRNA specifically in the cerebral cortex; these changes subsided with recovery sleep. The expression of per3, cry1,2, clock, npas2, bmal1, and casein-kinase-1ε did not change with sleep deprivation. Conclusions These results indicate that mice lacking cryptochromes are not simply a genetic model of circadian arrhythmicity in rodents and functionally implicate cryptochromes in the homeostatic regulation of sleep.

  20. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  1. Altered electroencephalographic activity associated with changes in the sleep-wakefulness cycle of C57BL/6J mice in response to a photoperiod shortening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Rozov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimUnder natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents.MethodsWe used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-h-, 21-h-, and 20-h-long light–dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods.Results and ConclusionsWe found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light–dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the θ- and γ-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22-h- and 21-h-long light–dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the θ–γ phase-amplitude during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation.

  2. Altered Electroencephalographic Activity Associated with Changes in the Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle of C57BL/6J Mice in Response to a Photoperiod Shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Stanislav V.; Zant, Janneke C.; Gurevicius, Kestutis; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents. Methods: We used electroencephalogram to assess the distribution of vigilance states, perform spectral analysis, and estimate the homeostatic sleep drive. In addition, we analyzed spontaneous locomotion of C57BL/6J mice under symmetric, 22-, 21-, and 20-h-long light–dark cycles using video recording and tracking methods. Results and Conclusions: We found that shortening of photoperiod caused a significant increase of slow wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep suggesting an elevation of sleep pressure under such conditions. While the rhythm of spontaneous locomotion was completely entrained by all light–dark cycles tested, periodic changes in the power of the θ- and γ-frequency ranges during wakefulness gradually disappeared under 22- and 21-h-long light–dark cycles. This was associated with a significant increase in the θ–γ phase-amplitude coupling during wakefulness. Our results thus provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the impairment of learning and memory retention, which is associated with disturbed circadian regulation. PMID:27630549

  3. An Analysis of Warfighter Sleep, Fatigue, and Performance on the USS Nimitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Characteristic EEG activity for the four stages of NREM sleep . The underlining shows two sleep spindles (from Colten & Altevogt, 2006, p. 36...9 Table 2. Description of sleep stages (after NSF, 2014a). ................................. 11 Table 3. Relates continuous...Institutes for Behavior Resources ICSD-2 International Classification of Sleep Disorders-2 ID Identification Number IMPRINT Improved Performance Research

  4. Bioradiolocation-based sleep stage classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataraidze, Alexander; Korostovtseva, Lyudmila; Anishchenko, Lesya; Bochkarev, Mikhail; Sviryaev, Yurii; Ivashov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for classifying wakefulness, REM, light and deep sleep based on the analysis of respiratory activity and body motions acquired by a bioradar. The method was validated using data of 32 subjects without sleep-disordered breathing, who underwent a polysomnography study in a sleep laboratory. We achieved Cohen's kappa of 0.49 in the wake-REM-light-deep sleep classification, 0.55 for the wake-REM-NREM classification and 0.57 for the sleep/wakefulness determination. The results might be useful for the development of unobtrusive sleep monitoring systems for diagnostics, prevention, and management of sleep disorders.

  5. Estradiol suppresses recovery of REM sleep following sleep deprivation in ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D; Mong, Jessica A

    2011-10-24

    Sleep complaints such as insufficient sleep and insomnia are twice as prevalent in women. Symptoms of sleep disruption are often coincident with changes in the gonadal hormone profile across a women's lifespan. Data from a number of different species, including humans, non-human primates and rodents strongly implicate a role for gonadal hormones in the modulation of sleep. In female rats, increased levels of circulating estradiol increase wakefulness and reduce sleep in the dark phase. In this study, we asked whether this reduction in sleep is driven by estradiol-dependent reduction in sleep need during the dark phase by assessing sleep before and after sleep deprivation (SD). Ovariectomized rats implanted with EEG telemetry transmitters were given Silastic capsules containing either 17-β estradiol in sesame oil (E2) or sesame oil alone. After a 24-hour baseline, animals were sleep-deprived via gentle handling for the entire 12-hour light phase, and then allowed to recover. E2 treatment suppressed baseline REM sleep duration in the dark phase, but not NREM or Wake duration, within three days. While SD induced a compensatory increase in REM duration in both groups, this increase was smaller in E2-treated rats compared to oils, as measured in absolute duration as well as by relative increase over baseline. Thus, E2 suppressed REM sleep in the dark phase both before and after SD. E2 also suppressed NREM and increased waking in the early- to mid-dark phase on the day after SD. NREM delta power tracked NREM sleep before and after SD, with small hormone-dependent reductions in delta power in recovery, but not spontaneous sleep. These results demonstrate that E2 powerfully and specifically suppresses spontaneous and recovery REM sleep in the dark phase, and suggest that ovarian steroids may consolidate circadian sleep-wake rhythms.

  6. Vigilance states, EEG spectra, and cortical temperature in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, I; Franken, P; Jaggi, K

    1993-06-01

    Vigilance states, electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectra (0.25-25.0 Hz), and cortical temperature (TCRT) were obtained in nine guinea pigs for 24 h in a 12:12-h light-dark (LD 12:12) schedule. Sleep was markedly polyphasic and fragmented and amounted to 32% of recording time, which is a low value compared with sleep in other rodents. There was 6.8% more sleep in the light period than in the dark period. EEG power density in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed no significant temporal trend within the light or the dark period. The homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation, as proposed in the two-process model, can account for the slow-wave activity (SWA) pattern also in the guinea pig: The small 24-h amplitude of the sleep-wakefulness pattern resulted in a small, 12% decline of SWA within the light period. In contrast to more distinctly nocturnal rodents, SWA in the dark period was not higher than in the light period. TCRT showed no difference between the light and the dark period. TCRT in REM sleep and waking was higher than TCRT in NREM sleep. TCRT increased after the transition from NREM sleep to either REM sleep or waking, and decreased in the last minute before the transition and after the transition from waking to NREM sleep. Motor activity measured in six animals for 11 days in constant darkness showed no apparent rhythm in three animals and a significant circadian rhythm in three others. Our data support the notion that guinea pigs exhibit only a weak circadian rest-activity rhythm.

  7. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  8. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families & Friendships Military Sexual Trauma Depression mild Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention ... Post-Traumatic Stress Sleep Alcohol & Drugs mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco ...

  9. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  10. Sleep Regulation, Physiology and Development, Sleep Duration and Patterns, and Sleep Hygiene in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Eleanor; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep. The biological rhythm of sleep and waking is regulated through both circadian and homeostatic processes. Sleep also has an internal rhythmic organization, or sleep architecture, which includes sleep cycles of REM and NREM sleep. Arousal and sleep (REM and NREM) are active and complex neurophysiologic processes, involving both neural pathway activation and suppression. These physiologic processes change over the life course, especially in the first 5 years. Adequate sleep is often difficult to achieve, yet is considered very important to optimal daily function and behavior in children; thus, understanding optimal sleep duration and patterns is critical for pediatricians. There is little experimental evidence that guides sleep recommendations, rather normative data and expert recommendations. Effective counseling on child sleep must account for the child and parent factors (child temperament, parent-child interaction, and parental affect) and the environmental factors (cultural, geographic, and home environment, especially media exposure) that influence sleep. To promote health and to prevent and manage sleep problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents start promoting good sleep hygiene, with a sleep-promoting environment and a bedtime routine in infancy, and throughout childhood. Thus, counseling

  11. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Sadeka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications.

  12. Relationships between polysomnographic variables, parameters of glucose metabolism, and serum androgens in obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Gideon; Schlüter, Bernhard; Menke, Thomas; Trowitzsch, Eckardt; Andler, Werner; Reinehr, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare polysomnographic variables of obese adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) to those of healthy controls and to analyse whether polysomnographic variables correlate to parameters of body weight/body composition, to serum androgens and to parameters of glucose metabolism. Thirty-one obese adolescents with PCOS (15.0 years ± 1.0, body mass index 32.7 kg per m(2) ± 6.2) and 19 healthy obese adolescents without PCOS (15.2 years ± 1.1, body mass index 32.4 kg per m(2) ± 4.0) underwent polysomnography to compare apnoea index, hypopnoea index, apnoea-hypopnoea index, the absolute number of obstructive apnoeas, percentage sleep Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, percentage of REM sleep, TIB, total sleep time (TST), sleep-onset latency, total wake time (TWT), wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency. Furthermore, we correlated polysomnographic variables to parameters of body weight/body composition, to serum androgens and to parameters of glucose metabolism. We found no differences between the two groups concerning the respiratory indices, percentage sleep Stages 2, 3 and 4 of NREM sleep, TIB and sleep-onset latency. The girls with PCOS differed significantly from the controls regarding TST, WASO, TWT, sleep efficiency, percentage Stage 1 of NREM sleep and percentage of REM sleep. We found a weak significant correlation between insulin resistance and apnoea index and between insulin resistance and apnoea-hypopnoea index. Concerning the respiratory variables, adolescents with PCOS do not seem to differ from healthy controls; however, there seem to be differences concerning sleep architecture.

  13. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memor...

  14. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  15. Hypercapnia-induced active expiration increases in sleep and enhances ventilation in unanaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirão, Isabela P; Silva, Carlos A; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; da Silva, Glauber S F

    2017-08-03

    Expiratory muscles (abdominal and thoracic) can be recruited when respiratory drive increases under conditions of increased respiratory demand such as hypercapnia. Studying hypercapnia-induced active expiration in unanaesthetized rats importantly contributes to the understanding of how the control system is integrated in vivo in freely moving animals. In unanaesthetized rats, hypercapnia-induced active expiration was not always recruited either in wakefulness or in sleep, suggesting that additional factors influence the recruitment of active expiration. The pattern of abdominal muscle recruitment varied in a state-dependent manner with active expiration being more predominant in the sleep state than in quiet wakefulness. Pulmonary ventilation was enhanced in periods with active expiration compared to periods without it. Expiration is passive at rest but becomes active through recruitment of abdominal muscles under increased respiratory drive. Hypercapnia-induced active expiration has not been well explored in unanaesthetized rats. We hypothesized that (i) CO2 -evoked active expiration is recruited in a state-dependent manner, i.e. differently in sleep or wakefulness, and (ii) recruitment of active expiration enhances ventilation, hence having an important functional role in meeting metabolic demand. To test these hypotheses, Wistar rats (280-330 g) were implanted with electrodes for EEG and electromyography EMG of the neck, diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal (ABD) muscles. Active expiratory events were considered as rhythmic ABDEMG activity interposed to DIAEMG . Animals were exposed to room air followed by hypercapnia (7% CO2 ) with EEG, EMG and ventilation (V̇E) recorded throughout the experimental protocol. No active expiration was observed during room air exposure. During hypercapnia, CO2 -evoked active expiration was predominantly recruited during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Its increased occurrence during sleep was evidenced by the decreased DIA-to-ADB ratio

  16. Optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT induces REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dort, Christa J; Zachs, Daniel P; Kenny, Jonathan D; Zheng, Shu; Goldblum, Rebecca R; Gelwan, Noah A; Ramos, Daniel M; Nolan, Michael A; Wang, Karen; Weng, Feng-Ju; Lin, Yingxi; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-13

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is an important component of the natural sleep/wake cycle, yet the mechanisms that regulate REM sleep remain incompletely understood. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine tegmentum have been implicated in REM sleep regulation, but lesions of this area have had varying effects on REM sleep. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) in REM sleep generation. Selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during non-REM (NREM) sleep increased the number of REM sleep episodes and did not change REM sleep episode duration. Activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT during NREM sleep was sufficient to induce REM sleep.

  17. Origin and evolution of sleep: roles of vision and endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J L

    1997-01-01

    retinal processing of visual information during restful waking. By this means, processing of visual information in central regions of the brain may have been maintained at a sufficiently low level to allow adequate concomitant dynamic stabilization. As endothermy evolved, the skeletal muscle hypotonia of primitive sleep may have become insufficient to prevent sleep-disrupting skeletal muscle contractions during 'non-utilitarian' dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry at the accompanying higher body temperatures and metabolic rates. Selection against such disruption during dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry may have led to the inhibition of skeletal muscle tone during a portion of primitive sleep, the portion designated as "rapid-eye-movement sleep." Many marine mammals that are active almost continuously engage only in unihemispheric non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. They apparently do not require rapid-eye-movement sleep and accompanying 'non-utilitarian' dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry because this circuitry is in virtually continuous use. Studies of hibernation by arctic ground squirrels suggest that each hour of sleep stabilizes brain synapses for as long as four hours.

  18. Hypnogram and sleep parameter computation from activity and cardiovascular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Paiva, Teresa; Sanches, J Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The automatic computation of the hypnogram and sleep Parameters, from the data acquired with portable sensors, is a challenging problem with important clinical applications. In this paper, the hypnogram, the sleep efficiency (SE), rapid eye movement (REM), and nonREM (NREM) sleep percentages are automatically estimated from physiological (ECG and respiration) and behavioral (Actigraphy) nocturnal data. Two methods are described; the first deals with the problem of the hypnogram estimation and the second is specifically designed to compute the sleep parameters, outperforming the traditional estimation approach based on the hypnogram. Using an extended set of features the first method achieves an accuracy of 72.8%, 77.4%, and 80.3% in the detection of wakefulness, REM, and NREM states, respectively, and the second an estimation error of 4.3%, 9.8%, and 5.4% for the SE, REM, and NREM percentages, respectively.

  19. Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra eRosales-Lagarde; Jorge L Armony; Yolanda edel Río-Portilla; David eTrejo-Martínez; Ruben eConde; Maria eCorsi-Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that REM sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D), by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or NREM sleep interrupt...

  20. Periodic leg movements in RLS patients as compared to controls: Are there differences beyond the PLM index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Gwendolyn; Wetter, Thomas C; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2009-05-01

    To characterize periodic leg movements (PLM) and their association with sleep disturbances in drug-free patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and healthy subjects without sleep complaints. Polysomnographic recordings of 95 patients with idiopathic RLS and 31 age-matched controls were compared, and correlation analysis between sleep efficiency and PLM variables was performed. All patients and controls were free of medication for 10 days prior to polysomnography. PLM measures revealed a significantly longer mean duration of single PLM during wakefulness and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in RLS patients as compared to controls. PLM indices were higher in RLS patients than in controls during all sleep stages, but not during wakefulness and slow wave sleep. A significantly higher number of PLM sequences was found in RLS patients than in controls. In RLS patients decreased sleep efficiency was associated with a higher number and a shorter duration of PLM sequences. The mean duration of single PLM might be an appropriate parameter to discriminate between healthy subjects with PLM and patients with RLS. High numbers of PLM sequences of short duration might be an indicator for the decreased sleep quality in RLS patients.

  1. Statistical, spectral and non-linear analysis of the heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Victoria; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Falconi, Atilio; Torterolo, Pablo; Migliaro, Eduardo R

    2014-03-01

    As a first step in a program designed to study the central control of the heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep, we conducted polysomnographic and electrocardiogram recordings on chronically-prepared cats during semi- restricted conditions. We found that the tachogram, i.e. the pattern of heart beat intervals (RR intervals) was deeply modified on passing from alert wakefulness through quiet wakefulness (QW) to sleep. While the tachogram showed a rhythmical pattern coupled with respiratory activity during non-REM sleep (NREM), it turned chaotic during REM sleep. Statistical analyses of the RR intervals showed that the mean duration increased during sleep. HRV measured by the standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and by the square root of the mean squared difference of successive intervals (rMSSD) were larger during REM and NREM sleep than during QW. SD-1 (a marker of short- term variability) and SD-2 (a marker of long-term variability) measured by means of Poincaré plots increased during both REM and NREM sleep compared to QW. Furthermore, in the spectral analysis of RR intervals, the band of high frequency (HF) was larger in NREM and REM sleep in comparison to QW, whereas the band of low frequency (LF) was larger only during REM sleep in comparison to QW. The LF/HF ratio was larger during QW compared either with REM or NREM sleep. Finally, sample entropy analysis used as a measure of complexity, was higher during NREM in comparison to REM sleep. In conclusion, HRV parameters, including complexity, are deeply modified across behavioral states.

  2. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboer Tom

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.

  3. Sleep spindle density in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Hvidtfelt, Mathias; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Jennum, Poul

    2017-06-01

    Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included. Unspecified, slow, and fast SS were automatically detected, and SS densities were defined as number per minute and were computed across sleep stages and sleep cycles. The between-cycle trends of SS densities in N2 and NREM sleep were evaluated within and between groups. Between-group comparisons in sleep stages revealed no significant differences in any type of SS. Within-group analyses of the SS trends revealed significant decreasing trends for NT1, HC, and C between first and last sleep cycle. Between-group analyses of SS trends between first and last sleep cycle revealed that NT2 differ from NT1 patients in the unspecified SS density in NREM sleep, and from HC in the slow SS density in N2 sleep. SS activity is preserved in NT1, suggesting that the ascending neurons to thalamic activation of SS are not significantly affected by the hypocretinergic system. NT2 patients show an abnormal pattern of SS distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Memory, sleep and the evolution of mechanisms of synaptic efficacy maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J L

    1997-07-01

    from those that subserve autonomic activities) may function largely to maintain sleep and to dynamically stabilize infrequently used circuitry encoding memories. Sleep may not have been the only evolutionary adaptation to conflicts between dynamic stabilization and sensory input processing. In some ectothermic vertebrates, sleep may have been postponed or rendered unnecessary by a more readily effected means of resolution of the conflicts, namely, extensive retinal processing of visual information during restful waking. By this means, processing of visual information in central regions of the brain may have been maintained at a sufficiently low level to allow adequate concomitant dynamic stabilization. As endothermy evolved, the skeletal muscle hypotonia of primitive sleep may have become insufficient to prevent sleep-disrupting skeletal muscle contractions during non-utilitarian dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry at the accompanying higher body temperatures and metabolic rates. Selection against such disruption during dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry may have led to the inhibition of skeletal muscle tone during a portion of primitive sleep, the portion designated as rapid-eye-movement sleep. Many marine mammals that are active almost continuously engage only in unihemispheric non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. They apparently do not require rapid-eye-movement sleep and accompanying non-utilitarian dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry, because this circuitry is in virtually continuous use. Studies of hibernation by arctic ground squirrels suggest that each hour of sleep may stabilize brain synapses for as long as 4 h. Phasic irregularities in heart and respiratory rates during rapid-eye-movement sleep may be a consequence of superposition of dynamic stabilization of motor circuitry on the rhythmic autonomic control mechanisms. Some information encoded in circuitry being dynamically stabilized during sleep achieves unconscious awareness in authentic and var

  5. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease%帕金森病睡眠障碍主观与客观评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚艳; 洪雨; 毛成洁; 胡伟东; 熊康平; 沈赟; 刘春风

    2013-01-01

    .00,5.00) vs 3.00 (2.00,5.00);U =-2.306,P =0.021],UPDRS Ⅱ [12.00 (9.00,16.00) vs 10.00 (6.00,13.00); U =-1.995,P =0.046],higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED,(508.14 ± 335.85) vs (394.06 ± 236.40) mg/d; t =-2.115,P =0.037].Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage,the differences were not significant (P > 0.05).On the other hand,decreased total sleep time (TST),reduced sleep efficiency (SE),increased sleep latency (SL),decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P < 0.05,for all).Other PSG parameters had no significant differences between PD patients with and without sleep disturbances (P > 0.05,for all).The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r =0.200,P =0.032),HAMD (r =0.202,P =0.030),UPDRS Ⅰ (r,=0.266,P =0.004) and Ⅱ (r,=0.254,P =0.007),LED (r =0.213,P =0.022),SL (rs =0.211,P =0.023).Moreover,the score of PSQI was negatively correlated with TST (r =-0.231,P =0.003),SE (r =-0.192,P =0.039) and MoCA (r =-0.236,P =0.011).Conclusion PD patients with sleep disturbances had worse cognition impairment,more mood disorders,decreased activity of daily life.Meanwhile,most of PSG parameters were altered in PD patients with sleep disturbances.Moreover,the severity of sleep disturbances in PD patients was correlated with these factors.Overall sleep quality of PD patients assessed with the objective tool could be predicted by the subjective scale.However,to evaluate sleep architecture and other sleep disorders for PD patients,the objective tools (such as Video-PSG monitoring) are necessary to be used.

  6. Manipulating REM sleep in older adults by selective REM sleep deprivation and physiological as well as pharmacological REM sleep augmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Orla P; Regen, Francesca; Schredl, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2006-02-01

    Experimental approaches to manipulate REM sleep within the cognitive neuroscience of sleep are usually based on sleep deprivation paradigms and focus on younger adults. In the present study, a traditional selective REM sleep deprivation paradigm as well as two alternative manipulation paradigms targeting REM sleep augmentation were investigated in healthy older adults. The study sample consisted of 107 participants, male and female, between the ages of 60 and 82 years, who had been randomly assigned to five experimental groups. During the study night, a first group was deprived of REM sleep by selective REM sleep awakenings, while a second group was woken during stage 2 NREM sleep in matched frequency. Physiological REM sleep augmentation was realized by REM sleep rebound after selective REM sleep deprivation, pharmacological REM sleep augmentation by administering an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Deprivation and augmentation paradigms manipulated REM sleep significantly, the former affecting more global measures such as REM sleep minutes and percentage, the latter more organizational aspects such as stage shifts to REM sleep, REM latency, REM density (only pharmacological augmentation) and phasic REM sleep duration. According to our findings, selective REM sleep deprivation seems to be an efficient method of REM sleep manipulation in healthy older adults. While physiological rebound-based and pharmacological cholinergic REM sleep augmentation methods both failed to affect global measures of REM sleep, their efficiency in manipulating organizational aspects of REM sleep extends the traditional scope of REM sleep manipulation methods within the cognitive neuroscience of sleep.

  7. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  8. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  9. Nonepileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenette, Eric; Guilleminault, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Events occurring during nighttime sleep in children can be easily mislabeled, as witnesses are usually not immediately available. Even when observers are present, description of the events can be sketchy, as these individuals are frequently aroused from their own sleep. Errors of perception are thus common and can lead to diagnosis of epilepsy where other sleep-related conditions are present, sometimes initiating unnecessary therapeutic interventions, especially with antiepileptic drugs. Often not acknowledged, paroxysmal nonepileptic behavioral and motor episodes in sleep are encountered much more frequently than their epileptic counterpart. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) 2nd edition displays an extensive list of such conditions that can be readily mistaken for epilepsy. The most prevalent ones are reviewed, such as nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias, comprised of sleepwalking, confusional arousals and sleep terrors, periodic leg movements of sleep, repetitive movement disorders, benign neonatal myoclonus, and sleep starts. Apnea of prematurity is also briefly reviewed. Specific issues regarding management of these selected disorders, both for diagnostic consideration and for therapeutic intervention, are addressed.

  10. Histamine in the regulation of wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2011-02-01

    The histaminergic system is exclusively localized within the posterior hypothalamus with projection to almost all the major regions of the central nervous system. Strong and consistent evidence exist to suggest that histamine, acting via H₁ and/or H₃ receptor has a pivotal role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness. Administration of histamine or H₁ receptor agonists induces wakefulness, whereas administration of H₁ receptor antagonists promotes sleep. The H₃ receptor functions as an auto-receptor and regulates the synthesis and release of histamine. Activation of H₃ receptor reduces histamine release and promotes sleep. Conversely, blockade of H₃ receptor promotes wakefulness. Histamine release in the hypothalamus and other target regions is highest during wakefulness. The histaminergic neurons display maximal activity during the state of high vigilance, and cease their activity during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The cerebrospinal levels of histamine are reduced in diseased states where hypersomnolence is a major symptom. The histamine deficient L-histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC KO) mice display sleep fragmentation and increased REM sleep during the light period along with profound wakefulness deficit at dark onset, and in novel environment. Similar results have been obtained when histamine neurons are lesioned. These studies strongly implicate the histaminergic neurons of the TMN to play a critical role in the maintenance of high vigilance state during wakefulness.

  11. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-08-01

    Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAβ receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAβ receptors in the SO response. As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAβ receptors in REMS generation.

  12. Quantification of muscle activity during sleep for patients with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Umaer; Trap, Lotte; Jennum, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a very strong predictor for later development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), resulting in increased muscle activity during REM sleep. Abundant studies have shown the loss of atonia during REM...... sleep, but our aim was to investigate whether iRBD and PD patients have increased muscle activity in both REM and NREM sleep compared to healthy controls. This was achieved by developing a semi-automatic algorithm for quantification of mean muscle activity per second during all sleep stages...... to the different sleep stages and muscle activity beyond the threshold was counted. The results were evaluated statistically using the two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test. The results suggested that iRBD patients also exhibit distinctive muscle activity characteristics in NREM sleep, however not as evident as in REM...

  13. Sexsomnia: A case of sleep masturbation documented by video-polysomnography in a young adult male with sleepwalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Bin; Schenck, Carlos H

    2016-01-01

    The first case of video-polysomnography (vPSG) documented sleep masturbation in a male is reported, and the second reported case of shift work induced sexsomnia. A 20 y.o. soldier with childhood sleepwalking (SW) developed sleep masturbation and SW triggered by military shift work. vPSG documented two episodes of sleep masturbation from N2 sleep in the fourth sleep cycle and from N3 sleep during the fifth sleep cycle. There was no sleep-disordered breathing nor periodic limb movements. vPSG thus confirmed confusional arousals from NREM sleep as the cause of the masturbation. Bedtime clonazepam therapy controlled the SW but not the masturbation.

  14. Fragmentation of Rapid Eye Movement and Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep without Total Sleep Loss Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Fear Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael L; Katsuyama, Ângela M; Duge, Leanne S; Sriram, Chaitra; Krushelnytskyy, Mykhaylo; Kim, Jeansok J; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is important for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. It is hypothesized that the temporal sequence of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is critical for the weakening of nonadaptive memories and the subsequent transfer of memories temporarily stored in the hippocampus to more permanent memories in the neocortex. A great body of evidence supporting this hypothesis relies on behavioral, pharmacological, neural, and/or genetic manipulations that induce sleep deprivation or stage-specific sleep deprivation. We exploit an experimental model of circadian desynchrony in which intact animals are not deprived of any sleep stage but show fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep within nonfragmented sleep bouts. We test the hypothesis that the shortening of NREM and REM sleep durations post-training will impair memory consolidation irrespective of total sleep duration. When circadian-desynchronized animals are trained in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning task they show normal short-term memory but impaired long-term memory consolidation. This impairment in memory consolidation is positively associated with the post-training fragmentation of REM and NREM sleep but is not significantly associated with the fragmentation of total sleep or the total amount of delta activity. We also show that the sleep stage fragmentation resulting from circadian desynchrony has no effect on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and no effect on hippocampus-independent cued fear-conditioning memory. Our findings in an intact animal model, in which sleep deprivation is not a confounding factor, support the hypothesis that the stereotypic sequence and duration of sleep stages play a specific role in long-term hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation.

  15. Bistability breaks-off deterministic responses to intracortical stimulation during non-REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pigorini

    2015-04-01

    These results point to bistability as the underlying critical mechanism that prevents the emergence of complex interactions in human thalamocortical networks during NREM sleep. Besides sleep, the same basic neurophysiological dynamics may play a role in pathological conditions(Casali et al., 2013; Rosanova et al., 2012 where cortico-cortical communication and consciousness are impaired in spite of preserved neuronal activity.

  16. Short-term effects of fluoxetine and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine on electroencephalographic sleep in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R H; Fernstrom, J D

    1987-12-01

    Fluoxetine and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) were studied for their short-term effects on electroencephalographic sleep in male rats. Following single injection, each drug produced a sizeable, dose-related suppression of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep that persisted for 4-5 h (fluoxetine, 0.625-5 mg/kg; TFMPP, 0.10-1.25 mg/kg). TFMPP also consistently increased non-REM (NREM) sleep during the second hour after drug injection, though this effect was not dose-related (it was seen at all doses tested). Fluoxetine produced small effects on NREM sleep that varied non-systematically with dose and time after drug injection. TFMPP, but not fluoxetine, also increased at all doses the number of delta waves per minute of NREM sleep in the second hour. A structural analog of TFMPP that is inactive at serotonin (5-HT) receptors [4-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperadine; LY97117] was also tested, and found to be devoid of effects on NREM and REM sleep. Both fluoxetine (a 5-HT reuptake blocker) and TFMPP (a 5-HT agonist) enhance transmission across 5-HT synapses, though by different mechanisms. Because they have the common effect of suppressing REM sleep, and in a dose-related manner, the data support the notion that 5-HT neurons in the brain, when active, can suppress REM sleep.

  17. Rapid eye movements during sleep in mice: High trait-like stability qualifies rapid eye movement density for characterization of phenotypic variation in sleep patterns of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulda Stephany

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, rapid eye movements (REM density during REM sleep plays a prominent role in psychiatric diseases. Especially in depression, an increased REM density is a vulnerability marker for depression. In clinical practice and research measurement of REM density is highly standardized. In basic animal research, almost no tools are available to obtain and systematically evaluate eye movement data, although, this would create increased comparability between human and animal sleep studies. Methods We obtained standardized electroencephalographic (EEG, electromyographic (EMG and electrooculographic (EOG signals from freely behaving mice. EOG electrodes were bilaterally and chronically implanted with placement of the electrodes directly between the musculus rectus superior and musculus rectus lateralis. After recovery, EEG, EMG and EOG signals were obtained for four days. Subsequent to the implantation process, we developed and validated an Eye Movement scoring in Mice Algorithm (EMMA to detect REM as singularities of the EOG signal, based on wavelet methodology. Results The distribution of wakefulness, non-REM (NREM sleep and rapid eye movement (REM sleep was typical of nocturnal rodents with small amounts of wakefulness and large amounts of NREM sleep during the light period and reversed proportions during the dark period. REM sleep was distributed correspondingly. REM density was significantly higher during REM sleep than NREM sleep. REM bursts were detected more often at the end of the dark period than the beginning of the light period. During REM sleep REM density showed an ultradian course, and during NREM sleep REM density peaked at the beginning of the dark period. Concerning individual eye movements, REM duration was longer and amplitude was lower during REM sleep than NREM sleep. The majority of single REM and REM bursts were associated with micro-arousals during NREM sleep, but not during REM sleep. Conclusions Sleep

  18. Analysis of sleep parameters in patients with obstructive sleep apnea studied in a hospital vs. a hotel-based sleep center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Kimberly N; Song, Yanna; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A

    2008-04-15

    Polysomnography is associated with changes in sleep architecture called the first-night effect. This effect is believed to result from sleeping in an unusual environment and the technical equipment used to study sleep. Sleep experts hope to decrease this variable by providing a more familiar, comfortable atmosphere for sleep testing through hotel-based sleep centers. In this study, we compared the sleep parameters of patients studied in our hotel-based and hospital-based sleep laboratories. We retrospectively reviewed polysomnograms completed in our hotel-based and hospital-based sleep laboratories from August 2003 to July 2005. All patients were undergoing evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea. Hospital-based patients were matched for age and apnea-hypopnea index with hotel-based patients. We compared the sleep architecture changes associated with the first-night effect in the two groups. The associated conditions and symptoms listed on the polysomnography referral forms are also compared. No significant differences were detected between the two groups in sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, REM sleep latency, total amount of slow wave sleep (NREM stages 3 and 4), arousal index, and total stage 1 sleep. This pilot study failed to show a difference in sleep parameters associated with the first-night effect in patients undergoing sleep studies in our hotel and hospital-based sleep laboratories. Future studies need to compare the first-night effect in different sleep disorders, preferably in multi-night recordings.

  19. Regional Slow Waves and Spindles in Human Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Staba, Richard J.; Andrillon, Thomas; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Cirelli, Chiara; Fried, Itzhak; Tononi, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The most prominent EEG events in sleep are slow waves, reflecting a slow (waves and the underlying active and inactive neuronal states occur locally. Thus, especially in late sleep, some regions can be active while others are silent. We also find that slow waves can propagate, usually from medial prefrontal cortex to the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus. Sleep spindles, the other hallmark of NREM sleep EEG, are likewise predominantly local. Thus, intracerebral communication during sleep is constrained because slow and spindle oscillations often occur out-of-phase in different brain regions. PMID:21482364

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  1. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  2. Heart rate variability in non-apneic snorers and controls before and after continuous positive airway pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateika Jason H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that sympathetic nervous system activity (SNSA is increased and parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNSA is decreased during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep in non-apneic, otherwise healthy, snoring individuals compared to control. Moreover, we hypothesized that these alterations in snoring individuals would be more evident during non-snoring than snoring when compared to control. Methods To test these hypotheses, heart rate variability was used to measure PNSA and SNSA in 11 normotensive non-apneic snorers and 12 control subjects before and 7-days after adapting to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP. Results Our results showed that SNSA was increased and PNSA was decreased in non-apneic snorers during NREM compared to control. However, these changes were only evident during the study in which snoring was eliminated with nCPAP. Conversely, during periods of snoring SNSA and PNSA were similar to measures obtained from the control group. Additionally, within the control group, SNSA and PNSA did not vary before and after nCPAP application. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-lasting alterations in autonomic function may exist in snoring subjects that are otherwise healthy. Moreover, we speculate that because of competing inputs (i.e. inhibitory versus excitatory inputs to the autonomic nervous system during snoring, the full impact of snoring on autonomic function is most evident during non-snoring periods.

  3. Physiology of Normal Sleep: From Young to Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human sleep, defined on the basis of electroencephalogram (EEG, electromyogram(EMG and electrooculogram (EOG, is divided into rapid eye movement (REM sleepand four stages of non–rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Collective monitoring andrecording of physiological data during sleep is called polysomnography. Sleep whichnormally starts with a period of NREM alternates with REM, about 4-5 times, everynight. Sleep pattern changes with increasing age. Newborns sleep for about 14-16hours in a day of 24 hours. Although there is a wide variation among individuals, sleepof 7-8.5 hours is considered fully restorative in adults. Apart from restorative andrecovery function, energy conservation could be one of the functions of sleep. The roleof sleep in neurogenesis, memory consolidation and brain growth has been suggested.Though progress in medical science has vastly improved our understanding of sleepphysiology, we still do not know all the functions of sleep.Key words : electroencephalogram, electromyogram, electrooculogram,polysomnography, REM sleep, non–REM sleep, newborns, circadian rhythm, autoregulation,sleep function

  4. Parasomnias: Diagnosis, Classification and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ozlem Orhan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias, as described in the recent second edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are “undesirable physical events or experiences” occurring during sleep transition, during arousal from sleep, or within the sleep period. These events encompass abnormal sleep related movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, dreaming, and autonomic nervous system functioning. Parasomnias are classified as: 1 disorders of arousal (from non-rapid eye movement, or NREM, sleep; 2 parasomnias usually associated with REM (rapid eye movement sleep; and 3 other parasomnias. This sleep disorders in childhood are common, and often more frequent than in adults. Clinicians should be aware that many pediatric parasomnias have benign and self-limited nature. Most of the parasomnias may not persist into late childhood or adolescence. Parasomnias in adults often differ in type from childhood parasomnias and may portend significant psychiatric disturbances or neurodegenerative disorders. A reliable diagnosis can often be made from a detailed history from the patient and, if possible, the parents or bed partner. Detailed overnight investigations of parasomnias are usually not required. The non-REM parasomnias are more common in community although REM parasomnias are more likely to be seen in general neurological practice. Sleep related eating disorder, sleep related dissociative disorders and sleep related sexual behavior and sleep related violence are novel and rarely reported sleep disorders. REM sleep behavior disorder is common and should be sought in all neurodegenerative diseases. They are included among clinical disorders due to the resulting injuries, and adverse health and psychosocial effects, which may affect the bed partner as well as the patient. Finally, parasomnias are common disturbances of sleep that may significantly affect the patient’s quality of life and that of the bed partner. Therefore, appropriate diagnostic and

  5. Sleep in the nocturnal primate, Aotus trivirgatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cycles of wakefulness and stages of sleep in owl monkeys during 24-hr periods divided into half dark and half light segments. Recordings of electrophysiological activity were used. Reversal of the sequence of light and dark served to test the influence of environmental lighting on the sleep-wakefulness cycles. The sleep patterns of owl monkeys expressed in percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) were compared with those of a closely related New World monkey species, Saimiri Sciureus.

  6. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are involved in the mediation of the arousal effect of noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelkes, Zoltán; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Stenberg, Dag

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are implicated in cortical arousal and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Cholinergic neurones are innervated by noradrenergic terminals, noradrenaline excites them via alpha-1 receptors and microinjection of noradrenaline into the basal forebrain enhances wakefulness. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing effects of noradrenaline. To elucidate the roles of cholinergic basal forebrain structures we administered methoxamine, an alpha-1-adrenergic agonist into the basal forebrain, in intact animals and again after selective destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic cells by 192 IgG-saporin. In eight male Han-Wistar rats implanted with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes, a microdialysis probe targeted into the basal forebrain was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid for 6 h on a baseline day, and with cerebrospinal fluid in the first and with methoxamine in the second 3-h period of the subsequent day. The sleep-wake activity was recorded for 24 h on both days. Saporin was then injected into the basal forebrain and 2 weeks later the same experimental schedule (with cerebrospinal fluid and methoxamine) was repeated. In the intact animals, methoxamine exhibited a robust arousing effect and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep was suppressed. Lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones abolished almost completely the NREM sleep-suppressing effect of methoxamine, whereas the REM sleep-suppressing effect remained intact. Thus, the basal forebrain cholinergic neurones mediate, at least in part, cortical arousal and non-REM sleep-suppression, but they are not involved in the REM sleep-suppressing effects of noradrenaline. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Changes in Cognitive Performance Are Associated with Changes in Sleep in Older Adults With Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Hall, Martica H; Nebes, Robert D; Monk, Timothy H; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined sleep features associated with cognition in older adults and examined whether sleep changes following insomnia treatment were associated with cognitive improvements. Polysomnography and cognition (recall, working memory, and reasoning) were assessed before and after an insomnia intervention (Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia [BBTI] or information control [IC]) in 77 older adults with insomnia. Baseline wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO) was associated with recall. Greater NREM (nonrapid eye movement) delta power and lower NREM sigma power were associated with greater working memory and reasoning. The insomnia intervention did not improve performance. However, increased absolute delta power and decreased relative sigma power were associated with improved reasoning. Findings suggest that improvements in executive function may occur with changes in NREM architecture.

  8. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: “sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study”

    OpenAIRE

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with i...

  9. Plumes of neuronal activity propagate in three dimensions through the nuclear avian brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; van der Meij, Jacqueline; Lesku, John A.; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In mammals, the slow-oscillations of neuronal membrane potentials (reflected in the electroencephalogram as high-amplitude, slow-waves), which occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and anesthesia, propagate across the neocortex largely as two-dimensional traveling waves. However, it

  10. Assessment of the EEG complexity during activations from sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Rosso, V; Mendez, M O; Bianchi, A M; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Cerutti, S

    2011-12-01

    The present study quantitatively analyzes the EEG characteristics during activations (Act) that occur during NREM sleep, and constitute elements of sleep microstructure (i.e. the Cyclic Alternating Pattern). The fractal dimension (FD) and the sample entropy (SampEn) measures were used to study the different sleep stages and the Act that build up the sleep structure. Polysomnographic recordings from 10 good sleepers were analyzed. The complexity indexes of the Act were compared with the non-activation (NAct) periods during non-REM sleep. In addition, complexity measures among the different Act subtypes (A1, A2 and A3) were analyzed. A3 presented a quite similar complexity independently of the sleep stage, while A1 and A2 showed higher complexity in light sleep than during deep sleep. The current results suggest that Act present a hierarchic complexity between subtypes A3 (higher), A2 (intermediate) and A1 (lower) in all sleep stages.

  11. Cordycepin Increases Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine Receptors in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine is a naturally occurring adenosine analogue and one of the bioactive constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris/Cordyceps sinensis, species of the fungal genus Cordyceps. It has traditionally been a prized Chinese folk medicine for the human well-being. Because of similarity of chemical structure of adenosine, cordycepin has been focused on the diverse effects of the central nervous systems (CNSs, like sleep regulation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to know whether cordycepin increases the natural sleep in rats, and its effect is mediated by adenosine receptors (ARs. Sleep was recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG for 4 hours after oral administration of cordycepin in rats. Sleep architecture and EEG power spectra were analyzed. Cordycepin reduced sleep-wake cycles and increased nonrapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Interestingly, cordycepin increased θ (theta waves power density during NREM sleep. In addition, the protein levels of AR subtypes (A1, A2A, and A2B were increased after the administration of cordycepin, especially in the rat hypothalamus which plays an important role in sleep regulation. Therefore, we suggest that cordycepin increases theta waves power density during NREM sleep via nonspecific AR in rats. In addition, this experiment can provide basic evidence that cordycepin may be helpful for sleep-disturbed subjects.

  12. Sleep Patterns and Homeostatic Mechanisms in Adolescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Tononi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep changes were studied in mice (n = 59 from early adolescence to adulthood (postnatal days P19–111. REM sleep declined steeply in early adolescence, while total sleep remained constant and NREM sleep increased slightly. Four hours of sleep deprivation starting at light onset were performed from ages P26 through adulthood (>P60. Following this acute sleep deprivation all mice slept longer and with more consolidated sleep bouts, while NREM slow wave activity (SWA showed high interindividual variability in the younger groups, and increased consistently only after P42. Three parameters together explained up to 67% of the variance in SWA rebound in frontal cortex, including weight-adjusted age and increase in alpha power during sleep deprivation, both of which positively correlated with the SWA response. The third, and strongest predictor was the SWA decline during the light phase in baseline: mice with high peak SWA at light onset, resulting in a large SWA decline, were more likely to show no SWA rebound after sleep deprivation, a result that was also confirmed in parietal cortex. During baseline, however, SWA showed the same homeostatic changes in adolescents and adults, declining in the course of sleep and increasing across periods of spontaneous wake. Thus, we hypothesize that, in young adolescent mice, a ceiling effect and not the immaturity of the cellular mechanisms underlying sleep homeostasis may prevent the SWA rebound when wake is extended beyond its physiological duration.

  13. Effects of chronic stress on sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, G J; Pastel, R H; Bauman, R A; Meininger, G R; Maughan, K R; Robinson, T N; Wright, W L; Covington, P S

    1995-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic stress on sleep using a rodent paradigm of around-the-clock signalled intermittent foot shock in which some rats can pull a chain to avoid/escape shock while another group of rats is yoked to the first group. We measured sleep using telemetry; four-channel EEG was collected 24 h/day in rats during 2 prestress days; days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 during chronic stress; and 3 poststress days. States of REM sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and waking were scored for each 15-s period of the EEG recordings. During the prestress period, rats slept (REM plus NREM) 55% of available time during the light hours and 34% of the dark hours with the remainder represented by waking. On the first day of stress, total sleep and, especially REM sleep, decreased markedly. By the second day of stress, only REM sleep in the controllable stress group (but not the uncontrollable stress group) was still significantly decreased compared to prestress levels, and REM sleep returned to baseline levels by day 7 of stress. The recovery of sleep quantity was accomplished by increased sleep during the dark hours, resulting in a long-lasting disruption of normal circadian sleep patterning.

  14. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Agenäs, Sigrid;

    2014-01-01

    , so this study examined whether these behavioural estimates also apply for adult cows.Behaviour observations and electrophysiological readings were recorded for a total of 13 cows during one recording session per cow lasting on average 4. h 22. min. Recording started when the cow was fully awake...... that the behavioural estimates for assessing total sleep time in calves could not be applied to adult cows as they markedly overestimated NREM and REM sleep time. Behavioural estimates for NREM and REM sleep time were on average 124 ± 17 and 14 ± 4. min per cow, respectively, while the electrophysiological estimate......Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i.e. agreement between behavioural indicators of sleep and corresponding electrophysiological measures. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed...

  15. Sleep in the human hippocampus: a stereo-EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moroni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence indicating that sleep plays a crucial role in the consolidation of new declarative, hippocampus-dependent memories. Given the increasing interest in the spatiotemporal relationships between cortical and hippocampal activity during sleep, this study aimed to shed more light on the basic features of human sleep in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded intracerebral stereo-EEG directly from the hippocampus and neocortical sites in five epileptic patients undergoing presurgical evaluations. The time course of classical EEG frequency bands during the first three NREM-REM sleep cycles of the night was evaluated. We found that delta power shows, also in the hippocampus, the progressive decrease across sleep cycles, indicating that a form of homeostatic regulation of delta activity is present also in this subcortical structure. Hippocampal sleep was also characterized by: i a lower relative power in the slow oscillation range during NREM sleep compared to the scalp EEG; ii a flattening of the time course of the very low frequencies (up to 1 Hz across sleep cycles, with relatively high levels of power even during REM sleep; iii a decrease of power in the beta band during REM sleep, at odds with the typical increase of power in the cortical recordings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data imply that cortical slow oscillation is attenuated in the hippocampal structures during NREM sleep. The most peculiar feature of hippocampal sleep is the increased synchronization of the EEG rhythms during REM periods. This state of resonance may have a supportive role for the processing/consolidation of memory.

  16. Sleep neurobiology from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A; Scammell, Thomas E

    2011-07-01

    Many neurochemical systems interact to generate wakefulness and sleep. Wakefulness is promoted by neurons in the pons, midbrain, and posterior hypothalamus that produce acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, and orexin/hypocretin. Most of these ascending arousal systems diffusely activate the cortex and other forebrain targets. NREM sleep is mainly driven by neurons in the preoptic area that inhibit the ascending arousal systems, while REM sleep is regulated primarily by neurons in the pons, with additional influence arising in the hypothalamus. Mutual inhibition between these wake- and sleep-regulating regions likely helps generate full wakefulness and sleep with rapid transitions between states. This up-to-date review of these systems should allow clinicians and researchers to better understand the effects of drugs, lesions, and neurologic disease on sleep and wakefulness.

  17. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, I.; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of ...

  18. Measuring dissimilarity between respiratory effort signals based on uniform scaling for sleep staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Yang, Jie; Weysen, Tim; Haakma, Reinder; Foussier, Jérôme; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M

    2014-12-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) has been extensively studied for sleep staging, where sleep stages are usually classified as wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, or non-REM (NREM) sleep (including light and deep sleep). Respiratory information has been proven to correlate with autonomic nervous activity that is related to sleep stages. For example, it is known that the breathing rate and amplitude during NREM sleep, in particular during deep sleep, are steadier and more regular compared to periods of wakefulness that can be influenced by body movements, conscious control, or other external factors. However, the respiratory morphology has not been well investigated across sleep stages. We thus explore the dissimilarity of respiratory effort with respect to its signal waveform or morphology. The dissimilarity measure is computed between two respiratory effort signal segments with the same number of consecutive breaths using a uniform scaling distance. To capture the property of signal morphological dissimilarity, we propose a novel window-based feature in a framework of sleep staging. Experiments were conducted with a data set of 48 healthy subjects using a linear discriminant classifier and a ten-fold cross validation. It is revealed that this feature can help discriminate between sleep stages, but with an exception of separating wake and REM sleep. When combining the new feature with 26 existing respiratory features, we achieved a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.48 for 3-stage classification (wake, REM sleep and NREM sleep) and of 0.41 for 4-stage classification (wake, REM sleep, light sleep and deep sleep), which outperform the results obtained without using this new feature.

  19. Practice with sleep makes perfect: sleep-dependent motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew P; Brakefield, Tiffany; Morgan, Alexandra; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Improvement in motor skill performance is known to continue for at least 24 hr following training, yet the relative contributions of time spent awake and asleep are unknown. Here we provide evidence that a night of sleep results in a 20% increase in motor speed without loss of accuracy, while an equivalent period of time during wake provides no significant benefit. Furthermore, a significant correlation exists between the improved performance overnight and the amount of stage 2 NREM sleep, particularly late in the night. This finding of sleep-dependent motor skill improvement may have important implications for the efficient learning of all skilled actions in humans.

  20. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  1. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  2. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Georg; Katamadze, Nato; Domanski, Ulrike; Schroeder, Maik; Franke, Karl-Josef

    2017-01-01

    COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST]) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2) measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0-45; lower scores indicate better acceptability). Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years). The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7) and IVAPS (8.3±10.2) conditions (P=0.064). There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg). Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH2O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]). Overall patient assessment scores were similar, although there was a trend toward less discomfort during IVAPS. Our results show that IVAPS NIV allows application of higher nocturnal ventilation pressures versus ST without affecting sleep quality or inducing ventilation- associated events.

  3. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilius G

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Georg Nilius,1,2 Nato Katamadze,1,2 Ulrike Domanski,1 Maik Schroeder,1 Karl-Josef Franke1,2 1HELIOS Klinik Hagen-Ambrock, 2Internal Medicine I, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany Background: COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. Objectives: This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST] non-invasive ventilation (NIV and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. Methods: This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2 measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0–45; lower scores indicate better acceptability. Results: Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years. The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7 and IVAPS (8.3±10.2 conditions (P=0.064. There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg. Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH2O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]. Overall patient assessment scores were similar

  4. Enhanced emotional reactivity after selective REM sleep deprivation in humans: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eRosales-Lagarde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from animal and human studies suggest that REM sleep modulates emotional processing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on emotional responses to threatening visual stimuli and their brain correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Twenty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: selective REM sleep deprivation (REM-D, by awakening them at each REM sleep onset, or NREM sleep interruptions (NREM-I as control for potential non-specific effects of awakenings and lack of sleep. In a within-subject design, a visual emotional-reactivity task was performed in the scanner before and 24 hours after sleep manipulation. Behaviorally, emotional reactivity was enhanced relative to baseline in the REM deprived group only. In terms of fMRI signal, there was an overall decrease in activity in the NREM-I group the second time subjects performed the task, particularly in regions involved in emotional processing, such as occipital and temporal areas, as well as in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in top-down emotion regulation. In contrast, activity in these areas remained the same level or even increased in the REM-D group, compared to their baseline level.Taken together, these results suggest that lack of REM sleep in humans is associated with enhanced emotional reactivity, both at behavioral and neural levels, and thus highlight the specific role of REM sleep in regulating the neural substrates for emotional responsiveness.

  5. Distinct effects of IPSU and suvorexant on mouse sleep architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eHoyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor (OXR antagonists (DORAs such as almorexant, SB-649868, suvorexant (MK-4305 and filorexant (MK-6096, have shown promise for the treatment of insomnias and sleep disorders. Whether antagonism of both OX1R and OX2R is necessary for sleep induction has been a matter of some debate. Experiments using knockout mice suggest that it may be sufficient to antagonize only OX2R. The recent identification of an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant OX2R preferring antagonist 2-((1H-Indol-3-ylmethyl-9-(4-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-1-one (IPSU has allowed us to test whether selective antagonism of OX2R may also be a viable strategy for induction of sleep. We previously demonstrated that IPSU and suvorexant increase sleep when dosed during the mouse active phase (lights off; IPSU inducing sleep primarily by increasing NREM sleep, suvorexant primarily by increasing REM sleep. Here, our goal was to determine whether suvorexant and IPSU affect sleep architecture independently of overall sleep induction. We therefore tested suvorexant (25 mg/kg and IPSU (50 mg/kg in mice during the inactive phase (lights on when sleep is naturally more prevalent and when orexin levels are normally low. Whereas IPSU was devoid of effects on the time spent in NREM or REM, suvorexant substantially disturbed the sleep architecture by selectively increasing REM during the first 4 hours after dosing. At the doses tested, suvorexant significantly decreased wake only during the first hour and IPSU did not affect wake time. These data suggest that OX2R preferring antagonists may have a reduced tendency for perturbing NREM/REM architecture in comparison with DORAs. Whether this effect will prove to be a general feature of OX2R antagonists versus DORAs remains to be seen.

  6. Disturbed sleep: linking allergic rhinitis, mood and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Beverly J; Tonelli, Leonardo H; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2010-01-01

    Allergic inflammation is associated with mood disorders, exacerbation of depression, and suicidal behavior. Mediators of inflammation modulate sleep , with Th1 cytokines promoting NREM sleep and increasing sleepiness and Th2 cytokines (produced during allergic inflammation) impairing sleep. As sleep impairment is a rapidly modifiable suicide risk factor strongly associated with mood disorders, we review the literature leading to the hypothesis that allergic rhinitis leads to mood and anxiety disorders and an increased risk of suicide via sleep impairment. Specifically, allergic rhinitis can impair sleep through mechanical (obstructive) and molecular (cytokine production) processes. The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and allergy, the nonabating suicide incidence, the currently available treatment modalities to treat sleep impairment and the need for novel therapeutic targets for mood and anxiety disorders, justify multilevel efforts to explore disturbance of sleep as a pathophysiological link.

  7. Orexin-1 receptor blockade dysregulates REM sleep in the presence of orexin-2 receptor antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eDugovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the prominent role of orexins in the maintenance of wakefulness via activation of orexin-1 (OX1R and orexin-2 (OX2R receptors, various dual OX1/2R antagonists have been shown to promote sleep in animals and humans. While selective blockade of OX2R seems to be sufficient to initiate and prolong sleep, the beneficial effect of additional inhibition of OX1R remains controversial. The relative contribution of OX1R and OX2R to the sleep effects induced by a dual OX1/2R antagonist was further investigated in the rat, and specifically on rapid eye movement (REM sleep since a deficiency of the orexin system is associated with narcolepsy/cataplexy based on clinical and pre-clinical data. As expected, the dual OX1/2R antagonist SB-649868 was effective in promoting non-REM (NREM and REM sleep following oral dosing (10 and 30 mg/kg at the onset of the dark phase. However, a disruption of REM sleep was evidenced by a more pronounced reduction in the onset of REM as compared to NREM sleep, a marked enhancement of the REM/total sleep ratio, and the occurrence of a few episodes of direct wake to REM sleep transitions (REM intrusion. When administered subcutaneously, the OX2R antagonist JNJ-10397049 (10 mg/kg increased NREM duration whereas the OX1R antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg did not alter sleep. REM sleep was not affected either by OX2R or OX1R blockade alone, but administration of the OX1R antagonist in combination with the OX2R antagonist induced a significant reduction in REM sleep latency and an increase in REM sleep duration at the expense of the time spent in NREM sleep. These results indicate that additional blockade of OX1R to OX2R antagonism elicits a dysregulation of REM sleep by shifting the balance in favor of REM sleep at the expense of NREM sleep that may increase the risk of adverse events. Translation of this hypothesis remains to be tested in the clinic.

  8. How Sleep Activates Epileptic Networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy has been long ago studied, and several excellent reviews are available. However, recent development in sleep research, the network concept in epilepsy, and the recognition of high frequency oscillations in epilepsy and more new results may put this matter in a new light. Aim. The review address the multifold interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy networks and with networks of cognitive functions. Material and Methods. The work is a conceptual update of the available clinical data and relevant studies. Results and Conclusions. Studies exploring dynamic microstructure of sleep have found important gating mechanisms for epileptic activation. As a general rule interictal epileptic manifestations seem to be linked to the slow oscillations of sleep and especially to the reactive delta bouts characterized by A1 subtype in the CAP system. Important link between epilepsy and sleep is the interference of epileptiform discharges with the plastic functions in NREM sleep. This is the main reason of cognitive impairment in different forms of early epileptic encephalopathies affecting the brain in a special developmental window. The impairment of cognitive functions via sleep is present especially in epileptic networks involving the thalamocortical system and the hippocampocortical memory encoding system.

  9. Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mume CO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may besimple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking isa disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; inadults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legalissues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria.Objectives: One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult populationin Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking amongthose who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 228 healthyindividuals aged 18 – 60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalencerate of sleepwalking. Results: The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants. It was10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This studyhas shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and thepotential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and promptmanagement of the condition.

  10. Global Functional Connectivity Differences between Sleep-Like States in Urethane Anesthetized Rats Measured by fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Zhurakovskaya

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for nervous system functioning and sleep disorders are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. However, the macroscale connectivity changes in brain networking during different sleep states are poorly understood. One of the hindering factors is the difficulty to combine functional connectivity investigation methods with spontaneously sleeping animals, which prevents the use of numerous preclinical animal models. Recent studies, however, have implicated that urethane anesthesia can uniquely induce different sleep-like brain states, resembling rapid eye movement (REM and non-REM (NREM sleep, in rodents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess changes in global connectivity and topology between sleep-like states in urethane anesthetized rats, using blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging. We detected significant changes in corticocortical (increased in NREM-like state and corticothalamic connectivity (increased in REM-like state. Additionally, in graph analysis the modularity, the measure of functional integration in the brain, was higher in NREM-like state than in REM-like state, indicating a decrease in arousal level, as in normal sleep. The fMRI findings were supported by the supplementary electrophysiological measurements. Taken together, our results show that macroscale functional connectivity changes between sleep states can be detected robustly with resting-state fMRI in urethane anesthetized rats. Our findings pave the way for studies in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases where sleep abnormalities are often one of the first markers for the disorder development.

  11. Parasomnias and movement disorders of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurologists are often enlisted to help diagnose, evaluate, and manage a spectrum of abnormal spells during the night ranging from parasomnias to motor disturbance that span the sleep-wake cycle. Parasomnias are undesirable emotional or physical events that accompany sleep. These events typically occur during entry into sleep from wakefulness, or during arousals from sleep, and are often augmented by the sleep state. Some parasomnias, such as the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder may be extremely undesirable, while others such as somniloquy are often of little concern. The parasomnias include a spectrum of abnormal emotions, movements, behaviors, sensory perceptions, dream mentation, and autonomic activity. Basic physiologic drives, such as sex, hunger, and aggression, may manifest as sleep-related eating, sleep-related sexual behaviors, and sleep-related violence. Parasomnias have a very bizarre nature, but are readily explainable, diagnosable, and treatable. They are hypothesized to be due to changes in brain organization across multiple states of being, and are particularly apt to occur during the incomplete transition or oscillation from one sleep state to another. Parasomnias are often explained on the basis that wakefulness and sleep are not mutually exclusive states, and abnormal intrusion of wakefulness into non-REM (NREM) sleep produces arousal disorders, and intrusion of wakefulness into REM sleep produces REM sleep parasomnias and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), two closely related conditions that often result in disturbed sleep onset and sleep maintenance, are also reviewed in this article. Although the mechanisms that underlie idiopathic RLS or PLMD are not fully understood, there is currently substantial evidence that dopaminergic dysfunction is likely involved in both conditions. The discussion will conclude with the "other parasomnias" and sleep

  12. [Neurochemical mechanisms of sleep regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is a complex, global and reversible behavioral state of all mammals, that is homeostatically regulated. Generally it is also defined as a rapidly reversible state of immobility and reduced sensory responsiveness. Still, there is no definition that has succeded in satisfying all aspects of sleep. The failure to define sleep as a single behavior lies in several facts: (1) sleep is not a homogenous state, but continuum of number of mixed states; (2) the control mechanisms of sleep are manifested at all levels of biological organization--from genes and intracellular mechanisms to the networks of neuronal populations within the central nervous system that control movement, arousal, autonomic functions, behavior and cognition; (3) the activity and interactions of these neurochemically greatly heterogenous neuronal populations are dependent of two biological rhythms--the circadian rhythm of wake/sleep and periodic cycles of NREM/REM sleep as two main sleep states. There are several levels of sleep control. The brain forebrain areas serve to control neuropsychology of dreaming; thalamo-cortical system controls NREM sleep rhythms, EEG activation and deactivation; hippocampo-cortical system controls memory consolidation; hypothalamic nuclei are the sources of circadian rhythm and sleep onset control; the control of periodic NREM/REM cycling is within the pons. The wake promoting neuronal populations are within the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus and basal forebrain. The main pontine wake-promoting centers are the noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus, the serotonergic neurons of dorsal raphe nucleus and the cholinerigic neurons of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The reciprocal connections and interactions of these neurons, and their opposite discharge pattern activity from wake to NREM and REM sleep have been the background of reciprocal interaction hypothesis of REM sleep generation. The wake-promoting neurons at the

  13. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, I; Nunn, C L; McNamara, P; Preston, B T; Barton, R A

    2008-10-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states - rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep - that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of sleep into several bouts per day), as having multiple sleep bouts avoids long periods of unconsciousness, potentially reducing vulnerability.Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested these predictions in mammals, and also investigated the relationships among sleep phasing, sleep-cycle length, sleep durations and body mass.Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.Polyphasic sleep was associated with small body size, shorter sleep cycles and longer sleep durations. The correlation with size may reflect energetic constraints: small animals need to feed more frequently, preventing them from consolidating sleep into a single bout. The reduced daily sleep quotas in monophasic species suggests that the consolidation of sleep into one bout per day may deliver the benefits of sleep more efficiently and, since early mammals were small-bodied and polyphasic, a more efficient monophasic sleep pattern could be a hitherto unrecognized advantage of larger size.

  14. Sleep Fragmentation Exacerbates Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Alters Subsequent Sleep-Wake Behavior in a Mouse Model of Musculoskeletal Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased numbers of sleep-wake state transitions during the light and dark periods; changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness; and altered delta power during NREM sleep. These effects persisted for at least 3 weeks postsensitization. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization exacerbates the physiological and behavioral responses of mice to musculoskeletal sensitization, including mechanical hypersensitivity and sleep-wake behavior. These data contribute to increasing literature demonstrating bidirectional relationships between sleep and pain. The prevalence and incidence of insufficient sleep and pathologies characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain are increasing in the United States. These demographic data underscore the need for research focused on insufficient sleep and chronic pain so that the quality of life for the millions of individuals with these conditions may be improved. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization. SLEEP 2014;37(3):515-524. PMID:24587574

  15. Armodafinil, the R-enantiomer of modafinil: wake-promoting effects and pharmacokinetic profile in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisor, Jonathan P; Dement, William C; Aimone, Lisa; Williams, Michael; Bozyczko-Coyne, Donna

    2006-11-01

    Modafinil reduces the excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, and shift work sleep disorder. In rats, modafinil promotes dose-dependent increases in wake duration. The wake-promoting activity of the R-enantiomer of modafinil (armodafinil) was evaluated in WKY rats and compared to the classical stimulant, D-methamphetamine. Electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals were assessed via a tethered cranial implant. Body temperature and locomotor activity were assessed by telemetry via intraperitoneal implant. Rats (n=60, 12 per group) were subjected to one of five parallel treatments: armodafinil at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p.; D-methamphetamine, 1 mg/kg i.p. and vehicle. Armodafinil and D-methamphetamine increased time spent awake relative to vehicle. Armodafinil-evoked increases in wake duration were dose-dependent and proportional to plasma compound exposure. Induction of wakefulness by D-methamphetamine was associated with an approximately two-fold increase in locomotor activity during the 2-h period immediately following administration relative to vehicle. D-methamphetamine also increased body temperature over the same time interval. The dose of armodafinil (100 mg/kg, i.p.) that was closest to D-methamphetamine in its wake-promoting efficacy did not produce changes in either body temperature or the intensity of locomotor activity relative to vehicle. Acute rebound hypersomnolence, characterized by increases in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) as a percentage of time and NREMS bout duration and by a decreased frequency of brief awakenings following sleep deprivation, occurred following D-methamphetamine-but not armodafinil-induced wake in this rat model which has been shown to be predictive of human drug responses.

  16. Sleep and bodily functions: the physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, R; Bastianini, S; Berteotti, C; Cerri, M; Del Vecchio, F; Lo Martire, V; Luppi, M; Perez, E; Silvani, A; Zamboni, G; Zoccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    Body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis may both rely on the complex integrative activity carried out by the hypothalamus. Thus, the three main wake-sleep (WS) states (i.e. wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) may be better understood if the different cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, which are under the integrated control of the autonomic and the endocrine systems, are studied during sleep monitoring. According to this view, many physiological events can be considered as an expression of the activity that physiological regulations should perform in order to cope with the need to fulfill body and sleep homeostasis. This review is aimed at making an assessment of data showing the existence of a physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis, starting from the spontaneous changes observed in the somatic and autonomic activity during sleep, through evidence showing the deep changes occurring in the central integration of bodily functions during the different WS states, to the changes in the WS states observed when body homeostasis is challenged by the external environment and when the return to normal ambient conditions allows sleep homeo- stasis to run without apparent physiological restrictions. The data summarized in this review suggest that an approach to the dichotomy between NREM and REM sleep based on physiological regulations may offer a framework within which observations that a traditional behavioral approach may overlook can be interpreted. The study of the interplay between body and sleep homeostasis appears, therefore, to be a way to understand the function of complex organisms beyond that of the specific regulations.

  17. Primary sleep enuresis in childhood: polysomnography evidences of sleep stage and time modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimäo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate enuretic events and its relations to sleep stages, sleep cycles and time durations in a selected group of children with primary essential sleep enuresis. We evaluated 18 patients with mean age of 8.2 years old (ranging from 5 to 12 years; 10 were males and 8 females (n.s.. They were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center with the specific complaint of enuresis since the first years of life (primary. Pediatric, urologic and neurologic workup did not show objective abnormalities (essential. The standard all-night polysomnography including an enuresis sensor attached to the shorts in the crotch area was performed. Only enuretic events nights were included. All were drug free patients for two weeks prior to polysomnography. In this report, only one polysomnography per patient was considered. The enuretic events were phase related, occurring predominantly in non-REM (NREM sleep (p<0.05. There was no predominance of enuretic events among the NREM stages (n.s.. A tendency of these events to occur in the first two sleep cycles was detected but may be due to the longer duration of these cycles. The events were time modulated, adjusted to a normal distribution with a mean of 213.4 min of recording time.

  18. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  19. Circadian factor BMAL1 in histaminergic neurons regulates sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zecharia, Anna; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Qianzi; Yustos, Raquel; Jager, Polona; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Chesham, Johanna E; Ma, Ying; Brickley, Stephen G; Hastings, Michael H; Franks, Nicholas P; Wisden, William

    2014-12-01

    Circadian clocks allow anticipation of daily environmental changes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) houses the master clock, but clocks are also widely expressed elsewhere in the body. Although some peripheral clocks have established roles, it is unclear what local brain clocks do. We tested the contribution of one putative local clock in mouse histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus to the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Histaminergic neurons are silent during sleep, and start firing after wake onset; the released histamine, made by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC), enhances wakefulness. We found that hdc gene expression varies with time of day. Selectively deleting the Bmal1 (also known as Arntl or Mop3) clock gene from histaminergic cells removes this variation, producing higher HDC expression and brain histamine levels during the day. The consequences include more fragmented sleep, prolonged wake at night, shallower sleep depth (lower nonrapid eye movement [NREM] δ power), increased NREM-to-REM transitions, hindered recovery sleep after sleep deprivation, and impaired memory. Removing BMAL1 from histaminergic neurons does not, however, affect circadian rhythms. We propose that for mammals with polyphasic/nonwake consolidating sleep, the local BMAL1-dependent clock directs appropriately timed declines and increases in histamine biosynthesis to produce an appropriate balance of wake and sleep within the overall daily cycle of rest and activity specified by the SCN.

  20. Sleep-related epileptic behaviors and non-REM-related parasomnias: Insights from stereo-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Steve A; Proserpio, Paola; Terzaghi, Michele; Pigorini, Andrea; Sarasso, Simone; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Tassi, Laura; Nobili, Lino

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade, many clinical and pathophysiological aspects of sleep-related epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal behaviors have been clarified. Advances have been achieved in part through the use of intracerebral recording methods such as stereo-electroencephalography (S-EEG), which has allowed a unique "in vivo" neurophysiological insight into focal epilepsy. Using S-EEG, the local features of physiological and pathological EEG activity in different cortical and subcortical structures have been better defined during the entire sleep-wake spectrum. For example, S-EEG has contributed to clarify the semiology of sleep-related seizures as well as highlight the specific epileptogenic networks involved during ictal activity. Moreover, intracerebral EEG recordings derived from patients with epilepsy have been valuable to study sleep physiology and specific sleep disorders. The occasional co-occurrence of NREM-related parasomnias in epileptic patients undergoing S-EEG investigation has permitted the recordings of such events, highlighting the presence of local electrophysiological dissociated states and clarifying the underlying pathophysiological substrate of such NREM sleep disorders. Based on these recent advances, the authors review and summarize the current and relevant S-EEG literature on sleep-related hypermotor epilepsies and NREM-related parasomnias. Finally, novel data and future research hypothesis will be discussed.

  1. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained......ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...

  2. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Saletin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved, increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information equally. Instead, and based on explicit as well as motivational cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications.

  3. Síndrome de ingesta nocturna como efecto colateral del zolpidem Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Valiensi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El zolpidem es una droga hipnótica utilizada para el tratamiento del insomnio. Disminuye la latencia del sueño, el número total de despertares y aumenta el tiempo total del sueño respetando en general su arquitectura. Se cree que aumenta la fase 3 del sueño lento profundo. Nuestro objetivo es comunicar 8 casos de síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño y conductas automáticas complejas asociadas a sonambulismo como efecto colateral del zolpidem. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 8 pacientes tratados con zolpidem que referían ingesta nocturna de alimentos con amnesia total o parcial del episodio. Se presentan 6 mujeres y 2 hombres, entre 32 y 72 años (media: 58 años, 7 tratados con zolpidem 10 mg/noche y 1 con zolpidem 12.5 mg/noche de liberación prolongada. El tiempo de exposición previo al desarrollo de eventos fue de 1 a 180 días (media de 39.8. El número de episodios relatados era de 1 a 8/noche (media 2.5 asociado con amnesia. Los episodios desaparecieron por completo en el 100% de los casos al suspender la medicación. El síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño es una parasomnia de sueño lento profundo que consiste en episodios de ingesta de alimento o bebida durante la noche, con amnesia parcial o completa del episodio. El zolpidem podría inducir el síndrome de ingesta nocturna relacionado al sueño en aproximadamente el 1% de pacientes, aunque creemos que es un efecto adverso que está subdiagnosticado. Se resuelve simplemente suspendiendo la medicación.Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug

  4. Automatic SLEEP staging: From young aduslts to elderly patients using multi-class support vector machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2013-01-01

    , and not the affected sleep events. The age-related influences are then reduced by robust subject-specific scaling. The classification of the three sleep stages are achieved by a multi-class support vector machine using the one-versus-rest scheme. It was possible to obtain a high classification accuracy of 0......Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes...... an automatic sleep stage detector, which can separate wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep using only EEG and EOG. Most sleep events, which define the sleep stages, are reduced with age. This is addressed by focusing on the amplitude of the clinical EEG bands...

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep.

  6. Sleep stage classification with ECG and respiratory effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Pedro; Long, Xi; Radha, Mustafa; Haakma, Reinder; Aarts, Ronald M; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-10-01

    Automatic sleep stage classification with cardiorespiratory signals has attracted increasing attention. In contrast to the traditional manual scoring based on polysomnography, these signals can be measured using advanced unobtrusive techniques that are currently available, promising the application for personal and continuous home sleep monitoring. This paper describes a methodology for classifying wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) light and deep sleep on a 30 s epoch basis. A total of 142 features were extracted from electrocardiogram and thoracic respiratory effort measured with respiratory inductance plethysmography. To improve the quality of these features, subject-specific Z-score normalization and spline smoothing were used to reduce between-subject and within-subject variability. A modified sequential forward selection feature selector procedure was applied, yielding 80 features while preventing the introduction of bias in the estimation of cross-validation performance. PSG data from 48 healthy adults were used to validate our methods. Using a linear discriminant classifier and a ten-fold cross-validation, we achieved a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.49 and an accuracy of 69% in the classification of wake, REM, light, and deep sleep. These values increased to kappa = 0.56 and accuracy = 80% when the classification problem was reduced to three classes, wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep.

  7. The nocturnal panic attacks: polysomnographic features and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yan-lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Panic disorder refers to the repeated or unexpected anxiety or panic attacks. It makes patients feel extreme pain. Although the episodes of most patients with panic disorder happen at daytime, the nocturnal panic attacks (NPA are quite common. Paients pay more attention to NPA. Insomnia is more serious in patients with NPA than those patients with panic disorder attack at daytime. Many patients may occur anxiety and avoidance behavior after NPA. Patients are often afraid of sleeping, or even do not sleep. The aim of this study is to analyze polysomnographic (PSG parameter changes and clinical concomitant symptoms of patietns with NPA, to explore the characteristics of sleep, in order to provide better diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment for these patients. Methods The features of sleep of 20 NPA patients and 23 healthy controls were monitored by video-PSG. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD were used to assess the state of anxiety, depression, and dyssomnia of the patients. Results In comparison with normal control group, the NPA group showed shortened total sleep time (TST, decreased sleep efficiency (SE and sleep maintenance rate, delayed arousal time, increased number of arousal and number of arousal episode longer than 5 minutes, increased percentage of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ, decreased percentage of NREM sleep stageⅢ and percentage of rapid eye movement (REM sleep (P 0.05, for all. In NPA group, there were 13 cases (13/20 with anxiety, 17 (17/20 with depression, 13 cases/times (13/20 with difficulty of falling asleep, 17 cases/times (17/20 with difficulties in maintaining sleep (frequent arousals and difficult to fall asleep again and 7 cases/times (7/20 with wake up early. Conclusion NPA patients present decreased deep sleep, increased shallow sleep and poor sleep quality, and are mostly accompanied with mild or moderate depression and (or anxiety

  8. EphA4 is Involved in Sleep Regulation but Not in the Electrophysiological Response to Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Pierre, Audrey; Paquette, Gabrielle; Bélanger-Nelson, Erika; Bedont, Joseph; Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Drolet, Guy; Laforest, Sylvie; Blackshaw, Seth; Cermakian, Nicolas; Doucet, Guy; Mongrain, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    Optimal sleep is ensured by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. Although synaptic plasticity seems to contribute to both processes, the specific players involved are not well understood. The EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor is a cell adhesion protein regulating synaptic plasticity. We investigated the role of EphA4 in sleep regulation using electrocorticography in mice lacking EphA4 and gene expression measurements. EphA4 knockout (KO) mice, Clock(Δ19/Δ19) mutant mice and littermates, C57BL/6J and CD-1 mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were studied under a 12 h light: 12 h dark cycle, under undisturbed conditions or 6 h sleep deprivation (SLD), and submitted to a 48 h electrophysiological recording and/or brain sampling at different time of day. EphA4 KO mice showed less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), enhanced duration of individual bouts of wakefulness and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the light period, and a blunted daily rhythm of NREMS sigma activity. The NREMS delta activity response to SLD was unchanged in EphA4 KO mice. However, SLD increased EphA4 expression in the thalamic/hypothalamic region in C57BL/6J mice. We further show the presence of E-boxes in the promoter region of EphA4, a lower expression of EphA4 in Clock mutant mice, a rhythmic expression of EphA4 ligands in several brain areas, expression of EphA4 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN), and finally an unchanged number of cells expressing Vip, Grp and Avp in the SCN of EphA4 KO mice. Our results suggest that EphA4 is involved in circadian sleep regulation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Sleep disturbances in drug naïve Parkinson′s disease (PD patients and effect of levodopa on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parkinson′s disease (PD is associated with sleep disturbances, attributed to the neurodegenerative process and therapeutic drugs. Studies have found levodopa to increase wakefulness in some patients while increasing sleepiness in others. Aims: To confirm sleep disturbances in drug naïve PD patients and understand the impact of levodopa on their sleep. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three drug naοve PD patients and 31 age-gender matched controls were compared using the Parkinson′s Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. A polysomnogram objectively compared sleep quality. Of the 23 patients, the 12 initiated on levodopa were reassessed subjectively and through polysomnography after 2 months of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation, median, and range. Continuous variables were analyzed by Student′s T test for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U test for skewed data. Discrete variables were compared by Chi Square tests (Pearson Chi square Test or Fisher′s Exact Test. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was applied in the analysis of paired data pre- and post-levodopa. A P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Results: Drug naïve PD patients had lower PDSS scores than controls. The sleep architecture changes observed on polysomnogram were reduced NREM Stage III and REM sleep and increased sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time. Following levodopa, improved sleep efficiency with reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time was noted, coupled with improved PDSS scores. However, NREM Stage III and REM sleep duration did not increase. Discussion: PD patients take longer to fall asleep and have difficulty in sleep maintenance. Sleep maintenance is affected by nocturia, REM behavioral disorder, nocturnal cramps, akinesia, and

  10. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  11. Electrophysiological Evidence for Alternative Motor Networks in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackius, Marc; Werth, Esther; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Baumann, Christian R; Imbach, Lukas L

    2016-11-16

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show mostly unimpaired motor behavior during REM sleep, which contrasts strongly to coexistent nocturnal bradykinesia. The reason for this sudden amelioration of motor control in REM sleep is unknown, however. We set out to determine whether movements during REM sleep are processed by different motor networks than movements in the waking state. We recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and scalp EEG (modified 10/20 montage) during sleep in humans with PD and RBD. Time-locked event-related β band oscillations were calculated during movements in REM sleep compared with movements in the waking state and during NREM sleep. Spectral analysis of STN local field potentials revealed elevated β power during REM sleep compared with NREM sleep and β power in REM sleep reached levels similar as in the waking state. Event-related analysis showed time-locked β desynchronization during WAKE movements. In contrast, we found significantly elevated β activity before and during movements in REM sleep and NREM sleep. Corticosubthalamic coherence was reduced during REM and NREM movements. We conclude that sleep-related movements are not processed by the same corticobasal ganglia network as movements in the waking state. Therefore, the well-known seemingly normal motor performance during RBD in PD patients might be generated by activating alternative motor networks for movement initiation. These findings support the hypothesis that pathological movement-inhibiting basal ganglia networks in PD patients are bypassed during sleep. This study provides evidence that nocturnal movements during REM sleep in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are not processed by the same corticobasal ganglia network as movements in the waking state. This implicates the existence of an alternative motor network that does not depend directly on the availability of l-Dopa in the basal ganglia. These findings

  12. Age-related Changes In Sleep Spindles Characteristics During Daytime Recovery Following a 25-Hour Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïna eRosinvil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11-15Hz; >0.5s help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g. daytime, even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups.Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 ± 5.0 and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1 healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artefact-free NREM sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min, amplitude (μV, frequency (Hz and duration (s were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects.Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure module spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep.

  13. Human consciousness and sleep/waking rhythms: a review and some neuropsychological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, R

    1982-09-01

    The relevance of sleep/waking rhythms to issues of human consciousness is reviewed from data in the literature and from personal studies. Consciousness is often considered to be markedly attenuated or absent in sleep. There is, however, much evidence for a rich subjective experience during sleep, much of which is not recalled later. This implies that William James' "stream of consciousness' persists continuously throughout sleep as well as wakefulness, but that problems of memory recall interfere with its being reported as such. Sleeping subjects show selective awareness of external stimuli, with significant stimuli generally leading to awakening and relatively nonsignificant stimuli, at least at times, being incorporated into the ongoing mental activity of REM or NREM sleep. Mentation throughout sleep is characterized by a high degree of autonomy and little willful control. Creative insight and problem solving of a very high order may occur in sleep and involve either dreaming or thought-like mentation. Parameters of waking consciousness show possibly sleep-related rhythmic fluctuations at both circadian (24 hr sleep/waking) and ultradian (90-120) min, NREM/REM sleep) rates. Moreover, waking consciousness is markedly influenced by the quality of temporal stability of preceding sleep. A substantial number of so-called "altered states of consciousness" is found to involve primarily or exclusively dysfunction of sleep/waking mechanisms. Cerebral lesions can produce selective impairment of aspects of sleep mentation. It is concluded that further analysis of subjective awareness in sleep or in partial sleep states is very relevant and indeed vital to a more comprehensive understanding of human consciousness.

  14. Distribution of delta activity across nonrapid eye movement sleep episodes in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preud'homme, X A; Lanquart, J P; Mendlewicz, J; Linkowski, P

    1997-04-01

    The distribution of delta activity across successive nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes and its night-to-night stability across three consecutive nights were investigated by studying delta power with spectral analysis in 31 healthy young men. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with polynomial contrast was applied to grouped data of absolute delta power and three indexes: (1) the rate of delta power per NREM episode to its duration, 2) the standardized rate for the last NREM episode, and 3) the logarithm of the standardized rate. A significant linear decrease across NREM episodes was observed for each variable in each successive night. In addition, using night as a second within-subjects factor, no night effect was observed. Yet, the subsequent analysis of the logarithmic data yielded greater F values in all three nights' data as well as a linear function that accounted for a greater proportion of total variance than the analysis of the nonlogarithmic data. Since a linear decline for the logarithm of a variable implies an exponential distribution for that variable, we conclude that delta activity is distributed exponentially across NREM episodes, and this finding shows a remarkable night-to-night stability.

  15. Suppressant effects of selective 5-HT2 antagonists on rapid eye movement sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Echevarria, E; Pastel, R H; Cox, B; Blackburn, T P

    1989-04-24

    The effects of the novel, highly selective serotonin-2 (5-HT2) antagonists, ICI 169,369 and ICI 170,809, on 24 h EEG sleep-wake activity were studied in the rat. Both compounds caused a dose-related increase in the latency to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and significantly suppressed cumulative REMS time up to 12 h postinjection. In contrast, neither drug disrupted slow-wave sleep continuity in as much as the latency to non-REMS (NREMS) and cumulative NREMS time were unchanged. However, at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg) ICI 170,809 did produce a significant increase in total NREMS time during the second half of the sleep-awake cycle. These results demonstrate effects of selective 5-HT2 antagonists on sleep in rats which appear to be specific for REMS behavior, suggesting that the priming influence of serotonin on REMS may involve 5-HT2 receptor subtypes. The relationship between the REMS suppressant actions of these compounds and their consideration as therapeutic agents in depression is discussed.

  16. Sleeping dendrites: fiber-optic measurements of dendritic calcium activity in freely moving and sleeping animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Seibt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendrites are the post-synaptic sites of most excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the brain, making them the main location of cortical information processing and synaptic plasticity. Although current hypotheses suggest a central role for sleep in proper cognitive function and brain plasticity, virtually nothing is known about changes in dendritic activity across the sleep-wake cycle and how waking experience modifies this activity. To start addressing these questions, we developed a method that allows long-term recordings of EEGs/EMG combined with in vivo cortical calcium (Ca2+ activity in freely moving and sleeping rats. We measured Ca2+ activity from populations of dendrites of layer (L 5 pyramidal neurons (n = 13 rats that we compared with Ca2+ activity from populations of neurons in L2/3 (n = 11 rats. L5 and L2/3 neurons were labelled using bolus injection of OGB1-AM or GCaMP6 (1. Ca2+ signals were detected using a fiber-optic system (cannula diameter = 400µm, transmitting the changes in fluorescence to a photodiode. Ca2+ fluctuations could then be correlated with ongoing changes in brain oscillatory activity during 5 major brain states: active wake [AW], quiet wake [QW], NREM, REM and NREM-REM transition (or intermediate state, [IS]. Our Ca2+ recordings show large transients in L5 dendrites and L2/3 neurons that oscillate predominantly at frequencies In summary, we show that this technique is successful in monitoring fluctuations in ongoing dendritic Ca2+ activity during natural brain states and allows, in principle, to combine behavioral measurement with imaging from various brain regions (e.g. deep structures in freely behaving animals. Using this method, we show that Ca2+ transients from populations of L2/3 neurons and L5 dendrites are deferentially regulated across the sleep/wake cycle, with dendritic activity being the highest during the IS sleep. Our correlation analysis suggests that specific sleep EEG activity during NREM and IS

  17. Estradiol modulates recovery of REM sleep in a time-of-day-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D; Mong, Jessica A

    2013-08-01

    Ovarian hormones are thought to modulate sleep and fluctuations in the hormonal milieu are coincident with sleep complaints in women. In female rats, estradiol increases waking and suppresses sleep. In this study, we asked whether this effect is mediated via circadian or homeostatic regulatory mechanisms. Ovariectomized female rats received daily injections of estradiol benzoate (EB) or sesame oil that mimicked the rapid increase and subsequent decline of circulating estradiol at proestrus. In one experiment, animals were sleep deprived for 6 h starting at lights-on, so that recovery began in the mid-light phase; in the second experiment, animals were sleep deprived starting in the mid-light phase, so that recovery began at lights-off. EB suppressed baseline rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep and increased waking in the dark phase. In both experiments, EB enhanced REM recovery in the light phase while suppressing it in the dark compared with oil; this effect was most pronounced in the first 6 h of recovery. By contrast, NREM recovery was largely unaffected by EB. In summary, EB enhanced waking and suppressed sleep, particularly REM sleep, in the dark under baseline and recovery conditions. These strong temporally dependent effects suggest that EB consolidates circadian sleep-wake rhythms in female rats.

  18. Modeling the effect of sleep regulation on a neural mass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michael Schellenberger; Born, Jan; Claussen, Jens Christian; Martinetz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, sleep is categorized by two main sleep stages, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep that are known to fulfill different functional roles, the most notable being the consolidation of memory. While REM sleep is characterized by brain activity similar to wakefulness, the EEG activity changes drastically with the emergence of K-complexes, sleep spindles and slow oscillations during NREM sleep. These changes are regulated by circadian and ultradian rhythms, which emerge from an intricate interplay between multiple neuronal populations in the brainstem, forebrain and hypothalamus and the resulting varying levels of neuromodulators. Recently, there has been progress in the understanding of those rhythms both from a physiological as well as theoretical perspective. However, how these neuromodulators affect the generation of the different EEG patterns and their temporal dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we build upon previous work on a neural mass model of the sleeping cortex and investigate the effect of those neuromodulators on the dynamics of the cortex and the corresponding transition between wakefulness and the different sleep stages. We show that our simplified model is sufficient to generate the essential features of human EEG over a full day. This approach builds a bridge between sleep regulatory networks and EEG generating neural mass models and provides a valuable tool for model validation.

  19. Does sleep play a role in memory consolidation? A comparative test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Capellini

    Full Text Available Sleep is a pervasive characteristic of mammalian species, yet its purpose remains obscure. It is often proposed that 'sleep is for the brain', a view that is supported by experimental studies showing that sleep improves cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. Some comparative studies have also reported that mammalian sleep durations are higher among more encephalized species. However, no study has assessed the relationship between sleep and the brain structures that are implicated in specific cognitive processes across species. The hippocampus, neocortex and amygdala are important for memory consolidation and learning and are also in a highly actived state during sleep. We therefore investigated the evolutionary relationship between mammalian sleep and the size of these brain structures using phylogenetic comparative methods. We found that evolutionary increases in the size of the amygdala are associated with corresponding increases in NREM sleep durations. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NREM sleep is functionally linked with specializations of the amygdala, including perhaps memory processing.

  20. Clinical Features and Polysomnographic Findings in Greek Male Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Differences Regarding the Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremidis George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background-Aim. Although sleep disturbance is a common complaint among patients of all ages, research suggests that older adults are particularly vulnerable. The aim of this retrospective study was to elucidate the influence of age on clinical characteristics and polysomnographic findings of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS between elderly and younger male patients in a Greek population. Methods. 697 male patients with OSAS were examined from December 2001 to August 2011. All subjects underwent an attended overnight polysomnography (PSG. They were divided into two groups: young and middle-aged (<65 years old and elderly (≥65 years old. We evaluated the severity of OSAS, based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and the duration of apnea-hypopnea events, the duration of hypoxemia during total sleep time (TST and during REM and NREM sleep, and the oxygen saturation in REM and in NREM sleep. Results. PSG studies showed that elderly group had significant higher duration of apnea-hypopnea events, longer hypoxemia in TST and in NREM sleep, as well as lower oxygen saturation in REM and NREM sleep than the younger group. Otherwise, significant correlation between BMI and neck circumference with AHI was observed in both groups. Conclusions. The higher percentages of hypoxemia during sleep and longer duration of apnea-hypopnea events that were observed in the elderly group might be explained by increased propensity for pharyngeal collapse and increased deposition of parapharyngeal fat, which are associated with aging. Another factor that could explain these findings might be a decreased partial arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 due to age-related changes in the respiratory system.

  1. Quantitative analysis of wrist electrodermal activity during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akane; Picard, Rosalind W; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-12-01

    We present the first quantitative characterization of electrodermal activity (EDA) patterns on the wrists of healthy adults during sleep using dry electrodes. We compare the new results on the wrist to the prior findings on palmar or finger EDA by characterizing data measured from 80 nights of sleep consisting of 9 nights of wrist and palm EDA from 9 healthy adults sleeping at home, 56 nights of wrist and palm EDA from one healthy adult sleeping at home, and 15 nights of wrist EDA from 15 healthy adults in a sleep laboratory, with the latter compared to concurrent polysomnography. While high frequency patterns of EDA called "storms" were identified by eye in the 1960s, we systematically compare thresholds for automatically detecting EDA peaks and establish criteria for EDA storms. We found that more than 80% of the EDA peaks occurred in non-REM sleep, specifically during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and non-REM stage 2 sleep (NREM2). Also, EDA amplitude is higher in SWS than in other sleep stages. Longer EDA storms were more likely to occur in the first two quarters of sleep and during SWS and NREM2. We also found from the home studies (65 nights) that EDA levels were higher and the skin conductance peaks were larger and more frequent when measured on the wrist than when measured on the palm. These EDA high frequency peaks and high amplitude were sometimes associated with higher skin temperature, but more work is needed looking at neurological and other EDA elicitors in order to elucidate their complete behavior.

  2. The role of REM sleep theta activity in emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Isabel C; Rathore, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    While non-REM (NREM) sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity-which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex-is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale pontine-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces during REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep levels of achetylcholine - which is thought to reduce hippocampal inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate feedback within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  3. Suggestions on the diagnostic criteria of childhood obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome%儿童阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征诊断标准的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦旭; 陈爱欢; 孙丽红; 罗嘉莹; 黄顺开; 曾莉君; 周方略

    2015-01-01

    .92).Result The oxygen desaturation index of the intermediate OSAHS group (3.8 ± 0.4) was significantly higher than that of PS group (1.6 ± 0.1) (x2 =34.5,P < 0.01).The LSpO2 of intermediate OSAHS group was significantly lower than that of PS group (89(87,91) vs.93(91,94),x2 =40.2,P<0.01).Comparing to the PS group,the non-rapid eye movement 1 ratio (N1%) was significantly higher (19.0 ± 1.2 vs.14.2 ±0.1,x2 =14.1,P <0.01),and the non-rapid eye movement 3 ratio (N3%) was significantly lower (24.4 ± 1.0 vs.29.0 ± 1.1,P < 0.01) in the intermediate OSAHS group.The pediatric questionnaire score intermediate OSAHS group was higher than PS (0.41 ±0.19 vs.0.28 ±0.14,x2 =8.52,P =0.01).The adenoids-nasopharynx ratio was higher than that of PS group (0.70 ±0.07 vs.0.62 ±0.10,x2 =8.96,P =0.01).The hypertrophy of tonsil was higher than PS group (2 (1,2) vs.1 (1,2),x2 =7.95,P < 0.05).Conclusion Hypoxia and abnormal sleep structure are present in HS children with an OAHI of 1 to 5,and they also have the clinical features of OSAHS.

  4. Research on the relationship between body mass index and sleep architecture changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%不同程度阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者体质量指数及睡眠结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 奚峰; 丁永杰; 周志才

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome,OSAHS)患者体质量指数(BMI)及睡眠结构变化并探讨其临床意义.方法:将182例患者经多导睡眠图(PSG)检查分为轻度、中度、重度以及单纯鼾症对照组;计算各组觉醒时间、非快动眼睡眠、快动眼睡眠各期所占比例并比较其百分比;比较各组呼吸暂停低通气指数(apnea-hypopnea index,AHI)、BMI、总微觉醒次数(microarousal,MI)的差别;对各组AHI与BMI、S3+S4期睡眠百分比、MI的相关性进行分析.结果:各组AHI与其BMI比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);对各组的AHI与BMI进行相关性分析,两者呈正相关;各0SAHS组觉醒时间、S1+S2期睡眠、MI均高于单纯鼾症对照组(P<0.05);各0SAHS组S3+S4期睡眠均低于单纯鼾症对照组(P<0.05);各组的AHI与S3+S4期睡眠百分比、MI具有良好的相关性(r=-0.478;r =0.785).结论:AHI与BMI呈正相关,肥胖是OSAHS发生的重要病因;OSAHS患者存在睡眠结构紊乱,其严重程度与OSAHS病情程度密切相关.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between body mass index(BMI) and sleep structure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: A total of 182 patients were diagnosed by polysomnography(PSG) and divided into 4 groups; snorer, mild, middle and sever. The percentage of sleep stages of non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) , BMI and microarousal(MI) were analyzed. Results; There were significant differences in BMI between snorer, mild, middle and sever group, respectively. The percentage of sleep stages (awaking time, SI, S2, S3 +S4) also had significant difference in different groups, respectively. The correlation of BMI and AHI, MI and AHI was positive. And there was negative correlation between S3 + S4 and AHI. Conclusion : The values of AHI were highly correlated with BMI, high BMI may be

  5. Commentary on the mutual interaction model of McCarley and Massaquoi for REM-NREM cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Beersma, Domien G.M.

    1986-01-01

    McCarley and Massaquoi successfully simulated human REM-NREM cycle characteristics by extending the McCarley-Hobson model with two sets of assumptions, one creating limit cycle behavior, the other introducing two sources of circadian variation. We argue that the limit cycle assumptions, due to freed

  6. Probabilistic cardiac and respiratory based classification of sleep and apneic events in subjects with sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, T; Varon, C; Dorado, A Caicedo; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J; Van Huffel, S

    2015-10-01

    Current clinical standards to assess sleep and its disorders lack either accuracy or user-friendliness. They are therefore difficult to use in cost-effective population-wide screening or long-term objective follow-up after diagnosis. In order to fill this gap, the use of cardiac and respiratory information was evaluated for discrimination between different sleep stages, and for detection of apneic breathing. Alternative probabilistic visual representations were also presented, referred to as the hypnocorrogram and apneacorrogram. Analysis was performed on the UCD sleep apnea database, available on Physionet. The presence of apneic events proved to have a significant impact on the performance of a cardiac and respiratory based algorithm for sleep stage classification. WAKE versus SLEEP discrimination resulted in a kappa value of κ = 0.0439, while REM versus NREM resulted in κ = 0.298 and light sleep (N1N2) versus deep sleep (N3) in κ = 0.339. The high proportion of hypopneic events led to poor detection of apneic breathing, resulting in a kappa value of κ = 0.272. While the probabilistic representations allow to put classifier output in perspective, further improvements would be necessary to make the classifier reliable for use on patients with sleep apnea.

  7. Observation on the Changes of Sleep Structure in 82 Patients with Epilepsy by Polysomnography Combined with Long-term Video Electroencephalogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongliang; Li Yan; Jiang Min; Xu Jianyang; Wang Shouyong; Du Junqiu; Shi Xiangsong

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of epileptiform discharge on changes of sleep structure in patients with epilepsy. Methods:A total of 82 patients diagnosed with epilepsy were performed with polysomnography (PSG) concomitant with long-term video electroencephalogram (LTV EEG) to analyze their sleep structures and epileptic EEG. Results:The PSG in this study was marked by different levels of changes in sleep parameters with increased latency stage and decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as well as increased times of arousals at night, in which 8 patients had no REM sleep. During sleep, epileptiform discharges had evidently inlfuence on phaseⅠ andⅢ~Ⅳ sleep of non-REM (NREM) and discharge group was more signiifcant in the increase of phaseⅠ sleep but decrease of phasesⅢ~Ⅳ sleep of NREM. Conclusion:Patients with epilepsy is often accompanied with disorders of sleep structures, especially those with epileptiform discharges during sleep. Application of PSG concomitant with LTV EEG are more beneifcial for the overall analysis of relationship between sleep structure and epileptiform discharges.

  8. Circadian cycle-dependent EEG biomarkers of pathogenicity in adult mice following prenatal exposure to in utero inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, D A; Ammanuel, S; Lei, J; Dada, T; Borbiev, T; Johnston, M V; Kadam, S D; Burd, I

    2014-09-05

    Intrauterine infection or inflammation in preterm neonates is a known risk for adverse neurological outcomes, including cognitive, motor and behavioral disabilities. Our previous data suggest that there is acute fetal brain inflammation in a mouse model of intrauterine exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We hypothesized that the in utero inflammation induced by LPS produces long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers of neurodegeneration in the exposed mice that could be determined by using continuous quantitative video/EEG/electromyogram (EMG) analyses. A single LPS injection at E17 was performed in pregnant CD1 dams. Control dams were injected with same volumes of saline (LPS n=10, Control n=8). At postnatal age of P90-100, 24-h synchronous video/EEG/EMG recordings were done using a tethered recording system and implanted subdural electrodes. Behavioral state scoring was performed blind to treatment group, on each 10s EEG epoch using synchronous video, EMG and EEG trace signatures to generate individual hypnograms. Automated EEG power spectrums were analyzed for delta and theta-beta power ratios during wake vs. sleep cycles. Both control and LPS hypnograms showed an ultradian wake/sleep cycling. Since rodents are nocturnal animals, control mice showed the expected diurnal variation with significantly longer time spent in wake states during the dark cycle phase. In contrast, the LPS-treated mice lost this circadian rhythm. Sleep microstructure also showed significant alteration in the LPS mice specifically during the dark cycle, caused by significantly longer average non-rapid eye movement (NREM) cycle durations. No significance was found between treatment groups for the delta power data; however, significant activity-dependent changes in theta-beta power ratios seen in controls were absent in the LPS-exposed mice. In conclusion, exposure to in utero inflammation in CD1 mice resulted in significantly altered sleep architecture as adults that were circadian

  9. A Self-adaptive Threshold Method for Automatic Sleep Stage Classification Using EOG and EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep stages are generally divided into three stages including Wake, REM and NRME. The standard sleep monitoring technology is Polysomnography (PSG. The inconvenience for PSG monitoring limits the usage of PSG in some areas. In this study, we developed a new method to classify sleep stage using electrooculogram (EOG and electromyography (EMG automatically. We extracted right and left EOG features and EMG feature in time domain, and classified them into strong, weak and none types through calculating self-adaptive threshold. Combination of the time features of EOG and EMG signals, we classified sleep stages into Wake, REM and NREM stages. The time domain features utilized in the method were Integrate Value, variance and energy. The experiment of 30 datasets showed a satisfactory result with the accuracy of 82.93% for Wake, NREM and REM stages classification, and the average accuracy of Wake stage classification was 83.29%, 82.11% for NREM stage and 76.73% for REM stage.

  10. Ramadan fasting, mental health and sleep-wake pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style Changes during Ramadan month could possibly affect sleep-related behaviors such as total daily sleep time, sleep and wake up time and brain waves. In addition, Spirituality and religiosity have a marvelous influence on mental health and effective solutions against stress are being religious and believe in God. This review discusses the results of all related studies about possible effects of Ramadan fasting on various aspects of sleep pattern and mental health. Methods: Keywords such as ‘Ramadan’, ‘Ramadan Fasting’, ‘Islamic Fasting’, ‘Fasting in Ramadan’ and Fasting along Sleep, Chronotype, Sleep Latency, REM, NREM, Brain Wave, Psychology, Mental health, Religion, Mood, Depression, Social interaction, Depressive illness, Psychomotor performances, Bipolar disorders, Accident, Mania, Anxiety and Stress were searched via PubMed database, Scientific Information Datebas (SID and also some local journals, hence, 103 related articles from 1972 until 2010 were studied. Results: The results of studies about the effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep pattern is not similar and these differences could be due to cultural and life style discrepancy in several countries. Fasting during Ramadan could lead to delay in sleep-wake cycle, decrease in deep sleep and lack of awareness during the day. Conclusion: There are various reasons such as dietary pattern, hormonal changes and also stress which could alter the quantity and quality of sleep during Ramadan. Also, according to the available information, there is a relationship between fasting and mental health.

  11. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  12. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  13. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Mantua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysomnography (PSG is the “gold standard” for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2 for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development.

  14. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the “gold standard” for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed) from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2) for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM) for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development. PMID:27164110

  15. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-05-05

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the "gold standard" for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed) from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2) for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM) for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development.

  16. Sleep in Kcna2 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messing Albee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels are conserved across species but it is unknown whether they affect sleep in mammals. To address this issue, we studied sleep in Kcna2 knockout (KO mice. Kcna2 codes for Kv1.2, the alpha subunit of a Shaker-like voltage-dependent potassium channel with high expression in the mammalian thalamocortical system. Results Continuous (24 h electroencephalograph (EEG, electromyogram (EMG, and video recordings were used to measure sleep and waking in Kcna2 KO, heterozygous (HZ and wild-type (WT pups (P17 and HZ and WT adult mice (P67. Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-s epochs. EEG power spectra (0–20 Hz were calculated on consecutive 4-s epochs. KO pups die by P28 due to generalized seizures. At P17 seizures are either absent or very rare in KO pups ( Conclusion Kv1.2, a mammalian homologue of Shaker, regulates neuronal excitability and affects NREM sleep.

  17. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia, sleep deprivation would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations.

  18. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, L; Dang-Vu, T T; Desseilles, M; Schwartz, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations.

  19. 儿童特发性癫痫与睡眠的相关性研究%Study on correlation of children idiopathic epilepsy and sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤春辉; 杨景晖

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童特发性癫痫样放电与睡眠时相的关系及癫痫对睡眠结构的影响.方法 对55例癫痫患者的动态脑电图(AEEG)监测,并对结果进行分析.结果 55例癫痫患儿中痫样放电共49例(89.1%),睡眠期出现45例(91.8%),以NREMⅠ、Ⅱ期最多见.睡眠中全身性发作35例、部分性发作继发全身性发作4例均出现于NREMⅠ、Ⅱ期.与对照组比较,癜痫患儿总睡眠时间、REM期较正常对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但NREM Ⅰ、Ⅱ期显著延长,而NREMⅢ、Ⅳ期明显缩短,睡眠潜伏期延长(P<0.01).癫痫患者睡眠纺锤波出现不对称、减少或消失.结论 瘸样放电主要发生于睡眠期NREMⅠ、Ⅱ期,癫痫也改变着睡眠结构,引起睡眠障碍.不同癫痫发作类型与睡眠时相有一定的关系.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between idiopathic epileptiform discharge and sleep phase, and the effect of epilepsy on sleep architecture. METHODS Monitored and analyzed active EEG of 55 patients with epilepsy. RESULTS Among 55 cases, epileptiform discharge was found in 49 cases (89.1%), of which, 45 cases showed in sleep stage, and NREM Ⅰ and Ⅱ stage were most common. Both 35 generalized seizure and 4 partial seizure with secondarily generalized seizure appeared in NREM Ⅰ and Ⅱ stage. Compared with the control group, total sleep time and REM phase in epileptic children were not different (P> 0.05). However, NREM Ⅰ and Ⅱ stage prolonged obviously, NREM Ⅲ and Ⅳ stage shortened significantly, and sleep latency prolonged (P < 0.01). Sleep spindles in epileptic children appeared asymmetry, reduced or disappeared. CONCLUSION Epileptiform discharge mainly appears in NREM Ⅰ and Ⅱ stage, and epilepsy changes sleep architecture and results in sleep disorders. There are some relations between seizure types and sleep phases.

  20. Sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsive effects of an adenosine analogue WS090501%腺苷类似物WS090501的镇静、催眠和抗惊厥作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 张建军

    2011-01-01

    This study is to examine the sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsive effects of an adenosine analogue, WS090501. The spontaneous locomotor activity was recorded by open field equipment, and the EEG of rats was recorded by polyphysiograph. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model was used. The spontaneous locomotor activity was decreased by WS090501 at various doses (0.06, 0.13, and 0.25 mg·kg-1), and the decreasing rate was 28.4%, 47.1% and 61.2% respectively. Furthermore, the effect of WS090501 on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice can be antagonized by DPCPX, a selective adenosine A1R antagonist, but cannot be antagonized by SCH58261, a selective adenosine A2AR antagonist. The NREM sleep was significantly increased by WS090501 (0.05 and 0.2 mg·kg-1), and the increasing rate was 27.6% and 102.8%, respectively, at 6th hour after administration. The REM sleep decreased significantly at the higher dose. PTZ induced serious convulsion in mice. The latency of convulsion was prolonged, and the number of seizure and mortality decreased after administration of WS090501. These results show that WS090501 has potent sedative, hypnotic and anticonwlsive effects, which may be mediated through adenosine A1R.%@@ 腺苷是一种内源性的嘌呤核苷,具有广泛的生理性调节作用.腺苷类似物具有显著的镇静、催眠和抗惊厥作用,可以抑制啮齿类动物的自主活动、诱导NREM睡眠(non rapid-eye-movement sleep,非快动眼睡眠).腺苷及其类似物通过腺苷受体发挥作用.

  1. The classical Starling resistor model often does not predict inspiratory airflow patterns in the human upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert L; Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Butler, James P; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2014-04-15

    The upper airway is often modeled as a classical Starling resistor, featuring a constant inspiratory airflow, or plateau, over a range of downstream pressures. However, airflow tracings from clinical sleep studies often show an initial peak before the plateau. To conform to the Starling model, the initial peak must be of small magnitude or dismissed as a transient. We developed a method to simulate fast or slow inspirations through the human upper airway, to test the hypothesis that this initial peak is a transient. Eight subjects [4 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 4 controls] slept in an "iron lung" and wore a nasal mask connected to a continuous/bilevel positive airway pressure machine. Downstream pressure was measured using an epiglottic catheter. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, subjects were hyperventilated to produce a central apnea, then extrathoracic pressure was decreased slowly (∼2-4 s) or abruptly (<0.5 s) to lower downstream pressure and create inspiratory airflow. Pressure-flow curves were constructed for flow-limited breaths, and slow vs. fast reductions in downstream pressure were compared. All subjects exhibited an initial peak and then a decrease in flow with more negative pressures, demonstrating negative effort dependence (NED). The rate of change in downstream pressure did not affect the peak to plateau airflow ratio: %NED 22 ± 13% (slow) vs. 20 ± 5% (fast), P = not significant. We conclude that the initial peak in inspiratory airflow is not a transient but rather a distinct mechanical property of the upper airway. In contrast to the classical Starling resistor model, the upper airway exhibits marked NED in some subjects.

  2. How stressful are 105 days of isolation? Sleep EEG patterns and tonic cortisol in healthy volunteers simulating manned flight to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Angelo; Piarulli, Andrea; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Rota, Giuseppina; Mastorci, Francesca; Gushin, Vadim; Shevchenko, Olga; Garbella, Erika; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sebastiani, Laura; Bergamasco, Massimo; L'Abbate, Antonio; Allegrini, Paolo; Bedini, Remo

    2014-08-01

    Spaceflights "environment" negatively affects sleep and its functions. Among the different causes promoting sleep alterations, such as circadian rhythms disruption and microgravity, stress is of great interest also for earth-based sleep medicine. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between stress related to social/environmental confinement and sleep in six healthy volunteers involved in the simulation of human flight to Mars (MARS500). Volunteers were sealed in a spaceship simulator for 105 days and studied at 5 specific time-points of the simulation period. Sleep EEG, urinary cortisol (24 h preceding sleep EEG recording) and subjectively perceived stress levels were collected. Cognitive abilities and emotional state were evaluated before and after the simulation. Sleep EEG parameters in the time (latency, duration) and frequency (power and hemispheric lateralization) domains were evaluated. Neither cognitive and emotional functions alterations nor abnormal stress levels were found. Higher cortisol levels were associated to: (i) decrease of sleep duration, increase of arousals, and shortening of REM latency; (ii) reduction of delta power and enhancement of sigma and beta in NREM N3; and (iii) left lateralization of delta activity (NREM and REM) and right lateralization of beta activity (NREM). Stressful conditions, even with cortisol fluctuations in the normal range, alter sleep structure and sleep EEG spectral content, mirroring pathological conditions such as primary insomnia or insomnia associated to depression. Correlations between cortisol fluctuations and sleep changes suggest a covert risk for developing allostatic load, and thus the need to develop ad-hoc countermeasures for preventing sleep alterations in long lasting manned space missions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of zopiclone on sleep, daytime somnolence and nocturnal and daytime performance in healthy volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiard, M; Besset, A; de Lustrac, C; Brissaud, L; Cadilhac, J

    1989-05-01

    Ten healthy volunteers, aged 20 to 39, underwent 2 adaptation nights and 3 sessions of 2 consecutive experimental nights and days at 1 week intervals. In the 3 sessions, subjects received under double blind conditions either Zopiclone 3.75 mg or 7.5 mg or placebo, according to a latin-square design. On nights 1 and 2 of each session, subjects were continuously polygraphically monitored, except for a 45 min provoked wake episode 135 min after sleep onset on night 2. Sleep continuity and architecture were evaluated during night 1, degree of daytime somnolence during day 1 and residual effects during night 2 (0 h 00) and day 2 (8 h 00 and 12 h 00). Sleep continuity was not modified, except for a reduction of the number of night awakenings. NREM sleep stage 1 was reduced and stage 2 was increased (in duration but not in percentage) with Zopiclone 3.75 and 7.5 mg. NREM sleep stages 3 and 4 were increased with Zopiclone 3.75 mg only. REM sleep was reduced (in percentage only) with Zopiclone 3.75 and 7.5 mg. Daytime somnolence varied according to the time but not with the 3 different conditions. One performance test only (choice reaction time test) showed a significant impairment at 0 h 00 with Zopiclone 7.5 mg. From a subjective point of view, sleep quality was improved and night time awakening was reduced with Zopiclone 7.5 mg.

  4. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Bella, Rita; Pennisi, Giovanni; Neri, Walter; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is classically considered to be a motor system affliction; however, also non-motor alterations, including sleep disorders, are important features of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide data on sleep disturbances in PD in the following grouping: difficulty initiating sleep, frequent night-time awakening and sleep fragmentation, nocturia, restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements, sleep breathing disorders, drug induced symptoms, parasomnias associated with rapid eye movements (REM) sleep, sleep attacks, reduced sleep efficiency and excessive daytime sleepiness. Research has characterized some of these disturbances as typical examples of dissociated states of wakefulness and sleep that are admixtures or incomplete declarations of wakefulness, REM sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Moreover, sleep disorders may precede the typical motor system impairment of PD and their ability to predict disease has important implications for development of neuroprotective treatment; in particular, REM sleep behavior disorder may herald any other clinical manifestation of PD by more than 10 years.

  5. Polysomnographic Features of Sleep Disturbances and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesioned Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Vo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep pattern disruption, specifically REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, is a major nonmotor cause of disability in PD. Understanding the pathophysiology of these sleep pattern disturbances is critical to find effective treatments. 24-hour polysomnography (PSG, the gold standard for sleep studies, has never been used to test sleep dysfunction in the standard 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP rat PD model. In this study, we recorded 24-hour PSG from normal and HP rats. Recordings were scored into wake, rapid eye movement (REM, and non-REM (NREM. We then examined EEG to identify REM periods and EMG to check muscle activity during REM. Normal rats showed higher wakefulness (70–80% during the dark phase and lower wakefulness (20% during the light phase. HP rats showed 30–50% sleep in both phases, less modulation and synchronization to the light schedule (P<0.0001, and more long run lengths of wakefulness (P<0.05. HP rats also had more REM epochs with muscle activity than control rats (P<0.05. Our findings that the sleep architecture in the HP rat resembles that of PD patients demonstrate the value of this model in studying the pathophysiological basis of PD sleep disturbances and preclinical therapeutics for PD related sleep disorders including RBD.

  6. 睡眠中发作症状的脑电图特征及其与睡眠分期的关系%Study on the characteristics of EEG features in onset of symptoms during sleep and its relationship with sleep staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃君德; 龚彩芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨睡眠中发作症状的脑电图特征及其与睡眠分期的关系。方法统计分析2012年9月至2014年9月收治的86例睡眠中发作症状患者的临床资料。结果夜发性额叶癫痫患者的痫样波检出率57.1%(12/21)显著高于睡眠肌阵挛、夜惊症、梦游症、梦魇患者9.7%(3/31)、18.8%(3/16)、0、0( P ﹤0.05);86例患者中,NREMⅠ期、NREMⅡ期是睡眠肌阵挛集中发生的时期,NREMⅢ期、NREMⅣ期是夜惊症、梦游症集中发生的时期,REM期是梦魇集中发生的时期,NREMⅠ期、NREMⅡ期是夜发性额叶癫痫主要发生的时期,其次为NREMⅢ期、NREMⅣ期,最后为REM期。结论不同睡眠中发作症状的脑电图特征差异显著,和睡眠分期关系密切,临床可以依据脑电图特征对睡眠中发作症状患者的疾病类型进行诊断,从而为及时准确地治疗和改善患者预后提供良好的前提条件。%Objective To explore the characteristics of electroencephalographic features in onset of symptoms during sleep and sleep stag-ing. Methods The clinical data of 86 patients with onset of symptoms during sleep admitted and treated in the department of internal medicine in this hospital during September 2012 to September 2014 were reviewed and analyzed. Results The detection rate of epileptiform wave in patients with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy was 57. 1%(12/21),it was significantly higher than that of patients with sleep myoclonus 9. 7%(3/31), night terrors,18. 8%(3/16),sleepwalking(0)and nightmare(0)( P ﹤0. 05). Among these 86 patients,NREM I and NREM II were set in the period of sleep myoclonus,NREM III and NREM IV were night terror,set in sleepwalking concentrated period,the REM period was nightmare concentrated period,NREM I and NREM II were periods for occurring sleep myoclonus,NREM III and NREM IV were the periods for occurring night terror and sleepwalking,REM was the period for occurring nightmare

  7. Effects of chronic treatment with two selective 5-HT2 antagonists on sleep in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, R H; Echevarria, E; Cox, B; Blackburn, T P; Tortella, F C

    1993-04-01

    The effect of chronic administration of 2(2-dimethylaminoethylthio)-3-phenylquinoline (ICI-169,369) and 2(2-dimethylamino-2-methylpropylthio)-3-phenylquinoline (ICI-170,809), two selective 5-HT2 antagonists, on sleep was studied in rats. As previously shown, the acute effect of ICI-170,809 was to increase latency to rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), decrease the number of REM periods (REMPs), suppress the cumulative amount of REMS over 12 h, and increase the duration of REMPs in the first 6 h, while having no effect on non-REM sleep (NREMS). Administration of ICI-169,369 had similar effects except no change was seen in the duration of REMPs and cumulative REMS was suppressed for 24 h. When given 2 x daily for 5 days, tolerance to the REMS suppressant effects developed in both drugs. After discontinuation of treatment, a REMS rebound occurred after ICI-170,809, but not ICI-169,369. No significant effect on NREMS was seen after administration of ICI-170,809, whereas ICI-169,369 lowered 24-h cumulative NREMS on the fifth day of administration.

  8. Behavioral, sleep-waking and EEG power spectral effects following the two specific 5-HT uptake inhibitors zimeldine and alaproclate in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, L; Ursin, R

    1991-11-26

    Sleep, waking and EEG power spectra were studied in cats for 15 h following peroral administration of placebo or 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors zimeldine and alaproclate. Behavior was also observed during the initial period following drug administration. Both drugs had effects on motor behavior and initiated hallucinatory like behavior. Zimeldine increased latency to stable sleep and to SWS-2. Alaproclate increased latency to SWS-1. Both drugs increased SWS (NREM sleep) and particularly SWS-2. REM sleep latency was increased and REM sleep was reduced following both drugs. EEG slow wave activity was increased following zimeldine. It is concluded that the 5-HT stimulation caused by the drugs yields complex effects on the sleep-waking axis, both sleep incompatible and sleep promoting effects.

  9. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Isaac J; Pack, Allan I; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-12-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Simulating microinjection experiments in a novel model of the rat sleep-wake regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Booth, Victoria

    2010-04-01

    This study presents a novel mathematical modeling framework that is uniquely suited to investigating the structure and dynamics of the sleep-wake regulatory network in the brain stem and hypothalamus. It is based on a population firing rate model formalism that is modified to explicitly include concentration levels of neurotransmitters released to postsynaptic populations. Using this framework, interactions among primary brain stem and hypothalamic neuronal nuclei involved in rat sleep-wake regulation are modeled. The model network captures realistic rat polyphasic sleep-wake behavior consisting of wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Network dynamics include a cyclic pattern of NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wake states that is disrupted by simulated variability of neurotransmitter release and external noise to the network. Explicit modeling of neurotransmitter concentrations allows for simulations of microinjections of neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists into a key wake-promoting population, the locus coeruleus (LC). Effects of these simulated microinjections on sleep-wake states are tracked and compared with experimental observations. Agonist/antagonist pairs, which are presumed to have opposing effects on LC activity, do not generally induce opposing effects on sleep-wake patterning because of multiple mechanisms for LC activation in the network. Also, different agents, which are presumed to have parallel effects on LC activity, do not induce parallel effects on sleep-wake patterning because of differences in the state dependence or independence of agonist and antagonist action. These simulation results highlight the utility of formal mathematical modeling for constraining conceptual models of the sleep-wake regulatory network.

  11. CPAP Treatment Partly Normalizes Sleep Spindle Features in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunamäki, Tiia; Huupponen, Eero; Loponen, Juho

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decreases sleep spindle density and frequency. We evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on different features of sleep spindles. Methods. Twenty OSA patients underwent two night polysomnographies in a diagnostic phase and one night polysomnography after 6 months of CPAP treatment. The control group comprised 20 healthy controls. Sleep spindles were analyzed by a previously developed automated method. Unilateral and bilateral spindles were identified in central and frontopolar brain locations. Spindle density and frequency were determined for the first and last half of the NREM time. Results. The density of bilateral central spindles, which did not change in the untreated OSA patients, increased towards the morning hours during CPAP treatment and in the controls. Central spindles did not become faster with sleep in OSA patients and the central spindles remained slow in the left hemisphere even with CPAP. Conclusion. CPAP treatment normalized spindle features only partially. The changes may be associated with deficits in thalamocortical spindle generating loops. Significance. This study shows that some sleep spindle changes persist after CPAP treatment in OSA patients. The association of these changes to daytime symptoms in OSA patients needs to be further evaluated. PMID:28261503