WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-randomized observational study

  1. PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL, NON-RANDOMIZED, PARALLEL SEQUENCE STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS DUE TO CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrugank B.P. * and Hareesha R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess incidence, causality, severity, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in hospitalised oncology patients.Materials and Methods: A prospective observational, non-randomized, parallel sequence study was conducted at Dr B. Borooah Cancer Institute (BBCI after getting an approval from human ethical committee. Patients hospitalised at BBCI from Aug 2010 to June 2011 were interviewed about symptoms related to their drug therapy. Patient medical records were also reviewed for data collection.Results: Total 663 patients associated with hospitalizations were interviewed. 899 ADRs were identified in total 410 (61.84% patients detected with ADRs. Most of all ADRs were moderate, predictable and not preventable. The most common ADRs were leucopenia, weakness, anorexia, alopecia, vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue, and anaemia in this study.Conclusions: For definite conclusion study should be repeated. Strict drug analyzing and in vivo study is also required if feasible.Key message: The process of defining and concluding about ADRs should be continuous and ongoing to keep a record of newly marketed drugs and medicinal products.

  2. Impact of specialist home-based palliative care services in a tertiary oncology set up: A prospective non-randomized observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil R Dhiliwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home-based specialist palliative care services are developed to meet the needs of the patients in advanced stage of cancer at home with physical symptoms and distress. Specialist home care services are intended to improve symptom control and quality of life, enable patients to stay at home, and avoid unnecessary hospital admission. Materials and Methods: Total 690 new cases registered under home-based palliative care service in the year 2012 were prospectively studied to assess the impact of specialist home-based services using Edmonton symptom assessment scale (ESAS and other parameters. Results: Out of the 690 registered cases, 506 patients received home-based palliative care. 50.98% patients were cared for at home, 28.85% patients needed hospice referral and 20.15% patients needed brief period of hospitalization. All patients receiving specialist home care had good relief of physical symptoms ( P < 0.005. 83.2% patients received out of hours care (OOH through liaising with local general practitioners; 42.68% received home based bereavement care and 91.66% had good bereavement outcomes. Conclusion: Specialist home-based palliative care improved symptom control, health-related communication and psychosocial support. It promoted increased number of home-based death, appropriate and early hospice referral, and averted needless hospitalization. It improved bereavement outcomes, and caregiver satisfaction.

  3. Conservative/surgical treatment predictors of maternal hydronephrosis: results of a single-center retrospective non-randomized non-controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Arslan, Burak; Ortoglu, Ferhat; Alma, Ergun; Unal, Umut; Deniz, Mehmet Eflatun; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2017-08-01

    To determine the parameters that may help the clinicians decide the best suitable treatment method for the pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis which will be based on the easily accessible laboratory tests, monitoring methods and clinical symptoms. Digital data and documents of 246 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis who were hospitalized in our clinic between the dates of January 2011 and January 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were statistically evaluated in terms of age, symptomatic maximal anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (MADP), parity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, white blood cell count (WBC), presence of pyuria, growth of urine culture, fever, serum urine and creatinine levels, visual analog scale (VAS) score of pre- and post-therapy and threatened preterm labor. The study includes a total of 211 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In the second and third trimester groups, the surgical treatment group statistically provided higher levels of CRP, WBC and VAS. Mean MADP in the second trimester of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.67 ± 4.67 and 28.68 ± 7.70 mm, respectively. Mean MADP in the third trimester group of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.96 ± 5.96 and 28.85 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. In patients with symptomatic pregnancy hydronephrosis, the likelihood of surgical treatment for CRP levels, WBC counts and VAS is high.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  5. Meta-analyses including non-randomized studies of therapeutic interventions: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timor Faber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of meta-analyses including data from non-randomized studies for therapeutic evaluation. We aimed to systematically assess the methods used in meta-analyses including non-randomized studies evaluating therapeutic interventions. Methods For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 for meta-analyses including at least one non-randomized study evaluating therapeutic interventions. Etiological assessments and meta-analyses with no comparison group were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed the general characteristics and key methodological components of the systematic review process and meta-analysis methods. Results One hundred eighty eight meta-analyses were selected: 119 included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI and 69 only NRSI. Half of the meta-analyses (n = 92, 49 % evaluated non-pharmacological interventions. “Grey literature” was searched for 72 meta-analyses (38 %. An assessment of methodological quality or risk of bias was reported in 135 meta-analyses (72 % but this assessment considered the risk of confounding bias in only 33 meta-analyses (18 %. In 130 meta-analyses (69 %, the design of each NRSI was not clearly specified. In 131 (70 %, whether crude or adjusted estimates of treatment effect for NRSI were combined was unclear or not reported. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed in 182 meta-analyses (97 % and further explored in 157 (84 %. Reporting bias was assessed in 127 (68 %. Conclusions Some key methodological components of the systematic review process—search for grey literature, description of the type of NRSI included, assessment of risk of confounding bias and reporting of whether crude or adjusted estimates were combined—are not adequately carried out or reported in meta-analyses including NRSI.

  6. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  7. Meta-analysis of non-randomized studies in interventional cardiology: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliano Pio Navarese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of meta-analysis is becoming more and more common in interventional cardiology. The aim of this statistical approach is to collect a large number of patients from randomized clinical studies and nonrandomized registries in order to obtain a pooled estimate of the results. Nevertheless, simply pooling these results without a correct methodological approach can easily lead to biased conclusions. In this report we analyse the possible methodological drawbacks of such an approach and we suggest a simplified check-list of items to be considered in the effort of building-up a meta-analysis from non-randomized studies.

  8. Multidisciplinary intervention reducing readmissions in medical inpatients: a prospective, non-randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisson G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Torisson,1 Lennart Minthon,1 Lars Stavenow,2 Elisabet Londos1 1Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a multidisciplinary intervention targeting drug-related problems, cognitive impairment, and discharge miscommunication could reduce readmissions in a general hospital population. Methods: This prospective, non-randomized intervention study was carried out at the department of general internal medicine at a tertiary university hospital. Two hundred medical inpatients living in the community and aged over 60 years were included. Ninety-nine patients received interventions and 101 received standard care. Control/intervention allocation was determined by geographic selection. Interventions consisted of a comprehensive medication review, improved discharge planning, post-discharge telephone follow-up, and liaison with the patient's general practitioner. The main outcome measures recorded were readmissions and hospital nights 12 months after discharge. Separate analyses were made for 12-month survivors and from an intention-to-treat perspective. Comparative analyses were made between groups as well as within groups over time. Results: After 12 months, survivors in the control group had 125 readmissions in total, compared with 58 in the intervention group (Mann–Whitney U test, P = 0.02. For hospital nights, the numbers were 1,228 and 492, respectively (P = 0.009. Yearly admissions had increased from the previous year in the control group from 77 to 125 (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.002 and decreased from 75 to 58 in the intervention group (P = 0.25. From the intention-to-treat perspective, the same general pattern was observed but was not significant (1,827 versus 1,008 hospital nights, Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.054. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach

  9. Strategies for improving postpartum contraceptive use: evidence from non-randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Chen, Mario; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-11-27

    Nearly two-thirds of women in their first postpartum year have an unmet need for family planning. Adolescents often have repeat pregnancies within a year of giving birth. Women may receive counseling on family planning both antepartum and postpartum. Decisions about contraceptive use made right after counseling may differ considerably from actual postpartum use. In earlier work, we found limited evidence of effectiveness from randomized trials on postpartum contraceptive counseling. For educational interventions, non-randomized studies may be conducted more often than randomized trials. We reviewed non-randomized studies of educational strategies to improve postpartum contraceptive use. Our intent was to examine associations between specific interventions and postpartum contraceptive use or subsequent pregnancy. We searched for eligible non-randomized studies until 3 November 2014. Sources included CENTRAL, PubMed, POPLINE, and Web of Science. We also sought current trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. For additional citations, we examined reference lists of relevant reports and reviews. The studies had to be comparative, i.e., have intervention and comparison groups. The educational component could be counseling or another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use among postpartum women. The intervention had to include contact within six weeks postpartum. The comparison condition could be another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention. Our primary outcomes were postpartum contraceptive use and subsequent pregnancy. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. We computed the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous measures, both with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Where studies used adjusted analyses for continuous outcomes, we presented the results as reported by the investigators

  10. Outcome of Percutaneous Release of Tennis Elbow: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Shrestha, Rahul; Sharma, Jay R; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common disorder of the upper extremity. It can be treated conservatively in the majority of patients, but some resistant cases eventually can be treated by percutaneous release with good functional outcome. Materials and methods This non-randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 patients who underwent percutaneous release of the common extensor origin using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle. These patients did not respond to conservative treatment including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and local steroid injections. The outcome was graded as Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. Results Fifty patients (50 elbows) were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were female (64%), and 18 were male (36%). The right side was affected in 37 patients (74%) and left side in 13 (26%). The time taken to achieve a completely pain-free elbow ranged from one day to two months (average of 26.2 days). Those who did not achieve a pain-free elbow had a residual pain of 1.5 to six on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (average 2.32). Excellent outcome was noticed in 24 patients (48%); Good result in eight patients (36% ); Fair in four patients (eight percent) and Poor in four patients (eight percent). Conclusion Tennis elbow probably results from the degenerative tear of the common extensor origin, and a percutaneous tenotomy using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle is a simple, safe, patient-friendly, efficient, and easily reproducible method of treating tennis elbow in those who are resistant to conservative treatment, and it can be done as an outpatient procedure. PMID:28168130

  11. Neurotransmitter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease detected by encephalofluctuography technology A non-randomized control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Han; Zhenfu Wang; Yang Yang; Xianhong Chen; Hong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encephalofluctuograph Technology (ET) is an advanced and non-traumatic analytical method of brain function. ET can acquire super-slow waves from electroencephalic signals. Studies have shown that these particular spectra can reflect neurochemical processes in the brain. OBJECTIVE: To verify neurotransmitter changes in the brains Parkinson's disease (PD) patients through the use of ET. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment was performed at the Department of Neurology in Southern Building, General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one outpatients with PD were selected from the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August 2007 to December 2007. In addition, 48 healthy subjects were selected as normal controls. METHODS: All patients underwent assessment of the sub scale Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and V of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in which part Ⅱ was used to inform activity of daily living, part Ⅲ reflected athletic ability, and part Ⅴ was the Hoehn & Yahr grade for symptoms evaluation. Correlation analysis was performed between dopamine levels and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes were observed forty-eight prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. The S1, S2, S4, S5,S7, and S11 spectras respectively reflect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine, and dopamine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurotransmitter changes in the brains of all subjects, and correlations between dopamine concentrations and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes in a subgroup of patients prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. RESULTS: Concentrations of 5-HT, ACh, and norepinephrine were decreased in the PD group, and GABA was increased. However, there was no significant difference compared with the normal control group (P > 0.05). The level of dopamine in PD group was

  12. Effectiveness of team-based learning in microbiology: a non-randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakuni, Sheetal U; Nagamoti, Jyoti M; Mallapur, Maheshwar D

    2015-01-01

    As per the present curriculum in India, pre- and paraclinical subjects are taught away from the clinical setting. Therefore, students fail to connect the subject taught through didactic lectures to the clinical setting. Team-based learning (TBL) can be used in conjunction with lectures to teach applied microbiology. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TBL sessions in conjunction with lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology, among Indian students. All students enrolled in the study were taught systemic bacteriology through lectures. Of the 88 students, 49 students (study group) attended TBL sessions on the topics of diarrhea, fever of unknown origin, urinary tract infection and 39 students (control group) preferred self-study on the topics without attending the TBL sessions. Students' feedback on their perception on TBL sessions was collected using a questionnaire of 10 items. The performance of both the groups on the pre- and post-test were analyzed using unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Gender-wise performance within the teams was analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS version 12. The TBL group outperformed the self-study group on the post-test [F 1 = 5.521, P = 0.021]. Female students as a whole performed better than males on the pre-test, scoring higher within both the TBL and self-study groups. Male students in the TBL group performed significantly better on the post-test than female students who participated in TBL sessions (P = 0.013). Students generally enjoyed and appreciated the TBL sessions. TBL sessions can be used judiciously in combination with the lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology in India. In this study, TBL improved the performance of male students over self-study, but performance for female students following TBL was no better than when they simply studied by themselves.

  13. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  14. Issues Relating to Study Design and Risk of Bias When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Shea, Beverley; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-randomized studies may provide valuable evidence on the effects of interventions. They are the main source of evidence on the intended effects of some types of interventions and often provide the only evidence about the effects of interventions on long-term outcomes, rare events or adverse effects. Therefore, systematic reviews on the effects…

  15. Timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: A prospective non randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Tzovaras; Dimitris Zacharoulis; Paraskevi Liakou; Theodoros Theodoropoulos; George Paroutoglou; Constantine Hatzitheofilou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the timing of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis.METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2005,all American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (ASA) Ⅰ ,Ⅱand Ⅲ patients with acute cholecystitiswere treated laparoscopically during the urgent (index) admission. The patients were divided into three groups according to the timing of surgery: (1) within the first 3 d, (2) between 4 and 7 d and (3) beyond 7 d from the onset of symptoms. The impact of timing on the conversion rate, morbidity and postoperative hospital stay was studied.RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis during the index admission. Thirty six were assigned to group 1, 58 to group 2, and 35 to group 3. The conversion rate and morbidity for the whole cohort of patients were 4.6% and 10.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the conversion rate, morbidity and postoperative hospital stay between the three groups.CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis during the index admission is safe, regardless of the time elapsed from the onset of symptoms. This policy can result in an overall shorter hospitalization.

  16. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Nawar; Yassin, Sayf A; Valaitis, Eduardas; Wang, Hong; Howard, Barbara V; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Umans, Jason G

    2015-01-01

    Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989-1991), 2 (1993-1995), and 3 (1998-1999) was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results.

  17. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar Shara

    Full Text Available Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS. Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989-1991, 2 (1993-1995, and 3 (1998-1999 was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results.

  18. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  19. A prospective, non-randomized study of home use of mifepristone for medical abortion in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Erica; Frye, Laura J; Castle, Jen; Dean, Gillian; Kuehl, Laurel; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-09-01

    To determine the acceptability of taking mifepristone at home for early medical abortion in the United States. This prospective, non-randomized, open-label study at six Planned Parenthood centers gave women with pregnancies up to 63 days' gestation seeking medical abortion the choice of taking mifepristone in the center or at home. Participants were interviewed at a follow-up visit 1-2 weeks after mifepristone administration to assess their experience with the option they selected. Four-hundred women were enrolled between April 2013 and June 2014 of which 32% (n=128) chose to take mifepristone at home. Abortion success rates did not differ between home and center users (96% and 97%). Among home users, 82% reported taking the mifepristone at the time they planned with their provider and no participant took it after 63 days' gestation. The most common reason cited for selecting home use was scheduling flexibility and significantly more home users took misoprostol on the weekend (50% vs. 36%, p=.02). Home users were more likely than center users to report missing no days of work due to the abortion (47% vs. 28%, p=.08). Ninety-nine percent of home users reported that they would take mifepristone at home again and 96% would recommend home use to a friend. Offering this option did not increase the service delivery burden on study providers, who would recommend home use in the future for most participants. Home use of mifepristone is a highly acceptable practice for which there is current demand, and it should be offered as part of routine medical abortion services. Offering the option of home use of mifepristone to medical abortion patients can provide women and clinics with more flexibility while maintaining a safe, effective and acceptable service. These results provide support for telemedicine or pharmacy distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  1. Estimating the treatment effect from non-randomized studies: The example of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in hematological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resche-Rigon Matthieu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some clinical situations, for which RCT are rare or impossible, the majority of the evidence comes from observational studies, but standard estimations could be biased because they ignore covariates that confound treatment decisions and outcomes. Methods Three observational studies were conducted to assess the benefit of Allo-SCT in hematological malignancies of multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma and Hodgkin’s disease. Two statistical analyses were performed: the propensity score (PS matching approach and the inverse probability weighting (IPW approach. Results Based on PS-matched samples, a survival benefit in MM patients treated by Allo-SCT, as compared to similar non-allo treated patients, was observed with an HR of death at 0.35 (95%CI: 0.14-0.88. Similar results were observed in HD, 0.23 (0.07-0.80 but not in FL, 1.28 (0.43-3.77. Estimated benefits of Allo-SCT for the original population using IPW were erased in HR for death at 0.72 (0.37-1.39 for MM patients, 0.60 (0.19-1.89 for HD patients, and 2.02 (0.88-4.66 for FL patients. Conclusion Differences in estimated benefits rely on whether the underlying population to which they apply is an ideal randomized experimental population (PS or the original population (IPW. These useful methods should be employed when assessing the effects of innovative treatment in non-randomized experiments.

  2. Improvement of functional constipation with kiwifruit intake in a Mediterranean patient population: An open, non-randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Cunillera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kiwifruit consumption has shown to improve functional constipation in healthy elderly population, according to studies in New Zealand and China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kiwifruit intake on functional constipation in a Mediterranean patient population characterized by its distinctive nutritional habits.Material and Methods: An open, non-controlled and non-randomized longitudinal study was conducted in 46 patients with constipation (Rome III criteria. Patients monitored for five weeks: weeks 1 and 2 no kiwifruit and weeks 3-5 three kiwifruit per day (Green kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa var Hayward. Bristol Scale, volume of stools, and ease of defecation was self- reported daily. The evolution of the categorical variables was tested using the Bhapkar test; functional data methodology was used for continuous variables, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models were adjusted.Results: The percentage of patients with ≥3 stools per week increased from 82.61% (95% CI: 69–91.2 at week 1 to 97.78% (95% CI: 87.4–99.9 at week 2 of kiwifruit intake, with 76.09% (95% CI: 61.9–86.2 responding during the first week. The reporting of stable ideal stools increased from 17.39% (95% CI: 8.8–31 at week 2 to 33.33% (95% CI: 21.3–48 at week 5. According to GEE models, the number of depositions increased significantly (p-values<0.001 in 0.398 daily units at week 1 the first week of intake, up to 0.593 daily units at week 5; significant improvements on facility in evacuation and volume of evacuation were found from the firstweek of intake (all p-values<0.001.Conclusions: The intake of three kiwifruits per day significantly improves the quality of evacuation (number of depositions, volume, consistency and ease in a Mediterranean patient population suffering from functional constipation.

  3. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Tanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378 reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention, Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate, and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate. The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01. Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01 at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA levels (p < 0.05 at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria.

  4. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Furukawa, Ouki; Tsutsui, Hidemi; Koshida, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. PMID:28245626

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS PIPOFEZINE, TIANEPTINE AND CHLORPROTHIXENE IN PATIENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER , AND HYPERTENSION: AN OPEN NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Glushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of pipofezine, tianeptine and chlorprothixene on blood pressure (BP level and neuropsychological performance in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Young males with ADHD and HT (n=58 were included into the study. Patients were split into three treatment groups: group 1 (n=19 received pipofezine 50 mg/day, group 2 (n=20 — tianeptine 25 mg/day , group 3 (n=19 — chlorprothixene 50 mg/day. Clinicopsychopathologic and neurophysiological findings were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. BP self-monitoring, analysis of psychiatric disorders severity with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, electroencephalography (EEG were performed. Results. The positive dynamics of disregulatory-motor hyperactivity , subjective-cognitive and emotional-vegetative components of ADHD was observed. The positive dynamics of neurophysiological parameters (increase in EEG frequencies index in groups 1 and 2 (from 0.37±0.05 to 0.54±0.07 and 0.38±0.06 to 0.50±0.05, respectively , p<0.05 for both was also found. There were no significant effects of the study drugs on BP levels in patients of all groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Four-week usage of the study drugs in adolescents with ADHD and HT had no significant effect on BP levels. Pipofezine and tianeptine showed more pronounced improvement of clinicopsychiatric and neuropsychological performance in comparison with chlorprothixene in patients with ADHD.

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS PIPOFEZINE, TIANEPTINE AND CHLORPROTHIXENE IN PATIENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER , AND HYPERTENSION: AN OPEN NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Glushchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of pipofezine, tianeptine and chlorprothixene on blood pressure (BP level and neuropsychological performance in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Young males with ADHD and HT (n=58 were included into the study. Patients were split into three treatment groups: group 1 (n=19 received pipofezine 50 mg/day, group 2 (n=20 — tianeptine 25 mg/day , group 3 (n=19 — chlorprothixene 50 mg/day. Clinicopsychopathologic and neurophysiological findings were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. BP self-monitoring, analysis of psychiatric disorders severity with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, electroencephalography (EEG were performed. Results. The positive dynamics of disregulatory-motor hyperactivity , subjective-cognitive and emotional-vegetative components of ADHD was observed. The positive dynamics of neurophysiological parameters (increase in EEG frequencies index in groups 1 and 2 (from 0.37±0.05 to 0.54±0.07 and 0.38±0.06 to 0.50±0.05, respectively , p<0.05 for both was also found. There were no significant effects of the study drugs on BP levels in patients of all groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Four-week usage of the study drugs in adolescents with ADHD and HT had no significant effect on BP levels. Pipofezine and tianeptine showed more pronounced improvement of clinicopsychiatric and neuropsychological performance in comparison with chlorprothixene in patients with ADHD.

  7. TP53 status and taxane-platinum versus platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer patients: A non-randomized retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowska Janina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxane-platinum therapy (TP has replaced platinum-based therapy (PC or PAC, DNA damaging chemotherapy in the postoperative treatment of ovarian cancer patients; however, it is not always effective. TP53 protein plays a differential role in response to DNA-damaging agents and taxanes. We sought to define profiles of patients who benefit the most from TP and also of those who can be treated with PC. Methods We compared the effectiveness of PC/PAC (n = 253 and TP (n = 199 with respect to tumor TP53 accumulation in ovarian cancer patients with FIGO stage IIB-IV disease; this was a non-randomized retrospective study. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 452 archival tumors; univariate and multivariate analysis by the Cox's and logistic regression models was performed in all patients and in subgroups with [TP53(+] and without TP53 accumulation [TP53(-]. Results The advantage of taxane-platinum therapy over platinum-based therapy was seen in the TP53(+, and not in the TP53(- group. In the TP53(+ group taxane-platinum therapy enhanced the probability of complete remission (p = .018, platinum sensitivity (p = .014, platinum highly sensitive response (p = .038 and longer survival (OS, p = .008. Poor tumor differentiation diminished the advantage from taxane-platinum therapy in the TP53(+ group. In the TP53(- group PC/PAC was at least equally efficient as taxane-platinum therapy and it enhanced the chance of platinum highly sensitive response (p = .010. However, in the TP53(- group taxane-platinum therapy possibly diminished the risk of death in patients over 53 yrs (p = .077. Among factors that positively interacted with taxane-platinum therapy in some analyses were endometrioid and clear cell type, FIGO III stage, bulky residual tumor, more advanced age of patient and moderate tumor differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that taxane-platinum therapy is particularly justified in patients with TP53(+ tumors or older

  8. Behavioral approach with or without surgical intervention to the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome : A prospective randomized and non randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, WCMW; Gianotten, WL; vanderMeijden, WI; vandeWiel, HBM; Blindeman, L; Chadha, S; Drogendijk, AC

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the outcome of a behavioral approach with or without preceding surgical intervention in 48 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. In the first part of the study, 14 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two treatment programs: eithe

  9. Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention on oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms: A non-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-01

    Job stress and burnout are highly frequent in healthcare professionals, and prevalence in nurses can be as high as 40%. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress and increasing well-being in a wide range of populations and contexts. However, controlled studies with healthcare professionals, and especially nurses, are scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an on-site, abbreviated mindfulness-based intervention for nurses, using a nonrandomized, wait-list comparison design. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured through several validated self-report measures that participants completed before and after the intervention, assessing burnout, compassion fatigue, psychological symptoms, mindfulness, self-compassion, experiential avoidances, rumination, and satisfaction with life. A sample of 94 oncology nurses agreed to participate in the study and self-selected into an experimental (n=45) and comparison condition (n=48). Complete data was obtained for 48 of the initial 94 participants, mainly due to poor follow-up data rather than high drop-out rate. Statistical analyses included a series of 2×2 ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Results indicated that nurses in the intervention reported significant decreases in compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, experiential avoidance, and increases in satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion, with medium to large effect sizes. Nurses in the comparison group didn't present significant changes in these variables. Results also pointed to a high degree of acceptability of the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious in reducing oncology nurses' psychological symptoms and improving their overall well-being, and thus may be worthy of further study in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of burnout in Polish anesthesiologists and anesthetist nursing professionals: A comparative non-randomized cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Misiołek, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the burnout levels in nurses (N = 161) versus physicians (N = 373). The levels of burnout were evaluated by the Polish adaptation of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (Cronbach's alpha > .70). High burnout level was found in 18.63 percent nurses and 12.06 percent anesthesiologists, and critical level in 3.74 percent nurses and 5.90 percent anesthetists. There were statistically significant differences in Burnout global score, Enthusiasm toward the job, Psychological exhaustion, and Indolence subscales between nurses and physicians. No significant differences were found between sexes in any variable.

  11. Spiritual Care Therapy on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers: A Prospective Non-randomized Single-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhe, A; Dalal, K; Agarwal, V; Sarve, P

    2017-04-01

    Spiritual care is still in infancy stage all over the globe including India. The present study was an original study evaluating the role of spiritual care in cancer patients and their primary caregivers regarding their spiritual and general well-being. The study was a prospective, non-randomized single-group study involving cancer patients undergoing surgery and their primary caregivers. Functional assessment of cancer therapy-general and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual care was evaluated during the admission and at the time of discharge, two, four  and 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Descriptive statistics was used for demographic details and repeated measure ANOVA with Dunn's test was used for analysis of changes in the scores. A total of 107 (63 males and 44 females) patients with a mean (SD) of age 51 (13) years were recruited in the study. Similarly, for each patient one of their primary caregivers was recruited with their mean (SD) age of 39.4 (12.7) years. A total of 11/107 (10.3%) patients died and nine out of 107 (8.4%) were lost to follow-up eventually during the study period. There was a statistically significant (P spiritual care on the basis of MATCH guideline improved the level of not only spiritual well-being but general well-being also in both the patients and their primary caregivers. Control group could have improved scientific validity of study in accessing effect of spiritual care. Authors believe that more robust comparative study on each principle against all five MATCH principles in future will add scientific validity and clear the various ambiguities in spiritual care.

  12. Two-stage revision surgery with preformed spacers and cementless implants for septic hip arthritis: a prospective, non-randomized cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logoluso Nicola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome data on two-stage revision surgery for deep infection after septic hip arthritis are limited and inconsistent. This study presents the medium-term results of a new, standardized two-stage arthroplasty with preformed hip spacers and cementless implants in a consecutive series of adult patients with septic arthritis of the hip treated according to a same protocol. Methods Nineteen patients (20 hips were enrolled in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study between 2000 and 2008. The first stage comprised femoral head resection, debridement, and insertion of a preformed, commercially available, antibiotic-loaded cement hip spacer. After eradication of infection, a cementless total hip arthroplasty was implanted in the second stage. Patients were assessed for infection recurrence, pain (visual analog scale [VAS] and hip joint function (Harris Hip score. Results The mean time between first diagnosis of infection and revision surgery was 5.8 ± 9.0 months; the average duration of follow up was 56.6 (range, 24 - 104 months; all 20 hips were successfully converted to prosthesis an average 22 ± 5.1 weeks after spacer implantation. Reinfection after total hip joint replacement occurred in 1 patient. The mean VAS pain score improved from 48 (range, 35 - 84 pre-operatively to 18 (range, 0 - 38 prior to spacer removal and to 8 (range, 0 - 15 at the last follow-up assessment after prosthesis implantation. The average Harris Hip score improved from 27.5 before surgery to 61.8 between the two stages to 92.3 at the final follow-up assessment. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes can be obtained with two-stage revision hip arthroplasty using preformed spacers and cementless implants for prosthetic hip joint infections of various etiologies.

  13. A psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention for internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti: results from a non-randomized cohort pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo (Women Taking Action For Their Health study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti. METHOD: This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829. RESULTS: Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88% completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26, STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99, condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83, and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39 scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study evaluated a PHW psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention among internally displaced women in post-earthquake Haiti. Pilot studies are an important

  14. Adalimumab specifically induces CD3+ CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− T-regulatory cells and decreases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels in refractory immuno-mediated uveitis: a non-randomized pilot intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, S; Cordero-Coma, M; Rodriguez, E; Llorente, M; Franco, M; Ruiz de Morales, J G

    2012-01-01

    Aim To explore immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways specifically targeted by a subcutaneous anti-TNFαdrug—adalimumab—which might be relevant for controlling refractory uveitis. Design Non-randomized pilot intervention study on the effects of adalimumab on Treg populations and plasma VEGF levels in refractory uveitis patients. Inflammatory and immunological parameters were measured in 12 patients before therapy, and 1 and 6 months after therapy, and analyzed in the context of ophthalmological outcomes. The results were compared with those obtained in 10 systemic prednisone-treated uveitis patients. Results After 1 month of treatment, all patients responded, with 67% of adalimumab group and 80% of the corticosteroid group achieving inactivity (P=0.5). Unlike steroid-treated patients, a significant increase in T-regulatory CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− cells was observed in adalimumab patients after 1 month of treatment, and maintained after 6 months (P=0.003). A significant adalimumab-specific drop in plasma VEGF was observed after 1 and 6 months of treatment (P=0.019). In every single patient, Tregs but not VEGF correlated with disease activity. Conclusions In refractory uveitis patients treated with adalimumab, clinical efficacy may be mediated through upregulation of Tregs in addition to modulation of VEGF-mediated inflammatory pathways. These biological properties, which were not observed in patients treated with corticosteroids, may reflect the specificity of TNF-αtargeting. PMID:22222264

  15. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bilandzic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews.We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a all studies and (b only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07-1.24 to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13 when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were confined to studies with

  16. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM® AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem® and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Median age of the patients was 66,5±6,8 years. All the patients received Cytogem® 1000 mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 2; every 28 days. No more than 6 cycles were allowed if the evidence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity were not registered. Median follow-up was 36,2±12,1 months.  Results. Complete response was observed in 2 (8%, partial — in 11 (44%, stabilization — in 10 (40%, progression — in 2 (8% of 25 patients. Twelve- and 24-month overall survival was — 51,3% and 22,4% (median 13,4±3,5 (95% CI: 6,6—20,4 months, progressive- free survival — 26% and 13% respectively (median 8,8±1 (95% CI: 6,6—10,6 months. Toxicity was evaluated in 24 patients and occurred in all cases (grade I—II — 16 (67%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%. The main regimen-related toxicity was hematological (neutropenia — 16 (67% (grade I—II — 8 (33%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%, thrombocytopenia — 14 (58% (grade I—II — 10 (41,5%, grade III—IV — 4 (16,5%, anemia — 7 (29% (grade I—II — 5 (21%, grade III—IV — 2 (8%. Hematological toxicity was not associated with com- plications in any case. Non-hematological side-effects were nausea and vomiting in 21 (88% (grade I—II — 67%, grade III — 21%, alopecia — in 11 (44% patients. The regimen-related toxicity was considerable and reversible. No side-effect demanded blood transfusion, antibiotic and/or growth factors administration, and hospital admission.

  17. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM® AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem® and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Median age of the patients was 66,5±6,8 years. All the patients received Cytogem® 1000 mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 2; every 28 days. No more than 6 cycles were allowed if the evidence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity were not registered. Median follow-up was 36,2±12,1 months.  Results. Complete response was observed in 2 (8%, partial — in 11 (44%, stabilization — in 10 (40%, progression — in 2 (8% of 25 patients. Twelve- and 24-month overall survival was — 51,3% and 22,4% (median 13,4±3,5 (95% CI: 6,6—20,4 months, progressive- free survival — 26% and 13% respectively (median 8,8±1 (95% CI: 6,6—10,6 months. Toxicity was evaluated in 24 patients and occurred in all cases (grade I—II — 16 (67%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%. The main regimen-related toxicity was hematological (neutropenia — 16 (67% (grade I—II — 8 (33%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%, thrombocytopenia — 14 (58% (grade I—II — 10 (41,5%, grade III—IV — 4 (16,5%, anemia — 7 (29% (grade I—II — 5 (21%, grade III—IV — 2 (8%. Hematological toxicity was not associated with com- plications in any case. Non-hematological side-effects were nausea and vomiting in 21 (88% (grade I—II — 67%, grade III — 21%, alopecia — in 11 (44% patients. The regimen-related toxicity was considerable and reversible. No side-effect demanded blood transfusion, antibiotic and/or growth factors administration, and hospital admission.

  18. Heat rate variability and dyssomnia and their correlations to neurological defects in cerebral infarction patients complicated by insomnia A concurrent non-randomized case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Chu; Xueli Shen; Jun Fan; Changhai Chen; Shuyang Lin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability refers to the beat-to-beat alteration in heart rate. It is usually a slight periodic variation of R-R intervals. Much information of autonomic nerve system balance can be obtained by measuring the heart rate variability of patients. It remains to be shown whether heart rate variability can be used as an index for determining the severity of insomnia and cerebral infarction. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the correlation for each frequency spectrum parameter of heart rate variability with an insomnia index, as well as the degree of neurological defects in patients with simple cerebral infarction and cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia. The goal was to verify the feasibility of frequency spectrum parameters for heart rate variability as a marker for insomnia and cerebral infarction. DESIGN: A case-control observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty inpatients, and/or outpatients, with cerebral infarction were admitted to the 202 Hospital of Chinese PLA between December 2005 and October 2006, confirmed by CT, and recruited to the study. According to the insomnia condition (insomnia is defined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score > 7), the patients were assigned to a simple cerebral infarction group and a cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia group, with 30 subjects in each group. Thirty additional subjects, who concurrently received ex-aminations and were confirmed to not suffer from cerebral infarction and insomnia, were recruited into the control group. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject for laboratory specimens. The pro-tocol was approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Following admission, each subject's neurological impairment was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Heart rate variability of each subject was measured with an

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies comparing laparoscopic and open abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, N Z

    2013-03-01

    Evidence supporting the role of laparoscopy in abdominoperineal resection (APR) is limited. This study compared the short-term and long-term outcomes and complications associated with open and laparoscopic APR.

  20. Evaluating a Non-Randomized Trial: A Case Study of a Pilot to Increase Pre-Collegiate Math Course Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManque, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a two-year pilot to increase pre-collegiate math course success rates at a large community college. The EnableMath pilot involved the use of computerized software that allowed students to practice math problems in a lab during class time. Additional components of the program included the administration of the…

  1. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM®) AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Matveev; M. I. Volkova; M. M. Konstantinova; L. V. Schapligin; G. M. Manikhas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem®) and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Me...

  2. Perioperative and long-term results after left pancreatectomy: a single-institution, non-randomized, comparative study between open and laparoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butturini, Giovanni; Partelli, Stefano; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Rossini, Roberto; Casetti, Luca; Melotti, Gian Luigi; Piccoli, Micaela; Pederzoli, Paolo; Bassi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic left pancreatic resections are being increasingly performed. In this study, we provide a nonrandomized comparison between laparoscopic and open left pancreatectomy (OLP) for benign and borderline tumors, focusing on both perioperative and long-term results. Demographic, pathologic, and perioperative details from patients who underwent laparoscopic and OLP between 1999 and 2006 were retrieved from our database and analyzed. Long-term results, including resume to full-time work, occurrence of incisional hernias, and incidence of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency also were evaluated. A total of 116 patients were included in the analysis; 43 (37.1%) were managed laparoscopically and 73 (62.9%) underwent the open procedure. There were no significant differences regarding clinical and pathological data. All of the resections attempted laparoscopically were completed. The rate of splenic preservation was significantly higher in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.0001). Postoperative outcomes were similar between the two groups. Longitudinal comparison between two time periods (1999-June 2004 vs. July 2004-2006) showed that pancreatic fistula and hospital stay significantly diminished over time in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.004, respectively). Median follow-up was 53 months. The incidence of exocrine insufficiency and incisional hernias was significantly higher after open resections (both P = 0.05). After hospital discharge, median time to resume full-time work was 6 weeks in the open group and 3 weeks after laparoscopic resections (P < 0.0001). Laparoscopy also resulted as an independent factor for an early resume to full-time activities in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Laparoscopic left pancreatectomy is a safe procedure for benign and borderline tumors, with similar perioperative outcomes compared with the open procedure. In the long term, the laparoscopic approach is likely to be superior thanks to a more rapid resume

  3. The study protocol for a non-randomized controlled clinical trial using a genotype-guided strategy in a dataset of patients who undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucía Dávila-Fajardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Results of genotype–guided antiplatelet therapy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent” (J. Sánchez-Ramos, C.L. Dávila-Fajardo, P. Toledo Frías, X. Díaz Villamarín, L.J. Martínez-González, S. Martínez Huertas, F. Burillo Gómez, J. Caballero Borrego, A. Bautista Pavés, M.C. Marín Guzmán, J.A. Ramirez Hernández, C. Correa Vilches, J. Cabeza Barrera, 2016 (1. This data article reports, for the first time, about the non-randomized clinical trial protocol that check if CYP2C19/ABCB1 genotype–guided strategy in which the choice of antiplatelet therapy is based on the genetic test, reduces the rates of cardiovascular events and bleeding compared to a non-tailored strategy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with stent. The data included in this article are: design and setting of the study, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, definition of the intervention, objectives, variables (baseline characteristics and during the follow-up, study procedures, collection and treatment of the biological sample, genotyping, withdrawal criteria, sample size, statistic analysis, ethical aspects, information sheet and consent form. The authors confirm that this study has been registered in Eudra CT (Eudra CT: 2016-001294-33.

  4. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rydland Olsen

    Full Text Available Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs, are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students.We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1 The Adapted Fresno test (AFT, 2 the EBP Belief Scale and 3 the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations.In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1, p < 0.001 and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2, p = 0.002, but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1, p = 0.574. Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only.A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs' abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students.

  5. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. Methods We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p<0.001) and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2), p = 0.002), but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1), p = 0.574). Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only. Conclusions A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs’ abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students. PMID:25894559

  6. Does school-based physical activity decrease overweight and obesity in children aged 6-9 years? A two-year non-randomized longitudinal intervention study in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Erik; El Ansari, Walid; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2012-07-29

    Globally, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity have led to the implementation of a range of school-based interventions. This study assessed whether augmenting physical activity (PA) within the school setting resulted in increased daily PA and decreased overweight/obesity levels in 6-9-year-old children. Across the first to third primary school years, PA of 84 girls and 92 boys was objectively monitored five times (each for seven successive days) using Yamax pedometer (step counts) and Caltrac accelerometer (activity energy expenditure AEE - kcal/kg per day). Four schools were selected to participate in the research (2 intervention, 2 controls), comprising intervention (43 girls, 45 boys) and control children (41 girls, 47 boys). The study was non-randomized and the intervention schools were selected on the basis of existing PA-conducive environment. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures examined the PA programme and gender effects on the step counts and AEE. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the obesity and overweight occurrence prospect over the course of implementation of the PA intervention. There was a significant increase of school-based PA during schooldays in intervention children (from ≈ 1718 to ≈ 3247 steps per day; and from 2.1 to ≈ 3.6 Kcal/Kg per day) in comparison with the control children. Increased school-based PA of intervention children during schooldays contributed to them achieving >10,500 steps and >10.5 Kcal/Kg per school day across the 2 years of the study, and resulted in a stop of the decline in PA levels that is known to be associated with the increasing age of children. Increased school-based PA had also positive impact on leisure time PA of schooldays and on PA at weekends of intervention children. One year after the start of the PA intervention, the odds of being overweight or obese in the intervention children was almost three times lower than that of control children (p

  7. Estudos dos padrões de não aleatoriedade dos gráficos de controle de Shewhart: um enfoque probabilístico Studies on non-random patterns in Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintiliano Siqueira Schroden Nomelini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Além de investimento em novas tecnologias e modernização do parque industrial, a competitividade dos produtos brasileiros está ligada ao aumento de produtividade. O Controle Estatístico de Processo (CEP, junto com os gráficos de controle, inseriu-se neste contexto no que diz respeito ao controle das características significativas do produto e do processo, em tempo real, garantindo níveis de qualidade, a um custo exigido pelo mercado. Um procedimento importante é a interpretação dos gráficos de controle. Um estudo foi feito para ilustrar e discutir padrões de não aleatoriedade, que auxiliam na interpretação de tais gráficos. Alguns padrões de não aleatoriedade foram ilustrados e, por meio de cálculo de probabilidade, mostrou-se quais deles rejeitaram a hipótese de controle estatístico, a um nível de significância pré-especificado. Concluiu-se que os padrões mencionados na literatura não eram tão informativos. No que diz respeito ao nível de significância, observou-se então que em alguns padrões a um certo nível de significância retornaram resultados diferentes dos mencionados na literatura.In the last two decades, the Brazilian consuming market was modified by the insertion of products of better quality and minor cost. Statistical Process Control (SPC and control charts look after significant characteristics products and processes, in real time, guaranteeing quality levels, in a cost demanded by the market. In that context, an important procedure is the interpretation of the control charts; this is made through non-random patters. A study was made illustrating and arguing such standards. Standards had been illustrated and one revealed which of them, rejected the nullity hypothesis, under a determined significance. One concluded that the standards mentioned in literature are not so informative and can be improved.

  8. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzadyan, A. V.; Allahverdyan, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contained compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms ( e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence from data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  9. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, A V

    2016-01-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contain compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence on data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  10. Change in organizational justice as a predictor of insomnia symptoms: longitudinal study analysing observational data as a non-randomized pseudo-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Halonen, Jaana I; Sivertsen, Børge; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-01-08

    Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307). In the analyses of favourable changes in justice, participants had insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, low justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 2903). In both analyses, the outcome was insomnia symptoms in Wave 3. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyse the data. After adjusting for social and health-related covariates in Wave 1, unfavourable changes in relational organizational justice (i.e. fairness of managerial behaviours) were associated with increased odds of developing insomnia symptoms [odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.30]. A favourable change in relational organizational justice was associated with lower odds of persistent insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96). Changes in procedural justice (i.e. the fairness of decision-making procedures) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees' sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Rituximab and chlorambucil versus rituximab alone in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma according to t(11;18) status: a monocentric non-randomized observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Michaël; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Amiot, Aurélien; Dupuis, Jehan; Le Baleur, Yann; Belhadj, Karim; Hémery, François; Sobhani, Iradj; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Leroy, Karen; Haioun, Corinne; Delchier, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-01

    Forty-nine patients, t(11;18)-positive (n = 31) and t(11;18)-negative (n = 18), were treated without randomization with rituximab-chlorambucil or rituximab alone. Evaluation was performed at week (W) 6, week (W) 25 and every 6 months (Wx). Comparing the rituximab-chlorambucil group to the rituximab-alone group, remission was obtained in 93% vs. 66% at W6 (p = 0.01), in 93% vs. 81% at W25 (p = 0.14) and in 93% vs. 76% at Wx (p = 0.07). Comparing the rituximab-chlorambucil group to the rituximab-alone group in t(11;18)-positive patients, remission was obtained in 100% vs. 45% at W6 (p = 0.0005), in 100% vs. 66% at W25 (p = 0.01) and in 96% vs. 55% at Wx (p = 0.01). Comparing the rituximab-chlorambucil group to the rituximab-alone group in t(11;18)-negative patients, remission was obtained in 66% vs. 83% at W6 (p = 0.32), in 66% vs. 92% at W25 (p = 0.22) and in 83% vs. 92% at Wx (p = 0.47). In conclusion, rituximab-chlorambucil is significantly more rapidly efficient than rituximab alone. In t(11;18)-positive patients, the combination is more efficient than rituximab alone. In t(11;18)-negative patients, rituximab alone is as efficient as rituximab-chlorambucil and may be an alternative treatment.

  12. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech Per

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. Methods During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational Medicine completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following: 1 Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when indicated by depression test score. On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months. A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions. Return To Work (RTW, defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. Results The level of sick leave in the stress treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years

  13. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Sterliński; Adam Sokal; Radosław Lenarczyk; Frederic Van Heuverswyn; Aldo Rinaldi, C.; Marc Vanderheyden; Vladimir Khalameizer; Darrel Francis; Joeri Heynens; Berthold Stegemann; Richard Cornelussen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in...

  14. A multicenter, non-randomized, phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks as second line chemotherapy in patients with first relapse of platinum sensitive epithelial ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Herrstedt, Jørn; Havsteen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    ovarian, peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer were enrolled at the first relapse after at least 6 months since completion of the first line treatment. Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 was given as an one hour IV infusion followed immediately by carboplatin (AUC = 5) given as a 30-60 min. IV infusion on day 1...... and repeated every 3 weeks for 6-9 courses. Primary endpoint was toxicity; secondary endpoints were response rate and the time to progression. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were included. Of these, 50 patients received 6 or more cycles, 13 received 3-5 courses and 11 received less than 3 courses. A total...... of 398 cycles were given. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was seen in 80% (59 of 74) patients with an incidence of febrile neutropenia of 16%. Grade 2/3 sensory peripheral neuropathy occurred in 7% of patients, but no grade 4 sensory peripheral neuropathy was observed. Sixty patients were evaluable for response...

  15. Does school-based physical activity decrease overweight and obesity in children aged 6–9 years? A two-year non-randomized longitudinal intervention study in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, Erik; El Ansari, Walid; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity have led to the implementation of a range of school-based interventions. This study assessed whether augmenting physical activity (PA) within the school setting resulted in increased daily PA and decreased overweight/obesity levels in 6-9-year-old children. Methods Across the first to third primary school years, PA of 84 girls and 92 boys was objectively monitored five times (each for seven successive days) usi...

  16. Does reduced movement restrictions and use of assistive devices affect rehabilitation outcome after total hip replacement? A non-randomized, controlled study in 365 patients with six week follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Søballe, Kjeld

    a standard package of assistive devices (restricted group, RG). This group was compared to patients included into the study the following 3 months with a less restricted hip movement regime and use of assistive devices according to individual needs (unrestricted group, UG). Questionnaires on function...... (difference ≤5 points). Yet, there is a beneficial or equal effect of the unrestricted regime concerning secondary outcomes. It seems possible to reduce the use of assistive devices considerably and thereby induce cost savings. More research on safety issues is needed to elucidate the effect of unrestricted...

  17. Inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G; Bakker, Theo C M

    2006-06-22

    Negative effects of inbreeding are well documented in a wide range of animal taxa. Hatching success and survival of inbred offspring is reduced in many species and inbred progeny are often less attractive to potential mates. Thus, individuals should avoid mating with close kin. However, experimental evidence for inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in vertebrates is scarce. Here, we show that gravid female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when given the choice between a courting familiar brother and a courting unfamiliar non-sib prefer to mate with the non-sib and thus avoid the disadvantages of incest. We controlled for differences in males' body size and red intensity of nuptial coloration. Thus, females adjust their courting behaviour to the risk of inbreeding.

  18. Evidence for Non-Random Hydrophobicity Structures in Protein Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Irbäck, A; Potthast, F; Irb\\"ack, Anders; Peterson, Carsten; Potthast, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether proteins originate from random sequences of amino acids is addressed. A statistical analysis is performed in terms of blocked and random walk values formed by binary hydrophobic assignments of the amino acids along the protein chains. Theoretical expectations of these variables from random distributions of hydrophobicities are compared with those obtained from functional proteins. The results, which are based upon proteins in the SWISS-PROT data base, convincingly show that the amino acid sequences in proteins differ from what is expected from random sequences in a statistical significant way. By performing Fourier transforms on the random walks one obtains additional evidence for non-randomness of the distributions. We have also analyzed results from a synthetic model containing only two amino-acid types, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. With reasonable criteria on good folding properties in terms of thermodynamical and kinetic behavior, sequences that fold well are isolated. Performing t...

  19. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary pain management programme managing chronic pain on pain perceptions, health-related quality of life and stages of change--A non-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Elin; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Stokkeland, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been useful in the treatment of chronic pain conditions for many years. Given the increasing number of persons with chronic pain and associated psychosocial problems, the development and implementation of effective interventions based on CBT is warranted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary pain management programme on health-related quality of life (HRQL), as measured by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), pain perception as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and readiness-to-change as measured by the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ). A pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design, with waiting list controls and baseline and post-test measures, was used. The study was conducted in the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital. Of 117 people suffering from chronic pain, 113 completed the 8-week multidisciplinary pain management programme. The patients were consecutive referrals. Inclusion criteria were: adults (18-67 years), pain lasting over 6 months, motivation and no ongoing litigation. Exclusion criteria were affected by major mental disorders or major medical conditions requiring treatment. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural approach. Therapeutic dialogues and training, combined with physical activity, were provided to a fixed plan, including homework. The programme has several features that directly address psychosocial aspects of chronic pain. Statistical and clinical significance are considered. The findings suggest that this programme has the potential to improve HRQL, reduce pain intensity and interference, and contribute to improvement in readiness-to-change. Statistically significant results are supplemented by results showing their clinical significance. Improvements in HRQL, pain-related disability, and readiness-to-change suggest that the vicious cycle of chronic pain may be alleviated by our programme. As we see it, effective

  20. Effectiveness of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for nocturia on patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective non-randomized study of loxoprofen sodium 60 mg once daily before sleeping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki T

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effectiveness of loxoprofen sodium (loxoprofen, which is the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in Japan, for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH complaining of nocturia. A total of 93 BPH patients aged 49-84 years were enrolled in the study. These patients had received standard drug therapy with alpha1-blocker for BPH, followed by anticholinergic drugs, hypnotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and/or antiduretic hormone, but they still complained about 2 or more episodes of nocturia. They each took a single 60-mg tablet of loxoprofen prior to sleeping at night for 14 days in addition to their BPH treatments. The effects were assessed by questionnaire before and after treatment as excellent (nocturia disappeared or decreased by 2 or more voids/night, improved (nocturia decreased by 1 void/night, unchanged, or worsened (nocturia increased. Nocturia improved or disappeared in 74.2% of patients: excellent, improved, unchanged, and worsened results were obtained in 37.6%, 36.6%, 21.5%, and 4.3% of patients, respectively. The effects were better in patients whose baseline nocturia was > 2 times than in those with a lesser frequency at enrollment (P = 0.04. Loxoprofen can be an effective and useful treatment option for patients with BPH complaining of refractory nocturia.

  1. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  2. Non-random mate choice in humans: insights from a genome scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, R; Toupance, B; Chaix, R

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors influencing mate choice in humans. Still, there is evidence for non-random mate choice with respect to physical traits. In addition, some studies suggest that the Major Histocompatibility Complex may affect pair formation. Nowadays, the availability of high density genomic data sets gives the opportunity to scan the genome for signatures of non-random mate choice without prior assumptions on which genes may be involved, while taking into account socio-demographic factors. Here, we performed a genome scan to detect extreme patterns of similarity or dissimilarity among spouses throughout the genome in three populations of African, European American, and Mexican origins from the HapMap 3 database. Our analyses identified genes and biological functions that may affect pair formation in humans, including genes involved in skin appearance, morphogenesis, immunity and behaviour. We found little overlap between the three populations, suggesting that the biological functions potentially influencing mate choice are population specific, in other words are culturally driven. Moreover, whenever the same functional category of genes showed a significant signal in two populations, different genes were actually involved, which suggests the possibility of evolutionary convergences.

  3. Reducing bias in survival under non-random temporary emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive monitoring, temporary emigration from the sampling area can induce bias severe enough for managers to discard life-history parameter estimates toward the terminus of the times series (terminal bias). Under random temporary emigration unbiased parameters can be estimated with CJS models. However, unmodeled Markovian temporary emigration causes bias in parameter estimates and an unobservable state is required to model this type of emigration. The robust design is most flexible when modeling temporary emigration, and partial solutions to mitigate bias have been identified, nonetheless there are conditions were terminal bias prevails. Long-lived species with high adult survival and highly variable non-random temporary emigration present terminal bias in survival estimates, despite being modeled with the robust design and suggested constraints. Because this bias is due to uncertainty about the fate of individuals that are undetected toward the end of the time series, solutions should involve using additional information on survival status or location of these individuals at that time. Using simulation, we evaluated the performance of models that jointly analyze robust design data and an additional source of ancillary data (predictive covariate on temporary emigration, telemetry, dead recovery, or auxiliary resightings) in reducing terminal bias in survival estimates. The auxiliary resighting and predictive covariate models reduced terminal bias the most. Additional telemetry data was effective at reducing terminal bias only when individuals were tracked for a minimum of two years. High adult survival of long-lived species made the joint model with recovery data ineffective at reducing terminal bias because of small-sample bias. The naïve constraint model (last and penultimate temporary emigration parameters made equal), was the least efficient, though still able to reduce terminal bias when compared to an unconstrained model. Joint analysis of several

  4. 42 CFR 421.505 - Termination and extension of non-random prepayment complex medical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a provider or supplier must be on non-random prepayment complex medical review. There is no minimum... section, a contractor must terminate a provider or supplier from non-random prepayment complex medical... complex medical review if a provider or supplier stops billing the code under review, shifts billing...

  5. Medicare Program; termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-26

    This final rule implements requirements regarding the termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review as required under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003. This final rule sets forth the criteria CMS contractors will use for terminating a provider or supplier from non-random prepayment complex medical review.

  6. Countesthorpe College: an observant study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ann; Stamatabis, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Discussed the objectives and the conditions which made possible a new school embodying radical innovations. The results of a observational study at an early stage of the school's development, undertaken by a group of students, are summarised here by two of them, both now teaching in Leicestershire Upper Schools. (Editor/RK)

  7. Effect of non-random dispersal strategies on spatial coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2010-01-01

    1. Random dispersal leads to spatial coexistence via two mechanisms (emigration-mediated and source-sink), both of which involve the movement of organisms from areas of higher to lower fitness. What is not known is whether such coexistence would occur if organisms dispersed non-randomly, using cues such as density and habitat quality to gauge fitness differences between habitats. Here, I conduct a comparative analysis of random and non-random dispersal strategies in a foodweb with a basal resource, top predator, and two intermediate consumers that exhibit a trade-off between competitive ability and predator susceptibility. 2. I find a striking contrast between density- and habitat-dependent dispersal in their effects on spatial coexistence. Dispersal in response to competitor and predator density facilitates coexistence while dispersal in response to habitat quality (resource productivity and predator pressure) inhibits it. Moreover, density-dependent dispersal changes species' distribution patterns from interspecific segregation to interspecific aggregation, while habitat-dependent dispersal preserves the interspecific segregation observed in the absence of dispersal. Under density-dependent dispersal, widespread spatial coexistence results in an overall decline in the abundance of the inferior competitor that is less susceptible to predation and an overall increase in the abundance of the superior competitor that is more susceptible to predation. Under habitat-dependent dispersal, restricted spatial coexistence results in species' abundances being essentially unchanged from those observed in the absence of dispersal. 3. A key outcome is that when the superior competitor moves in the direction of increasing fitness but the inferior competitor does not, spatial coexistence is possible in both resource-poor and resource-rich habitats. However, when the inferior competitor moves in the direction of increasing fitness but the superior competitor does not, spatial

  8. Incomplete categorical data design non-randomized response techniques for sensitive questions in surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Guo-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to survey questions involving sensitive information, such as sexual behavior, illegal drug usage, tax evasion, and income, may refuse to answer the questions or provide untruthful answers to protect their privacy. This creates a challenge in drawing valid inferences from potentially inaccurate data. Addressing this difficulty, non-randomized response approaches enable sample survey practitioners and applied statisticians to protect the privacy of respondents and properly analyze the gathered data.Incomplete Categorical Data Design: Non-Randomized Response Techniqu

  9. Synonymous codon usage in different protein secondary structural classes of human genes: Implication for increased non-randomness of GC3 rich genes towards protein stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pamela Mukhopadhyay; Surajit Basak; Tapash Chandra Ghosh

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between the synonymous codon usage and different protein secondary structural classes were investigated using 401 Homo sapiens proteins extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB). A simple Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of deviation of the observed and expected frequencies of 59 codons at the level of individual synonymous families in the four different protein secondary structural classes. It was observed that synonymous codon families show non-randomness in codon usage in four different secondary structural classes. However, when the genes were classified according to their GC3 levels there was an increase in non-randomness in high GC3 group of genes. The non-randomness in codon usage was further tested among the same protein secondary structures belonging to four different protein folding classes of high GC3 group of genes. The results show that in each of the protein secondary structural unit there exist some synonymous family that shows class specific codonusage pattern. Moreover, there is an increased non-random behaviour of synonymous codons in sheet structure of all secondary structural classes in high GC3 group of genes. Biological implications of these results have been discussed.

  10. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  11. Science Studies from Archived Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and

  12. A new non-randomized model for analysing sensitive questions with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Yu, Jun-Wu; Tang, Man-Lai; Geng, Zhi

    2007-10-15

    We propose a new non-randomized model for assessing the association of two sensitive questions with binary outcomes. Under the new model, respondents only need to answer a non-sensitive question instead of the original two sensitive questions. As a result, it can protect a respondent's privacy, avoid the usage of any randomizing device, and be applied to both the face-to-face interview and mail questionnaire. We derive the constrained maximum likelihood estimates of the cell probabilities and the odds ratio for two binary variables associated with the sensitive questions via the EM algorithm. The corresponding standard error estimates are then obtained by bootstrap approach. A likelihood ratio test and a chi-squared test are developed for testing association between the two binary variables. We discuss the loss of information due to the introduction of the non-sensitive question, and the design of the co-operative parameters. Simulations are performed to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and powers for the two tests. In addition, a simulation is conducted to study the relationship between the probability of obtaining valid estimates and the sample size for any given cell probability vector. A real data set from an AIDS study is used to illustrate the proposed methodologies.

  13. Microstructural descriptors and cellular automata simulation of the effects of non-random nuclei location on recrystallization in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.

  14. UFOs: Observations, Studies and Extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Dehning, B; Ducimetière, L; Ferrari, A; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Zimmermann, F; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot Del Busto, E; Morón Ballester, R; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Nordt, A; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Velghe, B; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zerlauth, M; Fuster Martinez, N

    2012-01-01

    UFOs (“ Unidentified Falling Objects”) could be one of the major performance limitations for nominal LHC operation. Therefore, in 2011, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved, dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge is summarized and extrapolations for LHC operation in 2012 and beyond are presented. Mitigation strategies are proposed and related tests and measures for 2012 are specified.

  15. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  16. OZONE NUCLEOLYSIS IN LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION: NON - RANDOMIZED PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekananda S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available STUDY DESI GN: Non - randomized, prospective analysis of 68 patients of lumbar disc herniation treated with ozone nucleolysis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with intradiscal ozone, pre and post ozone nucleolysis, for pain using Visual Analog Scale (VAS functional & disability score using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA Clinical Symptom Score. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUN D DATA: Ozone therapy for disc herniation is becoming popu lar because of its minimal invasive, lesser recurrences and remarkably fewer side effects. Successful outcomes of ozone therapy have been reported from various European & Indian centers. METHODS: A series of 68 patients were treated with ozone therapy for lumbar disc herniation from January 2009 to January 2012. The procedure is done under C - arm guidance under local anesthesia by “Single sitting double injection technique”. All patients were assessed using VAS for radiation pain & back pain, Clinical Symptom Score of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA for a Patient with Lumbar Disc Herniation, pre op and post op, on day one, after a week, two weeks, first month, third months, sixth month one year second year. Were classified them as Good, Moder ate & Poor outcome. RESULTS: Out of 68 patients 89.7% (61/68 patients had good outcome, 7.35% (5/68 patients had moderate outcome, 2.95% (2/68 had poor outcome. Intra - op in 1 patient where ozone spread in Para spinal muscles but had no postoperative pro blem.4 patients had mild nausea, 2 had mild headache & No infection. CONCLUSIONS: Ozone nucleolysis is a new, minimally invasive procedure done under local anesthesia & has shown effective results in the treatment of contained intervertebral disc herniatio n with no side effects.

  17. 西罗莫司在肾移植术后早期计划性切换的前瞻性对照研究%Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimusto after renal transplantation:a prospective,open-label and non-randomized control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洪锋; 谢文卿; 吴建永; 徐莹; 余献平; 任萍萍; 陈江华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of designed early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to sirolimus (SRL) as major immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients with stable renal function.Methods A prospective,open-label and non-randomized control study was performed for 112 renal transplant recipients (3-6 months post-operation) with stable renal function between June 2008 and June 2011.The patients in SRL group (n =57) switched to sirolimus while those in CNI group (n =55) continued CNI.The dosing of mycophenolate mofetil and steroids had no change.They were followed up for at least 24 months to evaluate the acute rejection,patient and graft survival,renal function,estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),blood lipids,blood glucose,liver function and urinary protein at 1,6,12 and 24 months after inclusion.Adverse events were also recorded.Results The serum creatinine of SRL group decreased significantly after conversion ((89.2 ± 24.7),(87.6 ± 23.8),(86.1 ±20.4),(86.7 ± 19.7) vs(117.0 ± 16.3) μ.mol/L,all P < 0.05).CNI group showed no improvement of renal function.SRL group had a significantly higher eGFR than CNI group (P < 0.05).Among 3 cases of acute rejection,there were 2 in SRL group and 1 in CNI group (P > 0.05).Blood lipids in SRL group increased significantly at 1 month after conversion (P < 0.05) and reverted back to average level after intervention (P > 0.05).SRL group had a drop of hemoglobin level within the normal range.Two patients in SRL group developed hypokalemia and another 2 patients had oral ulcer.They all improved after treatment.During follow-ups,1 case of mild proteinuria was found in SIR group.Three patients were diagnosed with diabetes (1 in SRL group vs 2 in CNI group).Conclusions Early conversion from CNI to SRL as major immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients with stable renal function further improves renal function.There is no higher rate of acute rejection during

  18. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butani Yogita

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment.

  19. Retroviral integration process in the human genome: is it really non-random? A new statistical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ambrosi

    Full Text Available Retroviral vectors are widely used in gene therapy to introduce therapeutic genes into patients' cells, since, once delivered to the nucleus, the genes of interest are stably inserted (integrated into the target cell genome. There is now compelling evidence that integration of retroviral vectors follows non-random patterns in mammalian genome, with a preference for active genes and regulatory regions. In particular, Moloney Leukemia Virus (MLV-derived vectors show a tendency to integrate in the proximity of the transcription start site (TSS of genes, occasionally resulting in the deregulation of gene expression and, where proto-oncogenes are targeted, in tumor initiation. This has drawn the attention of the scientific community to the molecular determinants of the retroviral integration process as well as to statistical methods to evaluate the genome-wide distribution of integration sites. In recent approaches, the observed distribution of MLV integration distances (IDs from the TSS of the nearest gene is assumed to be non-random by empirical comparison with a random distribution generated by computational simulation procedures. To provide a statistical procedure to test the randomness of the retroviral insertion pattern, we propose a probability model (Beta distribution based on IDs between two consecutive genes. We apply the procedure to a set of 595 unique MLV insertion sites retrieved from human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. The statistical goodness of fit test shows the suitability of this distribution to the observed data. Our statistical analysis confirms the preference of MLV-based vectors to integrate in promoter-proximal regions.

  20. Confounding in publications of observational intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Hoes, Arno W.; Hak, Eelko

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature search in Medline to assess the proportion of observational intervention studies appreciating confounding bias in peer-reviewed medical literature from 1985 through 2005. This study shows only 9% of all papers on observational intervention studies published in pe

  1. Effects of different frequencies (2-3 days/week) of aquatic therapy program in adults with chronic low back pain. A non-randomized comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Angel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Gatto-Cardia, Maria Claudia; Artero, Enrique G

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of an aquatic therapy program with different frequencies (2 vs 3 days per week) in chronic low back pain. [corrected] Non-randomized comparison trial. Sport and spa community health club. Fifty-four adults with chronic low back pain (48.9 ± 10.0 years). Eight-week aquatic therapy program. Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), and quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey 36), body composition (weight, body mass index, body fat mass, body fat percentage, and skeletal muscle mass), and health-related fitness (sit and reach, handgrip strength, curl-up, Rockport 1-mile test). Both experimental groups presented significant improvements in low back pain and disability (P aquatic therapy program decrease levels of back pain and disability, increase quality of life, and improve health-related fitness in adults with chronic low back pain without effects in body composition. A dose-response effect was observed in some parameters, with greater benefits when exercising 3 days per week compared with 2 days. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altman, Douglas G.; le Cessie, Saskia; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, ma...

  3. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  4. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  5. Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W; Power, Alison G; Mitchell, Charles E; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2014-03-06

    Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces.

  6. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed rec...

  7. [Critical reading of analytical observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C; Marín León, I

    2015-11-01

    Analytical observational studies provide very important information about real-life clinical practice and the natural history of diseases and can suggest causality. Furthermore, they are very common in scientific journals. The aim of this article is to review the main concepts necessary for the critical reading of articles about radiological studies with observational designs. It reviews the characteristics that case-control and cohort studies must have to ensure high quality. It explains a method of critical reading that involves checking the attributes that should be evaluated in each type of article using a structured list of specific questions. It underlines the main characteristics that confer credibility and confidence on the article evaluated. Readers are provided with tools for the critical analysis of the observational studies published in scientific journals. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical challenges in observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, M.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle

  9. Statistical challenges in observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, M.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle

  10. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level.

  11. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  12. Empirically Driven Variable Selection for the Estimation of Causal Effects with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bryan; Chen, Jianshen

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies are common in educational research, where subjects self-select or are otherwise non-randomly assigned to different interventions (e.g., educational programs, grade retention, special education). Unbiased estimation of a causal effect with observational data depends crucially on the assumption of ignorability, which specifies…

  13. Non-random spatial coupling induces desynchronization, chaos and multistability in a predator-prey-resource system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenta; Yoshida, Takehito

    2012-05-07

    The metacommunity perspective has attracted much attention recently, but the understanding of how dispersal between local communities alters their ecological dynamics is still limited, especially regarding the effect of non-random, unequal dispersal of organisms. This is a study of a three-trophic-level (predator-prey-resource) system that is connected by different manners of dispersal. The model is based on a well-studied experimental system cultured in chemostats (continuous flow-through culture), which consists of rotifer predator, algal prey and nutrient. In the model, nutrient dispersal can give rise to multistability when the two systems are connected by nutrient dispersal, whereas three-trophic-level systems tend to show a rich dynamical behavior, e.g. antisynchronous or asynchronous oscillations including chaos. Although the existence of multistability was already known in two-trophic-level (predator-prey) systems, it was confined to a small range of dispersal rate. In contrast, the multistability in the three-trophic-level system is found in a broader range of dispersal rate. The results suggest that, in three-trophic-level systems, the dispersal of nutrient not only alters population dynamics of local systems but can also cause regime shifts such as a transition to different oscillation phases.

  14. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  15. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusoy Nefise B

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lateral internal sphincterotomy is the gold-standard treatment for chronic anal fissure, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin seems to be a reliable new option. The aim of this non-randomized study is to compare the effect of lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments on the outcome and reduction of anal sphincter pressures in patients with chronic anal fissure. Methods Patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with either botulinum toxin injection or lateral internal sphincterotomy by their own choice. Maximal resting pressure and maximal squeeze pressure measurements were performed before and 2 weeks after treatments by anal manometry. Patients were followed for fissure relapse during 14 months. Results Twenty-one consecutive outpatients with posterior chronic anal fissure were enrolled. Eleven patients underwent surgery and ten patients received botulinum toxin injection treatment. Before the treatment, anal pressures were found to be similar in both groups. After the treatment, the maximal resting pressures were reduced from 104 ± 22 mmHg to 86 ± 15 mmHg in the surgery group (p 0.05 in the surgery group, and from 117 ± 62 mmHg to 76 ± 34 (p 0.05. There were no relapses during the 14 months of follow up. Conclusion Lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments both seem to be equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

  16. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  17. The Results of Open-Label, Multicenter, Non-Randomized Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Insulins: Insuman Basal®, Insuman Comb 25®, Insuman Rapid® in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Who Underwent Basic Training in Diabetes Schools (SPIRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Larin

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions. Treatment with Insuman® insulins of patients with DM-2, who were not compensated while taking OADs, was associated with improved glycemic control without an increase in the incidence of severe hypoglycemia. There was no statistically significant increase in the effectiveness of therapy in patients, who have successfully completed a training program at diabetes school, compared with evaluation of overall efficiency. The state of young studied population of patients with inadequate control at baseline, and those who had developed cardiovascular complications associated with DM, improved in most cases in terms of glycemic control, and, at that, episodes of severe hypoglycemia were not detected. This may be due to the positive influence of training in diabetes school.

  18. Evidence for non-random sampling in randomised, controlled trials by Yuhji Saitoh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J B; Loadsman, J A

    2017-01-01

    A large number of randomised trials authored by Yoshitaka Fujii have been retracted, in part as a consequence of a previous analysis finding a very low probability of random sampling. Dr Yuhji Saitoh co-authored 34 of those trials and he was corresponding author for eight of them. We found a number of additional randomised, controlled trials that included baseline data, with Saitoh as corresponding author, that Fujii did not co-author. We used Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the baseline data from 32 relevant trials in total as well as an outcome (muscle twitch recovery ratios) reported in several. We also compared a series of muscle twitch recovery graphs appearing in a number of Saitoh's publications. The baseline data in 14/32 randomised, controlled trials had p sampling. Combining the continuous and categorical probabilities of the 32 included trials, we found a very low likelihood of random sampling: p = 1.27 × 10(-8) (1 in 100,000,000). The high probability of non-random sampling and the repetition of lines in multiple graphs suggest that further scrutiny of Saitoh's work is warranted. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks.

  20. Observed and Expected Mortality in Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Cole, Stephen R; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in a cohort with the expected number of deaths, obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the cohort by mortality rates for a reference population (ideally, a reference that represents the mortality rate in the cohort in the absence of exposure). However, if exposure is hazardous (or salutary), this calculation will not consistently estimate the number of deaths expected in the absence of exposure because exposure will have affected the distribution of person-time observed in the study cohort. While problems with interpretation of this standard calculation of expected counts were discussed more than 2 decades ago, these discussions had little impact on epidemiologic practice. The logic of counterfactuals may help clarify this topic as we revisit these issues. In this paper, we describe a simple way to consistently estimate the expected number of deaths in such settings, and we illustrate the approach using data from a cohort study of mortality among underground miners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Exceptional diversity, non-random distribution, and rapid evolution of retroelements in the B73 maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Baucom

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent comprehensive sequence analysis of the maize genome now permits detailed discovery and description of all transposable elements (TEs in this complex nuclear environment. Reiteratively optimized structural and homology criteria were used in the computer-assisted search for retroelements, TEs that transpose by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, with the final results verified by manual inspection. Retroelements were found to occupy the majority (>75% of the nuclear genome in maize inbred B73. Unprecedented genetic diversity was discovered in the long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon class of retroelements, with >400 families (>350 newly discovered contributing >31,000 intact elements. The two other classes of retroelements, SINEs (four families and LINEs (at least 30 families, were observed to contribute 1,991 and approximately 35,000 copies, respectively, or a combined approximately 1% of the B73 nuclear genome. With regard to fully intact elements, median copy numbers for all retroelement families in maize was 2 because >250 LTR retrotransposon families contained only one or two intact members that could be detected in the B73 draft sequence. The majority, perhaps all, of the investigated retroelement families exhibited non-random dispersal across the maize genome, with LINEs, SINEs, and many low-copy-number LTR retrotransposons exhibiting a bias for accumulation in gene-rich regions. In contrast, most (but not all medium- and high-copy-number LTR retrotransposons were found to preferentially accumulate in gene-poor regions like pericentromeric heterochromatin, while a few high-copy-number families exhibited the opposite bias. Regions of the genome with the highest LTR retrotransposon density contained the lowest LTR retrotransposon diversity. These results indicate that the maize genome provides a great number of different niches for the survival and procreation of a great variety of retroelements that have evolved to

  2. Exceptional diversity, non-random distribution, and rapid evolution of retroelements in the B73 maize genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Regina S; Estill, James C; Chaparro, Cristian; Upshaw, Naadira; Jogi, Ansuya; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Westerman, Richard P; Sanmiguel, Phillip J; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2009-11-01

    Recent comprehensive sequence analysis of the maize genome now permits detailed discovery and description of all transposable elements (TEs) in this complex nuclear environment. Reiteratively optimized structural and homology criteria were used in the computer-assisted search for retroelements, TEs that transpose by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, with the final results verified by manual inspection. Retroelements were found to occupy the majority (>75%) of the nuclear genome in maize inbred B73. Unprecedented genetic diversity was discovered in the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon class of retroelements, with >400 families (>350 newly discovered) contributing >31,000 intact elements. The two other classes of retroelements, SINEs (four families) and LINEs (at least 30 families), were observed to contribute 1,991 and approximately 35,000 copies, respectively, or a combined approximately 1% of the B73 nuclear genome. With regard to fully intact elements, median copy numbers for all retroelement families in maize was 2 because >250 LTR retrotransposon families contained only one or two intact members that could be detected in the B73 draft sequence. The majority, perhaps all, of the investigated retroelement families exhibited non-random dispersal across the maize genome, with LINEs, SINEs, and many low-copy-number LTR retrotransposons exhibiting a bias for accumulation in gene-rich regions. In contrast, most (but not all) medium- and high-copy-number LTR retrotransposons were found to preferentially accumulate in gene-poor regions like pericentromeric heterochromatin, while a few high-copy-number families exhibited the opposite bias. Regions of the genome with the highest LTR retrotransposon density contained the lowest LTR retrotransposon diversity. These results indicate that the maize genome provides a great number of different niches for the survival and procreation of a great variety of retroelements that have evolved to differentially

  3. Skin-impedance in Fabry Disease: A prospective, controlled, non-randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidicker Jeffrey R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated improved sweating after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT in Fabry disease using the thermo-regularity sweat and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex tests. Skin-impedance, a measure skin-moisture (sweating, has been used in the clinical evaluation of burns and pressure ulcers using the portable dynamic dermal impedance monitor (DDIM system. Methods We compared skin impedance measurements in hemizygous patients with Fabry disease (22 post 3-years of bi-weekly ERT and 5 ERT naive and 22 healthy controls. Force compensated skin-moisture values were used for statistical analysis. Outcome measures included 1 moisture reading of the 100th repetitive reading, 2 rate of change, 3 average of 60–110th reading and 4 overall average of all readings. Results All outcome measures showed a significant difference in skin-moisture between Fabry patients and control subjects (p Conclusion The instrument portability, ease of its use, a relatively short time required for the assessment, and the fact that DDIM system was able to detect the difference in skin-moisture renders the instrument a useful clinical tool.

  4. Non-random assembly of bacterioplankton communities in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eEiler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bacterial diversity in the global ocean has revealed new taxa and previously unrecognized metabolic potential; however, our understanding of what regulates this diversity is limited. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP data of bacterial small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes we show that, independent of depth and time, a large fraction of bacterioplankton co-occurrence patterns are non-random in the oligotrophic North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG. Pair-wise correlations of all identified operational taxonomic units (OTUs revealed a high degree of significance, with 6.6% of the pair-wise co-occurrences being negatively correlated and 20.7% of them being positive. The most abundant OTUs, putatively identified as Prochlorococcus, SAR11 and SAR116 bacteria, were among the most correlated OTUs. As expected, bacterial community composition lacked statistically significant patterns of seasonality in the mostly stratified water column except in a few depth horizons of the sunlit surface waters, with higher frequency variations in community structure apparently related to populations associated with the deep chlorophyll maximum. Communities were structured vertically, with a succession from euphotic, mesopelagic, and bathylopelagic populations. Permutation based statistical analyses of T-RFLP data and their corresponding metadata revealed a broad range of putative environmental drivers controlling bacterioplankton community composition in the NPSG, including concentrations of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton pigment. Together our results suggest that deterministic forces, such as environmental filtering and interactions among taxa, determine bacterioplankton community patterns, and consequently affect ecosystem functions in the NPSG.

  5. The BraveNet prospective observational study on integrative medicine treatment approaches for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Donald I; Dolor, Rowena; Roberts, Rhonda; Pechura, Constance; Dusek, Jeffery; Amoils, Sandi; Amoils, Steven; Barrows, Kevin; Edman, Joel S; Frye, Joyce; Guarneri, Erminia; Kligler, Ben; Monti, Daniel; Spar, Myles; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2013-06-24

    Chronic pain affects nearly 116 million American adults at an estimated cost of up to $635 billion annually and is the No. 1 condition for which patients seek care at integrative medicine clinics. In our Study on Integrative Medicine Treatment Approaches for Pain (SIMTAP), we observed the impact of an integrative approach on chronic pain and a number of other related patient-reported outcome measures. Our prospective, non-randomized, open-label observational evaluation was conducted over six months, at nine clinical sites. Participants received a non-standardized, personalized, multimodal approach to chronic pain. Validated instruments for pain (severity and interference levels), quality of life, mood, stress, sleep, fatigue, sense of control, overall well-being, and work productivity were completed at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 weeks. Blood was collected at baseline and week 12 for analysis of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Repeated-measures analysis was performed on data to assess change from baseline at 24 weeks. Of 409 participants initially enrolled, 252 completed all follow-up visits during the 6 month evaluation. Participants were predominantly white (81%) and female (73%), with a mean age of 49.1 years (15.44) and an average of 8.0 (9.26) years of chronic pain. At baseline, 52% of patients reported symptoms consistent with depression. At 24 weeks, significantly decreased pain severity (-23%) and interference (-28%) were seen. Significant improvements in mood, stress, quality of life, fatigue, sleep and well-being were also observed. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased from 33.4 (17.05) ng/mL at baseline to 39.6 (16.68) ng/mL at week 12. Among participants completing an integrative medicine program for chronic pain, significant improvements were seen in pain as well as other relevant patient-reported outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01186341.

  6. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik von Elm

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  7. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E

    2017-07-01

    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  8. National study of emergency department observation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Ross, Michael A; Ginde, Adit A

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to describe patient and facility characteristics of emergency department (ED) observation services in the United States. The authors analyzed the 2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Characteristics of EDs with observation units (OUs) were compared to those without, and patients with a disposition of ED observation were compared to those with a "short-stay" (observational analysis. An estimated 1,746 U.S. EDs (36%) reported having OUs, of which 56% are administratively managed by ED staff. Fifty-two percent of hospitals with ED-managed OUs are in an urban location, and 89% report ED boarding, compared to 29 and 65% of those that do not have an OU. The admission rate is 38% at those with ED-managed OUs and 15% at those without OUs. Of the 15.1% of all ED patients who are kept in the hospital following an ED visit, one-quarter are kept for either a short-stay admission (1.8%) or an ED observation admission (2.1%). Most (82%) ED observation patients were discharged from the ED. ED observation patients were similar to short-stay admission patients in terms of age (median = 52 years for both, interquartile range = 36 to 70 years), self-pay (12% vs. 10%), ambulance arrival (37% vs. 36%), urgent/emergent triage acuity (77% vs. 74%), use of ≥1 ED medication (64% vs.76%), and the most common primary chief complaints and primary diagnoses. Over one-third of U.S. EDs have an OU. Short-stay admission patients have similar characteristics as ED observation patients and may represent an opportunity for the growth of OUs. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  10. Cortical atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis are non-random and clinically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Daams, Marita; Tijms, Betty M; Wink, Alle Meije; Balk, Lisanne J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2016-01-01

    cortical atrophy in multiple sclerosis occurs largely in a non-random manner and develops (at least partly) according to distinct anatomical patterns. In addition, these cortical atrophy patterns showed stronger associations with clinical (especially cognitive) dysfunction than global cortical atrophy.

  11. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Francesco S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months. Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT. Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial

  12. Observational Study of Solar Magnetic Active Phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongqi Zhang

    2006-06-01

    The electric current separated into two parts reflected the quantative properties of heterogeneity and chirality of magnetic field, and defined them as the shear and twist components of current. We analyze the basic configuration and evolution of superactive region NOAA 6580-6619-6659. It is found that the contribution of the twist component of current cannot be reflected in the normal analysis of the magnetic shear and gradient of the active regions. The observational evidence of kink magnetic ropes generated from the subatmosphere cannot be found completely in some super delta active regions.

  13. Potential New Lidar Observations for Cloud Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Dave; Hu, Yong; Narir, Amin; Cai, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The response of clouds to global warming represents a major uncertainty in estimating climate sensitivity. These uncertainties have been tracked to shallow marine clouds in the tropics and subtropics. CALIOP observations have already been used extensively to evaluate model predictions of shallow cloud fraction and top height (Leahy et al. 2013; Nam et al 2012). Tools are needed to probe the lowest levels of the troposphere. The large footprint of satellite lidars gives large multiple scattering from clouds which presents new possibilities for cloud retrievals to constrain model predictions.

  14. Risk of bias and confounding of observational studies of Zika virus infection: A scoping review of research protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Haby, Michelle M; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Pinzón-Flores, Carlos E; Elias, Vanessa; Smith, Emma; Pinart, Mariona; Broutet, Nathalie; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2017-01-01

    Given the severity and impact of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas, numerous countries have rushed to develop research studies to assess ZIKV and its potential health consequences. In an effort to ensure that studies are comprehensive, both internally and externally valid, and with reliable results, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, Institut Pasteur, the networks of Fiocruz, the Consortia for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology (CONSISE) and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) have generated six standardized clinical and epidemiological research protocols and questionnaires to address key public health questions on ZIKV. We conducted a systematic search of ongoing study protocols related to ZIKV research. We analyzed the content of protocols of 32 cohort studies and 13 case control studies for systematic bias that could produce erroneous results. Additionally we aimed to characterize the risks of bias and confounding in observational studies related to ZIKV and to propose ways to minimize them, including the use of six newly standardized research protocols. Observational studies of ZIKV face an array of challenges, including measurement of exposure and outcomes (microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome). Potential confounders need to be measured where known and controlled for in the analysis. Selection bias due to non-random selection is a significant issue, particularly in the case-control design, and losses to follow-up is equally important for the cohort design. Observational research seeking to answer key questions on the ZIKV should consider these restrictions and take precautions to minimize bias in an effort to provide reliable and valid results. Utilization of the standardized research protocols developed by the WHO, PAHO, Institut Pasteur, and CONSISE will harmonize the key methodological aspects of each study design to minimize bias at

  15. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories and t...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...

  16. Effects of an Integrated ‘Fast Track’ Rehabilitation Service for Multi-Trauma Patients: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Ans I. E.; Hemmen, Bea; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van de Meent, Henk; Ambergen, Ton; Vos, Pieter E.; Brink, Peter R. G.; Seelen, Henk A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The effects on health related outcomes of a newly-developed rehabilitation program, called ‘supported Fast Track multi-trauma rehabilitation service’ (Fast Track), were evaluated in comparison with conventional trauma rehabilitation service (Care as Usual). Methods Prospective, multi-center, non-randomized controlled study. Between 2009 and 2012, 132 adult multi-trauma patients were included: 65 Fast Track and 67 Care as Usual patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16, complex multiple injuries in several extremities or complex pelvic and/or acetabulum fractures. The Fast Track program involved: integrated coordination between trauma surgeon and rehabilitation physician, shorter stay in hospital with faster transfer to a specialized trauma rehabilitation unit, earlier start of multidisciplinary treatment and ‘non-weight bearing’ mobilization. Primary outcomes were functional status (FIM) and quality of life (SF-36) measured through questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-trauma. Outcomes were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects regression model. Results The FIM scores significantly increased between 0 and 3 months (p<0.001) for both groups showing that they had improved overall, and continued to improve between 3 and 6 months for Fast Track (p = 0.04) and between 3 and 9 months for Care as Usual (p = 0.03). SF-36 scores significantly improved in both groups between 3 and 6 months (Fast Track, p<0.001; Care as Usual, p = 0.01). At 12 months, SF-36 scores were still below (self-reported) baseline measurements of patient health prior to the accident. However, the FIM and SF-36 scores differed little between the groups at any of the measured time points. Conclusion Both Fast Track and Care as Usual rehabilitation programs were effective in that multi-trauma patients improved their functional status and quality of life. A faster (maximum) recovery in functional status was observed for Fast Track at 6 months compared to 9 months for

  17. Cutaneous hypopigmentary disorders – An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalegowda Deepadarshan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypopigmented skin lesions is very common among people of all age groups. There are limited studies in India about evaluation of hypopigmented skin conditions. The aim of my study is to evaluate the different etiologies of cutaneous hypopigmentation. Aim: The present study was undertaken to find the relative incidence of the various disorders causing a hypopigmented lesion in a random sample of 200 cases and to study site, distribution and characteristics of the lesions. Methods: A random sample of 200 patients presenting with one or more hypopigmented lesions to the outpatient department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy in KVG Medical College and Hospital, Sullia from December 2011 to January 2013 was studied. Detailed history including address and occupation with special reference to onset and duration, preceding skin conditions, exposure to chemicals, topical application and family history was taken. Various characteristics of the lesion like site, size, number, distribution, surface and sensation were studied. After this samples were taken for relevant investigations like complete hemogram, biopsy, slit skin smear, KOH mount and assessed for the causes of hypopigmented lesions. Results: In our study, most common cause with cutaneous hypopigmentation was pityriasis versicolor, seen in 52%, followed by post inflammatory hypopigmentation in 32%, pre vitiligo in 6.5%, Hansen’s disease, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, nevus anemicus each in 2%, Woronoff’s ring in 1.5% and miscellaneous conditions in 2% of the cases. Commonest age group affected was 21-30 years. Males (49% and females (51% were almost equally affected. Conclusion: The study concludes that various conditions comes under hypopigmentary disorders. More common in young adults. Most common scaly condition was pityriasis versicolor and non scaly condition was pre vitiligo. Proper counseling and ruling out Hansen’s disease is required to alleviate the patient

  18. Refractory status epilepticus: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Jan; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2010-02-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) that is resistant to two antiepileptic compounds is defined as refractory status epilepticus (RSE). In the few available retrospective studies, estimated RSE frequency is between 31% and 43% of patients presenting an SE episode; almost all seem to require a coma induction for treatment. We prospectively assessed RSE frequency, clinical predictors, and outcome in a tertiary clinical setting. Over 2 years we collected 128 consecutive SE episodes (118 patients) in adults. Clinical data and their relationship to outcome (mortality and return to baseline clinical conditions) were analyzed. Twenty-nine of 128 SE episodes (22.6%) were refractory to first- and second-line antiepileptic treatments. Severity of consciousness impairment and de novo episodes were independent predictors of RSE. RSE showed a worse outcome than non-RSE (39% vs. 11% for mortality; 21% vs. 63% for return to baseline clinical conditions). Only 12 patients with RSE (41%) required coma induction for treatment. This prospective study identifies clinical factors predicting the onset of SE refractoriness. RSE appears to be less frequent than previously reported in retrospective studies; furthermore, most RSE episodes were treated outside the intensive care unit (ICU). Nonetheless, we confirm that RSE is characterized by high mortality and morbidity.

  19. Management of rheumatic chorea: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rheumatic chorea (RC has recently been linked to an antibody-mediated immune mechanism. OBJECTIVE/METHOD: To verify if this knowledge reflected in management changes we conceived a descriptive study. RESULTS: The medical charts of 20 children (13 females aged 6 to 12 years (mean 8 years, diagnosed as RC from June 1996 to June 1999, were reviewed. All patients received some medical treatment. Haloperidol was the most prescribed medication (15 patients - 75 %. Sulpiride, diazepam and valproate were also used as symptomatic treatment. Imune-modulating therapy with prednisone was prescribed for seven children. The shortest course of chorea (16 days occurred in a patient treated with prednisone. CONCLUSION: Prednisone has been prescribed for rheumatic chorea besides the traditional symptomatic approach. A great variety of antichoreic drugs are being employed.

  20. HOW TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shal'nova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.

  1. Discovering non-random segregation of sister chromatids: The naïve treatment of a premature discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl G. Lark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of non-random chromosome segregation is discussed from the perspective of what was known in1965 and1966. The distinction between daughter, parent or grandparent strands of DNA was developed in a bacterial system and led to the discovery that multiple copies of DNA elements of bacteria are not distributed randomly with respect to the age of the template strand. Experiments with higher eukaryotic cells demonstrated that during mitosis Mendel’s laws were violated; and the initial serendipitous choice of eukaryotic cell system led to the striking example of non-random segregation of parent and grand-parent DNA template strands in primary cultures of cells derived from mouse embryos. Attempts to extrapolate these findings to established TC lines demonstrated that the property could be lost. Experiments using plant root tips demonstrated that the phenomenon exists in plants and that it was, at some level, under genetic control. Despite publication in major journals and symposia (Lark et al. (1966a; Lark (1967a; 1967b; 1969, 1969a; 1969b the potential implications of these findings were ignored for several decades. Here we explore possible reasons for the pre-maturity (Stent, 1972 of this discovery.

  2. Insulin resistance and occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke A non-randomized concurrent control and intra-group comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhao; Shaojun Jiang; Yue Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has demonstrated that insulin resistance might be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, which has not been recognized. At present, insulin resistance has been proven to be an independent risk factor for coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease. However, the relationship between the onset and prognosis of ischemic stroke remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke and the correlation between insulin resistance and stroke risk factor, and to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke prognosis as well as whether insulin resistance is an independent prognostic factor. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Disease, Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 106 inpatients with ischemic stroke of the cervical internal carotid artery, who had suffered from the disease within the previous 72 hours, were admitted to the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College from March to December in 2005 and, recruited for the present study. All 106 inpatients corresponded to the diagnostic criteria of ischemic stroke, formulated at the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Conference in 1995, and were confirmed as having had an ischemic stroke by CT/MRI examinations. The patient group consisted of 54 males and 52 females. An additional 50 healthy individuals, who received health examinations simultaneously, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 26 males and 24 females. Informed consent for laboratory measurements was obtained from all subjects; this study was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee.METHODS: Following admission, all subjects were inquired of age, gender, previous history, blood pressure, body temperature, admission time, and smoking habits. Meanwhile, they were

  3. An Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for solving the fixed destination multi-depot multiple traveling salesman problem with non-random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, T.; Hertono, G. F.; Handari, B. D.

    2017-07-01

    The Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is the extension of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) in which the shortest routes of m salesmen all of which start and finish in a single city (depot) will be determined. If there is more than one depot and salesmen start from and return to the same depot, then the problem is called Fixed Destination Multi-depot Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem (MMTSP). In this paper, MMTSP will be solved using the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm. ACO is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm which is derived from the behavior of ants in finding the shortest route(s) from the anthill to a form of nourishment. In solving the MMTSP, the algorithm is observed with respect to different chosen cities as depots and non-randomly three parameters of MMTSP: m, K, L, those represents the number of salesmen, the fewest cities that must be visited by a salesman, and the most number of cities that can be visited by a salesman, respectively. The implementation is observed with four dataset from TSPLIB. The results show that the different chosen cities as depots and the three parameters of MMTSP, in which m is the most important parameter, affect the solution.

  4. Discovery of Non-random Spatial Distribution of Impacts in the Stardust Cometary Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A J; Bastien, R K; Borg, J; Bridges, J; Brownlee, D E; Burchell, M J; Cheng, A F; Clark, B C; Djouadi, Z; Floss, C; Franchi, I; Gainsforth, Z; Graham, G; Green, S F; Heck, P R; Horanyi, M; Hoppe, P; Horz, F P; Huth, J; Kearsley, A; Leroux, H; Marhas, K; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Sandford, S A; See, T H; Stadermann, F J; Teslich, N E; Tsitrin, S; Warren, J L; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Zolensky, M E

    2007-04-06

    We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than {approx} 10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluated several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis was consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.

  5. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Brante; Miriam Fernández; Frédérique Viard

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism pa...

  6. Non-random crosslinking of polysulphone-polysiloxane alternating block copolymers under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinfang, Chen; Chunshan, Zhang

    In this paper the effects of radiation on polysulphone-polysiloxane segmented copolymers have been investigated. The experimental observations indicate that the crosslinking reaction occurs primarily between siloxane segments and the intermolecular crosslinking of isopropylidene groups of adjacent polysulphone segments also takes place after the irradiation of higher doses. From the non-randon radiation crosslinking model which the block copolymer follows, the relationship between sol fraction and crosslink density is derived by a statistical method. The radiation crosslinking structure of block copolymers prepared by polycondensation of prepolymers, polysulphone and polysiloxane, can be controled by changing the average molecular weights of two prepolymers and the ratio of one component to the other.

  7. Observational studies and the difficult quest for causality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsitch, Marc; Jha, Ayan; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-01-01

    be answered once the vaccine is in use, from observational studies. However, such studies are inherently at risk for bias. Using a causal framework and illustrating with examples, we review newer approaches to detecting and avoiding confounding and selection bias in three major classes of observational study...

  8. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, with techniques such as the k-filtering technique. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis as is necessary with single spacecraft missions, it does require weak stationarity of the time series, and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phase. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  9. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  10. Non-random retention of protein-coding overlapping genes in Metazoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bork Peer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the overlap of transcriptional units occurs frequently in eukaryotic genomes, its evolutionary and biological significance remains largely unclear. Here we report a comparative analysis of overlaps between genes coding for well-annotated proteins in five metazoan genomes (human, mouse, zebrafish, fruit fly and worm. Results For all analyzed species the observed number of overlapping genes is always lower than expected assuming functional neutrality, suggesting that gene overlap is negatively selected. The comparison to the random distribution also shows that retained overlaps do not exhibit random features: antiparallel overlaps are significantly enriched, while overlaps lying on the same strand and those involving coding sequences are highly underrepresented. We confirm that overlap is mostly species-specific and provide evidence that it frequently originates through the acquisition of terminal, non-coding exons. Finally, we show that overlapping genes tend to be significantly co-expressed in a breast cancer cDNA library obtained by 454 deep sequencing, and that different overlap types display different patterns of reciprocal expression. Conclusion Our data suggest that overlap between protein-coding genes is selected against in Metazoa. However, when retained it may be used as a species-specific mechanism for the reciprocal regulation of neighboring genes. The tendency of overlaps to involve non-coding regions of the genes leads to the speculation that the advantages achieved by an overlapping arrangement may be optimized by evolving regulatory non-coding transcripts.

  11. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical conside......, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research....... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...

  12. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring) were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species. PMID:23805291

  13. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Brante

    Full Text Available Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species.

  14. Concatenation of observed grasp phases with observer's distal movements: a behavioural and TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa De Stefani

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining how actions executed by two conspecifics can be coordinated with each other, or more specifically, how the observation of different phases of a reaching-grasping action is temporary related to the execution of a movement of the observer. Participants observed postures of initial finger opening, maximal finger aperture, and final finger closing of grasp after observation of an initial hand posture. Then, they opened or closed their right thumb and index finger (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Response times decreased, whereas acceleration and velocity of actual finger movements increased when observing the two late phases of grasp. In addition, the results ruled out the possibility that this effect was due to salience of the visual stimulus when the hand was close to the target and confirmed an effect of even hand postures in addition to hand apparent motion due to the succession of initial hand posture and grasp phase. In experiments 4 and 5, the observation of grasp phases modulated even foot movements and pronunciation of syllables. Finally, in experiment 6, transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex 300 ms post-stimulus induced an increase in hand motor evoked potentials of opponens pollicis muscle when observing the two late phases of grasp. These data suggest that the observation of grasp phases induced simulation which was stronger during observation of finger closing. This produced shorter response times, greater acceleration and velocity of the successive movement. In general, our data suggest best concatenation between two movements (one observed and the other executed when the observed (and simulated movement was to be accomplished. The mechanism joining the observation of a conspecific's action with our own movement may be precursor of social functions. It may be at the basis for interactions between conspecifics, and related to communication between individuals.

  15. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  16. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  17. Further evidence for a non-random chromosomal abnormality in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J.D.; Golomb, H.M.; Vardiman, J.; Fukahara, S.; Dougherty, C.; Potter, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have previously reported on two patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who had what appeared to be a deletion of chromosome No. 17. We now describe a third patient with APL. All three patients had a structural rearrangement involving No. 15 and No. 17. Our current interpretation of the chromosomal abnormality is that it is a reciprocal translocation, t (15; 17) (q22; q21). Evidence that this is a consistent rearrangement associated with APL comes not only from our three patients, but also from two other published cases of APL, studied with banding, who also had an identical abnormality.

  18. Learning to observe mathematical learning in lesson studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes

    2016-01-01

    This poster deals with lesson study (LS) in pre-service teacher education. In particular how to prepare for, carry out, and reflect upon, observations of pupil learning. Observation is of crucial importance to the lesson study process, and here we present a study of observation features which...... enable or hinder fruitful lesson study. While substantial research has been carried out in the general field of bserving pupils’ learning processes and teachers’ pedagogical practice, little is known about this in the particular setting of lesson study....

  19. Network sampling coverage II: The effect of non-random missing data on network measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey A; Moody, James; Morgan, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Missing data is an important, but often ignored, aspect of a network study. Measurement validity is affected by missing data, but the level of bias can be difficult to gauge. Here, we describe the effect of missing data on network measurement across widely different circumstances. In Part I of this study (Smith and Moody, 2013), we explored the effect of measurement bias due to randomly missing nodes. Here, we drop the assumption that data are missing at random: what happens to estimates of key network statistics when central nodes are more/less likely to be missing? We answer this question using a wide range of empirical networks and network measures. We find that bias is worse when more central nodes are missing. With respect to network measures, Bonacich centrality is highly sensitive to the loss of central nodes, while closeness centrality is not; distance and bicomponent size are more affected than triad summary measures and behavioral homophily is more robust than degree-homophily. With respect to types of networks, larger, directed networks tend to be more robust, but the relation is weak. We end the paper with a practical application, showing how researchers can use our results (translated into a publically available java application) to gauge the bias in their own data.

  20. Non-random genomic integration - an intrinsic property of retrogenes in Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metta Muralidhar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila X-chromosome shows a significant underrepresentation of genes with male-biased gene expression (demasculinization. This trend is matched by retrogenes, which typically have a male biased gene expression pattern and show a significant movement bias from X-chromosomes to autosomes. It is currently assumed that these patterns are best explained by selection, either mediated by male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI or sexually antagonistic forces. We scrutinized the evolutionary dynamics of retroposition by focusing on retrogenes for which the parental copy has degenerated. Results Consistent with a functional substitution of the degenerated gene by the retrogene, patterns of sequence evolution and gene expression were similar between retroposed and parental genes. Like previous studies, our set of retrogenes showed a significant movement off the X-chromosome. In contrast to data sets where retroposition caused gene duplication, the genes in our study showed primarily female-biased or unbiased gene expression. Conclusions Based on our results, the biased transposition pattern cannot be explained by MSCI and probably not by sexual antagonism. Rather, we propose that the movement away from the X-chromosome represents a general property of retroposition in Drosophila.

  1. Observation of pentaquark states and perspectives of further studies

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Cheng-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this invited short "news and views", we review very briefly the history of pentaquark studies and the recent observations of the tetraquark and pentaquark states. We also discuss further experimental studies such as at Belle-II.

  2. An open-label, non-randomized comparison of venlafaxine and gabapentin as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eardley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available William Eardley, Cory TothDepartment of Clinical Neurosciences and the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Although many therapies are used in the management of neuropathic pain (NeP due to polyneuropathy (PN, few comparison studies exist. We performed a prospective, non-randomized, unblended, efficacy comparison of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, as either monotherapy or adjuvant therapy, with a first-line medication for NeP, gabapentin, in patients with PN-related NeP. VAS pain scores were assessed after 3 and 6 months in intervention groups and in a cohort of patients receiving no pharmacotherapy. In a total of 223 patients, we analyzed pain quantity and quality (visual analogue scale [VAS] score, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI], quality of life and health status measures [EuroQol 5 Domains, EQ-5D], Medical Outcomes Sleep Study Scale [MOSSS], Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and Short Form 36 Health Survey [SF-36] after 6 months of therapy. Significant improvements in VAS pain scores occurred for all treatment groups after 6 months. Improvements in aspects of daily life and anxiety were identified in all treatment groups. Our data suggest that monotherapy or adjuvant therapy with venlafaxine is comparable to gabapentin for NeP management. We advocate for head-to-head, randomized, double-blinded studies of current NeP therapies.Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, pharmacotherapy, venlafaxine, gabapentin

  3. Manometric Biofeedback Effectiveness on Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life: A Non-Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E Fernandez-Cuadros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed at examining if a 6-session protocol of tonic-phasic exercises using manometric biofeedback (BFB is capable of improving quality of life (QoL and muscular strength in patients with urinary incontinence (UI. Methods A prospective quasi-experimental before-after study was performed on 31 patients with Urinary Incontinence (UI referred to the rehabilitation department of Santa Cristina’s University hospital, Madrid, Spain. The study was performed from January to December 2016. At initial evaluation, affiliation of data, predisposing factors, and type of UI were recorded. Patients were given lifestyle recommendations and international consultation on incontinence questionnaire short form (ICIQ-SF/ incontinence quality-of-life measure (I-QOL questionnaires/scales to be fulfilled at the beginning/end of treatment. Manometric evaluation was recorded at initial/final evaluation by MYOMED ® 932. Manometric-BFB protocol consisted of a 30-minute session of tonic/phasic exercises (15 minutes each, 2 times a week for up to 6 sessions, supervised by a physiotherapist. Results Mean age was 52 ± 12.1 years. Overall, 96.7% (n = 31 of the participants were females. Maximum and mean strength of pelvic floor contraction was 24 ± 17.72 and 4.9 ± 4.1 mmHg, and increased significantly after treatment to 35 ± 20.85 and 7.45 ± 4.92 mmHg (P < 0.01. The mean ICIQ-SF score was 9.13 ± 5.18 and decreased significantly to 6.13 ± 4.75 (P = 0.003. The mean I-QoL score increased significantly from 70.33 ± 22.12 to 81.25 ± 16.72 (P = 0.0017. The I-QoL Limiting Behaviour (LB-subscale raised from 68.38 ± 23.33 to 80 ± 16.56 (P = 0.0015; I-QoL Psychosocial Impact (PI-subscale increased from 77.43 ± 24.51 to 80 ± 17.47 (p = 0.0152; and I-QoL social embarrassment (SE-subscale incremented from 60.72 ± 22.37 to 74.37 ± 20.86 (P = 0.0007. Conclusions Manometric-BFB protocol is capable of decreasing UI and to improve QoL and manometric values

  4. Counterselection of prokaryotic ribosomal RNA during reverse transcription using non-random hexameric oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J M; Robb, F T

    2007-12-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the major component in total RNA extracts, interfering with the synthesis of cDNA corresponding to messenger RNA (mRNA). In this study, we present a novel strategy for selectively discriminating against rRNA and favoring mRNA from prokaryotes during synthesis of cDNA by reverse transcriptase. Our technique is based on the fact that rRNA sequences, in many species, are G+C rich relative to the genome at large, and highly conserved among prokaryotes. The sequence TTTT is therefore rarely found in rRNA sequences. However, TTTT priming sites are found at a much higher frequency in protein-encoding gene sequences. We designed specific hexamers (HD/DHTTTT) to prime reverse transcription reactions resulting in a selective synthesis of cDNA corresponding to mRNA from prokaryotic total RNA extractions.

  5. Non-random associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and non-synaesthetic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Ward, Jamie; Lanz, Monika; Jansari, Ashok; Noonan, Krist; Glover, Louise; Oakley, David A

    2005-01-01

    This study shows that biases exist in the associations of letters with colours across individuals both with and without grapheme-colour synaesthesia. A group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes were significantly more consistent over time in their choice of colours than a group of controls. Despite this difference, there were remarkable inter-subject agreements, both within and across participant groups (e.g., a tends to be red, b tends to be blue, c tends to be yellow). This suggests that grapheme-colour synaesthesia, whilst only exhibited by certain individuals, stems in part from mechanisms that are common to us all. In addition to shared processes, each population has its own distinct profile. Synaesthetes tend to associate higher frequency graphemes with higher frequency colour terms. For control participants, choices are influenced by order of elicitation, and by exemplar typicality from the semantic class of colours.

  6. Non-random pairing in American kestrels: mate choice versus intra-sexual competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R.; Iko, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural selection may influence the arrangement of individuals into mated pairs through either inter-sexual (mate choice) or intra-sexual selection (competition). A study of the American kestrel, Falco sparverius, in northern Saskatchewan distinguished between these two processes using size as a measure of the bird's competitive ability, and condition (mass scaled to body size) as an index of quality. Both sexes arrive on the study area after spring migration in equal numbers and males establish territories. Males and females that moved among territories at the time of pair formation were not different in size or condition from those that did not move, suggesting that birds were not being displaced by superior competitors, and that females moved to encounter potential mates. Within mated pairs, there was no relationship between a bird's size and the condition of its mate for either sex as would be predicted if intra-sexual competitition explained mating patterns. Instead, there was positive assortative mating by condition, suggesting that both sexes used quality as the criterion in choosing mates. There was no correlation between the sizes of males and females in mated paird. Because there were no differences in size or condition of breeding and non-breeding males, factors other than physical attributes, such as prior experience with the area, may determine a male's success in obtaining a territory. Because females that did not obtain mates were in poorer condition than those that did, males may have rejected poor quality females. The results suggest that intra-sexual competition was not important for pair formation, and that kestrels chose mates on the basis of quality.

  7. A foundational observation method for studying design situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies of designers play an important role in engineering design research, yet there is currently no accepted standard approach for comparing, combining, or contrasting studies. Consequentially, reuse, reanalysis, replication, and aggregation of data are limited and the potential...... impact of individual studies is severely constrained. This paper begins to address this issue by introducing and developing a foundational method for observational design research to improve replicability, reuse, and overall comparability of empirical studies. A three-step foundational method is proposed...

  8. Intervention for homeless, substance abusing mothers: findings from a non-randomized pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Little empirically-based information is available regarding how best to intervene with substance-abusing homeless mothers. This study pilot-tested a comprehensive intervention with 15 homeless women and their 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from a local family shelter. All participants were offered integrated intervention with three major components. The first component was housing which included 3 months of rental and utility assistance, and these services were not contingent upon women's abstinence from drugs or alcohol. The second and third components included 6 months of case management services and an evidence-based substance abuse treatment (Community Reinforcement Approach; CRA). Analysis revealed that women showed reductions in substance use (F(2,22) = 3.63; p homelessness (F(2,24) = 25.31; p intervention is a promising approach to meet the multiple needs of this vulnerable population. These positive outcomes support the need for future research to replicate the findings with a larger sample using a randomized design.

  9. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Garbeva, Paolina; Hordijk, Cornelis; Hundscheid, P J; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Van Agtmaal, Maaike; Kuramae, Eiko E; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.

  10. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  11. Meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D R

    1992-01-01

    Meta-analyses (integration of findings by quantitative analyses of results of individual studies) are already widely used in the psychological and educational sciences and in the pooling of clinical trial results. Examples of the application of such techniques to the results of observational epidemiological studies are now proliferating. In this paper meta-analysis of the results of observational epidemiological studies is reviewed. Uncritical adoption of techniques used in pooled analyses of...

  12. The EULAR Study Group for Registers and Observational Drug Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Závada, Jakub; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), a study group of investigators representing European biologic DMARD (bDMARD) registers was convened. The purpose of this initial assessment was to collect and compare a cross section of patient characteristics...

  13. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  14. Non-random distribution of amino acids in the transmembrane segments of human type I single span membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt-Marticorena, C; Williams, K A; Deber, C M; Reithmeier, R A

    1993-02-05

    The distribution of amino acids in the transmembrane segments and flanking regions of 115 human type I single span (amino terminus extracellular and carboxyl terminus cytosolic) plasma membrane proteins was found to be non-random. In this sample, Ile was preferentially localized to the amino-terminal region of the hydrophobic transmembrane segments, followed by Val, while Leu predominated in the carboxyl-terminal half of the segment. Although Gly residues were preferentially located in the transmembrane segment, this residue was excluded from the carboxyl-terminal and adjacent boundary regions. Aromatic residues (Tyr, Trp and Phe) occurred preferentially at the cytoplasmic boundary, with Trp also favored at the extracellular boundary. The extracellular flanking sequence amino-terminal to the transmembrane segment was enriched in residues predicted to initiate helix formation (Pro, Asn and Ser), while Arg and Lys were enriched in the cytoplasmic flank where they may function as topological determinants. The positional preferences of these particular amino acids within the transmembrane segment and flanking regions suggests that, in addition to lipid-protein interactions, these residues may participate in specific protein-protein interactions. A consensus sequence motif for type I membrane proteins is proposed and its role in the biosynthesis, folding, assembly and function of these segments is discussed.

  15. Systems-level chromosomal parameters represent a suprachromosomal basis for the non-random chromosomal arrangement in human interphase nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatakia, Sarosh N.; Mehta, Ishita S.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2016-01-01

    Forty-six chromosome territories (CTs) are positioned uniquely in human interphase nuclei, wherein each of their positions can range from the centre of the nucleus to its periphery. A non-empirical basis for their non-random arrangement remains unreported. Here, we derive a suprachromosomal basis of that overall arrangement (which we refer to as a CT constellation), and report a hierarchical nature of the same. Using matrix algebra, we unify intrinsic chromosomal parameters (e.g., chromosomal length, gene density, the number of genes per chromosome), to derive an extrinsic effective gene density matrix, the hierarchy of which is dominated largely by extrinsic mathematical coupling of HSA19, followed by HSA17 (human chromosome 19 and 17, both preferentially interior CTs) with all CTs. We corroborate predicted constellations and effective gene density hierarchy with published reports from fluorescent in situ hybridization based microscopy and Hi-C techniques, and delineate analogous hierarchy in disparate vertebrates. Our theory accurately predicts CTs localised to the nuclear interior, which interestingly share conserved synteny with HSA19 and/or HSA17. Finally, the effective gene density hierarchy dictates how permutations among CT position represents the plasticity within its constellations, based on which we suggest that a differential mix of coding with noncoding genome modulates the same. PMID:27845379

  16. Azacytidine and decitabine induce gene-specific and non-random DNA demethylation in human cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hagemann

    Full Text Available The DNA methyltransferase inhibitors azacytidine and decitabine represent archetypal drugs for epigenetic cancer therapy. To characterize the demethylating activity of azacytidine and decitabine we treated colon cancer and leukemic cells with both drugs and used array-based DNA methylation analysis of more than 14,000 gene promoters. Additionally, drug-induced demethylation was compared to methylation patterns of isogenic colon cancer cells lacking both DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 and DNMT3B. We show that drug-induced demethylation patterns are highly specific, non-random and reproducible, indicating targeted remethylation of specific loci after replication. Correspondingly, we found that CG dinucleotides within CG islands became preferentially remethylated, indicating a role for DNA sequence context. We also identified a subset of genes that were never demethylated by drug treatment, either in colon cancer or in leukemic cell lines. These demethylation-resistant genes were enriched for Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 components in embryonic stem cells and for transcription factor binding motifs not present in demethylated genes. Our results provide detailed insights into the DNA methylation patterns induced by azacytidine and decitabine and suggest the involvement of complex regulatory mechanisms in drug-induced DNA demethylation.

  17. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies.

  18. Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for land uplift studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, M.; Poutanen, M.; Kairus, A.; Virtanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the data sets. Globally, there is the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), and there are ongoing attempts to create also regional observing systems. In this paper we introduce one regional system, the Nordic Geodetic Observing System (NGOS) hosted by the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG). Data availability and accessibility are one of the major issues today. We discuss in general data-related topics, and introduce a pilot database project of NGOS. As a demonstration of the use of such a database, we apply it for postglacial rebound studies in the Fennoscandian area. We compare land uplift values from three techniques, GNSS, tide gauges and absolute gravity, with the Nordic Geodetic Commission NKG2005LU land uplift model for Fennoscandia. The purpose is to evaluate the data obtained from different techniques and different sources and get the most reliable values for the uplift using publicly available data. The primary aim of observing systems will be to produce data and other products needed by multidisciplinary projects, such as Upper Mantle Dynamics and Quaternary Climate in Cratonic Areas (DynaQlim) or the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), but their needs may currently exceed the scope of an existing observing system. We discuss what requirements the projects pose to observing systems and their development. To make comparisons between different studies possible and reliable, the researcher should document what they have in detail, either in appendixes, supplementary material or some other available format.

  19. Passive output feedback and observer based autopilots: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Paulsen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for course-keeping of a ship are studied where no measurements of the yaw rate are available. The two methods are a passive output feedback controller and a controller-observer structure. A comparison with special attention to stability and wave filtering properties, is provided. Finally, a case study of a ship autopilot is included.

  20. Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2013-01-01

    unrealistic laboratory studies, textbook writers continuing to ignore practitioners' research appearing in trade publications and practitioner-oriented journals, and practitioners peeling off into high-sounding but meaningless jargon. also evident is the tendency to regard the new electronic media...... as a classification of the new advertising formats in terms of traditional analogs with mainstream media advertising....

  1. A prospective, non-randomized phase II trial of Trastuzumab and Capecitabine in patients with HER2 expressing metastasized pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endlicher Esther

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Advantages in surgical techniques, radiation and chemotherapy had almost no impact on the long term survival of affected patients. Therefore, the need for better treatment strategies is urgent. HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the EGFR family, involved in signal transduction pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation is overexpressed in a number of cancers, including breast and pancreatic cancer. While in breast cancer HER2 has already been successfully used as a treatment target, there are only limited data evaluating the effects of inhibiting HER2 tyrosine kinases in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods Here we report the design of a prospective, non-randomized multi-centered Phase II clinical study evaluating the effects of the Fluoropyrimidine-carbamate Capecitabine (Xeloda ® and the monoclonal anti-HER2 antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin® in patients with non-resectable, HER2 overexpressing pancreatic cancer. Patients eligible for the study will receive Trastuzumab infusions on day 1, 8 and 15 concomitant to the oral intake of Capecitabine from day 1 to day 14 of each three week cylce. Cycles will be repeated until tumor progression. A total of 37 patients will be enrolled with an interim analysis after 23 patients. Discussion Primary end point of the study is to determine the progression free survival after 12 weeks of bimodal treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent Capecitabine and the anti-HER2 antibody Trastuzumab. Secondary end points include patient's survival, toxicity analysis, quality of life, the correlation of HER2 overexpression and clinical response to Trastuzumab treatment and, finally, the correlation of CA19-9 plasma levels and progression free intervals.

  2. Telomere disruption results in non-random formation of de novo dicentric chromosomes involving acrocentric human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Kaitlin M; Song, Ihn Young; Jauch, Anna; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Hayden, Karen E; Bridger, Joanna M; Sullivan, Beth A

    2010-08-12

    Genome rearrangement often produces chromosomes with two centromeres (dicentrics) that are inherently unstable because of bridge formation and breakage during cell division. However, mammalian dicentrics, and particularly those in humans, can be quite stable, usually because one centromere is functionally silenced. Molecular mechanisms of centromere inactivation are poorly understood since there are few systems to experimentally create dicentric human chromosomes. Here, we describe a human cell culture model that enriches for de novo dicentrics. We demonstrate that transient disruption of human telomere structure non-randomly produces dicentric fusions involving acrocentric chromosomes. The induced dicentrics vary in structure near fusion breakpoints and like naturally-occurring dicentrics, exhibit various inter-centromeric distances. Many functional dicentrics persist for months after formation. Even those with distantly spaced centromeres remain functionally dicentric for 20 cell generations. Other dicentrics within the population reflect centromere inactivation. In some cases, centromere inactivation occurs by an apparently epigenetic mechanism. In other dicentrics, the size of the alpha-satellite DNA array associated with CENP-A is reduced compared to the same array before dicentric formation. Extra-chromosomal fragments that contained CENP-A often appear in the same cells as dicentrics. Some of these fragments are derived from the same alpha-satellite DNA array as inactivated centromeres. Our results indicate that dicentric human chromosomes undergo alternative fates after formation. Many retain two active centromeres and are stable through multiple cell divisions. Others undergo centromere inactivation. This event occurs within a broad temporal window and can involve deletion of chromatin that marks the locus as a site for CENP-A maintenance/replenishment.

  3. Telomere disruption results in non-random formation of de novo dicentric chromosomes involving acrocentric human chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Stimpson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangement often produces chromosomes with two centromeres (dicentrics that are inherently unstable because of bridge formation and breakage during cell division. However, mammalian dicentrics, and particularly those in humans, can be quite stable, usually because one centromere is functionally silenced. Molecular mechanisms of centromere inactivation are poorly understood since there are few systems to experimentally create dicentric human chromosomes. Here, we describe a human cell culture model that enriches for de novo dicentrics. We demonstrate that transient disruption of human telomere structure non-randomly produces dicentric fusions involving acrocentric chromosomes. The induced dicentrics vary in structure near fusion breakpoints and like naturally-occurring dicentrics, exhibit various inter-centromeric distances. Many functional dicentrics persist for months after formation. Even those with distantly spaced centromeres remain functionally dicentric for 20 cell generations. Other dicentrics within the population reflect centromere inactivation. In some cases, centromere inactivation occurs by an apparently epigenetic mechanism. In other dicentrics, the size of the alpha-satellite DNA array associated with CENP-A is reduced compared to the same array before dicentric formation. Extra-chromosomal fragments that contained CENP-A often appear in the same cells as dicentrics. Some of these fragments are derived from the same alpha-satellite DNA array as inactivated centromeres. Our results indicate that dicentric human chromosomes undergo alternative fates after formation. Many retain two active centromeres and are stable through multiple cell divisions. Others undergo centromere inactivation. This event occurs within a broad temporal window and can involve deletion of chromatin that marks the locus as a site for CENP-A maintenance/replenishment.

  4. Deep sequencing of the murine Igh repertoire reveals complex regulation of non-random V gene rearrangement frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nancy M.; Loguercio, Salvatore; Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Degner, Stephanie C.; Torkamani, Ali; Su, Andrew I.; Oltz, Eugene M.; Artyomov, Maxim; Feeney, Ann J.

    2013-01-01

    A diverse antibody repertoire is formed through the rearrangement of V, D, and J segments at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) loci. The C57BL/6 murine Igh locus has over 100 functional VH gene segments that can recombine to a rearranged DJH. While the non-random usage of VH genes is well documented, it is not clear what elements determine recombination frequency. To answer this question we conducted deep sequencing of 5′-RACE products of the Igh repertoire in pro-B cells, amplified in an unbiased manner. ChIP-seq results for several histone modifications and RNA polymerase II binding, RNA-seq for sense and antisense non-coding germline transcripts, and proximity to CTCF and Rad21 sites were compared to the usage of individual V genes. Computational analyses assessed the relative importance of these various accessibility elements. These elements divide the Igh locus into four epigenetically and transcriptionally distinct domains, and our computational analyses reveal different regulatory mechanisms for each region. Proximal V genes are relatively devoid of active histone marks and non-coding RNA in general, but having a CTCF site near their RSS is critical, suggesting that being positioned near the base of the chromatin loops is important for rearrangement. In contrast, distal V genes have higher levels of histone marks and non-coding RNA, which may compensate for their poorer RSSs and for being distant from CTCF sites. Thus, the Igh locus has evolved a complex system for the regulation of V(D)J rearrangement that is different for each of the four domains that comprise this locus. PMID:23898036

  5. An observational study of sexual behavior in demented male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, A M; Davies, H D; Tinklenberg, J R

    1996-11-01

    Concerns have been expressed that patients with dementia will display disinhibited, inappropriate sexual behavior. Retrospective research suggests that this is rare, but no observational research has been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an observational study. Subjects were 40 patients with a dementia diagnosis who were living in institutional settings; subjects ranged in age from 60 to 98. Coders observed subjects on nine separate occasions, three in the morning, three in the afternoon, and three in the evening. Subjects were observed in multiple situations; coding included appropriate, ambiguous, and inappropriate sexual behaviors. Reliability coding was obtained for 42% of the patients on 11% of coded episodes. Behaviors could be coded with high reliability (94% to 100% across categories of behavior). On average, patients displayed 43 appropriate sexual behaviors, 1.48 ambiguous behaviors, and .83 inappropriate behaviors across the nine observation periods. This was not evenly distributed across patients, however; only 18% of patients ever displayed a sexually inappropriate behavior, and these were usually brief and minor. Inappropriate sexual behavior was observed in only 1.6% of the observed one-minute time segments. Observational research documents what had been previously suggested by retrospective reports: inappropriate sexual behavior is uncommon in dementia patients and brief and minor even when it occurs. Ambiguous behaviors, such as appearing in public incompletely dressed, which could suggest exhibitionism but more likely reflects self-care deficits, were more common. Misinterpretation of these events may be the source for some of the persistent lore regarding sexually disinhibited behavior in dementia patients.

  6. Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2013-01-01

    as requiring a new model of how advertising communicates and persuades, which, as the authors' textbooks explain, is sheer nonsense and contrary to the goal of integrated marketing. We provide in this article a translation of practitioners' jargon into more scientifically acceptable terminology as well...... product or service or to achieve a higher price that consumers are willing to pay than would obtain in the absence of advertising. What has changed in recent years is the notable worsening of the academic-practitioner divide, which has seen academic advertising researchers pursuing increasingly...... unrealistic laboratory studies, textbook writers continuing to ignore practitioners' research appearing in trade publications and practitioner-oriented journals, and practitioners peeling off into high-sounding but meaningless jargon. also evident is the tendency to regard the new electronic media...

  7. Observer rated sleepiness and real road driving: an explorative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Anund

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1 one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2 one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS, EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS and behavioural signs (B-ORS are high (r = .588, and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360 with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45 with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  8. Efficacy of Health Education using Facebook to Promote Healthy Lifestyle among Medical Students in Puducherry, India: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Smrithi; Stalin, P; Singh, Zile; Sridhar, Maghida

    2017-07-01

    Increasing burden of overweight and obesity among young adults is mainly due to unhealthy lifestyle especially with respect to diet and physical activity. At the same time, younger generations are spending more time with social network sites. Therefore, this study was intended to explore the role of social networking sites in promoting healthy lifestyle. To measure the efficacy of health education using social networking sites in promoting healthy lifestyle among medical students in Puducherry, India. A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in a private medical college located in Puducherry. The study participants were overweight/obese individuals with (intervention arm) and without Facebook account (control arm). Following a baseline survey, both the groups received health education from dietician and physical trainer using Audiovisual (AV) aids. Intervention group received health education through Facebook in the forms of messages, pictures and videos for six weeks. Then, follow up survey was done to assess the change in dietary pattern, physical activity and body weight. Data of those who attended baseline, intervention and follow up surveys (23- control and 22- intervention) were analysed. Means and proportions were calculated. Paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to calculate the p-value. The p-valuejunk food intake per week was reduced in both control and intervention groups from 2.91 days/week and 3.27 days/week at baseline to 2.65 days/week to two days/week at follow up respectively. A significant decrease in the Body Mass Index (BMI) (pactivity and intake of fruits and vegetables. Except for the decrease in junk food intake, use of Facebook as an effective tool to promote healthy lifestyle could not be proved with confidence.

  9. Brachytherapy versus radical hysterectomy after external beam chemoradiation: a non-randomized matched comparison in IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A current paradigm in the treatment of cervical cancer with radiation therapy is that intracavitary brachytherapy is an essential component of radical treatment. This is a matched retrospective comparison of the results of treatment in patients treated with external beam chemoradiation (EBRT-CT and radical hysterectomy versus those treated with identical chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. Methods In this non-randomized comparison EBRT-CT protocol was the same in both groups of 40 patients. In the standard treated patients, EBRT-CT was followed by one or two intracavitary Cesium (low-dose rate applications within 2 weeks of finishing external radiation to reach a point A dose of at least 85 Gy. In the surgically treated patients, radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymph node sampling were performed within 7 weeks after EBRT-CT. Response, toxicity and survival were evaluated. Results A total of 80 patients were analyzed. The patients receiving EBRT-CT and surgery were matched with the standard treated cases. There were no differences in the clinicopathological characteristics between groups or in the delivery of EBRT-CT. The pattern of acute and late toxicity differed. Standard treated patients had more chronic proctitis while the surgically treated had acute complications of surgery and hydronephrosis. At a maximum follow-up of 60 months, median follow-up 26 (2–31 and 22 (3–27 months for the surgery and standard therapy respectively, eight patients per group have recurred and died. The progression free and overall survival are the same in both groups. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that radical hysterectomy can be used after EBRT-CT without compromising survival in FIGO stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients in settings were brachytherapy is not available. A randomized study is needed to uncover the value of surgery after EBRT-CT.

  10. Study of white-light flares observed by Hinode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Min Wang

    2009-01-01

    White-light flares are considered to be the most energetic flaring events that are observable in the optical broad-band continuum of the solar spectrum. They have not been commonly observed. Observations of white-light flares with sub-arcsecond resolution have been very rare. The continuous high resolution observations of Hinode provide a unique opportunity to systematically study the white-light flares with a spatial resolution around 0.2 arcsec. We surveyed all the flares above GOES magnitude C5.0 since the launch of Hinode in 2006 October. 13 of these kinds of flares were covered by the Hinode G-band observations. We analyzed the peak contrasts and equivalent areas (calculated via integrated excess emission contrast) of these flares as a function of the GOES X-ray flux, and found that the cut-off visibility is likely around M1 flares under the observing limit of Hinode. Many other observational and physical factors should affect the visibility of white-light flares; as the observing conditions are improved, smaller flares are likely to have detectable white-light emissions. We are cautious that this limiting visibility is an overestimate, because G-band observations contain emissions from the upper atmosphere.Among the 13 events analyzed, only the M8.7 flare of 2007 June 4 had near-simultaneous observations in both the G-band and the blue continuum. The blue continuum had a peak contrast of 94% vs. 175% in G-band for this event. The equivalent area in the blue continuum is an order of magnitude lower than that in the G-band. Very recently, Jess et al.studied a C2.0 flare with a peak contrast of 300% in the blue continuum. Compared to the events presented in this letter, that event is probably an unusual white-light flare: a very small kernel with a large contrast that can be detected in high resolution observations.

  11. SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, E. G.; Lester, M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood

  12. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  13. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...

  14. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  15. An Observational Study of Entrainment Rate in Deep Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohao Guo; Chunsong Lu; Tianliang Zhao; Guang J. Zhang; Yangang Liu

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects...

  16. Observational studies of transiting extrasolar planets (invited review)

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, John

    2014-01-01

    The study of transiting extrasolar planets is only 15 years old, but has matured into a rich area of research. I review the observational aspects of this work, concentrating on the discovery of transits, the characterisation of planets from photometry and spectroscopy, the Homogeneous Studies project, starspots, orbital obliquities, and the atmospheric properties of the known planets. I begin with historical context and conclude with a glance to a future of TESS, CHEOPS, Gaia and PLATO.

  17. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT has been promoted as a means to reduce malaria transmission due to their ability to kill both asexual blood stages of malaria parasites, which sustain infections over long periods and the immature derived sexual stages responsible for infecting mosquitoes and onward transmission. Early studies reported a temporal association between ACT introduction and reduced malaria transmission in a number of ecological settings. However, these reports have come from areas with low to moderate malaria transmission, been confounded by the presence of other interventions or environmental changes that may have reduced malaria transmission, and have not included a comparison group without ACT. This report presents results from the first large-scale observational study to assess the impact of case management with ACT on population-level measures of malaria endemicity in an area with intense transmission where the benefits of effective infection clearance might be compromised by frequent and repeated re-infection. Methods A pre-post observational study with a non-randomized comparison group was conducted at two sites in Tanzania. Both sites used sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapy as a first-line anti-malarial from mid-2001 through 2002. In 2003, the ACT, artesunate (AS co-administered with SP (AS + SP, was introduced in all fixed health facilities in the intervention site, including both public and registered non-governmental facilities. Population-level prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitaemia and gametocytaemia were assessed using light microscopy from samples collected during representative household surveys in 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Findings Among 37,309 observations included in the analysis, annual asexual parasitaemia prevalence in persons of all ages ranged from 11% to 28% and gametocytaemia prevalence ranged from Interpretation The introduction of ACT at

  18. Effective Group Training for Patients with Unexplained Physical Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a Non-Randomized One-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Lyonne N. L.; van Rood, Yanda R.; Timman, Reinier; Kooiman, Cornelis G.; van't Spijker, Adriaan; Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailored to primary care patients and provided by a secondary community mental-health service reaching out into primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of this training was explored in a randomized controlled trial. In this trial, 162 patients with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or as chronic pain disorder were randomized either to the training or a waiting list. Both lasted 13 weeks. The preservation of the training's effect was analyzed in non-randomized follow-ups, for which the waiting group started the training after the waiting period. All patients attended the training were followed-up after three months and again after one year. The primary outcomes were the physical and the mental summary scales of the SF-36. Secondary outcomes were the other SF-36-scales and the SCL-90-R. The courses of the training's effects in the randomized controlled trial and the follow-ups were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. In the randomized controlled trial, the training had a significantly positive effect on the quality of life in the physical domain (Cohen's d = 0.38;p = .002), but this overall effect was not found in the mental domain. Regarding the secondary outcomes, the training resulted in reporting an improved physical (Cohen's d = 0.43;p = 0.01), emotional (Cohen's d = 0.44;p = .0.01), and social (Cohen's d = 0.36;p = 0.01) functioning, less pain and better functioning despite pain (Cohen's d = 0.51;p =  PMID:22880056

  19. Effective group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a randomized controlled trial with a non-randomized one-year follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyonne N L Zonneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailored to primary care patients and provided by a secondary community mental-health service reaching out into primary care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effectiveness of this training was explored in a randomized controlled trial. In this trial, 162 patients with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or as chronic pain disorder were randomized either to the training or a waiting list. Both lasted 13 weeks. The preservation of the training's effect was analyzed in non-randomized follow-ups, for which the waiting group started the training after the waiting period. All patients attended the training were followed-up after three months and again after one year. The primary outcomes were the physical and the mental summary scales of the SF-36. Secondary outcomes were the other SF-36-scales and the SCL-90-R. The courses of the training's effects in the randomized controlled trial and the follow-ups were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. In the randomized controlled trial, the training had a significantly positive effect on the quality of life in the physical domain (Cohen's d = 0.38;p = .002, but this overall effect was not found in the mental domain. Regarding the secondary outcomes, the training resulted in reporting an improved physical (Cohen's d = 0.43;p = 0.01, emotional (Cohen's d = 0.44;p = 0.01, and social (Cohen's d = 0.36;p = 0.01 functioning, less pain and better functioning despite pain (Cohen's d = 0.51;p =

  20. Effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem on community-living individuals with mental illness: Non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine over a 12-month post-intervention period whether the participation of community-living individuals with mental illness in cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem (CBGTRS) resulted in improved outcomes. This was a non-randomized controlled trial. The participants were persons with mental illness who resided in communities in the Chugoku region of Japan. In total, 41 were assigned to an experimental group (CBGTRS intervention, 12 group sessions), and 21 to a control group. Outcome indices (self-esteem, moods, cognition, subjective well-being, psychiatric symptoms) were measured for the experimental group prior to intervention (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and at 3 (T2) and 12 (T3) months post-intervention. The control group was measured at the same intervals. For the experimental group, self-esteem scores at T1, T2, and T3 were significantly higher than at T0. Moods and cognition scores remained significantly low until T2. Scores for Inadequate Mental Mastery in the subjective well-being index had not decreased by T3. Confidence in Coping remained significantly high until T2. Psychiatric symptoms scores at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than at T0. The means and standard errors for self-esteem and Inadequate Mental Mastery increased until T3, and those for Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Confusion decreased until T2. From within-group trends and between-group differences in self-esteem, we conclude that CBGTRS may have a relatively long-term effect on self-esteem recovery. T2 is the turning point for moods and cognition; thus, follow-up is needed 3 months following the initial program. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Non-random temporary emigration and the robust design: Conditions for bias at the end of a time series: Section VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.

  2. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  3. Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrés-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a

  4. CHATURBEEJA IN PRIMARY DYSMENORRHOEA (KASHTARTAVA: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiman Kamini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In folk medicines, Chaturbeeja(combination of seeds of four plants i.e Trigonella Foenum-graecum, Lepidium sativum , Nigella sativa, Trachyspermum ammi in equal quantity has been traditionally used for variety of applications including treatment of Dysmenorrhoea, the most common gynaecological symptom reported by women. To promote the proper use of such medicines and to determine their potential as sources for new drugs, it is essential to study medicinal plants, which have folklore reputation in a more intensified way. A Single blind, prospective observational clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chaturbeeja powder in Primary Dysmenorrhoea (Kashtartava. 25 patients were administered Chaturbeeja powder in a single dose of 3g with hot water at night, 7 days before starting of menstruation till 3rd day of the menstruation cycle. After assessing the results it was observed that12 patients were markedly improved, 8 moderately improved and 5 were improved.

  5. Study of the upper atmosphere observation by artificial ion beam

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Sachiko; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; TOKI, Kyoichiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro; 杉本 幸子; 國中 均; 都木 恭一郎; 荒川 義博

    2005-01-01

    The observing method that uses ENA (Energetic Neutral Atoms), produced by ion beam injected from an ion thruster, is studied and researched in order to estimate the density of neutral particles in the upper atmosphere. The ion beam experiences charge exchange collision (CEX) with neighboring neutral particles to transform into ENAs. The ENA preserves the information about the particles concerned with those collisions. A new method of estimating the density and the composition of the neutral p...

  6. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  7. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  8. Observational study of maternal anthropometry and fetal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani-K, H; Bruce, C; Fraser, R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between maternal body fat and fetal metabolism.
METHODS—In this observational study, cord blood samples were collected from 60 infants of healthy women for the measurement of insulin and C peptide concentrations. Maternal weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and body composition (skinfold thickness measurements and bioelectrical impedance) were assessed at 13-15 weeks of gestation. Twenty five of the volunteers agreed to have a 75 g oral gluc...

  9. The value of including observational studies in systematic reviews was unclear: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seida, Jennifer; Dryden, Donna M; Hartling, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate (1) how often observational studies are included in comparative effectiveness reviews (CERs); (2) the rationale for including observational studies; (3) how data from observational studies are appraised, analyzed, and graded; and (4) the impact of observational studies on strength of evidence (SOE) and conclusions. Descriptive study of 23 CERs published through the Effective Health Care Program of the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Authors searched for observational studies in 20 CERs, of which 18 included a median of 11 (interquartile range, 2-31) studies. Sixteen CERs incorporated the observational studies in their SOE assessments. Seventy-eight comparisons from 12 CERs included evidence from both trials and observational studies; observational studies had an impact on SOE and conclusions for 19 (24%) comparisons. There was diversity across the CERs regarding decisions to include observational studies; study designs considered; and approaches used to appraise, synthesize, and grade SOE. Reporting and methods guidance are needed to ensure clarity and consistency in how observational studies are incorporated in CERs. It was not always clear that observational studies added value in light of the additional resources needed to search for, select, appraise, and analyze such studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical and economic outcomes in an observational study of COPD maintenance therapies: multivariable regression versus propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts MH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Melissa H Roberts1, Anand A Dalal21Lovelace Clinic Foundation, (Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute at the time of the study, Albuquerque, NM, 2US Health Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USAPurpose: To investigate equivalency of results from multivariable regression (MR and propensity score matching (PSM models, observational research methods used to mitigate bias stemming from non-randomization (and consequently unbalanced groups at baseline, using, as an example, a large study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD initial maintenance therapy.Methods: Patients were 32,338 health plan members, age ≥40 years, with COPD initially treated with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination (FSC, tiotropium (TIO, or ipratropium (IPR alone or in combination with albuterol. Using MR and PSM methods, the proportion of patients with COPD-related health care utilization, mean costs, odds ratios (ORs, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs for utilization events were calculated for the 12 months following therapy initiation.Results: Of 12,595 FSC, 9126 TIO, and 10,617 IPR patients meeting MR inclusion criteria, 89.1% (8135 of TIO and 80.2% (8514 of IPR patients were matched to FSC patients for the PSM analysis. Methods produced substantially similar findings for mean cost comparisons, ORs, and IRRs for most utilization events. In contrast to MR, for TIO compared to FSC, PSM did not produce statistically significant ORs for hospitalization or outpatient visit with antibiotic or significant IRRs for hospitalization or outpatient visit with oral corticosteroid. As in the MR analysis, compared to FSC, ORs and IRRs for all other utilization events, as well as mean costs, were less favorable for IPR and TIO.Conclusion: In this example of an observational study of maintenance therapy for COPD, more than 80% of the original treatment groups used in the MR analysis were matched to comparison treatment groups for the PSM analysis. While some sample

  11. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills...... and approach, hence linking the design education and the design culture of the surrounding world. To improve the professional learning it is useful, though, to facilitate and organize the trips in a way that involves systematic data collection and reporting. This paper presents a method for facilitating study...... trips for engineering students in architecture & design and the results from crowd-collecting a large amount of trend observations as well as the derived experience from using the method on a large scale study trip. The method has been developed and formalized in relation to study trips with large...

  13. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Lisa A. [School of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.booth@ucsm.ac.uk; Manning, David J. [School of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence.

  15. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  16. Evaluation of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitani T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshiko Kaitani,1 Gojiro Nakagami,2 Junko Sugama,3 Masahiro Tachi,4 Yutaka Matsuyama,5 Yoshiki Miyachi,6 Takashi Nagase,2 Yukie Takemura,7 Hiromi Sanada2 1School of Nursing, Sapporo City University, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 7Department of Nursing, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Aims and objectives: We investigated the effectiveness and safety of an advanced pressure ulcer (PU management protocol comprising 1 ultrasonography to assess the deep tissue, 2 use of a non-contact thermometer to detect critical colonization, 3 conservative sharp debridement, 4 dressing selection, 5 negative pressure wound therapy, and 6 vibration therapy in comparison with those of a conventional approach. Each protocol was followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs. Background: At present, there is no systematic PU management protocol for nurses that includes appropriate assessment and intervention techniques for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. In Japan, there is no such protocol that the nurses can follow without a physician’s orders. Design and methods: This was a prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Over a 3-week period, we evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced protocol by comparing the PU severity and healing on the basis of the DESIGN-R scale and presence of patients' discomfort. We recruited ten WOCNs to follow

  17. Observational studies of regions of massive star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Heather Danielle Blythe

    2013-03-01

    Massive stars have a profound influence on their surroundings. However, relatively little is known about their formation. The study of massive star formation is hindered by a lack of observational evidence, primarily due to difficulties observing massive stars at early stages in their development. The Red MSX Source survey (RMS survey) is a valuable tool with which to address these issues. Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra were taken for 247 candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), selected from the RMS survey. 195 (∼80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (LBOL>5E3L⊙, M>8 M⊙). This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date. This study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties, with HI, H2 Fe II, and CO among the most commonly observed lines. Evidence for disks and outflows was frequently seen. Comparisons of Brγ and H2 emission with low mass YSOs suggest that the emission mechanism for these lines is the same for low-, intermediate-, and high-mass YSOs, i.e. high-mass YSOs appear to resemble scaled-up versions of low-mass YSOs. It was found that the YSOs form an evolutionary sequence, based on their spectra, consistent with the existing theoretical models. Type I YSOs have strong H2 emission, no ionized lines, and are redder than the other two subtypes. As such, these are considered to be the youngest sources. The Type III sources are bluest, and therefore considered to be the oldest subtype. They have strong H I lines and fluorescent Fe II 1.6878 μm emission. They may also have weak H2 emission. Type III sources may even be beginning to form a mini-H II region. XSHOOTER data from 10 Herbig Be stars were analysed. The evidence suggests that winds and disks are common among Herbig stars, as they are among their main sequence classical Be star counterparts. Line

  18. [The reporting of observational studies: analysis using the STROBE statement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera Llorca, Jordi; Lahoz Grillo, Raquel; Roig Loscertales, Francesc

    2011-12-01

    Deficiencies detected in biomedical studies publication different Guidelines to improve. The objective of the study is to assess the communication of observational studies of Cardiovascular and Metabolism therapeutic area (CVM) published in 6 Spanish journals in 2009 using the STROBE statement. Cross-sectional analysis of articles related to CVM therapeutic area, published during 2009 in 6 Spanish journals applying the 34 items of the STROBE statement. Descriptive analysis of the results for qualitative variables was performed using a frequency analysis. Quantitative variables were analyzed by sample estimates and dispersion. A comparative analysis of journals was performed using ANOVA with a statistical significance of pGaceta Sanitaria and a minimum of 19 (DE±2.8) in Hipertensión. Evaluated papers comply with slightly more than a half items (58%) of the STROBE recommendations. The Methods and Results sections showed more deficiencies.

  19. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Alfaya Góngora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants.Methods:A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed.Results:The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources.Conclusion:Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  1. An observational study of emergency department intern activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia Ni; Weiland, Tracey J; Taylor, David M; Dent, Andrew W

    2008-05-05

    To describe how intern time is spent, and the frequency of activities performed by interns during emergency department (ED) rotations. Prospective observational study of 42 ED interns from three Melbourne city teaching hospitals during 5 months in 2006. Direct observations were made by a single researcher for 390.8 hours, sampling all days of the week and all hours of the day. Proportion of time spent on tasks and number of procedures performed or observed by interns. Direct patient-related tasks accounted for 86.6% of total intern time, including 43.9% spent on liaising and documentation, 17.5% obtaining patient histories, 9.3% on physical examinations, 5.6% on procedures, 4.8% ordering or interpreting investigations, 3.0% on handover and 4.9% on other clinical activities. Intern time spent on non-clinical activities included 4.2% on breaks, 3.7% on downtime, 1.7% on education, and 1.3% on teaching others. Adjusted for an 8-week term, the ED intern would take 253 patient histories, consult more senior ED staff on 683 occasions, perform 237 intravenous cannulations/phlebotomies, 39 arterial punctures, 12 wound repairs and apply 16 plasters. They would perform chest compressions under supervision on seven occasions, observe defibrillation twice and intubation once, but may not see a thoracostomy. The ED exposes interns to a broad range of activities. With the anticipated increase in intern numbers, dilution of the emergency medicine experience may occur, and requirements for supervision may increase. Substitution of ED rotations may deprive interns of a valuable learning experience.

  2. Propensity Scoring after Multiple Imputation in a Retrospective Study on Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Lymph-Node Positive Vulvar Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eulenburg, Christine; Suling, Anna; Neuser, Petra; Reuss, Alexander; Canzler, Ulrich; Fehm, Tanja; Luyten, Alexander; Hellriegel, Martin; Woelber, Linn; Mahner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Propensity scoring (PS) is an established tool to account for measured confounding in non-randomized studies. These methods are sensitive to missing values, which are a common problem in observational data. The combination of multiple imputation of missing values and different propensity scoring

  3. An observational study of hand hygiene compliance in paediatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Jacqueline; Firth, Joseph; Vaughan, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    To measure healthcare workers', children's and visitors' hand hygiene compliance in a paediatric oncology ward and a paediatric respiratory ward in an English hospital. Children are especially vulnerable to healthcare-associated infections, yet few studies have reported on hand hygiene compliance in paediatric clinical areas. This was an observational study. We measured hand hygiene compliance over an eight-hour period in two hospital wards using the 'five moments of hand hygiene' observation tool. We monitored a total of 407 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall opportunities for compliance were 74% for healthcare workers (n = 315) and children and visitors 23% (n = 92). Compliance was 84% for allied health professionals, 81% for doctors, 75% for nurses and 73% for ancillary and other staff. Hand hygiene compliance varied depending on which of the five moments of hygiene healthcare workers were undertaking (p hygiene compliance, and for visitors to the oncology ward, hand hygiene compliance was higher (p hygiene compliance; however, visitors' compliance was low. Among healthcare workers, levels of compliance were higher compared with previous reported estimates. Visitors had the lowest level of compliance yet owing to the nature of the clinical environments, nearly a quarter of care is delivered by them rather than healthcare workers, and so, this offers opportunities for specific future interventions aimed at families and carers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. An Observational Study of Entrainment Rate in Deep Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohao Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal, gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. In addition, entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.

  5. Memantine (Ebixa) in clinical practice - results of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Essner, Ute; Forstl, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. The patients were treated with 20 mg/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD) scale. In addition, a global assessment was made by the physician. After 6 months of open-label treatment with memantine, the patients' cognitive function, ability to perform daily activities and global performance all showed a marked improvement. In the overall evaluation by the physician, improvement or stabilisation had been achieved by 78.8% of patients after 6 months of therapy. Memantine also demonstrated an excellent tolerability profile. The results of this naturalistic study support the significant efficacy and tolerability of memantine that has been previously demonstrated in randomised, controlled clinical Alzheimer's disease trials. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Complete control, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Valery

    2013-01-01

    Extremely fast rotating molecules carrying significantly more energy in their rotation than in any other degree of freedom are known as "super rotors". It has been speculated that super rotors may exhibit a number of unique and intriguing properties. Theoretical studies showed that ultrafast molecular rotation may change the character of molecular scattering from solid surfaces, alter molecular trajectories in external fields, make super rotors surprisingly stable against collisions, and lead to the formation of gas vortices. New ways of molecular cooling and selective chemical bond breaking by ultrafast spinning have been proposed. Owing to the fundamental laws of nature, bringing a large number of molecules to fast, directional and synchronous rotation is rather challenging. As a result, only indirect evidence of super rotors has been reported to date. Here we demonstrate the first controlled creation, direct observation and study of molecular super rotors. Using intense laser pulses tailored to produce an ...

  7. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano Lc; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate.

  8. Empirical study of sensor observation services server instances

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayo, Alain; Granell, Carlos; Huerta, Joaquín; 10.1007/978-3-642-19789-5_10

    2011-01-01

    The number of Sensor Observation Service (SOS) instances available online has been increasing in the last few years. The SOS specification standardises interfaces and data formats for exchanging sensor-related in-formation between information providers and consumers. SOS in conjunction with other specifications in the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, at-tempts to realise the Sensor Web vision, a worldwide system where sensor networks of any kind are interconnected. In this paper we present an empirical study of actual instances of servers implementing SOS. The study focuses mostly in which parts of the specification are more frequently included in real implementations, and how exchanged messages follows the structure defined by XML Schema files. Our findings can be of practical use when implementing servers and clients based on the SOS specification, as they can be optimized for common scenarios.

  9. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  10. Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luurila Harri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15% patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32% had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35% had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

  11. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery. Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation. Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%, loss of pubic hair (52.38%, coarsening of body hair (47.62%, and alopecia areata (9.52%. The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%, followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis.

  12. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues.

  13. Critical Observation on Methodologies of Select Doctoral Research Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indrajit Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to critically observe and interpret the methodological deficiencies as found in randomly selected 14 doctoral theses submitted to two different universities in India. Despite their serious deviation from the expected methodological standards, all those theses were accepted and approved by the universities and scholars concerned conferred with PhD degrees. Undoubtedly, those theses kept in the reference sections at the respective university libraries would potentially misguide and mislead the future researchers. Some of the common technical deficiencies, as have been noticed, include (1 absence of careful thoughts in framing research titles, (ii biased method of data collection, (ii absence of logical explanation in favour of sample size and sample selection process, (iii designing and execution of instrument for data collection, (iv theory formulation in terms of framing of objectives, hypotheses and operational definitions etc. The article attempts to present the critical observations on case-to-case basis so that their conceptual, instrumental and procedural deficiencies and deviations are easily understood by the academicians, researchers and students. The content of this article is divided in to three broad sections. The first section deals with an introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods and their advantages and limitations. The next section deals with the review of the selected theses followed by conclusion and suggested remedial measures. The objective of this article is purely academic and its scope is limited to enhancement of quality of future research studies in the domains and related fields.

  14. Nursing diagnoses in patients with chronic venous ulcer: observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glycia de Almeida Nogueira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze nursing diagnoses in people with chronic venous ulcer. An observational, descriptive, quantitative research conducted in an ambulatory specialized in wound treatment, with a non-probabilistic sample of 20 patients.  Data collection was performed in an institutional form denominated Assessment Protocol for Clients with Tissue Lesions. Diagnoses were established by consensus among four researchers with experience in nursing diagnoses and wound treatments. From data analysis, 16 diagnoses were identified, with 100% of participants presenting: Impaired tissue integrity, Ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion, Risk of infection, Impaired physical mobility and Ineffective health self-control. These diagnoses are found in Safety/Protection, Activity/Rest and Health promotion domains, which from the clinical practice stand point should be priority focuses in nursing intervention and assessment.

  15. Obesity in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, T; Hawton, K; Hamilton-Shield, J; Crawley, E

    2017-01-01

    Identify the prevalence of obesity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with healthy adolescents, and those identified with CFS in a population cohort. Cross-sectional analysis of multiple imputed data. Data from UK paediatric CFS/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) services compared with data collected at two time points in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1685 adolescents who attended a CFS/ME specialist service between 2004 and 2014 and 13 978 adolescents aged approximately 13 years and 16 years participating in the ALSPAC study. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)), sex-specific and age-specific BMI Z-scores (relative to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs) and prevalence of obesity (%). Adolescents who had attended specialist CFS/ME services had a higher prevalence of obesity (age 13 years: 9.28%; age 16 years: 16.43%) compared with both adolescents classified as CFS/ME in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 3.72%; age 16 years: 5.46%) and those non-CFS in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 4.18%; age 16 years: 4.46%). The increased odds of obesity in those who attended specialist services (relative to non-CFS in ALSPAC) was apparent at both 13 years (OR: 2.31 (1.54 to 3.48)) and 16 years, with a greater likelihood observed at 16 years (OR: 4.07 (2.04 to 8.11)). We observed an increased prevalence of obesity in adolescents who were affected severely enough to be referred to a specialist CFS/ME service. Further longitudinal research is required in order to identify the temporal relationship between the two conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  17. Evidence of clinical competence by simulation, a hermeneutical observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from theory to practise easier in nursing education through simulation is widely implemented all over the world, and there is research evidence of the positive effects of simulation. The pre-understanding for this study is based on a definition of clinical competence as encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and developing, and the hypothesis is that these categories should appear in simulated situations. The aim of the study was to explore the forms and expressions of clinical competence in simulated situations and furthermore to explore if and how clinical competence could be developed by simulation. An observational hermeneutic study with a hypothetic-deductive approach was used in 18 simulated situations with 39 bachelor degree nursing students. In the situations, the scenarios, the actors and the plots were described. The story told was "the way from suffering to health" in which three main plots emerged. The first was, doing as performing and knowing, which took the shape of knowing what to do, acting responsibly, using evidence and equipment, appearing confident and feeling comfortable, and sharing work and information with others. The second was, being as encountering the patient, which took the shape of being there for him/her and confirming by listening and answering. The third plot was becoming as maturing and developing which took the shape of learning in co-operation with other students. All the deductive categories, shapes and expressions appeared as dialectic patterns having their negative counterparts. The study showed that clinical competence can be made evident and developed by simulation and that the challenge is in encountering the patient and his/her suffering.

  18. Oral implications of the vegan diet: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffranchi, L; Zotti, F; Bonetti, S; Dalessandri, D; Fontana, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral changes in subjects who have assumed a vegan diet for a long time (at least 18 months), that is to say, a diet completely lacking in meat and animal derivatives. A sample of 15 subjects was analyzed, all from northern Italy and aged 24 to 60 year, composed of 11 men and 4 women who had been following a vegan diet for a minimum of 18 months to a maximum of 20 years. In parallel with the study sample, a control group (15 subjects) with the same criteria of age, sex, and place of origin all following an omnivorous diet was chosen. The sample answered a questionnaire that investigated their eating habits, the frequency with which they eat meals, the main foodstuffs assumed, oral hygiene habits, and any painful symptomatology of the teeth or more general problems in the oral cavity. The sample was then subject to objective examination in which the saliva pH was measured and the teeth were checked for demineralization of the enamel, white spots, and caries (using KaVo DIAGNOdent) with particular attention being paid to the localization of these lesions, and lastly, sounding was carried out to detect any osseous defects and periodontal pockets. The study revealed greater incidence of demineralization and white spots in the vegan subjects compared to the omnivorous ones localized at the neck of the teeth and on the vestibular surfaces of dental elements (with the exception of the lower anterior group). The saliva pH, more acid in the omnivorous patients, ranged between four and six. Changes in oral conditions in both groups of subjects were observed. In order to research into the cause-effect relationship of the vegan diet on the oral cavity effectively, the sample needs to be studied for a longer period of time and the results re-evaluated.

  19. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. Aim To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. Results In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (p<0.01). Xerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ xerostomia whereas the control group had ‘mild’ xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18–49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had

  20. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  1. Study of the NWC electrons belt observed on DEMETER Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinqiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the data from 2007 to 2008, which is observed by IDP onboard DEMETER satellite, during ten months of NWC working and seven months of NWC shutdown. The characteristic of the space instantaneous electron belts, which come from the influence of the VLF transmitted by NWC, is studied comprehensively. The main distribution region of the NWC electron belts and the flux change are given. We also studied the distribution characteristic of the average energy spectrum in different magnetic shell at the height of DEMETER orbit and the difference of the average energy spectrum of the electrons in the drift loss-cone between day and night. As a result, the powerful power of NWC transmitter and the 19.8 kHz narrow bandwidth VLF emission not only created a momentary electrons enhancement region, which strides 180 degree in them longitude direction and from 1.6 to 1.9 in L value, with the rise of the electrons flux reaching to 3 orders of magnitude mostly, but also induced the enhancement or loss of electrons in ...

  2. Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna; Lev, Lihi Bar; Yablecovitch, Doron; Yablekovitz, Doron; Half, Elisabeth; Konikoff, Fred M

    2011-08-01

    The marijuana plant cannabis is known to have therapeutic effects, including improvement of inflammatory processes. However, no report of patients using cannabis for Crohn's disease (CD) was ever published. To describe the effects of cannabis use in patients suffering from CD. In this retrospective observational study we examined disease activity, use of medication, need for surgery, and hospitalization before and after cannabis use in 30 patients (26 males) with CD. Disease activity was assessed by the Harvey Bradshaw index for Crohn's disease. Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly after treatment with cannabis. The average Harvey Bradshaw index improved from 14 +/- 6.7 to 7 +/- 4.7 (P < 0.001). The need for other medication was significantly reduced. Fifteen of the patients had 19 surgeries during an average period of 9 years before cannabis use, but only 2 required surgery during an average period of 3 years of cannabis use. This is the first report of cannabis use in Crohn's disease in humans. The results indicate that cannabis may have a positive effect on disease activity, as reflected by reduction in disease activity index and in the need for other drugs and surgery. Prospective placebo-controlled studies are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy and side effects of cannabis in CD.

  3. Recognising advancing nursing practice: evidence from two observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Barnett, J; Barriball, K L; Reynolds, H; Jowett, S; Ryrie, I

    2000-10-01

    Debates over title, grades and relationships across the profession has tended to dominate the literature in advancing nursing practice. Fewer research projects have attempted to study the activities of nurses who are designated as undertaking advancing nursing roles. One study evaluating Masters courses for Clinical Nursing Practice and a second addressing the impact of the 'Scope of Professional Practice' (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery & Health Visiting, 1992) document by this team of authors afforded these research opportunities. In this paper empirical data from 'reflective' observation with 19 nurses (including midwives and health visitors) are presented to illustrate the range and type of functions undertaken by a small group of practitioners developing their practice. A number of characteristic features emerged. Assessment of individual and group needs, positive motivation to constantly improve practice, inter-disciplinary and cross agency working for planned change and an ability to identify and prioritize service requirements were recognised in these nurses' roles. Certain personal attributes were seen to be essential for successful role development such as confidence, commitment and problem solving powers combined with a positive working environment and supportive managers.

  4. Observational Study of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Petra; McDermott, Michael P.; Darras, Basil T.; Finkel, Richard; Kang, Peter; Oskoui, Maryam; Constantinescu, Andrei; Sproule, Douglas Michael; Foley, A. Reghan; Yang, Michele; Tawil, Rabi; Chung, Wendy; Martens, Bill; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Dunaway, Sally; Flickinger, Jean M.; Quigley, Janet; Riley, Susan; Glanzman, Allan M.; Benton, Maryjane; Ryan, Patricia A.; Irvine, Carrie; Annis, Christine L.; Butler, Hailly; Caracciolo, Jayson; Montgomery, Megan; Marra, Jonathan; Koo, Benjamin; De Vivo, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize the short-term course of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in a genetically and clinically well-defined cohort of patients with SMA. Design A comprehensive multicenter, longitudinal, observational study. Setting The Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network for SMA, a consortium of clinical investigators at 3 clinical sites. Participants Sixty-five participants with SMA types 2 and 3, aged 20 months to 45 years, were prospectively evaluated. Intervention We collected demographic and medical history information and determined the SMN2 copy number. Main Outcome Measures Clinical outcomes included measures of motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure and expanded Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity), and muscle strength (myometry). Participants were evaluated every 2 months for the initial 6 months and every 3 months for the subsequent 6 months. We evaluated change over 12 months for all clinical outcomes and examined potential correlates of change over time including age, sex, SMA type, ambulatory status, SMN2 copy number, medication use, and baseline function. Results There were no significant changes over 12 months in motor function, pulmonary function, and muscle strength measures. There was evidence of motor function gain in ambulatory patients, especially in those children younger than 5 years. Scoliosis surgery during the observation period led to a subsequent decline in motor function. Conclusions Our results confirm previous clinical reports suggesting that SMA types 2 and 3 represent chronic phenotypes that have relatively stable clinical courses. We did not detect any measurable clinical disease progression in SMA types 2 and 3 over 12 months, suggesting that clinical trials will have to be designed to measure improvement rather than stabilization of disease progression. PMID:21320981

  5. [Pregnancy-Associated Breast Cancer: An analytical observational study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulies, Sonia; Cusidó, Maite; Tresserra, Francisco; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Ubeda, Belén; Ara, Carmen; Fábregas, Rafael

    2014-03-04

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and up to one year postpartum. A retrospective, analytical, observational study comparing 56 cases of breast cancer and pregnancy (PABC) diagnosed 1976-2008 with 73 patients with breast cancer not associated with pregnancy (non-PABC) was performed. Demographic data, prognostic factors, treatment and survival were reviewed and compared. The prevalence of PABC in our center is 8.3/10,000. The highest frequency (62%) appeared during the postpartum period. The stages are higher in PABC, being 31.3% advanced (EIII and EIV) in PABC versus 13.3% in non-PABC (P < .05). Regarding prognostic factors, 27.3% in PABC had a tumoral grade 3 versus 15.8% of non-PABC. Among women with PABC, 33.3% had negative estrogen receptors, 48.7% negative progesterone receptors and 34.5% positive Her2Neu compared with 22.2, 24.1 and 31%, respectively of non-PABC patients. Finally, positive lymph nodes were found in 52.8% of PABC, versus 33.8% non-PABC (P < .05). Overall and disease-free survival rate at 5 years for PABC was 63.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The poorer survival observed is possibly due to the presence of adverse prognostic features such as lymph node metastases, negative hormone receptors, tumoral grade iii, as well as a delay in diagnosis with a higher rate of advanced stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. A 3-year multicentre randomized controlled trial of etonogestrel- and levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants, with non-randomized matched copper-intrauterine device controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Meirik, Olav; Ali, Moazzam; Habib, Ndema; Landoulsi, Sihem

    2015-11-01

    Is there any difference in the clinical performance of the 3-year one-rod etonogestrel (ENG)- and the 5-year two-rod levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing contraceptive implants during 3 years of insertion, and between implant and intrauterine device (IUD) contraception, in particular complaints possibly related to hormonal contraceptives? The cumulative contraceptive effectiveness after 3 years and method continuation through 2.5 years were not significantly different between ENG and LNG implants, but both outcomes were significantly worse in the non-randomized age-matched group of IUD users than in the combined implant group. ENG- and LNG-releasing implants are safe and highly efficacious contraceptives with pregnancy rates reported to be 0.0-0.5 per 100 women-years (W-Y). No head-to-head comparative study of the two implants has been undertaken, and little information is available on comparisons of complaints of side effects of implant and copper IUD users. This was an open parallel group RCT with 1:1 allocation ratio of the ENG and the LNG implants with non-randomized control group of women choosing TCu380A IUD to address lack of reliable data on common side effects typically attributed to the use of progestogen-only contraceptives. After device(s) placement, follow-ups were at 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and semi-annually thereafter for 3 years or until pregnancy, removal or expulsion of the implant/IUD occurred. The study took place in family planning clinics in Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, Thailand, Turkey and Zimbabwe. Women seeking long-term contraception were enlisted after an eligibility check and informed consent, and 2982 women were enrolled: 1003, 1005 and 974 in the ENG-implant, LNG-implant and IUD groups, respectively; 995, 997 and 971, respectively, were included in the per protocol analysis reported here. ENG and LNG implants each had the same 3-year cumulative pregnancy rate of 0.4 per 100 W-Y [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.4]. A weight

  7. Dental injury after conventional direct laryngoscopy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, J; Neto, J; Luís, C; Moreno, C; Barbosa, J; Carvalho, J; Tavares, J

    2013-10-01

    This observational study assessed the frequency and risk factors of dental damage after classic direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in 536 adult patients. The patients' sex, age, height, weight, dental condition, dental mobility, Mallampati class, interincisor gap, thyromental distance, neck circumference, and head and neck extension were recorded. From anaesthesia records, the difficulty of intubation, the number of attempts, type of neuromuscular blocking agent used and duration of anaesthesia were recorded. After anaesthesia, examination revealed that 134 patients (25.0%) had dental damage affecting 162 teeth (147 maxillary; 15 mandibular). Enamel fracture was the commonest injury. In tooth number 21, the interincisor gap (OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.0-5.9)) and in tooth number 22, the number of intubation attempts (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.3-22.0)) were considered a risk factor for dental injury. Conventional direct laryngoscopy is associated with a strikingly high incidence of dental damage, although specific risk factors remain unclear. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Giant cell arteritis: a multicenter observational study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic features, disease manifestations and therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis from referral centers in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 45 giant cell arteritis patients from three university hospitals in Brazil. Diagnoses were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for giant cell arteritis or temporal artery biopsy findings. RESULTS: Most patients were Caucasian, and females were slightly more predominant. The frequencies of disease manifestations were as follows: temporal headache in 82.2%, neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations in 68.9%, jaw claudication in 48.9%, systemic symptoms in 44.4%, polymyalgia rheumatica in 35.6% and extra-cranial vessel involvement in 17.8% of cases. Aortic aneurysms were observed in 6.6% of patients. A comparison between patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis and those without temporal artery biopsies did not yield significant differences in disease manifestations. All patients were treated with oral prednisone, and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered to nearly half of the patients. Methotrexate was the most commonly used immunosuppressive agent, and low-dose aspirin was prescribed to the majority of patients. Relapses occurred in 28.9% of patients, and aspirin had a protective effect against relapses. Females had higher prevalences of polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic manifestations and jaw claudication, while permanent visual loss was more prevalent in men. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the clinical features of Brazilian giant cell arteritis patients were similar to those found in other studies, except for the high prevalence of neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and permanent blindness in the Brazilian patients. Aspirin had a protective effect on relapses.

  9. External Validation of the HERNIAscore: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Moses, Maya L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Hannon, Craig; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2017-09-01

    The HERNIAscore is a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) risk assessment tool that uses only preoperative variables and predictable intraoperative variables. The aim of this study was to validate and modify, if needed, the HERNIAscore in an external dataset. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing resection for gastrointestinal malignancy from 2011 through 2015 at a safety-net hospital. The primary end point was clinical postoperative VIH. Patients were stratified into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups based on HERNIAscore. A revised HERNIAscore was calculated with the addition of earlier abdominal operation as a categorical variable. Cox regression of incisional hernia with stratification by risk class was performed. Incidence rates of clinical VIH formation within each risk class were also calculated. Two hundred and forty-seven patents were enrolled. On Cox regression, in addition to the 3 variables of the HERNIAscore (BMI, COPD, and incision length), earlier abdominal operation was also predictive of VIH. The revised HERNIAscore demonstrated improved predictive accuracy for clinical VIH. Although the original HERNIAscore effectively stratified the risk of an incisional radiographic VIH developing, the revised HERNIAscore provided a statistically significant stratification for both clinical and radiographic VIHs in this patient cohort. We have externally validated and improved the HERNIAscore. The revised HERNIAscore uses BMI, incision length, COPD, and earlier abdominal operation to predict risk of postoperative incisional hernia. Future research should assess methods to prevent incisional hernias in moderate-to-high risk patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventilation strategies in burn intensive care: A retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consensus regarding optimal burns intensive care (BICU patient management is lacking. This study aimed to assess whether ventilation strategies, cardiovascular support and sedation in BICU patients have changed over time, and whether this affects outcome. A retrospective observational study comparing two 12-patient BICU cohorts (2005/06 and 2010/11 was undertaken. Demographic and admission characteristics, ventilation parameters, sedation, fluid resuscitation, cardiovascular support and outcome (length of stay, mortality data were collected from patient notes. Data was analysed using T-tests, Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. In our study cohort groups were equivalent in demographic and admission parameters. There were equal ventilator-free days in the two cohorts 10 ± 12.7 vs. 13.3 ± 12.2 ventilator free days; P = 0.447. The 2005/06 cohort were mechanically ventilated more often than in 2010/11 cohort (568 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days vs. 206 ventilator days/1000 patient BICU days; P = 0.001. The 2005/06 cohort were ventilated less commonly in tracheostomy group/endotracheal tube spontaneous (17.8% vs. 26%; P = 0.001 and volume-controlled modes (34.4% vs. 40.8%; P = 0.001. Patients in 2010/11 cohort were more heavily sedated (P = 0.001 with more long-acting sedative drug use (P = 0.001 than the 2005/06 cohort, fluid administration was equivalent. Patient outcome did not vary. Inhalational injury patients were ventilated in volume-controlled (44.5% vs. 28.1%; P = 0.001 and pressure-controlled modes (18.2% vs. 9.5%; P = 0.001 more frequently than those without. Outcome did not vary. This study showed there has been shift away from mechanical ventilation, with increased use of tracheostomy/tracheal tube airway spontaneous ventilation. Inhalation injury patients require more ventilatory support though patient outcomes do not differ. Prospective trials are required to establish which strategies confer benefit.

  11. Fatal poisonings in Oslo: a one-year observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyerdahl Fridtjof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute poisonings are common and are treated at different levels of the health care system. Since most fatal poisonings occur outside hospital, these must be included when studying characteristics of such deaths. The pattern of toxic agents differs between fatal and non-fatal poisonings. By including all poisoning episodes, cause-fatality rates can be calculated. Methods Fatal and non-fatal acute poisonings in subjects aged ≥16 years in Oslo (428 198 inhabitants were included consecutively in an observational multi-centre study including the ambulance services, the Oslo Emergency Ward (outpatient clinic, and hospitals, as well as medico-legal autopsies from 1st April 2003 to 31st March 2004. Characteristics of fatal poisonings were examined, and a comparison of toxic agents was made between fatal and non-fatal acute poisoning. Results In Oslo, during the one-year period studied, 103 subjects aged ≥16 years died of acute poisoning. The annual mortality rate was 24 per 100 000. The male-female ratio was 2:1, and the mean age was 44 years (range 19-86 years. In 92 cases (89%, death occurred outside hospital. The main toxic agents were opiates or opioids (65% of cases, followed by ethanol (9%, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs (4%, benzodiazepines (4%, and zopiclone (4%. Seventy-one (69% were evaluated as accidental deaths and 32 (31% as suicides. In 70% of all cases, and in 34% of suicides, the deceased was classified as drug or alcohol dependent. When compared with the 2981 non-fatal acute poisonings registered during the study period, the case fatality rate was 3% (95% C.I., 0.03-0.04. Methanol, TCAs, and antihistamines had the highest case fatality rates; 33% (95% C.I., 0.008-0.91, 14% (95% C.I., 0.04-0.33, and 10% (95% C.I., 0.02-0.27, respectively. Conclusions Three per cent of all acute poisonings were fatal, and nine out of ten deaths by acute poisonings occurred outside hospital. Two-thirds were evaluated as accidental

  12. Contribution of amateur observations to Saturn storm studies

    CERN Document Server

    Delcroix, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs), which are the radio signatures of lightning in Saturn's atmosphere, have been observed by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument (RPWS). Despite their important time coverage, these observations lack the resolution and positioning given by imaging around visible wavelengths. Amateur observations from Earth have been increasing in quality and coverage since a few years, bringing information on positions, drift rates and shape evolutions of large visible white spots in Saturn's atmosphere. Combining these two complementary sources has brought better analysis of Saturn's storms evolutions.

  13. Pulp polyp - A periapical lesion: Radiographic observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandagal V Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulp polyp (PP is a chronic hyperplastic condition resulting in formation of granulation tissue and proliferative mass. The radiographic appearance of PP has innumerable presentations. Diagnosing and treatment planning of periapical lesions, heavily relies on the radiographic changes surrounding the root structures. Objective: To evaluate different radiographic periapical changes in clinically detected PP patients. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and who were clinically diagnosed with PP by an oral diagnostician were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 50 patients with PP were taken. Various periapical changes in the digital radiographs were recorded by a skilled oral radiologist. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS ver 17.0 and P-value was set at <0.05 as significant. Result: Periapical changes like periodontal space widening (PDLW, loss of lamina dura, periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, hypercementosis, condensing osteitis and root resorption were noted. Periodontal space widening was seen in all patients (100%, loss of lamina dura was noted in 72%, periapical rarefying osteitis in 56%, condensing osteitis in 8%, hypercementosis, periapical granuloma, and root resorption were seen in 4% of PP patients. Majority of PP were asymptomatic (66%. Pulp polyp was commonly seen in mandibular first molar followed by mandibular second molar and maxillary first molar. Statistically significant difference was noticed between periapical changes in PP patients (P value <0.0001. All PP patients showed definite periapical changes suggesting it to be a periapical lesion. Conclusion: Pulp polyp is confined to the pulpal portion of the tooth which, may or may not cause changes in periapical region. The results of the present study showed that majority of the PP patients were associated with definite periapical

  14. An observational study of glycemic control in canagliflozin treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, L M; Miyasato, G; Kokkotos, F; Bumbaugh, J; Bailey, R A

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate changes in glycemic control following the initial canagliflozin pharmacy claim in a real-world population. A retrospective cohort analysis of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was conducted using 2013 medical, pharmacy and laboratory claims from the Inovalon MORE 2 Registry. Patients with T2DM aged ≥18 years with ≥60 days of canagliflozin supply and HbA1c test results within 120 days before and ≥60 days after initial canagliflozin claim (defined as index date) were included. The differences between HbA1c levels pre- and post-index were assessed. Changes pre- and post-index in Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) glycemic control criteria of HbA1c 9% were evaluated. Subgroup analyses of patients with HbA1c >7% at baseline and patients aged ≥65 were also conducted. Among the 268 patients meeting the study criteria, mean HbA1c pre-index was 8.3% and post-index was 7.6%; the mean reduction in HbA1c pre-post index was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6%, 0.9%). The proportions of patients meeting the HEDIS glycemic control measures (HbA1c 9%) improved and was significantly different pre- and post-index (all p 7% prior to index (81% of the cohort; mean pre-index HbA1c = 8.8%), HbA1c was reduced by 0.9% (95% CI: 0.8%, 1.1%). The aged ≥65 subgroup consisted of 15% of the cohort, with a pre-index HbA1c of 8.3%. The mean reduction in HbA1c test results pre- and post-canagliflozin index was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4%, 0.9%). This analysis did not adjust for changes in antihyperglycemic agents during the study period. Patients with T2DM were observed to have improved glycemic control following initial canagliflozin pharmacy claim as measured by HbA1c change and attainment of specific glycemic control criteria.

  15. Management of Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Hu, Zhenming; Hao, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are a common cause of chronic pain. Many methods have been reported to treat this disease, with variable results. Most previous reports concerning the treatment methods of symptomatic Tarlov cysts were either sporadic case reports or series of limited cases. This study aimed to further optimize the management for patients with symptomatic Tarlov cysts (TCs) by analyzing the results of 82 patients who were treated with different strategies. Three different strategies were applied to 82 patients with symptomatic TCs and their clinical effects were evaluated in 13 months to 12 years follow-up. A pain management practice, a medical center, major metropolitan city, China. From June 2003 to August 2015, a total number of 82 patients with symptomatic TCs were treated with 3 different methods (microsurgical cyst fenestration and imbrication, C-arm fluoroscopy guided percutaneous fibrin gel injection, and conservative management) in the first affiliated hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The pain severity was assessed according to visual analog scale (VAS), and imaging changes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patient improvements in pain and neurologic function were evaluated during a follow-up the period of 13 months to 12 years. All the patients who underwent microsurgical cyst fenestration and imbrication had either complete (7 patients, 50%) or substantial (7 patients, 50%) resolution of their preoperative symptoms and neurological deficits. However, 3 patients (21%) had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and 3 patients (21%) suffered from recurrent symptoms. In C-arm fluoroscopy guided percutaneous fibrin gel injection group, 34 patients (61%) had complete resolution and 22 patients had (39%) substantial resolution, and no CSF leakage or recurrence occurred. Only 3 patients (25%) got substantial resolution in the conservative management group, but 9 patients (75%) had aggravation. An observational study with a

  16. Assessing the completeness of reporting of observational studies in Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. Cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Peña, M. (Mary); Barona-Fong, L. (Luis); Campo-López, J. (Julio); Arroyave, Y. (Yeni); J.A. Calvache (Jose Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The STROBE statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology), consisting of 22 points, was published in 2007 with the aim of improving the reporting of observational research. Objective To determine the completeness of reporting of observationa

  17. Assessing the completeness of reporting of observational studies in Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. Cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Peña, M. (Mary); Barona-Fong, L. (Luis); Campo-López, J. (Julio); Arroyave, Y. (Yeni); J.A. Calvache (Jose Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The STROBE statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology), consisting of 22 points, was published in 2007 with the aim of improving the reporting of observational research. Objective To determine the completeness of reporting of observationa

  18. Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Handover (or 'handoff' is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations; SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan; and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec. The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9% of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0 times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45

  19. Synergy of multifrequency studies from observations of NGC6334I

    CERN Document Server

    Seifahrt, Andreas; Beuther, Henrik; Leurini, Silvia; Brogan, Crystal L; Hunter, Todd R; Menten, Karl M; Stecklum, Bringfried; 10.1088/1742-6596/131/1/012030

    2008-01-01

    We combine multifrequency observations from the millimeter to near infrared wavelengths that demonstrate the spatial distributions of H2, CO, and NH3 emission, which are all manifestations of various shocks driven by outflows of deeply embedded sources in NGC6334I. In addition to the well-known northeast-southwest outflow we detect at least one more outflow in the region by combining observations from APEX, ATCA, SMA, Spitzer and VLT/ISAAC. Potential driving sources will be discussed. NGC6334I exhibits several signs of active star formation and will be a major target for future observatories such as Herschel and ALMA.

  20. The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    the target star to its antipodal stars and compute where the telescope should appear among the antipodal stars. The addi- tion of corner-cube...starshade observes an optical beacon on the telescope to find the telescope’s location against antipodal stars for medium alignment. Proc. of SPIE Vol

  1. A study on diffuse source detection by HXMT scanning observation

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ju; Wu, Mei; Song, Li-Ming; Huo, Zhuo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) is a collimated scan X-ray satellite mainly devoted to a sensitive all-sky survey and pointed observations in 1-250 keV. We expect various diffuse sources to be detected in its scanning observations due to the large rigidity factor of the telescope. Diffuse source detection performance of HXMT scanning observation depends not only on the instrument but also on its data analysis method since images have to be reconstructed from HXMT observed data. In this paper, we introduce a multiscale maximum entropy (MSME) algorithm for HXMT image restoration and propose an improved method, ensemble multiscale maximum entropy (EMSME) method, to alleviate the problem of mode mixing exiting in MSME. Simulation have been performed on the detection of the diffuse source Cen A by HXMT in the all-sky survey mode. The results show that the MSME method is adapted to the deconvolution task of HXMT for diffuse source detection and the improved method could suppress noise and improve the cor...

  2. Effect of post-stroke sensory disorders on the recovery processes of motor function and activity of daily living A non-randomized synchroniesl controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In the rehabilitation of stroke patients,clinicians usually concentrate on motor problems,such as spasm of limbs and restriction of joint motion,while sensory and perceptive problems are almost always neglected,although they are just as important.One such area is the sensory disorder. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the motor function and activities of daily living in stroke patients with and without sensory disorders after treatment of integrated western and Chinese medicine.DESIGN:A non-randomized synchronically controlled trial.SETTING:First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 500 stroke inpatients were selected from the Department of Acupuncture and Massage,the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2003 to December 2004.They all had suffered from stroke in the last 4 weeks and accompanied by sensory disorder of the ipsilateral limb to different severity.The patients were all accorded with the Diagnostic and Efficacy Evaluative Standards for Stroke (in trial)set by the Encephalopathy Emergency Assistant Group,the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1995,and they were diagnosed by imaging examination.The patients were stratified into sensory disorder group (n =220) and normal sense group (n=280).Informed consent for the detected items and therapeutic program was obtained from the relatives of all the participants.The study was approved by the hospital ethical committee.METHODS:All the patients were treated with acupuncture of Xing Nao Kai Qiao for restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation,assisted by traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine specific to corresponding symptoms.The therapeutic principles were restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation,nourishing liver and kidney,and dredging meridian.In addition,the patients were given western medical treatments for decreasing intracranial pressure

  3. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  4. A Case Study of Hogtown Creek: Justification for Field Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Felicia E.

    A case-study model of a field trip to a small creek was made to facilitate the use of field studies as a technique for involving students and teachers in studying the earth as it undergoes change. Methods and techniques of planning are presented which include familiarization with the area by the teacher, the development of goals and objectives,…

  5. Astronomical Observations Astronomy and the Study of Deep Space

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Our Search for knowledge about the universe has been remarkable, heartbreaking, fantastical, and inspiring, and this search is just beginning. Astronomical Observations is part of a 7 book series that takes readers through a virtual time warp of our discovery. From the nascent space programs of the 1960's to today's space tourism and the promise of distant planet colonization, readers will be transfixed. Throughout this journey of the mind, Earth-bound explorers gain keen insight into the celestial phenomena that have fascinated humans for centuries. Thrilling narratives about indefatigable sc

  6. Temporal sequence in observational studies to establish causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Silva Ayçaguer, PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article includes a brief summary on the scope of the notions of causality and risk and considers some operational difficulties that arise when dealing with problems associated with them. It underscores the vital importance of timing and its link with the most commonly used observational research designs that address causal relationships. The article describes in detail the need to record the order in which the relevant events occur and how to consider this in the analysis. A detailed example of errors that are usually incurred in and their effect is provided.

  7. A Training Study of the Hercules Observer Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    des tâches et des exigences en matière de formation, et a déterminé une solution technique qui a été mise en œuvre dans toute une gamme de contrats ...CAE Professional Services Inc. Call-up 7949-08 under Standing Offer W7711-057949. April 2007 – March 2008. [7] Hercules Observer Trainer System...Development. CAE Professional Services Inc. Call-up 7949-06 under Standing Offer W7711-057949. December 2006 – March 2007. [8] High Performance Visual

  8. Activity in the action observation network enhances emotion regulation during observation of risk-taking: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Miyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The results of neuroimaging studies have indicated that viewing emotional stimuli can lead to activity increases in brain regions associated with processing actions. We hypothesized that observation of actions involving the potential for harm (i.e., risk-taking actions) would activate emotion- and pain-related processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the changes in neural activity during the observation of safe and risk-taking actions in 34 healthy participants (14 females, 20 males; mean age: 23·4±3·7 years). Observation of risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger neural activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus/frontal pole, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, cuneus (including the calcarine sulcus), insula, and amygdala, than observation of safe actions. Interestingly, we observed significant activation of affect-related brain areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula), thought to be implicated in various aspects of emotion regulation during the observation of risk-taking actions. No brain regions exhibited greater activation during observation of safe actions than during observation of risk-taking actions associated with risk. Our results reveal that the risk-related content of the observed actions in the video clips elicited activation of a network of visual input and processing regions, including the action observation network, that appears to encode the meanings of observed actions as well as the reflective or retrospective monitoring of their outcomes. These findings suggest that risk-taking situations may increase cognitive load on the entire action perception system, and may command more attention.

  9. Photometric Observation and Modeling Study of the Asteroid (26) Proserpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Li; Hai-bin, Zhao; Xin, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We present the new CCD observations on the asteroid (26) Proserpina performed between 2011 December and 2012 February. Based upon the new observations, a synodic rotation period of (13.107 ± 0.002) h is obtained. Using all the light curves available sofar, the rotation vector, rotation period, and the shape model of the asteroid are determined with the convex-hull inversion method. Further more, a bootstrap method is applied to estimating the uncertainties of the rotation parameters. We derive a pair of possible rotation poles for (26) Proserpina, and believe that it has a retrograde rotation. The rotation poles are determined to be λ1 = 90.8° ± 1.4°, β1 = -53.1° ± 3.2°, and λ2 = 259.3° ± 2.2°, β2 = -62.0° ± 2.0°. The sidereal rotation periods corresponding to the two poles are almost the same as (13.109777 ± 3.8 × 10-6) h. And corresponding to this pair of rotation poles, the convex-hull shapes of the asteroid are the mirror images of each other.

  10. Observational study of daytime ionospheric irregularities associated with typhoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO SaiGuan; SHI JianKui; ZHANG DongHe; HAO YongQiang; HUANG WeiQuan

    2012-01-01

    Spread-F is a manifestation of ionospheric irregularities and generally takes place at nighttime.However,it can also be observed seldom at daytime.It is recognized that acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) play an important role in triggering plasma instability which results in spread-F in the ionosphere.The typhoon is a main source of the AGWs.In this paper,two cases of ionospheric daytime spread-F in the period of typhoon were analyzed.One case was on July 29,1988 and the other was on August 01,1989.The results showed the following:1) There were some wave-like disturbances appearing in the HF Doppler records firstly,consequently the Doppler echo traces became scattered,which indicated that the ionospheric spread-F was triggered; 2) the blurred echo traces in the both two cases appeared in the morning (08:30-11:30 Beijing time) and lasted for more than two hours; 3) with the blurred echoes gradually weakening,the traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) still existed and became clearer; 4) the frequency shifts in the two cases were both positive,implying the effective reflecting surface of the radio wave in the ionosphere moved downwards.These results provide good observational evidence for daytime spread-F during the typhoon period in Asian region.

  11. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.W. Hoogendoorn; M.N. Helder; P.I.J.M. Wuisman; R.A. Bank; V. Everts; T.H. Smit

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were com

  12. Communication Patterns and Stress in the Preschool: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Fredrik; Neely, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The study included 12 preschool departments, with two teachers in six departments characterised by high levels of stress and burnout and two teachers in six departments characterised by low levels of stress and burnout. A total of 24 females with a mean age of 43.5 years participated in the study. The teachers rated stress, fatigue, work demands…

  13. A submllimeter observation and study of star-forming regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using the 3-m radio telescope of KOSMA, we mapped 12CO (J = 3-2) lines for three molecular clouds, B35, S146 and TMC-2A. High-velocity molecular outflows are found in all these regions. The physical and dynamical parameters of the outflows are derived, and their shapes and driving sources are analyzed. Contour maps of center velocities show that the large scale systematic gradients exist in the three clouds. These observed motions are best explained by rotation after excluding the cause of outflows. Furthermore, in the core region of TMC-2A there is a velocity gradient in opposite direction from that of the large scale. It may be caused by magnetic braking. Finally, angular velocities of the clouds are calculated, and the effects of rotation against gravity and lowering the star-formation rate are also analyzed.

  14. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  15. Leflunomide in Takayasu arteritis – A long term observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Alexandre Wagner Silva de [UNIFESP; Agustinelli,Renan de Almeida; Almeida,Hemerli de Cinque; Oliveira,Patrícia Bermudes; Pinheiro,Frederico Augusto Gurgel; Oliveira,Ana Cecilia Diniz; Sato, Emilia Inoue [UNIFESP

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the extended follow-up data on efficacy and toxicity of leflunomide therapy in Takayasu arteritis (TA) patients previously enrolled in the original open-label study of short-term effects of leflunomide in TA. Methods: An open-label long-term longitudinal study was performed in TA patients who fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for TA and had participated in a previous study that evaluated short-term efficacy of leflunomide in TA. Com...

  16. Propensity score modelling in observational studies using dimension reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis

    2011-07-01

    Conditional independence assumptions are very important in causal inference modelling as well as in dimension reduction methodologies. These are two very strikingly different statistical literatures, and we study links between the two in this article. The concept of covariate sufficiency plays an important role, and we provide theoretical justification when dimension reduction and partial least squares methods will allow for valid causal inference to be performed. The methods are illustrated with application to a medical study and to simulated data.

  17. Leflunomide in Takayasu arteritis – A long term observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the extended follow-up data on efficacy and toxicity of leflunomide therapy in Takayasu arteritis (TA patients previously enrolled in the original open-label study of short-term effects of leflunomide in TA. Methods: An open-label long-term longitudinal study was performed in TA patients who fulfilled the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for TA and had participated in a previous study that evaluated short-term efficacy of leflunomide in TA. Complete follow-up information could be retrieved from 12 out of 15 patients enrolled in the original study. Disease activity was evaluated by Kerr's criteria and by the Indian Takayasu Activity Score 2010 (ITAS2010. Results: The mean follow up time was 43.0 ± 7.6 months and 5 (41.6% TA patients remained on leflunomide therapy while 7 (58.3% TA patients had to change to another therapy due to failure to prevent relapses in 6 patients and toxicity in one patient. No significant differences were found between patients who remained on leflunomide therapy and those who changed to another agent regarding age at study entry, time since diagnosis, prednisone daily dose at study entry, baseline ITAS2010, mean or maximum ESR and CRP, and cumulative prednisone dose at study end. Among TA patients who had changed leflunomide to another agent, two had an additional clinical relapse and needed to change therapy. Conclusion: Leflunomide led to sustained remission in approximately half of patients at a mean time of 12 months and was well tolerated by TA patients.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Liposomal Albendazole and Tablet-Albendazole Against Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Song, Tao; Shao, Yingmei; Aili, Tuergan; Ahan, Ayifuhan; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of liposomal albendazole (L-ABZ) and tablet-albendazole (T-ABZ) for the treatment of human hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE). Sixty patients with single cyst (CE1) or daughter cyst (CE2) were included in this study and were nonrandomly divided into the L-ABZ group (n = 30, 10  mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.) and T-ABZ group (n = 30, 12-20 mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.), respectively. The treatment duration lasted for 6 months, during which dynamic follow-up was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy through calculating the total effective rates (TERs). Measurement data and numerous data were analyzed by the chi-square test. Two-sided tests were performed for all the statistical tests. In our study, 2 patients were lost in the follow-up in the L-ABZ group. One patient was lost in the follow-up in the T-ABZ group, and 1 patient was withdrawal from the study due to receiving surgery. Significant difference was identified in the 3-month TERs of L-ABZ group and T-ABZ group (33.3% vs 76.7%, P  0.05). Based on our study, both T-ABZ and L-ABZ are effective for treating human CE. The TER in the L-ABZ group is superior to that of T-ABZ.

  19. HEMATOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN DENGUE FEVER – AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathesha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major preventable and treatable cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adults that occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Early diagnosis of dengue is important for provision of specific care which ensures marked reduction in the morbidity of the disease itself. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hematological changes in serologically proven patients with clinical manifestations of Dengue in Bapuji & Chigateri Hospital, Davangere. METHODS: Clinical, hematological and serological information from Patients diagnosed with dengue infection in Bapuji & Chigateri hospital Davangere from April 2013 -June 2013. RESULTS: 221 cases of classic dengue predominated (90.2%, with mild clinical manifestations lacking complications. The main hematological findings were raised hematocrit (79.6%, lymphocytosis (66% monocytosis (84.6%, basophilia (52.9%, thrombocytopenia (100% and atypical lymphocytes (87%. In dengue hemorrhagic fever, thrombocytopenia was more prolonged and the number of atypical lymphocytes was higher, while the other hematological abnormalities presented daily evolution similar to those in classic dengue. The hematological changes observed in dengue presented according to the clinical course of the disease and its severity

  20. Comparing the incomparable: hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    A randomized trial comparing survival in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis remains a utopian aspiration. Dialysis is still relatively rare on a population basis, and a natural tension exists between desirability and feasibility in terms of quality of evidence. In practice, it is very difficult to perform prospective comparisons with large groups of contemporary representative subjects, and much of the literature comes from retrospective national registries. This article considers several questions to address when trying to compare the outcomes of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Prognostic similarity at baseline is a fundamental issue. Traditionally, adjustment for known prognostic factors has been used in an attempt to minimize the bias caused by nonrandom treatment assignment. Propensity scores have been suggested to be superior, and matched-case analysis may also be a useful method for comparison. Other questions include, when, in relation to starting dialysis, to start the observation clock; the definition and handling of switches of dialysis therapy; and the decision to censor at transplantation. Finally, comparisons are complicated by hazards ratios that vary over time, and time-segmented analysis is obligatory. Many types of analytical approaches are needed to begin to appreciate outcome disparities between dialysis therapies.

  1. Ground Observations of Post-Noon Aurora :a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the post-noon aurora observed at Antarctic Zhongshan station on June 12, 1999, were discussed and analyzed. In the condition of the magnetic activity is not large(Kp≈l), for post-noon 630. 0 nm emissions, the total fluxes of soft precipitating particles were increasing from 10:50 UT to 13:35 UT and were decreasing from 13 :35 UT to 18 :00 UT in almost monotonous way. Away from noon, the 557. 7 nm emissions increased gradually from 10 :50 UT to 17 :10 UT. The behaviors of the precipitat- ing particles for exciting 630. 0 nm aurora and 557. 7 nm aurora were quite different. The peak intensity of 630. 0 nm and 557. 7 nm emissions appeared at about 13:35 UT and 15:40 UT respectively, the time differ- ence of two peaks is about 2 h. The energy of precipitating electrons remained fairly steady until 15:00 UT when it rose dramatically.

  2. A Positive Affect Intervention for People Experiencing Health-Related Stress: Development and Non-randomized Pilot Test

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Cohn, Michael A.; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect...

  3. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-02-13

    Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named "HAPPY ME," which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10-12 years of age using HAPPY ME. A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach.

  4. Treatment of periocular hyperpigmentation due to lead of kohl (surma by penicillamine: A single group non-randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periocular hyperpigmentation is a condition in which skin of eyelids become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. Lead and other heavy metals produce increased pigmentation because of deposition of metal particles in the dermis and increased epidermal melanin production. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the dual effect of chelation therapy in treating periocular hyperpigmentation and lead toxicity. Methods: The study population consisted of nine females complaining from dark coloration of their eyelids. The nine females were continuously using kohl as eyeliner. Lead levels in conjunctiva and serum before and after D-penicillamine (D-PCN oral administration were estimated in relation to vertical, horizontal length, and degree of hyperpigmentation score. Results: Highly significant P values (0.000 were obtained as regard to the conjunctival lead levels, serum lead levels, horizontal length, and degree of darkness score before and after D-PCN therapy. A less significant P value (0.040 was recorded as regard to the vertical length. Conclusion: Regardless other causes, this study spots the light on a new concept for periocular hyperpigmentation from lead toxicity in adult females using kohl and suggests D-PCN in a low divided dose (750 mg/day for its treatment.

  5. Mathematics for teaching: observations from two case studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on two case studies in which we investigated mathematics for tea- ching. We were ... matical goals for any lesson taught, and link these with the approach used to teach an idea ..... This opens the question as to whether coin tossing.

  6. Observational cohort study of HIV-infected African children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laufer, M.K.; Oosterhout, J.J. van; Perez, M.A.; Kanyanganlika, J.; Taylor, T.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Graham, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most information about children living with HIV is based on follow up from children identified through mother-to-child transmission studies. Children identified through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) represent a unique cohort that has not been previously described in the literatu

  7. Understanding the equatorial ocean : theoretical and observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabitti, A.

    2016-01-01

    By means of a variety of approaches, the present study points out the challenges in understanding equatorial ocean dynamics (±2.5º). Standard theory, in fact, fails in accurately describing such a big portion of our ocean. This is mainly because at the equator rotation and density stratification com

  8. Diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii Across Europe: A Multicentre Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alanio

    2017-08-01

    Our study showed the wide population diversity across Europe, with evidence of local clusters of patients harbouring a given genotype. These data suggest a specific association between genotype and underlying disease, with evidence of a different natural history of PCP in HIV patients and renal transplant recipients.

  9. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, Jaike

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat is a valuable component of the diet and essential for the human body. Over time it has become clear that certain types of fat(ty acids) are also potentially harmful for our health. For example, we know from intervention studies that saturated fat and trans-fat have unfavourable effects

  10. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  11. Obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and breastfeeding: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Nanayakkara, Natalie; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Zoungas, Sophia; Boyle, Jacqueline; Harrison, Cheryce L; Forder, Peta; Loxton, Deborah; Vanky, Eszter; Teede, Helena J

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 9-21% of reproductive-age women. The relations between PCOS, body mass index (BMI) and breastfeeding are unclear. Our aim was to examine breastfeeding in women with and without PCOS and the relation with BMI. This is a cross-sectional study set in the general community. Participants are women, aged 31-36 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a large community-based study. Data was analyzed from the first child of respondents to Survey five (2009) reporting at least one live born child. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with breastfeeding. The main outcome measures studied were breastfeeding initiation and duration and the main explanatory variables included self-reported PCOS and BMI. Of the 4898 women, 6.5% reported PCOS (95% confidence interval 5.8-7.2%). Median duration of breastfeeding was lower in women reporting PCOS (6 months, range 2-10 months) than in women not reporting PCOS (7 months, range 3-12 months) (p = 0.001). On multivariable regression analysis, there was no association between PCOS and breastfeeding outcomes. However, being overweight or obese was associated with not initiating breastfeeding and with breastfeeding for less than 6 months, after adjusting for confounders. High BMI is negatively associated with breastfeeding, whereas PCOS status per se does not appear to be related to breastfeeding initiation and duration, after adjusting for BMI. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Writing Instruction in First Grade: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, David L., Jr.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Jackson, Allison F.; Wen, Huijing; MacArthur, Charles A.; Jennings, Austin S.

    2016-01-01

    As schools work to meet the ambitious Common Core State Standards in writing in the US, instructional approaches are likely to be examined (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). However, there is little research on the current state of instruction. This study was designed to…

  13. PROSPECTIVE NON-RANDOMISED OBSERVATIONAL CASE STUDY DIABETIC MACULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The epidemiological study of diabetic maculopathy in Indian population for the period of three years duration and study the treatment outcome following laser photocoagulation for various type of diabetic maculopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted from July 2000 to November 2002 in 96 eyes of 50 patients. Diabetic patients either referred or detected at GOH are taken into study. History regarding onset, duration, family history, drug schedule and dietary habits. Associated systemic factors HT, IHD, renal diseases are recorded. Patients are tested for BCVA using Snellen’s chart, IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometer, slit lamp examination, fundus examination using direct and indirect ophthalmoscope and 90D biomicroscopy. Fundus photography taken using fundus camera. FFA done in all cases. RESULTS 32 patients were above 50 years of age and 18 patients are below 50 years of age. The ratio of male-to-female is 2.85:1 and 92% of patients have bilateral involvement. 28% of patients with maculopathy had diabetes mellitus of 6-10 years duration and 24% of patients had 11-15 years duration. 18.7% cases had clinically significant macular oedema. In FFA study showed 44.8% had focal lesions, 34.4% had diffuse lesions and 28.8% had ischaemic lesions. 76.9% of focal lesions improved with focal photocoagulation and 50% of diffuse lesions improved with grid photocoagulation. CONCLUSION Diabetic maculopathy is the commonest cause of visual loss in patient with diabetic retinopathy. Periodic follow up and examination are necessary to detect the involvement of macula at an earlier stage. Early treatment with photocoagulation can stabilise the visual acuity and prevent visual loss.

  14. Precision Studies of Observables in $pp \\to W \\to \\ell \

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, S.; et al.

    2016-06-07

    This report was prepared in the context of the LPCC "Electroweak Precision Measurements at the LHC WG" and summarizes the activity of a subgroup dedicated to the systematic comparison of public Monte Carlo codes, which describe the Drell-Yan processes at hadron colliders, in particular at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This work represents an important step towards the definition of an accurate simulation framework necessary for very high-precision measurements of electroweak (EW) observables such as the $W$ boson mass and the weak mixing angle. All the codes considered in this report share at least next-to-leading-order (NLO) accuracy in the prediction of the total cross sections in an expansion either in the strong or in the EW coupling constant. The NLO fixed-order predictions have been scrutinized at the technical level, using exactly the same inputs, setup and perturbative accuracy, in order to quantify the level of agreement of different implementations of the same calculation. A dedicated comparison, again at the technical level, of three codes that reach next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) accuracy in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) for the total cross section has also been performed. These fixed-order results are a well-defined reference that allows a classification of the impact of higher-order sets of radiative corrections. Several examples of higher-order effects due to the strong or the EW interaction are discussed in this common framework. Also the combination of QCD and EW corrections is discussed, together with the ambiguities that affect the final result, due to the choice of a specific combination recipe.

  15. [Observations of MDPV users: a prospective-retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrássy, Gábor; Asztalos, Zoltán; Égerházi, Anikó; Frecska, Ede

    2013-01-01

    The spreading of "designer drugs" resulted in the appearance of "similar yet different" substances, the chemical structure of which are modified so regularly, which makes their research very difficult. We came across one of these substances, MDPV, while on night duty before it was mentioned in research papers. Our own research explores the changes in drug consumption patterns, especially in MDPV consumption patterns in the past few years, and gives a description of psychiatric and associated symptoms. We compared cases of patients admitted to our ward between Jan 1., 2010 and November 30., 2012 with symptoms of drug consumption and its complications (BNO F15.00-F15.90, F19.00-F19.90). We examined symptoms that required inpatient care at the psychiatry ward. While in 2010 we treated only 3 MDPV users on 6 occasions, 4 Mephedrone users on 6 occasions, and 9 patients using other substances (Speed, Cannabis) on 10 occasions at our ward, in 2011 there were no Mephedrone-related hospitalizations and only 9 patients using other substances (Cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid, 5-MeO-AMT, Glue, Metamizole, Ketamine) were treated on 13 occasions. Between Jan 1. 2011. and Nov 30.2012 there were 40 recorded cases related to MDPV-use in the period: forty people were registered on 87 occasions. Nine people receive impatient care after observation on 10 occasions. In all these cases psychotic symptoms were recorded. The constant development of designer drugs requires better administration of the individual cases, symptoms and forms of treatments. Informing doctors about these details also seems necessary. We have found that the behaviours of drug users show a positive correspondence with changing legal environments, which calls for a more sensible drug-related policy.

  16. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839

  17. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jung Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI percentiles (obesity rate, and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach.

  18. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  19. Observational research methods—Cohort studies, cross sectional studies, and case–control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Mann

    2012-03-01

    Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. Because they measure events in chronological order they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect. Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes. They are often used to generate hypotheses that can then be studied via prospective cohort or other studies.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF LIGHTNING CHARACTERISTICS IN HAIL-PRODUCING CLOUDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-rong; FU Shuang-xi; LI Bao-zi; JIANG Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Lightning is a phenomenon of atmospheric electricity with convective storms. Since the 1960's, its characteristics during weather processes of torrential rain, hails and tornadoes have been widely studied and a lot of attempts made to probe into the mechanisms responsible for the formation of lightning[1], giving rise to two theories explaining the lightning genesis, from the points of convection and ice-phase precipitation,respectively.

  1. Primary care capitation payments in the UK. An observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Beerstecher Hendrik J; Rhys Gwion; Morgan Claire L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004 an allocation formula for primary care services was introduced in England and Wales so practices would receive equitable pay. Modifications were made to this formula to enable local health authorities to pay practices. Similar pay formulae were introduced in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but these are unique to the country and therefore could not be included in this study. Objective To examine the extent to which the Global Sum, and modifications to the original f...

  2. COLORECTAL CANCER IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer which can be detected early by implementation of cancer screening. This has led to decline in colorectal cancer related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. However, there is increase in the incidence of this cancer in young individuals. This study was undertaken to study the characteristics of young colorectal cancer patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS The study was conducted from 2014 to 2016. All colorectal cancer patients attending the Department of Oncology, who were less than or equal to 50 years of age were included. Patients’ demographic data as well as data regarding the colorectal cancer was collected. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS This study included 28 patients with a median age of 40 years and equal sex distribution. History of smoking in 85.7% (12/14 and alcohol (moderate consumption in 64% (9/14 was present in male patients. There was no history of alcohol or smoking was present among female patients. However, tobacco chewing habit was present in 28% (4/14 of female patients. History of multiple sexual partners in 14% (4/28 of cases and 78% (22/28 were non-vegetarians. Nearly 85% (24/28 of patients presented with an advanced stage disease. The analysis showed involvement of left side of colon in 50% (14/28, rectum in 39% (11/28 and right side of colon in 11%(3/28. Except for two patients who were in stage - 1, all other patients received chemotherapy. CONCLUSION The incidence of colorectal cancer in young individuals is constantly rising. The reason for this increase is unclear and the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors remain relatively unexplored.

  3. Observational Study of Human Electrical Muscle Incapacitation and Cardiac Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...activity have been proposed as the cause of death in a small fraction of these individuals. A study of 212 patient exposures to < 1000 volts found 28...combative individuals. A small fraction of these individuals subsequently die while in confinement. Critics of HEMI use claim these deaths are a direct

  4. Quality of Life after Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was to assess the change in quality of life (QOL of patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidopexy (SH using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Methods. The study sample comprised patients with symptomatic II, III, and IV degree hemorrhoids, undergoing SH. The patients were asked to complete WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire before and one month following the surgery. Result. There were 20 patients in the study group. The postoperative pain score measured by visual analogue scale at six hours postoperatively was at 24 hours. The items in the WHOQOL-BREF had high-internal consistency or reliability as shown by high Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.82 and 0.90 for pre- and postoperative questionnaires. There was significant improvement in the overall perception of QOL and health, and in physical and psychological domains. There was modest improvement in environmental domain, while no change was noted in social domain. Conclusion. SH improved the quality of life of patients treated for hemorrhoids.

  5. A non-randomized [corrected] controlled trial of the active music engagement (AME) intervention on children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Clair, Alicia A; Watanabe, Masayo; Monahan, Patrick O; Azzouz, Faouzi; Stouffer, Janice W; Ebberts, Allison; Darsie, Emily; Whitmer, Courtney; Walker, Joey; Nelson, Kirsten; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Lane, Deforia; Hannan, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Coping theorists argue that environmental factors affect how children perceive and respond to stressful events such as cancer. However, few studies have investigated how particular interventions can change coping behaviors. The active music engagement (AME) intervention was designed to counter stressful qualities of the in-patient hospital environment by introducing three forms of environmental support. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the AME intervention on three coping-related behaviors (i.e. positive facial affect, active engagement, and initiation). Eighty-three participants, ages 4-7, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: AME (n = 27), music listening (ML; n = 28), or audio storybooks (ASB; n = 28). Conditions were videotaped to facilitate behavioral data collection using time-sampling procedures. After adjusting for baseline differences, repeated measure analyses indicated that AME participants had a significantly higher frequency of coping-related behaviors compared with ML or ASB. Positive facial affect and active engagement were significantly higher during AME compared with ML and ASB (p<0.0001). Initiation was significantly higher during AME than ASB (p<0.05). This study supports the use of the AME intervention to encourage coping-related behaviors in hospitalized children aged 4-7 receiving cancer treatment. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  7. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta Derma

  8. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta

  9. A non-randomized confirmatory trial of segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-section computed tomography (JCOG1211).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aokage, Keiju; Saji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Mizutani, Tomonori; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shibata, Taro; Watanabe, Syunichi; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-05-01

    Lobectomy has been the standard surgery for even stage I lung cancer since the validity of limited resection for stage I lung cancer was denied by the randomized study reported in 1995. The aim of this non-randomized confirmatory going on since September 2013 is to confirm the efficacy of a segmentectomy for clinical T1N0 lung cancer with dominant ground glass opacity based on thin-slice computed tomography. A total of 390 patients from 42 Japanese institutions are recruited within 4 years. The primary endpoint of this study is a 5-year relapse-free survival in all of the patients who undergo a segmentectomy for a lung nodule. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, annual relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, proportion of local relapse, postoperative pulmonary function, proportion of segmentectomy completion, proportion of R0 resection completion by segmentectomy, adverse events, and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000011819 ( http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ ). Patient's accrual has been already finished in November, 2015 and the primary analysis will be performed in 2021. This study is one of the pivotal trial of lung segmentectomy for early lung cancer. The result will provide a clear evidence for our daily clinics and will be possible contribution to preserving pulmonary function for lung cancer patients.

  10. Concussion symptoms in youth motocross riders: a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T David; Clarke, Michelle J; Zimmerman, Amy K; Quinn, Michael; Daniels, David J; McIntosh, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    Action motorsports, including motocross, have been gaining popularity among children and adolescents, raising concerns for increased risk of concussions in participating youth. The authors undertook this study to test the following hypotheses: 1) that there is a high rate of concussion symptoms associated with a number of preventable or adjustable risk factors, and 2) that a high percentage of these symptoms are not be reported to adults and medical personnel. The authors identified all motocross riders under the age of 18 at a regional racetrack during the riding season between May and October 2010. The participants completed questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics and variables associated with motocross. The questionnaire results were compared with the incidence of self-reported concussion symptoms. Two hundred two riders were identified who met the criteria for participation in the study, and 139 of them completed the study questionnaire. Of these 139 riders, 67 (48%) reported at least 1 concussion symptom during the season. The majority of riders (98%) reported "always" wearing a helmet, and 72% received professional help with fitting of their helmets. Proper helmet fitting was associated with a 41% decreased risk of concussion symptoms (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44-0.81, p motocross participation. Sponsor support conferred a relative risk for concussion symptoms of 1.48 (95% CI 1.05-2.08, p = 0.02). Nearly half of all motocross competitors under the age of 18 reported concussion symptoms. Preventive measures are necessary to limit the negative impact from concussions. The risk of concussive injury can be decreased for pediatric motocross riders if they receive professional help with proper helmet fitting and through implementation of stricter guidelines regarding sponsorship.

  11. An observational study on extraperitoneal caesarean section in present era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Sekhara Nanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to find out the maternal and perinatal outcome in cases of extraperitoneal caesarean section. Total 100 women undergoing extraperitoneal cesarean section were included in the study. Methods: A detailed history taking, examination done and intra and post-operative parameters as per protocols were noted. Results: Success rate of extra peritoneal CS was 79.63%, Time taken from incision to delivery was and #8804;5 minutes in 60% cases, time taken from incision to closure was between 31-45 min in 67% cases, blood loss and #8804;500 ml in 58% cases, return of bowel function between 5-8 hours in 52%, mobilization within 24 hours in 52%, neonatal one minute APGAR score and #8805;7 in 90.91%. Conclusions: Extraperitoneal cesarean section can be applied as a surgical form of infection prophylaxis. Since it possesses a rational basis for the avoidance of serious post-operative pelvic infectious complications, this operation deserves reconsideration in the modern era. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 724-727

  12. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  13. ENZYMATIC CHANGES IN SNAKE ENVENOMATION- AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Kapoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Snakes are the most feared and the most worshipped living creatures on the earth. Snakes are called venomous when envenomation or human fatalities after their bite are known. Snakebite is an acute medical emergency faced by temperate and tropical regions with heavy rainfall and humid climate. The specific therapy for snakebite in India is still polyvalent ASV and clinical practice ASV is not recommended until the victim of snakebite presents either with the evidence of bite by a poisonous snake such as definite fang marks, swelling or pain at the bite site or with clinical or laboratory evidence of envenomation such as local and systemic bleeding. In some cases, institution of ASV may also be initiated on the identification of offending snake brought by the patient or attendants, but most of these are subjective matters and subject to fallacies. Also, that out of polyvalent and monovalent ASV available, since it is monovalent ASV, which is desirable due to its less side effects and more effectiveness, but its use warrants the identification of snake, which is practically not possible in every case and/or on the objective evidence of peripheral neurological signs and symptoms and haematological alterations, which may not be dependable in many cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Snake envenomation is in fact a multifactorial stress phenomenon, which produces altered physiological states including death and one of the consequences of the stress phenomenon is generation of several lysosomal enzymes and formation of free radicals. Extensive data search on Medline has failed to show study of this type in any part of the world, so this study being taken up as a preliminary attempt to evaluate the pattern of enzymatic changes in snake envenomation. RESULTS The patients included in the study were be those coming to the Emergency Department of Government Medical College, Jammu, bitten by poisonous snakes during the period May 2003 to April 2004. The

  14. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksma, Martine; Joosten, Michiel H M A; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of

  15. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksma, Martine; Joosten, Michiel H M A; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBs

  16. The taxation of unhealthy energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs): An overview of patterns observed in the policy content and policy context of 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaars, Luc Louis; Jeurissen, Patrick Paulus Theodoor; Klazinga, Niek Sieds

    2017-08-01

    Taxation of energy-dense foods (EDFs) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is increasingly of interest as a novel public health and fiscal policy instrument. However academic interest in policy determinants has remained limited. We address this paucity by comparing the policy content and policy context of EDF/SSB taxes witnessed in 13 case studies, of which we assume the tax is sufficiently high to induce behavioural change. The observational and non-randomized studies published on our case studies seem to indicate that the EDF/SSB taxes under investigation generally had the desired effects on prices and consumption of targeted products. The revenue collection of EDF/SSB taxes is minimal yet significant. Administrative practicalities in tax levying are important, possibly explaining why a drift towards solely taxing SSBs can be noted, as these can be demarcated more easily, with levies seemingly increasing in more recent case studies. Despite the growing body of evidence suggesting that EDF/SSB taxes have the potential to improve health, fiscal needs more often seem to lay their policy foundation rather than public health advocacy. A remarkable amount of conservative/liberal governments have adopted these taxes, although in many cases revenues are earmarked for benefits compensating regressive income effects. Governments voice diverse policy rationales, ranging from explicitly describing the tax as a public health instrument, to solely explicating revenue raising. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of white matter damage are non-random and associated with cognitive function in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, K A; Cercignani, M; Muhlert, N; Sethi, V; Chard, D; Geurts, J J G; Ciccarelli, O

    2016-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), white matter damage is thought to contribute to cognitive dysfunction, which is especially prominent in secondary progressive MS (SPMS). While studies in healthy subjects have revealed patterns of correlated fractional anisotropy (FA) across white matter tracts, little is known about the underlying patterns of white matter damage in MS. In the present study, we aimed to map the SPMS-related covariance patterns of microstructural white matter changes, and investigated whether or not these patterns were associated with cognitive dysfunction. Diffusion MRI was acquired from 30 SPMS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). A tensor model was fitted and FA maps were processed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in order to obtain a skeletonised map for each subject. The skeletonised FA maps of patients only were decomposed into 18 spatially independent components (ICs) using independent component analysis. Comprehensive cognitive assessment was conducted to evaluate five cognitive domains. Correlations between cognitive performance and (1) severity of FA abnormalities of the extracted ICs (i.e. z-scores relative to FA values of HC) and (2) IC load (i.e. FA covariance of a particular IC) were examined. SPMS patients showed lower FA values of all examined patterns of correlated FA (i.e. spatially independent components) than HC (p < 0.01). Tracts visually assigned to the supratentorial commissural class were most severely damaged (z = - 3.54; p < 0.001). Reduced FA was significantly correlated with reduced IC load (i.e. FA covariance) (r = 0.441; p < 0.05). Lower mean FA and component load of the supratentorial projection tracts and limbic association tracts classes were associated with worse cognitive function, including executive function, working memory and verbal memory. Despite the presence of white matter damage, it was possible to reveal patterns of FA covariance across SPMS patients. This could indicate that white

  18. The advances in airglow study and observation by the ground-based airglow observation network over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiyao; Li, Qinzeng; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Weijun; Sun, Longchang

    2017-04-01

    Ground-based airglow observation networks over China used to study airglow have been established, which contains 15 stations. Some new results were obtained using the networks. For OH airglow observations, firstly, an unusual outbreak of Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events were observed by the first no-gap network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multilevel observations of the CGWs from the troposphere to the mesopause region. Secondly, three-year OH airglow images (2012-2014) from Qujing (25.6°N, 103.7°E) were used to study how orographic features of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) affect the geographical distributions of gravity wave (GW) sources. We find the orographic forcings have a significant impact on the gravity wave propagation features. Thirdly, ground-based observations of the OH (9-4, 8-3, 6-2, 5-1, 3-0) band airglow over Xinglong (40°2N, 117°4E) in northern China from 2012 to 2014 are used to calculate rotational temperatures. By comparing the ground-based OH rotational temperature with SABER's observations, five Einstein coefficient datasets are evaluated. We find rotational temperatures determined using any of the available Einstein coefficient datasets have systematic errors. We have obtained a set of optimal Einstein coefficients ratios for rotational temperature derivation using three years data from ground-based OH spectra and SABER temperatures. For the OI 630.0 nm airglow observations, we used three-year (2011-2013) observations of thermospheric winds (at 250 km) by Fabry-Perot interferometers at Xinglong to study the climatology of atmospheric planetary wave-type oscillations (PWTOs) with periods of 4-19 days. We found these PWTOs occur more frequently in the months from May to October. They are consistent with the summertime preference of middle-latitude ionospheric electron density oscillations noted in other studies. By using an all-sky airglow imager

  19. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle.

  20. THE MANY FACES OF PNEUMOMEDIASTINUM: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar Narahari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pneumomediastinum is an uncommon condition which is defined by the presence of air in the mediastinum. It may result from a number of causes, but at times the underlying aetiology remains obscure. The present study aims to review the clinical and imaging features in patients who presented with pneumomediastinum alone or in association with other findings in order to establish the aetiological diagnosis. We report here, a series of cases with pneumomediastinum of various unusual aetiologies and also the clinical profile, predisposing factors and outcome of these patients along with the associated complications. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who presented to the respiratory unit of our hospital with the diagnosis of pneumomediastinum over a period of 2 years from 2013-2015. The cases of pneumomediastinum resulting from trauma and iatrogenic causes were excluded from the study. RESULTS A total of six patients (4 males and 2 females with pneumomediastinum were identified during the study period after applying the exclusion criteria. The most common presenting symptom in these cases was shortness of breath followed by dry cough, chest pain and fever. Subcutaneous emphysema and Hamman sign was identified in one patient each. Of the six cases, preexisting lung disease was identified in 3 patients and these included connective tissue disease related interstitial lung disease in two cases and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in one case. In the remaining three cases, the causes of pneumomediastinum were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP in HIV positive patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in another and spontaneous oesophageal perforation in the third. Coexisting pneumothorax was present in 3 out of 6 cases. The mean duration of hospital stay in these six patients was 8 days. No recurrence of pneumomediastinum was seen in any of the six patients during six months of followup. CONCLUSIONS Pneumomediastinum is a

  1. Can headache impair intellectual abilities in children? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Antonio Pascotto,1 Beatrice Gallai,3 Lucia Parisi,2 Michele Roccella,2 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Antonella Gritti,5 Giovanni Mazzotta,6 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 5Suor Orsola Benincasa University, Napoli, 6Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Azienda Sanitaria Locale 4, Terni, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache.Methods: The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls. The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender.Results: No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor

  2. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1.

  3. UFOs in the LHC: Observations, studies and extrapolations

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Holzer, EB; Jackson, S; Lechner, A; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Nebot del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F; Fuster, N

    2012-01-01

    Unidentified falling objects (UFOs) are potentially a major luminosity limitation for nominal LHC operation. They are presumably micrometer sized dust particles which lead to fast beam losses when they interact with the beam. With large-scale increases and optimizations of the beam loss monitor (BLM) thresholds, their impact on LHC availability was mitigated from mid 2011 onwards. For higher beam energy and lower magnet quench limits, the problem is expected to be considerably worse, though. In 2011/12, the diagnostics for UFO events were significantly improved: dedicated experiments and measurements in the LHC and in the laboratory were made and complemented by FLUKA simulations and theoretical studies. The state of knowledge, extrapolations for nominal LHC operation and mitigation strategies are presented

  4. [Using consumer panels in public health observational studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    Consumer panels are a market research method useful for gathering information about low-frequency or difficult-access customers. The objective of this field-note is to explain our experience using this method in a cross-sectional public health study on the use of electronic cigarettes. After taking into account other non-probabilistic sampling techniques to obtain a huge sample of electronic-cigarette users (n=600), in the end we decided to use consumer panels (recruiters) because of the relative short duration of the field work and the high representativeness of the sample. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluoroquinolone resistance during 2000–2005 : An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Paul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moxifloxacin is a respiratory fluoroquinolone with a community acquired pneumonia indication. Unlike other fluoroquinolones used in our healthcare system, moxifloxacin's urinary excretion is low and thus we hypothesized that increased use of moxifloxacin is associated with an increase in fluoroquinolone resistance amongst gram negative uropathogens. Methods All antibiograms for Gram negative bacteria were obtained for 2000 to 2005. The defined daily dose (DDD for each fluoroquinolone was computed according to World Health Organization criteria. To account for fluctuation in patient volume, DDD/1000 bed days was computed for each year of study. Association between DDD/1000 bed days for each fluoroquinolone and the susceptibility of Gram negative bacteria to ciprofloxacin was assessed using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, r. Results During the study period, there were 48,261 antibiograms, 347,931 DDD of fluoroquinolones, and 1,943,338 bed days. Use of fluoroquinolones among inpatients decreased from 237.2 DDD/1000 bed days in 2000 to 115.2 DDD/1000 bed days in 2005. With the exception of Enterobacter aerogenes, moxifloxacin use was negatively correlated with sensitivity among all 13 Gram negative species evaluated (r = -0.07 to -0.97. When the sensitivities of all Gram negative organisms were aggregated, all fluoroquinolones except moxifloxacin were associated with increased sensitivity (r = 0.486 to 1.000 while moxifloxacin was associated with decreased sensitivity (r = -0.464. Conclusion Moxifloxacin, while indicated for empiric treatment of community acquired pneumonia, may have important negative influence on local antibiotic sensitivities amongst Gram negative organisms. This effect was not shared by other commonly used members of the fluoroquinolone class.

  6. Two Cases of Translocation t(3;6)(p14;p22): A Non Random Chromosomal Abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, M; Flandrin, G; Valensi, F; Gluckman, E

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the short arm of chromosome 6 is a likely site to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements of MDS/ANLL following radio/chemotherapy. We report here two cases of t(3;6)(p14;p22). One patient is a 55 years old male with a previous history of occupational exposure who developed, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia after a preleukemic phase. Chromosome analysis showed a t(3;6)(p14;p22), associated with del (5)(q14q31), -7, with variations and a trend to hypoploidy. The second patient is a 33 years old man, with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with Hydroxyurea (HU), HU + $aL-IFN and $aL-IFN alone. The first cytogenetic study before treatment, showed a t(9;22)(q34;q11). In the following months the patient had simultaneously t(9;22)(q34;q11) + t(3;6)(p14;p22) in a minority and thereafter in all the mitoses, with progressive deterioration, megakaryocyte abnormalities, but no blast crisis. Our patients are compared with the only 5 other published cases with t(3;6)(p14;p22), who shared some common features, namely a past history of chemo/radiotherapy or exposure to chemical mutagens and an association with other, so-called "secondary" chromosome aberrations, on segments 3p, 5q, 7q, 12p and 17p. We suggest that this uncommon translocation t(3;6) is nonrandom. It is worth noting that band 6p21 is the site of pim 1 oncogen, and that a fragile site is located on band 3p14.

  7. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy:A non-randomized,agematched single center trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoen; TK; van; der; Linden; Koop; Bosscha; Hubert; A; Prins; Daniel; J; Lips

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies with standard four-port cholecystectomies.METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2012 datas were gathered from 100 consecutive patients who received a single-port cholecystectomy. Patient baseline characteristics of all 100 single-port cholecystectomies were collected(body mass index, age, etc.) in a database. This group was compared with 100 age-matched patients who underwent a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same period. Retrospectively, per- and postoperative data were added. The two groups were compared to each other using independent t-tests and χ2-tests, P values below 0.05 were considered significantly different.RESULTS: No differences were found between both groups regarding baseline characteristics. Operating time was significantly shorter in the total single-port group(42 min vs 62 min, P < 0.05); in procedures performed by surgeons the same trend was seen(45 min vs 59 min, P < 0.05). Peroperative complications between both groups were equal(3 in the single-port group vs 5 in the multiport group; P = 0.42). Although not significant less postoperative complications were seen in the single-port group compared with the multiport group(3 vs 9; P = 0.07). No statistically significant differences were found between both groupswith regard to length of hospital stay, readmissions and mortality. CONCLUSION: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the potential to be a safe technique with a low complication rate, short in-hospital stay and comparable operating time. Single-port cholecystectomy provides the patient an almost non-visible scar while preserving optimal quality of surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to prove the safety of the single-port technique.

  8. Temperature variability during delirium in ICU patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendina W van der Kooi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and -nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. METHODS: We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or -nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. RESULTS: Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (β(unadjusted=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001. Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (β(adjusted=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001. Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (β(unadjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0

  9. Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the adverse effects of trichlormethiazide, focusing on serum electrolyte and uric acid levels. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010, to identify cohorts of new trichlormethiazide users (n = 99 for 1 mg, n = 61 for 2 mg daily dosage and an equal number of non-users (control. We used propensity-score matching to adjust for differences between users and control for each dosage, and compared serum chemical data including serum sodium, potassium, uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of trichlormethiazide of 1 mg and 2 mg users was 58 days and 64 days, respectively. Results The mean age was 66 years, and 55% of trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose were female. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the mean age was 68 years, and 43% of users were female. There were no statistically significant differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, past drugs, and current antihypertensive drugs between trichlormethiazide users and controls for both doses. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the reduction of serum potassium level and the elevation of serum uric acid level were significant compared with control, whereas changes of mean serum sodium, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were not significant. In trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose, all tests showed no statistically significant change from baseline to during the exposure period in

  10. An observational study of alemtuzumab following fingolimod for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mark; Pearson, Owen; Illes, Zsolt; Sejbaek, Tobias; Nielsen, Christian; Duddy, Martin; Petheram, Kate; van Munster, Caspar; Killestein, Joep; Malmeström, Clas; Tallantyre, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe a series of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who experienced significant and unexpected disease activity within the first 12 months after switching from fingolimod to alemtuzumab. Methods: Patients with relapsing MS treated sequentially with fingolimod then alemtuzumab who experienced significant subsequent disease activity were identified by personal communication with 6 different European neuroscience centers. Results: Nine patients were identified. Median disease duration to alemtuzumab treatment was 94 (39–215) months and follow-up from time of first alemtuzumab cycle 20 (14–21) months. Following first alemtuzumab infusion cycle, 8 patients were identified by at least 1 clinical relapse and radiologic disease activity and 1 by significant radiologic disease activity alone. Conclusions: We acknowledge the potential for ascertainment bias; however, these cases may illustrate an important cause of reduced efficacy of alemtuzumab in a vulnerable group of patients with MS most in need of disease control. We suggest that significant and unexpected subsequent disease activity after alemtuzumab induction results from prolonged sequestration of autoreactive lymphocytes following fingolimod withdrawal, allowing these cells to be concealed from the usual biological effect of alemtuzumab. Subsequent lymphocyte egress then provokes disease reactivation. Further animal studies and clinical trials are required to confirm these phenomena and in the meantime careful consideration should be given to mode of action of individual therapies and sequential treatment effects in MS when designing personalized treatment regimens. PMID:28101520

  11. Purification of human parathyroid hormone: recent studies and further observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutmann, H T; Hendy, G N; Boehnert, M; O'Riordan, J L; Potts, J T

    1978-07-01

    During the isolation of human parathyroid hormone there is an extensive loss of immuno-assayble hormone over the successive extraction steps, due in part to the presence of fragments that are soluble in 4% trichloroacetic acid. These fragments are derived from both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of the hormone. The hormonal fractions precipitated with trichloroacetic acid were further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. At the final ion-exchange purification step, some preparations of the hormone eluted in multiple fractions. When the various components were characterized separately by immunoassay, amino acid composition, enzymic cleavage and partial sequence analysis, they were found to be closely comparable, although the most acidic fraction contained a blocked terminal amino group. Extraction of a number of batches of tissue permitted revision of the amino acid composition of human parathyroid hormone. Biosynthetic studies with labelled amino acids confirmed the absence of tyrosine and the presence of phenylalanine and threonine and localized these residues to definite regions of the molecule.

  12. Seizures in Preterm Neonates: A Multicenter Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Shellhaas, Renée A; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Chang, Taeun; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Chu, Catherine J; Cilio, M Roberta; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Massey, Shavonne L; Abend, Nicholas S; Soul, Janet S

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize seizures among preterm neonates enrolled in the Neonatal Seizure Registry, a prospective cohort of consecutive neonates with seizures at seven pediatric centers that follow the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's neonatal electroencephalography monitoring guideline. Of 611 enrolled neonates with seizures, 92 (15%) were born preterm. Seizure characteristics were evaluated by gestational age at birth for extremely preterm (preterm (28 to preterm (32 to preterm neonates. Hypothermia therapy was utilized in 15 moderate to late preterm subjects with encephalopathy. The presence of subclinical seizures, monotherapy treatment failure, and distribution of seizure burden (including status epilepticus) was similar in preterm and term neonates. However, exclusively subclinical seizures occurred more often in preterm than term neonates (24% vs 14%). Phenobarbital was the most common initial medication for all gestational age groups, and failure to respond to an initial loading dose was 63% in both preterm and term neonates. Mortality was similar among the three preterm gestational age groups; however, preterm mortality was more than twice that of term infants (35% vs 15%). Subclinical seizures were more common and mortality was higher for preterm than term neonates. These data underscore the importance of electroencephalographic monitoring and the potential for improved management in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metaphors among titles of medical publications: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mungra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to determine the frequency and types of metaphors in a corpus of titles from a single medical journal collected over one year. The frequency of metaphor tokens (4.6% was highest among editorials and other opinion articles and consisted predominantly of primary metaphors, which require explanation using a visual, cultural or other physical vehicle. When the metaphor was used only in the title and not in the body of the text, as was common in letters to the editor or in editorials, the metaphor may constitute a para-textual device used for engaging the reader. Other metaphors among research article titles were present not only in the title, but also used repeatedly in the body of the text. Among these research articles, metaphors were frequently used to endow the focus words of the metaphor with a precise and meaningful significance which, when used repeatedly in the text, may constitute a mechanism by which sub-technical language or internal jargon may arise. Being syntactically simple but endowed with a high communicative import, titles as a text type may help improve academic literacy, among beginners.

  14. Aortic replacement in aorto-occlusive disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many patients with aorto-occlusive disease, where stent deployment is not possible, surgery remains the only treatment option available. The aim of this study was to assess the results of aortic reconstruction surgery performed in patients with critical ischaemia. Methods All patients with critical ischaemia undergoing surgery during 1991–2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Mortality data was verified against death certificate data. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the clinical notes and the radiology database. Disease was classified as: type I – limited to aorta and common iliac arteries; type II – external iliac disease and type III combined aortic, iliac and infra-inguinal disease. Results 86 patients underwent aortic replacement surgery all of whom had critical ischaemia consisting of: type I (n = 16; type II (n = 37 and type III (n = 33. The 30-day mortality rate was 10.4%, the one-year patient survival was 80%, and the 1-year graft survival was 80%. At 2 years the actual patient survival was 73% and no additional graft losses were identified. All patients surviving 30 days reported excellent symptomatic relief. Early, complications occurred in 6 (7% patients: thrombosis within diseased superficial femoral arteries (n = 4; haemorrhage and subsequent death (n = 2. Ten (14% late complications (> 12 months occurred in the 69 surviving patients and included: anastomotic stenosis (n = 3; graft thrombosis (n = 4, graft infection (n = 3. Four patients developed claudication as a result of more distal disease in the presence of a patent graft, and 1 patient who continued smoking required an amputation for progressive distal disease. Conclusion Aortic reconstruction for patients with extensive aorto-occlussive disease provides long-standing symptomatic relief for the majority of patients. After the first year, there is continued patient attrition due to co

  15. Primary care capitation payments in the UK. An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerstecher Hendrik J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004 an allocation formula for primary care services was introduced in England and Wales so practices would receive equitable pay. Modifications were made to this formula to enable local health authorities to pay practices. Similar pay formulae were introduced in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but these are unique to the country and therefore could not be included in this study. Objective To examine the extent to which the Global Sum, and modifications to the original formula, determine practice funding. Methods The allocation formula determines basic practice income, the Global Sum. We compared practice Global Sum entitlements using the original and the modified allocation formula calculations. Practices receive an income supplement if Global Sum payments were below historic income in 2004. We examined current overall funding levels to estimate what the effect will be when the income supplements are removed. Results Virtually every Welsh and English practice (97% received income supplements in 2004. Without the modifications to the formula only 72% of Welsh practices would have needed supplements. No appreciable change would have occurred in England. The formula modifications increased the Global Sum for 99.5% of English practices, while it reduced entitlement for every Welsh practice. In 2008 Welsh practices received approximately £6.15 (9% less funding per patient per year than an identical English practice. This deficit will increase to 11.2% when the Minimum Practice Income Guarantee is abolished. Conclusions Identical practices in different UK countries do not receive equitable pay. The pay method disadvantages Wales where the population is older and has higher health needs.

  16. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  17. A machine learning methodology for the selection and classification of spontaneous spinal cord dorsum potentials allows disclosure of structured (non-random changes in neuronal connectivity induced by nociceptive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eMartin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractal analysis of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs generated in the lumbosacral spinal segments has revealed that these potentials are generated by ongoing structured (non-random neuronal activity. Studies aimed to disclose the changes produced by nociceptive stimulation on the functional organization of the neuronal networks generating these potentials used predetermined templates to select specific classes of spontaneous CDPs. Since this procedure was time consuming and required continuous supervision, it was limited to the analysis of two types of CDPs (negative CDPs and negative positive CDPs, thus excluding potentials that may reflect activation of other neuronal networks of presumed functional relevance. We now present a novel procedure based in machine learning that allows the efficient and unbiased selection of a variety of spontaneous CDPs with different shapes and amplitudes. The reliability and performance of the method is evaluated by analyzing the effects on the probabilities of generation of different types of spontaneous CDPs induced by the intradermic injection of small amounts of capsaicin in the anesthetized cat.The results obtained with the selection method presently described allowed detection of spontaneous CDPs with specific shapes and amplitudes that are assumed to represent the activation of functionally coupled sets of dorsal horn neurones that acquire different, structured configurations in response to nociceptive stimuli.

  18. Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in observational intervention studies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H H; Van Deursen, Anna M M; Hoes, Arno W; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To systematically review observational studies on medical interventions to determine the quality of reporting of confounding. METHODS: Articles on observational studies on medical interventions in five general medical journals and five epidemiological journals published between January 2004

  19. Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in observational intervention studies : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H H; Van Deursen, Anna M M; Hoes, Arno W; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To systematically review observational studies on medical interventions to determine the quality of reporting of confounding. METHODS: Articles on observational studies on medical interventions in five general medical journals and five epidemiological journals published between January 2004

  20. The Asthma Mobile Health Study, a large-scale clinical observational study using ResearchKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Feng Yvonne; Wang, Pei; Rogers, Linda; Tignor, Nicole; Zweig, Micol; Hershman, Steven G; Genes, Nicholas; Scott, Erick R; Krock, Eric; Badgeley, Marcus; Edgar, Ron; Violante, Samantha; Wright, Rosalind; Powell, Charles A; Dudley, Joel T; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e.g., surveys, devices, geolocation, and air quality) in a subset of users over the 6-month study period. Consistent trending and correlation of interrelated variables support the quality of data obtained via this method. We detected increased reporting of asthma symptoms in regions affected by heat, pollen, and wildfires. Potential challenges with this technology include selection bias, low retention rates, reporting bias, and data security. These issues require attention to realize the full potential of mobile platforms in research and patient care.

  1. Design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health programme on microfinance clients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen

    2013-10-12

    Microfinance is the provision of financial services for the poor. Health program through microfinance has the potential to address several access barriers to health. We report the design and baseline findings of a multi-site non-randomized evaluation of the effect of a health program on the members of two microfinance organizations from Karnataka and Gujarat states of India. Villages identified for roll-out of health services with microfinance were pair-matched with microfinance only villages. A quantitative survey at inception and twelve months post health intervention compare the primary outcome (incidence of childhood diarrhea), and secondary outcome (place of last delivery, toilet at home, and out-of-pocket expenditure on treatment). At baseline, the intervention and comparison communities were similar except for out-of-pocket expenditure on health. Low reported use of toilet at home indicates the areas are heading towards a sanitation crisis. This should be an area of program priority for the microfinance organizations. While respondents primarily rely on their savings for meeting treatment expenditure, borrowing from friends, relatives, and money-lenders remains other important source of meeting treatment expenditure in the community. Programs need to prioritize steps to ensure awareness about national health insurance schemes, entitlement to increase service utilization, and developing additional health financing safety nets for financing outpatient care, that are responsible for majority of health-debt. Finally we discuss implications of such programs for national policy makers.

  2. The nuclear position of pericentromeric DNA of chromosome 11 appears to be random in G0 and non-random in G1 human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulspas, R; Houtsmuller, A B; Krijtenburg, P J; Bauman, J G; Nanninga, N

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear topography of pericentromeric DNA of chromosome 11 was analyzed in G0 (nonstimulated) and G1 [phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated] human lymphocytes by confocal microscopy. In addition to the nuclear center, the centrosome was used as a second point of reference in the three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Pericentromeric DNA of chromosome 11 and the centrosome were labeled using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence. To preserve the 3D morphology of the cells, these techniques were performed on whole cells in suspension. Three-dimensional images of the cells were analyzed with a recently developed 3D software program (Interactive Measurement of Axes and Positioning in 3 Dimensions). The distribution of the chromosome 11 centromeres appeared to be random during the G0 stage but clearly non-random during the G1 stage, when the nuclear center was used as a reference point. Further statistical analysis of the G1 cells revealed that the centromeres were randomly distributed in a shell underlying the nuclear membrane. A topographical relationship between the centrosome and the centromeres appeared to be absent during the G0 and G1 stages of the cell cycle.

  3. Links between fear of humans, stress and survival support a non-random distribution of birds among urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Carrete, Martina; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Cabezas, Sonia; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R; Tella, José L

    2015-09-08

    Urban endocrine ecology aims to understand how organisms cope with new sources of stress and maintain allostatic load to thrive in an increasingly urbanized world. Recent research efforts have yielded controversial results based on short-term measures of stress, without exploring its fitness effects. We measured feather corticosterone (CORTf, reflecting the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion over several weeks) and subsequent annual survival in urban and rural burrowing owls. This species shows high individual consistency in fear of humans (i.e., flight initiation distance, FID), allowing us to hypothesize that individuals distribute among habitats according to their tolerance to human disturbance. FIDs were shorter in urban than in rural birds, but CORTf levels did not differ, nor were correlated to FIDs. Survival was twice as high in urban as in rural birds and links with CORTf varied between habitats: while a quadratic relationship supports stabilizing selection in urban birds, high predation rates may have masked CORTf-survival relationship in rural ones. These results evidence that urban life does not constitute an additional source of stress for urban individuals, as shown by their near identical CORTf values compared with rural conspecifics supporting the non-random distribution of individuals among habitats according to their behavioural phenotypes.

  4. Cloning of ribosomal ITS PCR products creates frequent, non-random chimeric sequences – a test involving heterozygotes between Gymnopus dichrous taxa I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen W. Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gymnopus dichrous exists in the southern Appalachians (USA as two distinct entities with essentially identical nuclear ribosomal ITS1 sequences but differing ITS2 and LSU sequences (for convenience, called G. dichrous I and II. F1 ITS heterozygotes between the two are routinely collected from nature. Cloning of ITS PCR products from F1 heterozygotes produced sequences of both parental haplotypes but also numerous chimeric sequences (21.9%. The location of template switching was non-random leading to recovery of the same chimera several times and the chimeric region varied from 45bp to 300bp. By comparison, single-basidiospore isolates from heterozygote F1 fruitbodies showed no recombinant haplotypes within the ITS + LSU span and clones derived from P1 homozygotes were identical to the P1 parent. Thus, chimeric sequences are likely an artifact of the PCR-cloning process and not a consequence of natural recombination events found in nature, nor are they due to hidden existing variation within the ribosomal repeat. Chimeras and PCR-induced mutations are common in cloned PCR products and may result in incorrect sequence information in public databases.

  5. UK pneumonectomy outcome study (UKPOS: a prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Paul

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to assess the short term risks of pneumonectomy for lung cancer in contemporary practice a one year prospective observational study of pneumonectomy outcome was made. Current UK practice for pneumonectomy was observed to note patient and treatment factors associated with major complications. Methods A multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was performed. All 35 UK thoracic surgical centres were invited to submit data to the study. All adult patients undergoing pneumonectomy for lung cancer between 1 January and 31 December 2005 were included. Patients undergoing pleuropneumonectomy, extended pneumonectomy, completion pneumonectomy following previous lobectomy and pneumonectomy for benign disease, were excluded from the study. The main outcome measure was suffering a major complication. Major complications were defined as: death within 30 days of surgery; treated cardiac arrhythmia or hypotension; unplanned intensive care admission; further surgery or inotrope usage. Results 312 pneumonectomies from 28 participating centres were entered. The major complication incidence was: 30-day mortality 5.4%; treated cardiac arrhythmia 19.9%; unplanned intensive care unit admission 9.3%; further surgery 4.8%; inotrope usage 3.5%. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ P3, pre-operative diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO and epidural analgesia were collectively the strongest risk factors for major complications. Major complications prolonged median hospital stay by 2 days. Conclusion The 30 day mortality rate was less than 8%, in agreement with the British Thoracic Society guidelines. Pneumonectomy was associated with a high rate of major complications. Age, ASA physical status, DLCO and epidural analgesia appeared collectively most associated with major complications.

  6. The reporting of statistics in medical educational studies: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desbiens Norman A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is confusion in the medical literature as to whether statistics should be reported in survey studies that query an entire population, as is often done in educational studies. Our objective was to determine how often statistical tests have been reported in such articles in two prominent journals that publish these types of studies. Methods For this observational study, we used electronic searching to identify all survey studies published in Academic Medicine and the Journal of General Internal Medicine in which an entire population was studied. We tallied whether inferential statistics were used and whether p-values were reported. Results Eighty-four articles were found: 62 in Academic Medicine and 22 in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Overall, 38 (45% of the articles reported or stated that they calculated statistics: 35% in Academic Medicine and 73% in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Conclusion Educational enumeration surveys frequently report statistical tests. Until a better case can be made for doing so, a simple rule can be proffered to researchers. When studying an entire population (e.g., all program directors, all deans, and all medical schools for factual information, do not perform statistical tests. Reporting percentages is sufficient and proper.

  7. Study of Application for Excursion Observation Method in Primary School 2nd Grade Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali GAZEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how field trips are conducted at 2nd grade of primary schools as a part of social studies course. Data for this research is compiled from 143 permanent Social Studies teachers working throughout 2011–2012 Education Year in the primary schools of central Kütahya and its districts. Data is compiled by using descriptive search model. In the research, after taking expert opinions, a measuring tool developed by the researcher is used. Data obtained from the research were transferred to computer, and analyses were made. In the analysis of the data, frequency and percentage values have been used to determine the distribution. Also a single factor variance analysis and t-test for independent samples have been used to determine the significance of difference between the variables. As a result of the research, it has been realized that insufficient importance is given to field trip method in Social Studies lessons. Most of the teachers using this method apply it in spring months. Teachers usually make use of field trips independent from unit/topic to increase the students’ motivation, and they generally use verbal expression in the class after tours. The biggest difficulty teachers encounter while using tour-observation method is the students’ undisciplined behavior.

  8. Study of Observer Variability in Modern Display Colorimetry: Comparison of CIE 2006 Model and 10° Standard Observer

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Blondé, Laurent; Le Callet, Patrick; Autrusseau, Florent; Stauder, Jürgen; Morvan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper compares CIE 2006 model predictions and the 1964 10° standard colorimetric observer with the average observer data from three distinct subgroups of 47 Stiles-Burch observers formed on the basis of observer ages. For two of these subgroups, the long-wave sensitive (x-) color matching functions obtained from the CIE06 model did not accurately predict the intra-group average observer functions. In terms of display color perception, the prediction error is refle...

  9. Van Allen Probes observations of unusually low frequency whistler mode waves observed in association with moderate magnetic storms: Statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, C A; Breneman, A W; Thaller, S A; Wygant, J R; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S

    2015-09-28

    We show the first evidence for locally excited chorus at frequencies below 0.1 fce (electron cyclotron frequency) in the outer radiation belt. A statistical study of chorus during geomagnetic storms observed by the Van Allen Probes found that frequencies are often dramatically lower than expected. The frequency at peak power suddenly stops tracking the equatorial 0.5 fce and f/fce decreases rapidly, often to frequencies well below 0.1 fce (in situ and mapped to equator). These very low frequency waves are observed both when the satellites are close to the equatorial plane and at higher magnetic latitudes. Poynting flux is consistent with generation at the equator. Wave amplitudes can be up to 20 to 40 mV/m and 2 to 4 nT. We conclude that conditions during moderate to large storms can excite unusually low frequency chorus, which is resonant with more energetic electrons than typical chorus, with critical implications for understanding radiation belt evolution.

  10. A non-randomized clinical control trial of Harrison mirror image methods for correcting trunk list (lateral translations of the thoracic cage) in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Betz, Joseph W; Harrison, Donald D; Colloca, Christopher J; Haas, Jason W; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2005-03-01

    Spinal trunk list is a common occurrence in clinical practice, but few conservative methods of spinal rehabilitation have been reported. This study is a non-randomized clinical control trial of 63 consecutive retrospective subjects undergoing spinal rehabilitation and 23 prospective volunteer controls. All subjects presented with lateral thoracic-cage-translation posture (trunk list) and chronic low back pain. Initial and follow-up numerical pain rating scales (NRS) and AP lumbar radiographs were obtained after a mean of 11.5 weeks of care (average of 36 visits) for the treatment group and after a mean of 37.5 weeks for the control group. The radiographs were digitized and analyzed for a horizontal displacement of T12 from the second sacral tubercle, verticality of the lumbar spine at the sacral base, and any dextro/levo angle at mid-lumbar spine. Treatment subjects received the Harrison mirror image postural correction methods, which included an opposite trunk-list exercise and a new method of opposite trunk-list traction. Control subjects did not receive spinal rehabilitation therapy, but rather self-managed their back pain. For the treatment group, there were statistically significant improvements (approximately 50%) in all radiographic measurements and a decrease in pain intensity (NRS: 3.0 to 0.8). For the control group, no significant radiographic and NRS differences were found, except in trunk-list displacement of T12 to S1, worsened by 2.4 mm. Mirror image (opposite posture) postural corrective exercises and a new method of trunk-list traction resulted in 50% reduction in trunk list and were associated with nearly resolved pain intensity in this patient population. The findings warrant further study in the conservative treatment of chronic low back pain and spinal disorders.

  11. Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew

    High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of Vildagliptin in Clinical Practice: Pooled Analysis of Three Korean Observational Studies (the VICTORY Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghwan Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Data were pooled from the vildagliptin postmarketing survey (PMS, the vildagliptin/metformin fixed drug combination (DC PMS, and a retrospective observational study of vildagliptin/metformin (fixed DC or free DC. The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a glycemic target (HbA1c of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. In total, 4303 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 2087 patients were eligible. The mean patient age was 56.99 ± 11.25 years. Overall, 58.94% patients achieved an HbA1c target of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. The glycemic target achievement rate was significantly greater in patients with baseline HbA1c < 7.5% versus ≥7.5% (84.64% versus 43.97%, receiving care at the hospital versus clinic (67.95% versus 52.33%, and receiving vildagliptin/metformin fixed DC versus free DC (70.69% versus 55.42%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that disease duration (P<0.0001, baseline HbA1c (P<0.0001, and DC type (P=0.0103 had significant effects on drug effectiveness. Vildagliptin plus metformin appeared as an effective treatment option for patients with T2DM in clinical practice settings in Korea.

  13. The contribution of observational studies to the knowledge of drug effectiveness in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; deJongste, Mike J. L.; van Sonderen, Eric; Klungel, Olaf H.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the golden standard for the assessment of drug efficacy. Little is known about the add-on value of observational studies in heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the contribution of observational studies to actual knowledge regarding the effectiveness of angi

  14. Adverse drug reaction profile of nanoparticle versus conventional formulation of paclitaxel: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballari Brahmachari

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Despite its ADR profile being statistically comparable to conventional paclitaxel, this observational study suggests that Nanoxel tolerability could be better, considering that a significantly higher dose was employed. This hypothesis needs confirmation through an interventional study.

  15. Relationship between healthcare worker surface contacts, care type and hand hygiene: an observational study in a single-bed hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M-F; Noakes, C J; Sleigh, P A; Bale, S; Waters, L

    2016-09-01

    This study quantifies the relationship between hand hygiene and the frequency with which healthcare workers (HCWs) touch surfaces in patient rooms. Surface contacts and hand hygiene were recorded in a single-bed UK hospital ward for six care types. Surface contacts often formed non-random patterns, but hygiene before or after patient contact depends significantly on care type (P=0.001). The likelihood of hygiene correlated with the number of surface contacts (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.8, P=0.002), but not with time spent in the room. This highlights that a potential subconscious need for hand hygiene may have developed in HCWs, which may support and help focus future hygiene education programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE: explanation and elaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Vandenbroucke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning and rationale for each checklist item are presented. For each item, one or several published examples and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature are provided. Examples of useful flow diagrams are also included. The STROBE Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.strobe-statement.org/ should be helpful resources to improve reporting of observational research.

  17. The Effect of Pivotal Response Treatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-Randomized Study with a Blinded Outcome Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duifhuis, E. A.; den Boer, J. C.; Doornbos, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Oosterling, I. J.; Klip, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this quasi-experimental trial was to investigate the effect of Pivotal response treatment (PRT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on autism symptoms. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), aged 3-8 years, received either PRT (n = 11) or TAU (n = 13). Primary outcome measure was the total score on the Autism Diagnostic Observation…

  18. The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes: a meta-analysis including non-randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'Maison, Sophie; Durand, Madeleine; Mahone, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    Objectif : Les avantages de l’utilisation d’acide ursodésoxycholique (AUDC) pour la prise en charge de la cholestase intrahépatique de la grossesse (CIG) demeurent incertains. Une analyse Cochrane de 2010 ayant porté sur des essais comparatifs randomisés n’a pas été en mesure de se prononcer pour ou contre l’utilisation d’AUDC pour la prise en charge de la CIG. Nous avons mené une méta-analyse de la littérature, en englobant tant les études non randomisées (ENR) que les ECR. Nous avions pour objectif de déterminer si les patientes ayant participé aux ENR étaient comparables à celles qui avaient participé aux ECR; nous avions également pour objectif de déterminer si l’inclusion des ENR pouvait renforcer les données probantes disponibles et orienter la pratique clinique quant à l’utilisation d’AUDC chez les femmes qui présentent une CIG. Sources de données : Nous avons mené des recherches dans Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), EMB Reviews, Cinahl (Ebsco) et Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) en vue d’en tirer les articles publiés entre 1966 et juin 2012. Sélection des études : Nous avons inclus tous les ECR admissibles ayant comparé l’AUDC à un placebo ou à d’autres traitements et toutes les ENR ayant comparé l’AUDC à tout autre traitement chez des femmes présentant une CIG. Synthèse des données : Nous avons inclus 11 ECR (n = 625 grossesses) et six ENR (n = 211 grossesses). Bien que les femmes ayant participé aux ECR et aux ENR aient été comparables, la qualité des études était plus faible dans le cas des ENR. De façon générale, les femmes traitées à l’AUDC ont connu une atténuation du prurit dans 73 % des ECR et dans 100 % des ENR disposant de données disponibles. Les épreuves de fonction hépatique ont présenté une amélioration dans 82 % des ECR et dans 100 % des ENR disposant de données disponibles. Bien que l’utilisation d’AUDC n’ait pas affecté le taux de césarienne, elle a été associée à une prématurité moindre, à une utilisation moindre des unités néonatales de soins intensifs (données disponibles pour seulement trois des 17 études) et à des tendances à l’augmentation du poids de naissance et à l’atténuation de la teinte méconiale du liquide amniotique. Aucune mortinaissance n’a été constatée dans le cadre de 356 grossesses ayant fait l’objet d’un traitement à l’AUDC et trois mortinaissances ont été constatées dans le cadre de 399 grossesses ayant fait l’objet d’un traitement au moyen d’un agent de comparaison. Conclusion : Le traitement à l’AUDC devrait être recommandé aux femmes qui présentent une CIG en vue d’atténuer les issues indésirables maternelles et fœtales.

  19. Generalizability and decision studies to inform observational and experimental research in classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are necessary to achieve a criterion level of reliability. We conducted G and D studies using observational data from a randomized control trial focusing on social and academic participation of students with severe disabilities in inclusive secondary classrooms. Results highlight the importance of anchoring observational decisions to reliability estimates from existing or pilot data sets. We outline steps for conducting G and D studies and address options when reliability estimates are lower than desired.

  20. AHEAD Study: an observational study of the management of anticoagulated patients who suffer head injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Suzanne; Kuczawski, Maxine; Teare, M Dawn; Stevenson, Matt; Goodacre, Steve; Ramlakhan, Shammi; Morris, Francis; Rothwell, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Management of anticoagulated patients after head injury is unclear due to lack of robust evidence. This study aimed to determine the adverse outcome rate in these patients and identify risk factors associated with poor outcome. Design Multicentre, observational study using routine patient records. Setting 33 emergency departments in England and Scotland. Participants 3566 adults (aged ≥16 years) who had suffered blunt head injury and were currently taking warfarin. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was rate of adverse outcome defined as death or neurosurgery following initial injury, clinically significant CT scan finding or reattendance with related complication within 10 weeks of initial hospital attendance. Secondary objectives included identifying risk factors for adverse outcome using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results Clinical data available for 3534/3566 patients (99.1%), median age 79 years; mean initial international normalised ratio (INR) 2.67 (SD 1.34); 81.2% Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15: 59.8% received a CT scan with significant head injury-related finding in 5.4% (n=208); 0.5% underwent neurosurgery; 1.2% patients suffered a head injury-related death. Overall adverse outcome rate was 5.9% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.7%). Patients with GCS=15 and no associated symptoms had lowest risk of adverse outcome (risk 2.7%; 95% CI 2.1 to 3.6). Patients with GCS=15 multivariable analysis (using imputation) found risk of adverse outcome to increase when reporting at least one associated symptom: vomiting (relative risk (RR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4), amnesia (RR 3.5; 95% CI 2.1 to 5.7), headache (RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8 to 2.2), loss of consciousness (RR 1.75; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.0). INR measurement did not predict adverse outcome in patients with GCS=15 (RR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2). Conclusions In alert warfarinised patients following head injury, the presence of symptoms is associated with greater risk of adverse outcome. Those with GCS=15

  1. Study of Vertical Movements of the European Crust Using Tide Gauge and Gnss Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak Kornyliy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to the study of vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of two independent methods, namely tide gauge and GNSS observations results. The description and classification of factors affecting sea level change has been made. The precision with which the movement of the earth's crust according to the results of tide gauge observations can be explored has been calculated . A methodology to identify the duration of tide gauge observations required for studies of vertical movements of the earth 's crust has been presented. Approximation of tide gauge time series with the help of Fourier series has been implemented, the need for long-term observations in certain areas has been explained. The diagram of the velocities of the vertical movements of the European crust on the basis of the tide gauge data and GNSS observations has been built and the anomalous areas where the observations do not coincide have been identified.

  2. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Nein Lai; Jin-Ling Tang; Jung-Der Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimburse...

  3. Evaluation of the Quality of Reporting of Observational Studies in Otorhinolaryngology - Based on the STROBE Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Martine; Joosten, Michiel H M A; Peters, Jeroen P M; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies are the most frequently published studies in literature. When randomized controlled trials cannot be conducted because of ethical or practical considerations, an observational study design is the first choice. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) was developed to provide guidance on how to adequately report observational studies. The objectives were 1) to evaluate the quality of reporting of observational studies of otorhinolaryngologic literature using the STROBE Statement checklist, 2) to compare the quality of reporting of observational studies in the top 5 Ear, Nose, Throat (ENT) journals versus the top 5 general medical journals and 3) to formulate recommendations to improve adequate reporting of observational research in otorhinolaryngologic literature. The top 5 general medical journals and top 5 otorhinolaryngologic journals were selected based on their ISI Web of Knowledge impact factors. On August 3rd, 2015, we performed a PubMed search using different filters to retrieve observational articles from these journals. Studies were selected from 2010 to 2014 for the general medical journals and from 2015 for the ENT journals. We assessed all STROBE items to examine how many items were reported adequately for each journal type. The articles in the top 5 general medical journals (n = 11) reported a mean of 69.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 65.8%-72.7%; median 70.6%), whereas the top 5 ENT journals (n = 29) reported a mean of 51.4% (95% CI: 47.7%-55.0%; median 50.0%). The two journal types reported STROBE items significantly different (p articles can considerably enhance. The quality of reporting was better in general medical journals compared to ENT journals. To improve the quality of reporting of observational studies, we recommend authors and editors to endorse and actively implement the STROBE Statement.

  4. Healthcare outcomes assessed with observational study designs compared with those assessed in randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Horvath, Hacsi T; Bero, Lisa

    2014-04-29

    Researchers and organizations often use evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of a treatment or intervention under ideal conditions. Studies of observational designs are often used to measure the effectiveness of an intervention in 'real world' scenarios. Numerous study designs and modifications of existing designs, including both randomized and observational, are used for comparative effectiveness research in an attempt to give an unbiased estimate of whether one treatment is more effective or safer than another for a particular population.A systematic analysis of study design features, risk of bias, parameter interpretation, and effect size for all types of randomized and non-experimental observational studies is needed to identify specific differences in design types and potential biases. This review summarizes the results of methodological reviews that compare the outcomes of observational studies with randomized trials addressing the same question, as well as methodological reviews that compare the outcomes of different types of observational studies. To assess the impact of study design (including RCTs versus observational study designs) on the effect measures estimated.To explore methodological variables that might explain any differences identified.To identify gaps in the existing research comparing study designs. We searched seven electronic databases, from January 1990 to December 2013.Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the sensitivity-specificity balanced version of a validated strategy to identify reviews in PubMed, augmented with one term ("review" in article titles) so that it better targeted narrative reviews. No language restrictions were applied. We examined systematic reviews that were designed as methodological reviews to compare quantitative effect size estimates measuring efficacy or effectiveness of interventions tested in trials with those tested in observational studies

  5. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a review of observer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.; Bagger, J.; Sylvest, A.;

    2008-01-01

    on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0...

  6. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    gustiness conditions were studied using observations from two coastal/archipelago weather masts in the Gulf of Finland (northern Europe) with observation heights between 30 and 143 m. Only moderate and strong wind cases were addressed. Both masts were located over relatively flat terrain but the local...

  7. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  8. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  9. Skin lesions in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillevis Smitt, J.H.; van Woensel, J.B.M.; Bos, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed, by a prospective observational study over a 3-year period, the frequency and character of dermatological symptoms and diseases in children admitted to a tertiary general paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university hospital. Skin problems were observed in 42 of 1,800 children

  10. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers

  11. Detailed Study of the Internal Structure of a Red-giant Star Observed with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Ventura, R.; Cardini, D.;

    2012-01-01

    We study the internal structure and evolutionary state of KIC 4351319, a red-giant star observed with the Kepler satellite. The use of 25 individual oscillation frequencies, together with the accurate atmospheric data provided by ground-based spectroscopic observations, allowed us to estimate the...

  12. Crisis-related observations in competition: a case study in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Sachs, S; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Falk, B

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a unique observational approach to basketball, based on the theory of psychological performance crisis in competition. The approach used takes into account the responses of a player' s actions to significant social factors such as team-mates, spectators, the coach and the referees. The contribution of this approach beyond traditional observational techniques is discussed. In our investigation, a single case design was used, in which a professional basketball player was observed during 10 home and 3 away games of the regular season. The relations between the observations and the crisis concept are discussed in detail. In addition, some relevant methodological and applied aspects are presented.

  13. Aerodynamics simulation studies on the observation head placed on a board of the unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztofik Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important element of UAV equipment are observation heads. Observation head is multisensor optoelectronic system. It includes TV camera and infrared camera, safe for the eye rangefinder and laser pointer and a navigation system GPS. Image stability is provided by electro-mechanical gyro stability system. Optoelectronic head are designed for use in systems of detection, identification and observation of ground and air targets and in daylight and at night. In this paper simulation studies of the air masses flow around the observation head placed on the UAV deck, for different speeds of UAV movement were conducted. The results of numerical research were presented in a graphical form.

  14. Aerodynamics simulation studies on the observation head placed on a board of the unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztofik, Izabela; Blasiak, Slawomir

    2016-11-01

    An important element of UAV equipment are observation heads. Observation head is multisensor optoelectronic system. It includes TV camera and infrared camera, safe for the eye rangefinder and laser pointer and a navigation system GPS. Image stability is provided by electro-mechanical gyro stability system. Optoelectronic head are designed for use in systems of detection, identification and observation of ground and air targets and in daylight and at night. In this paper simulation studies of the air masses flow around the observation head placed on the UAV deck, for different speeds of UAV movement were conducted. The results of numerical research were presented in a graphical form.

  15. Opportunities for minimization of confounding in observational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartey, George; Feudjo-Tepie, Maurille; Wang, Jixian; Kim, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Observational epidemiological studies are increasingly used in pharmaceutical research to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of medicines. Such studies can complement findings from randomized clinical trials by involving larger and more generalizable patient populations by accruing greater durations of follow-up and by representing what happens more typically in the clinical setting. However, the interpretation of exposure effects in observational studies is almost always complicated by non-random exposure allocation, which can result in confounding and potentially lead to misleading conclusions. Confounding occurs when an extraneous factor, related to both the exposure and the outcome of interest, partly or entirely explains the relationship observed between the study exposure and the outcome. Although randomization can eliminate confounding by distributing all such extraneous factors equally across the levels of a given exposure, methods for dealing with confounding in observational studies include a careful choice of study design and the possible use of advanced analytical methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce some of the approaches that can be used to help minimize the impact of confounding in observational research to the reader working in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Composite sampling a novel method to accomplish observational economy in environmental studies

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Ganapati P; Taillie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive statistical account of composite sampling as an ingenious environmental sampling method to help accomplish observational economy in a variety of environmental and ecological studies.

  17. COGNOS : Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction A National Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, Tony; De Deyn, Peter P.; Pals, Philippe; De Lepeleire, Jan; Vandewoude, Maurits; Ventura, Manfredi; Ivanoiu, Adrian; Albert, Adelin; Seghers, An-Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Care plans are intended to improve the independence and functioning of patients with cognitive dysfunction and support the caregivers involved. They are an integral part of the Belgian reimbursement procedure for cholinesterase inhibitors. This nationwide, multicenter, observational study examined t

  18. Coronary revascularization in ischemic heart disease: lessons from observational studies and randomized clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Mercado (Nestor)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis presents an overview of clinical trials and observational studies on coronary revascularization and evaluates the results obtained with revascularization in different subsets of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  19. Aspirin might reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan-Peng; Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Yu-Ling; Li, Jian; Zhu, Rong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    .... We searched PubMed and Embase for observational (cohort or case-control) studies examining the consumption of aspirin and other NSAIDs and the incidence of or mortality rates associated with pancreatic cancer...

  20. Studies of Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Depletion Events Through Buoy-Borne Observations and Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfacre, John W.

    The photochemically-induced destruction of ground-level Arctic ozone in the Arctic occurs at the onset of spring, in concert with polar sunrise. Solar radiation is believed to stimulate a series of reactions that cause the production and release of molecular halogens from frozen, salty surfaces, though this mechanism is not yet well understood. The subsequent photolysis of molecular halogens produces reactive halogen atoms that remove ozone from the atmosphere in these so-called "Ozone Depletion Events" (ODEs). Given that much of the Arctic region is sunlit, meteorologically stable, and covered by saline ice and snow, it is expected that ODEs could be a phenomenon that occurs across the entire Arctic region. Indeed, an ever-growing body of evidence from coastal sites indicates that Arctic air masses devoid of O3 most often pass over sea ice-covered regions before arriving at an observation site, suggesting ODE chemistry occurs upwind over the frozen Arctic Ocean. However, outside of coastal observations, there exist very few long-term observations from the Arctic Ocean from which quantitative assessments of basic ODE characteristics can be made. This work presents the interpretation of ODEs through unique chemical and meteorological observations from several ice-tethered buoys deployed around the Arctic Ocean. These observations include detection of ozone, bromine monoxide, and measurements of temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. To assess whether the O-Buoys were observing locally based depletion chemistry or the transport of ozone-poor air masses, periods of ozone decay were interpreted based on current understanding of ozone depletion kinetics, which are believed to follow a pseudo-first order rate law. In addition, the spatial extents of ODEs were estimated using air mass trajectory modeling to assess whether they are a localized or synoptic phenomenon. Results indicate that current understanding of the

  1. Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and Cancer Risk: A Review of Observational Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Bach-Faig, A.; Buckland, G.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to summarize the evidence concerning the association between Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. All the studies that met the following criteria were reviewed: human cohort and case-control studies that examined the effe

  2. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulliez L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  3. Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Britta; Higgins, Julian P T; Jüni, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the inter-observer variation related to extraction of continuous and numerical rating scale data from trial reports for use in meta-analyses. DESIGN: Observer agreement study. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of 10 Cochrane reviews that presented a result as a standardised mean...... difference (SMD), the protocols for the reviews and the trial reports (n=45) were retrieved. DATA EXTRACTION: Five experienced methodologists and five PhD students independently extracted data from the trial reports for calculation of the first SMD result in each review. The observers did not have access...

  4. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Responses of serum inflammatory factor high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in elderly males with cerebral infarction Non-randomized concurrent control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiping Jiao; Xinjie Tan; Zhiliu Yuan; Chunling Li; Jing Wang; Wen Mo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral infarction is poorly treated due to neuronal necrosis and secondary pathophysiological changes; for example, free radical production and inflammatory reactions.OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor nccrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in elderly males with cerebral infarction.DESIGN: Non-randomized current control study.SETTING: Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Forty elderly males (65-89 years old) with cerebral infarction were selected from Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital from February 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction modified at the 4th National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting, and were diagnosed on the basis of CT or MRI tests. Furthermore, 35 elderly male inpatients (65-87 years old) without cerebral infarction were selected as the control group. Included subjects provided confirmed consent and did not have heart disease, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, acute trauma, infection, rheumatism, or other inflammatory diseases. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. There were no significant differences in age, blood pressure, and lipid levels between the cerebral infarction group and the control group (P>0.05), and this suggested that the baseline data of both groups were comparable.METHODS: Fasting venous blood was drawn from cerebral infarction patients 24 hours after cerebral infarction attack and from control subjects 24 hours after hospitalization. A latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum in both groups.RESULTS: Forty cerebral infarction patients and thirty-five control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss

  6. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  7. Do transfusions cause necrotizing enterocolitis? The complementary role of randomized trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Haresh; Zupancic, John A F

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the published literature on the association between transfusions in newborns and the occurrence of transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis were performed. We discuss the differences between findings in randomized trials, and the results of observational studies that first explored this putative link. We suggest the following framework: where observational studies play a hypothesis generating- role for therapies and harm, and randomized studies allow an acid test of that hypothesis. It is acknowledged that not all questions can be subject to a randomized evaluation, but argued that this particular association is amenable to such a test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using direct clinical observation to assess the quality of cesarean delivery in Afghanistan: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cherrie Lynn; Kim, Young Mi; Yari, Khalid; Ansari, Nasratullah; Tappis, Hannah

    2014-05-27

    As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. All time intervals with the exception of "decision to skin incision" were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect

  9. An Optimal Observing System Study for the Kuroshio Extension using Particle Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Werner; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Pierieni, Stefano; Dijkstra, Henk

    2010-05-01

    The Kuroshio Extension - the eastward-flowing free jet formed when the warm waters of the Kuroshio separate from the Japanese coast - reveals bimodal behavior. It changes from an elongated, energetic meandering jet into a weaker, unstable jet with a reduced zonal penetration. Many of its characteristics, e.g. the decadal period and the more stable character of the elongated state, are also observed in a reduced-gravity ocean model of the northern Pacific basin with a schematic Japanese coastline driven by a constant double-gyre wind field. The success of this idealized model suggests that intrinsic nonlinear mechanisms play a major role in determining the meander pattern of the mean flow. The low complexity of the model makes it ideal to perform an observing system study. Here, we take a new approach by using particle filters to assimilate observations into the model. An ensemble of model states is integrated over time from an initial distribution. The first approach is to pick one run as the synthetic truth. Observations are produced from this synthetic truth with an additional observation error. The particle filter technique adjusts the weight of each ensemble run - each particle - according to the observation value and the error distribution. From the ensemble and its weight distribution the expectation and probability distribution of the state vector can be computed. As the ensemble itself is not altered by the filter, different sets of observations, e.g. with different geometrical configurations, locations and/or time resolutions, can be analyzed a posteriori. The particle filter analyses allows us to identify which observations have a large impact on reconstructing the true state of Kuroshio Extension. More precisely, which observations contribute to a (local) reduction in the entropy of the ensemble. In a way each observation is then linked to an area of influence, which permits for determining the flow of information. We will present results where

  10. A preliminary study for spatial representiveness of flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The results of eddy covariance observation system could represent the physical process at certain area of the surface. Thus point-to-area representativeness was of primary interest in flux observation. This research presents a preliminary study for flux observation at ChinaFLUX sites by the use of observation data and Flux Source Area Model (FSAM). Results show that the footprint expands and is further away from flux tower when atmosphere becomes more stable, the observation height increases, or the surfaces become smoother. This suggests that the area represented by the flux observation becomes larger. The distances from the reference point to the maximum point Smax and the minimum point x1 of source weight function (Dmax and Dmin, respectively) can be influenced by atmosphere stability which becomes longer when atmosphere is more stable. For more rough surfaces and lower observation point Dmax and Dmin become shorter. This research gives the footprint at level P=90% at ChinaFLUX sites at different atmosphere stability. The preliminary results of spatial representiveness at ChinaFLUX sites were given based on the dominant wind direction and footprint response to various factors. The study also provides some theoretical basis for data quality control and evaluating data uncertainty.

  11. Using and Experiencing the Academic Library: A Multisite Observational Study of Space and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Francine; Swabey, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how students are using academic library spaces and the role these spaces are playing in the campus community. Data were collected on five campuses (two community colleges, two undergraduate universities, and one technical institute) via observational seating sweeps and questionnaires. The study found remarkably similar usage…

  12. A Comparative Study of Observed Score Approaches and Purification Procedures for Detecting Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Nohoon; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.; Davison, Mark L.

    The purposes of this study were to introduce the iterative purification procedure and to compare this with the two-step purification procedure, to compare false positive error rates and the power of five observed score approaches and to identify factors affecting power and false positive rates in each method. This study used 2,400 data sets that…

  13. The comparison of two analgesic regimes after ambulatory surgery: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, F. van der; Stapel, J.T.; Lako, S.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the past 15 years, the number of ambulatory surgical procedures worldwide has increased continuously. Studies show that 30% to 40% of the patients experience moderate-to-severe pain in the first 48 hours. The objective of this observational study is to compare the percentage of

  14. The comparison of two analgesic regimes after ambulatory surgery: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, F. van der; Stapel, J.T.; Lako, S.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the past 15 years, the number of ambulatory surgical procedures worldwide has increased continuously. Studies show that 30% to 40% of the patients experience moderate-to-severe pain in the first 48 hours. The objective of this observational study is to compare the percentage of mo

  15. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  16. The effect of maternal ketanserin use on the circulation of the neonate : a prospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, Liselotte; van Roon, Eric N.; Morssink, Leonard P.; de Vries, Nathalie K. S.

    Objective: High ketanserin levels are found in the umbilical cord after maternal treatment. However, the effect on the circulation of the neonate has never been investigated. Study design: A prospective, observational study was performed at the neonate ward at the Medical Centre Leeuwarden, The

  17. Coagulation Profile Dynamics in Pediatric Patients with Cushing Syndrome: A Prospective, Observational Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdwell, L. (Leah); M.B. Lodish (Maya Beth); Tirosh, A. (Amit); P. Chittiboina (Prashant); M. Keil (Mark); Lyssikatos, C. (Charlampos); Belyavskaya, E. (Elena); R.A. Feelders (Richard); C.A. Stratakis (Constantine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the association between Cushing syndrome and hypercoagulability in children. Study design A prospective, observational study was performed of 54 patients with Cushing syndrome, 15.1 ± 3.9 years, treated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

  18. The comparison of two analgesic regimes after ambulatory surgery: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, F. van der; Stapel, J.T.; Lako, S.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the past 15 years, the number of ambulatory surgical procedures worldwide has increased continuously. Studies show that 30% to 40% of the patients experience moderate-to-severe pain in the first 48 hours. The objective of this observational study is to compare the percentage of mo

  19. Reading Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities: An Observation Study Synthesis (1980-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melodee A.; Stevens, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes observation studies investigating reading instruction for students with learning disabilities (LD) in Grades K-12. A systematic search of the literature between 1980 and 2014 resulted in the identification of 25 studies. In addition to replicating and extending E. A. Swanson's synthesis, the research questions of studies…

  20. Shared care with task delegation to nurses for type 2 diabetes : prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink-Veltmaat, L.J.; Bilo, HJG; Groenier, KH; Rischen, RO; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background: To study the effects of two different structured shared care interventions, tailored to local needs and resources, in an unselected patient population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A three-year prospective observational study of two interventions and standard care. The

  1. The use of community pharmacies in North West England: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies of community pharmacy footfall and activity in the existing literature, especially by direct observation. To describe the characteristics of counter interactions between pharmacy staff and customers. Structured observation of all interactions between pharmacy staff and customers across the weekly opening hours of five pharmacies diverse in location and ownership. Three-quarters (76%) of observed interactions were associated with prescriptions, but a significant minority accessed cognitive services. Dispensing was the primary activity across the diverse range of pharmacies. Reasons for visits are diversifying into advice and services, particularly among younger users. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Simulation study on heterogeneous variance adjustment for observations with different measurement error variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Timo; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander

    2013-01-01

    of variance correction is developed for the same observations. As automated milking systems are becoming more popular the current evaluation model needs to be enhanced to account for the different measurement error variances of observations from automated milking systems. In this simulation study different...... models and different approaches to account for heterogeneous variance when observations have different measurement error variances were investigated. Based on the results we propose to upgrade the currently applied models and to calibrate the heterogeneous variance adjustment method to yield same genetic...

  3. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has

  4. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davies

    2005-01-01

    statistical fit to MLS observations. Both adjustments would be required to bring the model into agreement with the MIPAS-B observations. The agreement between the model and observations suggests that a NAT-only denitrification scheme (without ice, which was discounted by previous studies, must now be considered as one mechanism for the observed Arctic denitrification. The timing of onset and the rate of denitrification remain poorly constrained by the available observations.

  5. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davies

    2005-01-01

    statistical fit to MLS observations. Both adjustments would be required to bring the model into agreement with the MIPAS-B observations. The agreement between the model and observations suggests that a NAT-only denitrification scheme (without ice, which was discounted by previous studies, must now be considered as one mechanism for the observed Arctic denitrification. The timing of onset and the rate of denitrification remain poorly constrained by the available observations.

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Castaneda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF in observational studies. Methods: This study is a systematic review of articles that use the ICF in observational studies. We took into account the observational design papers available in databases such as PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO, published in English and Portuguese from January 2001 to June 2011. We excluded those in which the samples did not comprise individuals, those about children and adolescents, and qualitative methodology articles. After reading the abstracts of 265 identified articles, 65 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 18 were excluded. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology adapted Checklist, with 15 items needed for observational studies, was applied to the 47 remaining articles. Any paper that met 12 of these criteria was included in this systematic review. Results: 29 articles were reviewed. Regarding the ICF application methodology, the checklist was used in 31% of the articles, the core set in 31% and the ICF categories in 31%. In the remaining 7%, it was not possible to define the applied methodology. In most papers (41%, qualifiers were used in their original format. As far as the area of knowledge is concerned, most of the studies were related to Rheumatology (24% and Orthopedics (21%. Regarding the study design, 83% of the articles used cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Results indicate a wide scientific production related to ICF over the past 10 years. Different areas of knowledge are involved in the debate on the improvement of information on morbidity. However, there are only a few quantitative epidemiological studies involving the use of ICF. Future studies are needed to improve data related to functioning and disability.

  7. Segmental dataset and whole body expression data do not support the hypothesis that non-random movement is an intrinsic property of Drosophila retrogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibranovski Maria D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in Drosophila have shown excessive movement of retrogenes from the X chromosome to autosomes, and that these genes are frequently expressed in the testis. This phenomenon has led to several hypotheses invoking natural selection as the process driving male-biased genes to the autosomes. Metta and Schlötterer (BMC Evol Biol 2010, 10:114 analyzed a set of retrogenes where the parental gene has been subsequently lost. They assumed that this class of retrogenes replaced the ancestral functions of the parental gene, and reported that these retrogenes, although mostly originating from movement out of the X chromosome, showed female-biased or unbiased expression. These observations led the authors to suggest that selective forces (such as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and sexual antagonism were not responsible for the observed pattern of retrogene movement out of the X chromosome. Results We reanalyzed the dataset published by Metta and Schlötterer and found several issues that led us to a different conclusion. In particular, Metta and Schlötterer used a dataset combined with expression data in which significant sex-biased expression is not detectable. First, the authors used a segmental dataset where the genes selected for analysis were less testis-biased in expression than those that were excluded from the study. Second, sex-biased expression was defined by comparing male and female whole-body data and not the expression of these genes in gonadal tissues. This approach significantly reduces the probability of detecting sex-biased expressed genes, which explains why the vast majority of the genes analyzed (parental and retrogenes were equally expressed in both males and females. Third, the female-biased expression observed by Metta and Schlötterer is mostly found for parental genes located on the X chromosome, which is known to be enriched with genes with female-biased expression. Fourth, using additional

  8. A study of L-dependent Pc3 pulsations observed by low Earth orbiting CHAMP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Field line resonances (FLR driven by compressional waves are an important mechanism for the generation of ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed at all latitudes during local daytime. References to observations of toroidal standing Alfvén mode oscillations with clearly L-dependent frequencies from spacecraft in the outer magnetosphere for L>3 are limited in the literature. Such observations in the inner magnetosphere for L<3 have not yet been reported in the literature. This study offers two interesting case studies of observations of ULF waves by the low Earth orbiting CHAMP satellite. The magnetic field measurements from CHAMP, which are of unprecedented accuracy and resolution, are compared to Hermanus magnetometer data for times when CHAMP crosses the ground station L-shell, namely for 13 February 2002 and 18 February 2003. The data were analysed for Pc3 pulsation activity using the Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA method to visualise FLRs in the vector magnetometer data. For the first time observations of Pc3 toroidal oscillations with clearly L-dependent frequencies for lower L-shell values (L<3 observed by an LEO satellite are reported. These observations show FLR frequencies increasing as a function of decreasing latitude down to L=1.6 and then decreasing as a result of the larger plasma density of the upper ionosphere. The L-dependent frequency oscillations were observed in the presence of a broadband compressional wave spectrum. Our observations thus confirm the well-known magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theoretical prediction of a compressional wave being the driver of the field line resonance.

  9. A Non-randomized Comparison of Strategies for Consultation in a Community-Academic Training Program to Implement an Evidence-Based Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Pontoski, Kristin; Creed, Torrey; Xhezo, Regina; Evans, Arthur C.; Beck, Aaron T.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Despite the central role of training and consultation in the implementation of evidence-based psychological interventions (EBPIs), comprehensive reviews of research on training have highlighted serious gaps in knowledge regarding best practices. Consultation after initial didactic training appears to be of critical importance, but there has been very little research to determine optimal consultation format or interventions. This observational study compared two consultation formats that included review of session audio and feedback in the context of a program to train clinicians (n = 85) in community mental health clinics to deliver cognitive therapy (CT). A “gold standard” condition in which clinicians received individual feedback after expert consultants reviewed full sessions was compared to a group consultation format in which short segments of session audio were reviewed by a group of clinicians and an expert consultant. After adjusting for potential baseline differences between individuals in the two consultation conditions, few differences were found in terms of successful completion of the consultation phase or in terms of competence in CT at the end of consultation or after a 2 year follow-up. However, analyses did not support hypotheses regarding non-inferiority of the group consultation condition. While both groups largely maintained competence, clinicians in the group consultation condition demonstrated increases in competence over the follow-up period, while a sub-group of those in the individual condition experienced decreases. These findings, if replicated, have important implications for EBP implementation programs, as they suggest that observation and feedback is feasible in community mental health setting, and that employing this method in a group format is an effective and efficient consultation strategy that may enhance the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based psychotherapies. PMID:26577646

  10. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qiang Qin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98. Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36. In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

  11. Fluvastatin and the Breast Cancer Risk:A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Liu; Jian Zhang; Wei Zhang; James Lu; Jian-Lun Han; Guang-Jun Hao; Sheng-Ming Ye

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the associations between fluvatatin and the risk of breast cancer (BC), but their results were conflicting. A meta-analysis of observational studies published regarding this subject was conducted in the present study. It aims to estimate the associations between fluvastatin use and the risk of BC. Pubmed and chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) database was searched up to January, 2015 to identify eligible observational studies, and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess quality of the studies. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated (fixed effect model: Mantel-Haenszel). Heterogeneities were evaluated before the calculation. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted. In total, four studies contributed to the analysis. Overall, fluvastatin use negatively correlated with BC risk (RR=0.74, 95%CI=0.58, 0.95). In conclusion, fluvastatin use may reduce the risk of BC, but more research is needed to confirm this finding.

  12. Predictors of switching from mania to depression in a large observational study across Europe (EMBLEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieta, Eduard; Angst, Jules; Reed, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Depression Rating Scale. Switching was defined using CGI-BP mania and depression such that patients changed from manic and not depressed to depressed but not manic over two consecutive observations within the first 12 weeks of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models identified baseline variables......BACKGROUND: The risk of switching from mania to depression in bipolar disorder has been poorly studied. Large observational studies may be useful in identifying variables that predict switch to depression after mania and provide data on medication use and outcomes in "real world" patients. METHOD......: EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) is a 2-year, prospective, observational study of patients with a manic/mixed episode. Symptom severity measures included Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder scale (CGI-BP), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and 5-item Hamilton...

  13. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  14. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Bruce K. Rubin; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  15. The brain study : Cognition, quality of life and social functioning following preeclampsia; An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. R.; Groen, H.; Easterling, T. R.; Tsigas, E. Z.; Wilson, M. L.; Porcel, J.; Zeeman, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Previously preeclamptic women may express cognitive difficulties, which have largely been unappreciated or attributed to stresses of a complicated pregnancy. This study aimed to explore the scope of perceived neurocognitive and psychosocial problems as well as quality of life following p

  16. The brain study : Cognition, quality of life and social functioning following preeclampsia; An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. R.; Groen, H.; Easterling, T. R.; Tsigas, E. Z.; Wilson, M. L.; Porcel, J.; Zeeman, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Previously preeclamptic women may express cognitive difficulties, which have largely been unappreciated or attributed to stresses of a complicated pregnancy. This study aimed to explore the scope of perceived neurocognitive and psychosocial problems as well as quality of life following

  17. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Kingma, Idsart; Boot, Cécile R L; Douwes, Marjolein; Bongers, Paulien M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimated the risk of MSP (neck, shoulder or low-back pain) using a three-point scale (high, moderate and low risk) after observing a video of randomly selected workers representing a task group. Associations of the estimated risk of pain and reported pain during a three-year follow-up were assessed using logistic regression. Estimated risk of neck and shoulder pain did (odds ratio, OR: 1.45 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-2.08); 1.64 (95% CI: 1.05-2.55)), however, estimated risk of low-back pain did not significantly predict pain (OR: 1.27 (95% CI: 0.91-1.79)). The results show that observers were able to estimate the risk of shoulder and neck pain, whereas they found it difficult to estimate the risk of low-back pain. Practitioner Summary: Work-related musculoskeletal pain risk assessments by observers are often used in ergonomic practice. We showed that observers were able to estimate shoulder and neck pain risk, but had difficulties to estimate the risk of low-back pain. Therefore, observers' risk estimates might provide a useful method for musculoskeletal pain risk assessments.

  18. A study of tri-static PMSE observations with EISCAT at 224 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Häggström, Ingemar; Tjulin, Anders; Rostami, Sina

    2014-05-01

    Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) are assumed to form as a consequence of mesospheric neutral air turbulence in the presence of massive charged ice particles. They offer an opportunity to study the thermal and dynamical structure of the mesopause region and its coupling to other altitude regions. In the summer of 2013 the EISCAT radars, located in Northern Scandinavia, could for the first time be used for tri-static observations in the VHF band (224 MHz). This is a frequency range where PMSE are often observed. We report observations carried out in June 2013. The radar signal was transmitted in zenith direction with the EISCAT VHF antenna near Tromsø (69.59 deg N, 19.23 deg E) and the scattered signal was measured from Tromsø, Kiruna (67.86 deg N, 20.44 deg E) and Sodankylä (67.36 deg N, 26.63 deg E). PMSE were observed in the 80 to 90 km altitude range from all three receivers for a large fraction of the observation time. Zenith observations simultaneously carried out with the Tromsø UHF radar (933 MHz) displayed predominantly incoherent scatter and an electron density typical for the altitude. Our observations suggest that the scattering process underlying the PMSE occurs over a broad range of scattering angles and that the atmospheric layers generating the PMSE move with a speed in the order of up to a few 10 m/s.

  19. Asthma and suicide-related adverse events: a review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Iessa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health concern. There are several risk factors associated with suicide. Chronic illnesses, such as asthma, have been linked to an increased risk of suicide-related events. This study reviews the evidence of an association between asthma and suicide using published epidemiological observational studies. An electronic search using PubMed and EMBASE was performed. Studies that investigated the association of asthma with suicide-related behaviour were selected. Studies were examined to form a descriptive analysis. Six observational studies met the selection criteria, of which at least one suicide-related adverse event was studied. Three studies investigated completed suicide, two suicide attempts and four suicide ideation. Two of the studies focused on individuals aged <18 yrs. Evidence from observational data support the hypothesis of an association between asthma and suicide-related behaviour (ideation, attempts and completion; however, epidemiological studies, with more objective measures and larger sample sizes, adjusting for a wider scope of suicide-related confounding factors (e.g. comorbidities, and with a longitudinal design, are needed for a more conclusive answer.

  20. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of active tuberculosis: a systematic review of 13 observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB. The rising prevalence of DM in TB-endemic areas may adversely affect TB control. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational studies assessing the association of DM and TB in order to summarize the existing evidence and to assess methodological quality of the studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies that had reported an age-adjusted quantitative estimate of the association between DM and active TB disease. The search yielded 13 observational studies (n = 1,786,212 participants with 17,698 TB cases. Random effects meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of TB (relative risk = 3.11, 95% CI 2.27-4.26. Case-control studies were heterogeneous and odds ratios ranged from 1.16 to 7.83. Subgroup analyses showed that effect estimates were higher in non-North American studies. CONCLUSION: DM was associated with an increased risk of TB regardless of study design and population. People with DM may be important targets for interventions such as active case finding and treatment of latent TB and efforts to diagnose, detect, and treat DM may have a beneficial impact on TB control.

  1. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  2. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  3. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard W Heymann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Study of Art Observation Training to Improve Medical Student Ophthalmology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Revere, Karen E; Niepold, Suzannah; Bassett, Barbara; Mitchell, Rebecca; Davidson, Stephanie; DeLisser, Horace; Binenbaum, Gil

    2017-08-03

    Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial. Thirty-six first-year medical students, randomized 1:1 into art-training and control groups. Students in the art-training group were taught by professional art educators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, during 6 custom-designed, 1.5-hour art observation sessions over a 3-month period. All subjects completed pre- and posttesting, in which they described works of art, retinal pathology images, and external photographs of eye diseases. Grading of written descriptions for observational and descriptive abilities by reviewers using an a priori rubric and masked to group assignment and pretesting/posttesting status. Observational skills, as measured by description testing, improved significantly in the training group (mean change +19.1 points) compared with the control group (mean change -13.5 points), P = 0.001. There were significant improvements in the training vs. control group for each of the test subscores. In a poststudy questionnaire, students reported applying the skills they learned in the museum in clinically meaningful ways at medical school. Art observation training for first-year medical students can improve clinical ophthalmology observational skills. Principles from the field of visual arts, which is reputed to excel in teaching observation and descriptive abilities, can be successfully applied to medical training. Further studies can examine the impact of such training on clinical care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A large Italian observational multicentre study on vascular ulcers of the lower limbs (Studio Ulcere Vascolari).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Alessandro; Antignani, Pier L; Di Salvo, Michelangelo; Failla, Giacomo; Guarnera, Giorgio; Mosti, Giovanni; Ricci, Elia

    2016-02-01

    An observational study of 2 years was promoted by the Italian Association for Cutaneous Ulcers (AIUC) in order to monitor the epidemiology of leg ulcers, the trend of healing and the more frequent therapeutic approaches in lower limb ulcers. Fifty-nine sites in 14 different Italian regions involved in the study, with 1333 enrolled patients (1163 patients fully evaluated and followed up for 9 months). A prevalence of females (62%) was observed with a mean age of 70 years and a high rate of hypertension (62%), diabetes (38%) and obesity (29%). Venous ulcer was most frequent (55%), followed by mixed (25%) and diabetic (8·3%) ulcers. Basically, all patients received a local therapy (LT) (compression and advanced local therapies), while 63% of patients have an associated systemic pharmaceutical treatment. Ulcer healing rates progressively increased throughout the study and despite the type of observational study does not allow conclusions on the treatment, it was observed that the patients receiving additional systemic drugs were associated with a more rapid acceleration of healing rates of ulcers compared to LT alone (3 months: 39·7% versus 29·2%; 6 months: 62·0% versus 47·0%; 9 months: 74·7% versus 63·8%). In particular, the Studio Ulcere Vascolari (SUV) study showed that a combination treatment with sulodexide and compression therapy allows for a greater increase in the healing rates in venous ulcers.

  6. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  7. Observational studies on evaluating the safety and adverse effects of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jung-Nein; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  8. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nein Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  9. Mobilisation of hematopoietic CD34+ precursor cells in patients with acute stroke is safe--results of an open-labeled non randomized phase I/II trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Boy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regenerative strategies in the treatment of acute stroke may have great potential. Hematopoietic growth factors mobilize hematopoietic stem cells and may convey neuroprotective effects. We examined the safety, potential functional and structural changes, and CD34(+ cell-mobilization characteristics of G-CSF treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three cohorts of patients (8, 6, and 6 patients per cohort were treated subcutaneously with 2.5, 5, or 10 µg/kg body weight rhG-CSF for 5 consecutive days within 12 hrs of onset of acute stroke. Standard treatment included i.v. thrombolysis. Safety monitoring consisted of obtaining standardized clinical assessment scores, monitoring of CD34(+ stem cells, blood chemistry, serial neuroradiology, and neuropsychology. Voxel-guided morphometry (VGM enabled an assessment of changes in the patients' structural parenchyma. 20 patients (mean age 55 yrs were enrolled in this study, 5 of whom received routine thrombolytic therapy with r-tPA. G-CSF treatment was discontinued in 4 patients because of unrelated adverse events. Mobilization of CD34(+ cells was observed with no concomitant changes in blood chemistry, except for an increase in the leukocyte count up to 75,500/µl. Neuroradiological and neuropsychological follow-up studies did not disclose any specific G-CSF toxicity. VGM findings indicated substantial atrophy of related hemispheres, a substantial increase in the CSF space, and a localized increase in parenchyma within the ischemic area in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a good safety profile for daily administration of G-CSF when begun within 12 hours after onset of ischemic stroke and, in part in combination with routine i.v. thrombolysis. Additional analyses using VGM and a battery of neuropsychological tests indicated a positive functional and potentially structural effect of G-CSF treatment in some of our patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German

  10. Some observations on hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave scale study to infrared scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitrin, Sam; Nahal, Geev; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining; San Francisco State University Team; University of Surrey Team

    2015-03-01

    A novel class of disordered photonic materials, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDS), attracted more attention. Recently they have been experimentally proven to provide complete photonic band gap (PBG) when made with Alumina or Si; as well as single-polarization PBG when made with plastic with refract index of 1.6. These PBGs were shown to be real energy gaps with zero density of photonic states, instead of mobility gaps of low transmission due to scattering, etc. Using cm-scale samples and microwave experiments, we reveal the nature of photonic modes existing in these disordered materials by analyzing phase delay and mapping field distribution profile inside them. We also show how to extend the proof-of-concept microwave studies of these materials to proof-of-scale studies for real applications, by designing and fabricating these disordered photonic materials at submicron-scale with functional devices for 1.55 micron wavelength. The intrinsic isotropy of the disordered structure is an inherent advantage associated with the absence of limitations of orientational order, which is shown to provide valuable freedom in defect architecture design impossible in periodical structures. NSF Award DMR-1308084, the University of Surrey's FRSF and Santander awards.

  11. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  12. Registration practices for observational studies on ClinicalTrials.gov indicated low adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Stefania; Rothman, Kenneth J; Panic, Nikola; Flacco, Maria Elena; Rosso, Annalisa; Pastorino, Roberta; Manzoli, Lamberto; La Vecchia, Carlo; Villari, Paolo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-02-01

    The study aims to assess the status of registration of observational studies. We identified studies on cancer research with prospective recruitment of participants that were registered from February 2000 to December 2011 in ClinicalTrials.gov. We recorded the dates of registration and start of recruitment, outcomes, and description of statistical method. We searched for publications corresponding to the registered studies through May 31, 2014. One thousand one hundred nine registered studies were eligible. Primary and secondary outcomes were reported in 809 (73.0%) and 464 (41.8%) of them. The date of registration preceded the month of the study start in 145 (13.8%) and coincided in 205 (19.5%). A total of 151 publications from 120 (10.8%) registered studies were identified. In 2 (33.3%) of the 6 publications where ClinicalTrials.gov reported that the study started recruitment after registration, and in 9 (50.0%) of 18 publications where ClinicalTrials.gov reported the same date for registration and start of recruitment, the articles showed that the study had actually started recruiting before registration. During the period reviewed, few observational studies have been registered. Registration usually occurred after the study started, and prespecification of outcomes and statistical analysis rarely occurred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A mixed methods observational simulation-based study of interprofessional team communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kurt; Musaeus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Interprofessional team communication has been identified as an important focus for safety in medical emergency care. However, in-depth insight into the complexity of team communication is limited. Video observational studies might fill a gap in terms of understanding the meaning of specific commu...

  14. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer

  15. Problematising Short-Term Participant Observation and Multi-Method Ethnographic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of apprentices in England and Germany designed to explore young people's learner identities over time and in relation to particular learning environments. The research adopts a multi-method ethnographic approach, combining biographical interviews with multi-site participant observation. The article problematises the…

  16. Maverick total disc replacement in a real-world patient population: a prospective, multicentre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaker, Richard; Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Vardon, Dominique; Litrico, Stéphane; Fuentes, Stéphane; Putzier, Michael; Franke, Jörg; Jarzem, Peter; Guigui, Pierre; Nakach, Gérard; Le Huec, Jean-Charles

    2015-09-01

    Controlled trials have shown that total disc replacement (TDR) can provide pain and disability relief to patients with degenerative disc disease; however, whether these outcomes can also be achieved for patients treated in normal surgical practice has not been well documented. This prospective, international study observed changes in disability and back pain in 134 patients who were implanted with Maverick TDR within the framework of routine clinical practice and followed for 2 years post-surgery. Primary and secondary outcomes were the differences from baseline to 6 months post-surgery in the means of the Oswestry Disability Index and the change in back pain intensity assessed on a 10-cm visual analogue scale, respectively. Mean patient age at surgery was 43 years, but ranged up to 65 years. One hundred twenty-three patients had an implant at one level, 10 patients at two levels, and one patient at three levels. Statistically significant improvements in mean disability (-25.4) and low back pain intensity (-4.0) scores were observed at 6 months postoperatively (P 10 TDRs per centre). During the study, 56 patients (42 %) experienced a complication or adverse event. This is the first international observational study to report outcomes of TDR in real-world clinical settings. We showed statistically significant improvements in disability and pain scores at 6 months following Maverick TDR, which were maintained for 2 years alongside an acceptable rate of perioperative complications. The safety and tolerability shown in this observational study were comparable to those from controlled trials.

  17. Friends' Responses to Children's Disclosure of an Achievement-Related Success: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell; Ivers, Ivy E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social support processes in the context of positive events. The conversations of fourth-grade through sixth-grade focal children and their friends (N = 116) were observed after focal children outperformed their friend on an achievement-related task. Changes in focal children's performance-related positive affect from…

  18. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals

  19. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : A validation study of an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; van Dijk, AJ; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Kinebanian, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  20. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: a validation study of an observational method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Dijk, A.J. van; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  1. Distress in suspected lung cancer patients following rapid and standard diagnostic programs: a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, P.; Heijden, E.H. van der; Oud, K.T.; Bootsma, G.; Groen, H.J.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Prins, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Timeliness may influence emotional distress during the diagnostic phase of suspected lung cancer patients. We performed a prospective observational study to compare distress and quality of life (QoL) in two medical centres with a Rapid Outpatient Diagnostic Program (RODP) and two using co

  2. Effects of Game Type on Children's Gender-Based Peer Preferences: A Naturalistic Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Mallis, Michael; Leon, Ileana

    1999-01-01

    Used naturalistic observation to study 242 first- to third- graders playing two games that varied in physicality and competitiveness. As predicted, children interacted more often with same-sex peers. Findings support the necessity of investigating social context as an influence on children's own-sex favoritism. (SLD)

  3. Dealing with missing outcome data in randomized trials and observational studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R.H.; Donders, A.R.T.; Roes, K.C.; Harrell Jr, F.E.; Moons, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Although missing outcome data are an important problem in randomized trials and observational studies, methods to address this issue can be difficult to apply. Using simulated data, the authors compared 3 methods to handle missing outcome data: 1) complete case analysis; 2) single imputation; and 3)

  4. Multiple Integrated Examinations: An Observational Study of Different Academic Curricula Based on a Business Administration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardolino, Piermatteo; Noventa, Stefano; Formicuzzi, Maddalena; Cubico, Serena; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    An observational study has been carried out to analyse differences in performance between students of different undergraduate curricula in the same written business administration examination, focusing particularly on possible effects of "integrated" or "multi-modular" examinations, a recently widespread format in Italian…

  5. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  6. The Effects of Music Genre on Young People's Alcohol Consumption: An Experimental Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Spijkerman, R.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter

    2012-01-01

    he aim of this study was to test whether exposure to specific music genres in a social drinking setting leads to differences in drinking levels. An observational experimental design was used in which we invited peer groups of young adults into a bar lab, a lab which is furnished like an ordinary, sm

  7. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  8. 78 FR 32406 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... women, namely, coronary heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), 0020, the National... Observational Study. Revision- OMB No. 0925-0414, Expiration Date: 07/31/2013. National Heart, Lung, and...

  9. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  10. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer p

  11. Sustained Attention during Learning Activities: An Observational Study with Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Florente; Menez, Marina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse possible developmental trends in sustained attention through the pre-school period, as well as the influence of social and physical distractions. Three samples of children, one per each pre-school grade, were observed during learning activities required by the teacher. Children's behaviour was coded…

  12. Study of Distortions in Statistics of Counts in CCD Observations using the Fano Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasieva, I V

    2016-01-01

    Factors distorting the statistics of photocounts when acquiring objects with low fluxes were considered here. Measurements of the Fano factor for existing CCD systems were conducted. The study allows one to conclude on the quality of the CCD video signal processing channel. The optimal strategy for faint object observations was suggested.

  13. 24 Hours in the Children's Section: An Observational Study at the Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore patronage and usage of the children's section of a public library. Patrons of the children's section of a public library in a small Northern Arizona city were observed for a total of 24 h over 12 sessions. Analytic induction was used to formulate categories based on field notes made during these…

  14. Evaluating effectiveness and safety toward electronic cigarette among Malaysian vapers: One-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A month follow-up showed a good smoking cessation rate among Malaysian vapers mainly in single users, whereas less number of quitters but the high reduction in tobacco cigarette consumption observed in dual users without any harmful effects. Furthermore, extended period studies are warranted to confirm its long-term safety and effectiveness among different Malaysian population.

  15. Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks: a mid-project progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining-induced earthquakes pose a risk to workers in deep mines, while natural earthquakes pose a risk to people living close to plate boundaries and even in stable continental regions. A 5-year Japan-SA collaborative project "Observational studies...

  16. Measuring disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : A validation study of an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; van Dijk, AJ; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Kinebanian, A

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical and construct validity of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing the face and upper body and putting on a

  17. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in the UMCG: A retrospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, D.R.M.; Brouwer, O.F.; Callenbach, P.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about clinical practice with respect to the application of guidelines in the treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus (CSE). This retrospective, observational study evaluated treatment of episodes of CSE in children at the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG). Mat

  18. Performance comparison of breast imaging modalities using a 4AFC human observer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Bosmans, Hilde; Segars, William P.; Wells, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    This work compares the visibility of spheres and simulated masses in 2D-mammography and tomosynthesis systems using human observer studies. Performing comparison studies between breast imaging systems poses a number of practical challenges within a clinical environment. We therefore adopted a simulation approach which included synthetic breast blocks, a validated lesion simulation model and a set of validated image modelling tools as a viable alternative to clinical trials. A series of 4-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer experiments has been conducted for signal detection tasks using masses and spheres as targets. Five physicists participated in the study viewing images with a 5mm target at a range of contrast levels and 60 trials per experimental condition. The results showed that tomosynthesis has a lower threshold contrast than 2D-mammography for masses and spheres, and that detection studies using spheres may produce overly-optimistic threshold contrast values.

  19. Using hypertext and the Internet for structure and management of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, V J

    1997-08-15

    The evolution of computer and communications systems in the past decade brings new opportunities for increased efficiency and accuracy of observational studies. In ongoing, large scale research studies, the problem of bridging organizational and analytical methods of the past to modern methods of data structure and control can consume considerable effort. A model for information flow in an observational study is sketched, and the flow is found inherently complex. This complexity and corresponding managerial demands are compounded by database file proliferation and by evolution of system hardware and software. Interactive, network-based database mapping and documentation tools are described as currently implemented in an SAS-based system for the management and analysis of several large epidemiologic studies.

  20. Estimation of fault parameters using GRACE observations and analytical model. Case study: The 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatolazadeh, Farzam; Naeeni, Mehdi Raoofian; Voosoghi, Behzad; Rahimi, Armin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an inversion method is used to constrain the fault parameters of the 2010 Chile Earthquake using gravimetric observations. The formulation consists of using monthly Geopotential coefficients of GRACE observations in a conjunction with the analytical model of Okubo 1992 which accounts for the gravity changes resulting from Earthquake. At first, it is necessary to eliminate the hydrological and oceanic effects from GRACE monthly coefficients and then a spatio-spectral localization analysis, based on wavelet local analysis, should be used to filter the GRACE observations and to better refine the tectonic signal. Finally, the corrected GRACE observations are compared with the analytical model using a nonlinear inversion algorithm. Our results show discernible differences between the computed average slip using gravity observations and those predicted from other co-seismic models. In this study, fault parameters such as length, width, depth, dip, strike and slip are computed using the changes in gravity and gravity gradient components. By using the variations of gravity gradient components the above mentioned parameters are determined as 428 ± 6 Km, 203 ± 5 Km, 5 Km, 10°, 13° and 8 ± 1.2 m respectively. Moreover, the values of the seismic moment and moment magnitude are 2. 09 × 1022 N m and 8.88 Mw respectively which show the small differences with the values reported from USGS (1. 8 × 1022N m and 8.83 Mw).

  1. Bedside practice of blood transfusion in a large teaching hospital in Uganda: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaf J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse transfusion reactions can cause morbidity and death to patients who receive a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion practice in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda is analyzed to see if and when these practices play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients. Materials and Methods: An observational study on three wards of Mulago Hospital. Physicians, paramedics, nurses, medical students and nurse students were observed using two questionnaires. For comparison, a limited observational study was performed in the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG in Groningen, The Netherlands. Results: In Mulago Hospital guidelines for blood transfusion practice were not easily available. Medical staff members work on individual professional levels. Students perform poorly due to inconsistency in their supervision. Documentation of blood transfusion in patient files is scarce. There is no immediate bedside observation, so transfusion reactions and obstructions in the blood transfusion flow are not observed. Conclusion: The poor blood transfusion practice is likely to play a role in the morbidity and mortality of patients who receive a blood transfusion. There is a need for a blood transfusion policy and current practical guidelines.

  2. An observational study of the frequency of supernumerary teeth in a population of 2000 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Leco Berrocal, María Isabel; Martín Morales, José F.; Martínez González, José María

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the epidemiological characteristics of supernumerary teeth, with an analysis of the associated clinical-eruptive complications. A longitudinal observational study was made of 2000 patients, with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, mechanical accidents and the presence of associated pathology. The presence of supernumerary teeth was recorded in 1.05% of the study subjects (mean age 20.2 years), with a greater freq...

  3. Nursing practice in the prevention of pressure ulcers: an observational study of German Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoviattalab, Khadijeh; Hashemizadeh, Haydeh; D'Cruz, Gibson; Halfens, Ruud J G; Dassen, Theo

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to establish the range and extent of preventive interventions undertaken by nurses for patients who are at high risk of developing or currently have a pressure ulcer. Since 2000, the German National Expert Standard for the prevention of pressure ulcers has provided evidence-based recommendations, but limited studies have been published on its adherence in hospitals. There are also limited observational studies that investigated whether patients who are at risk of or have pressure ulcers are provided with appropriate preventative measures. A nonparticipant observational descriptive design was used. A sample of 32 adult patients who were at high risk of developing or currently had a pressure ulcer were observed during all shifts in medical and surgical wards in two general hospitals in Germany. A range of preventive interventions that were in line with the German National Expert Standard was observed. The most frequent preventive measures were 'cleaning the patients' skin' and 'minimizing exposure to moisture' that were undertaken in more than 90% of all patients. The least frequent measures were 'patient and relative education', 'assessment and recording of nutritional status'. This study demonstrates that the pressure ulcers preventive interventions as set out in the German National Expert Standard were not fully implemented. The study highlights the need for further studies on the barriers that impede the undertaking of the interventions that may prevent the development or deterioration of pressure ulcers and the delivery of evidence-based preventative care. This study provides an insight into the extent of pressure ulcers preventive practices used by nurses. The results may serve as a basis for developing an effective strategy to improve nursing practice in this area and the promotion of evidence-based practice. However, our results refer to two general hospitals and for a broader population, further studies with larger data samples are needed.

  4. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Rosalind; McKinley, Sharon; Cistulli, Peter; Fien, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour pe...

  5. Observing the Testing Effect using Coursera Video-Recorded Lectures: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul Zhihao; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the testing effect in Coursera video-based learning. One hundred and twenty-three participants either (a) studied an instructional video-recorded lecture four times, (b) studied the lecture three times and took one recall test, or (c) studied the lecture once and took three tests. They then took a final recall test, either immediately or a week later, through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying produced better recall performance than did repeated testing when the final test was administered immediately, testing produced better performance when the final test was delayed until a week after. The testing effect was observed using Coursera lectures. Future directions are documented.

  6. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vital pulp therapy is a major contributor in the preservation of primary dentition after caries affliction. Introduction of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has revolutionized such treatment. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate and correlate the effects of MTA clinically and radiographically on pulpotomized primary molars till their exfoliation or extraction followed by histological evaluation. Study design This is an observational study. Materials and methods A total of 25 teeth were selected from 5- to 8-year-old children requiring pulp therapy on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criterion. The teeth were treated by conventional pulpotomy technique under aseptic conditions using MTA and were immediately restored with stainless steel crown. The teeth were assessed postoperatively till 36 months. The exfoliated or extracted teeth were examined histologically. Results The pulpotomized teeth were vital with no adverse clinical findings during the observation period. After 3 months, one tooth showed internal resorption, but the same was not observed after 12 months. Pulp canal obliteration was seen in three cases. At the end of the study, five teeth were exfoliated and one tooth was extracted for maintaining arch symmetry. The histological examination of extracted tooth revealed the presence of healthy pulp and the area of true calcification. Remaining exfoliated teeth presented dentin bridge formation. Statistics Frequencies and percentages were used for descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests were used to see the difference between clinical and radiological findings. The probability value was fixed at 5% level of significance. Conclusion The response of pulp in primary teeth to MTA was favorable in all cases from clinical and radiographic perspective, and histological evaluation confirmed the observation. How to cite this article Godhi B, Tyagi R. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

  7. Ethics and observational studies in medical research: various rules in a common framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François; Fresson, Jeanne; Calvez, Thierry; Coudane, Henry; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine

    2009-08-01

    Research ethics have become universal in their principles through international agreements. The standardization of regulations facilitates the internationalization of research concerning drugs. However, in so-called observational studies (i.e. from data collected retrospectively or prospectively, obtained without any additional therapy or monitoring procedure) the modalities used for applying the main principles vary from one country to another. This situation may entail problems for the conduct of multi-centric international studies, as well as for the publication of results if the authors and editors come from countries governed by different regulations. In particular, several French observational studies were rejected or retracted by US peer-reviewed journals, because their protocols have not been submitted to an Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee (IRB/IEC). National legislation case analysis. In accordance with European regulation, French observational studies from data obtained without any additional therapy or monitoring procedure, do not need the approval of an IRB/IEC. Nevertheless, these studies are neither exempt from scientific opinion nor from ethical and legal authorization. We wish to demonstrate through the study of this example that different bodies of law can provide equivalent levels of protection that respect the same ethical principles. Our purpose in writing this article was to encourage public bodies, scientific journals and researchers to gain a better understanding of the various sets of specific national regulations and to speak a common language.

  8. Outcomes after observation stays among older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the USA: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li; Bierlein, Maggie; Choi, Jennie E S; Lin, Zhenqiu; Desai, Nihar R; Spatz, Erica S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterize rates and trends over time of emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, repeat observation stays, inpatient stays, any hospital revisit, and death within 30 days of discharge from observation stays. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 4750 hospitals in the USA. Participants Nationally representative sample of Medicare fee for service beneficiaries aged 65 or over discharged after 363 037 index observation stays, 2 540 000 index emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, and 2 667 525 index inpatient stays from 2006-11. Main outcome measures Rates of emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, observation stays, inpatient stays, any hospital revisit, and death within 30 days of discharge from index observation stays. Rates were compared with corresponding outcomes within 30 days of discharge from both index emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays and index inpatient stays. Results Among 363 037 index observation stays resulting in discharge from 2006-11, 30 day rates of emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays were 8.4%, repeat observation stays were 2.9%, inpatient stays were 11.2%, any hospital revisit was 20.1%, and death was 1.8%. Of all revisits, 49.7% were for inpatient stays. Revisit rates for emergency department treatment-and-discharge stays, repeat observation stays, and any hospital revisit increased from 2006-11 (Pobservation stays (20.1%), as was 30 day mortality (1.8% for both). Rates of any hospital revisit (21.8%) and death (5.2%) were highest after discharge from index inpatient stays. Conclusions Hospital revisits are common after discharge from observation stays, frequently result in inpatient hospitalizations, and have increased over time among Medicare beneficiaries. As revisit rates are similar after emergency department and observation stays, strategies shown to enhance emergency department transitional care may be reasonable starting points to

  9. Low quality evidence of epidemiological observational studies on leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Trentini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151, followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59, case-control (8.5%, n = 24, and cohort (6.0%, n = 17. Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181 and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24. Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112 of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38 employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178, in contrast with two (0.7% studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929 of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the

  10. Amateur boxing and risk of chronic traumatic brain injury: systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Mike; Knowles, Charles H; Whyte, Greg P

    2007-10-20

    To evaluate the risk of chronic traumatic brain injury from amateur boxing. Secondary research performed by combination of sport physicians and clinical academics. DESIGN, DATA SOURCES, AND METHODS: Systematic review of observational studies in which chronic traumatic brain injury was defined as any abnormality on clinical neurological examination, psychometric testing, neuroimaging studies, and electroencephalography. Studies were identified through database (1950 to date) and bibliographic searches without language restrictions. Two reviewers extracted study characteristics, quality, and data, with adherence to a protocol developed from a widely recommended method for systematic review of observational studies (MOOSE). 36 papers had relevant extractable data (from a detailed evaluation of 93 studies of 943 identified from the initial search). Quality of evidence was generally poor. The best quality studies were those with a cohort design and those that used psychometric tests. These yielded the most negative results: only four of 17 (24%) better quality studies found any indication of chronic traumatic brain injury in a minority of boxers studied. There is no strong evidence to associate chronic traumatic brain injury with amateur boxing.

  11. A systematic review of observational studies evaluating costs of adverse drug reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batel Marques F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Batel Marques,1,2 Ana Penedones,1,2 Diogo Mendes,1,2 Carlos Alves,1,2 1CHAD – Centre for Health Technology Assessment and Drug Research, AIBILI – Association for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal Introduction: The growing evidence of the increased frequency and severity of adverse drug events (ADEs, besides the negative impact on patient’s health status, indicates that costs due to ADEs may be steadily rising. Observational studies are an important tool in pharmacovigilance. Despite these studies being more susceptible to bias than experimental designs, they are more competent in assessing ADEs and their associated costs.Objective: To identify and characterize the best available evidence on ADE-associated costs.Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from 1995 to 2015. Observational studies were included. The methodological quality of selected studies was assessed by Cochrane Collaboration tool for experimental and observational studies. Studies were classified according to the setting analyzed in “ambulatory”, “hospital”, or both. Costs were classified as “direct” and “indirect”. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The total incremental cost per patient with ADE was estimated.Results: Twenty-nine (94% longitudinal observational studies and two (7% cross-sectional studies were included. Twenty-three (74% studies were assessed with the highest methodological quality score. The studies were mainly conducted in the US (61%. Twenty (65% studies evaluated any therapeutic group. Twenty (65% studies estimated costs of ADEs leading to or prolonging hospitalization. The “direct costs” were evaluated in all studies, whereas only two (7% also estimated the “indirect costs”. The “direct costs” in ambulatory ranged from €702.21 to €40,273.08, and the in hospital from €943.40 to €7

  12. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  13. Communication in healthcare interactions in dementia: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jemima; Bailey, Cate; McCabe, Rose

    2015-08-01

    Communication is affected by dementia, even in the early stages. Studies directly observing how patients, companions and healthcare professionals communicate have not yet been reviewed. Eight databases were searched, and hand searches of relevant journals and grey literature were performed up to August 2014. Two authors reviewed abstracts independently and collectively reviewed for agreement of inclusion. Findings were narratively synthesized. 23 studies were identified observing: diagnostic, follow up, day center, primary care and research consent interactions. Companions were present in 14 studies. Three themes emerged: emotional impact of diagnosis, level of patient involvement and participant strategies to save face and cope with cognitive impairment. Eight studies observed diagnostic disclosure describing emotional reactions, with professionals using mitigating language and rarely checking patient understanding. Studies reported varying patient involvement, showing marginalization in primary care but not in assessments or diagnostic feedback. Patients used humor and metaphor to compensate for difficulties retrieving information and responding appropriately, suggesting preserved awareness of the pragmatics of interaction. Companion roles fluctuated between patient advocate and professional informant. Professionals encountered challenges adapting to heterogeneous patient groups with varying capabilities and needs. Patient-companion-professional communication in dementia care raises various ethical questions: how to strike a balance between different communicative needs of patients and companions; clarity versus sensitivity in delivery of the diagnosis; and whether to minimize or expose interactional difficulties and misunderstanding to enrich patient understanding and involvement. Healthcare professionals need guidance in delivering a diagnosis and strategies to optimize patient and companion participation.

  14. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    , and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...... waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. CONCLUSION......: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals...

  15. Observation of Clouds Using the CSIR Transportable LIDAR: A Case Study over Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Shikwambana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR transportable Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR was used to collect data over Durban (29.9°S, 30.9°E during 20–23 November 2012. Aerosol measurements have been carried out in the past over Durban; however, no cloud measurements using LIDAR have ever been performed. Therefore, this study further motivates the continuation of LIDAR for atmospheric research over Durban. Low level clouds were observed on 20–22 November 2012 and high level clouds were observed on 23 November 2012. The low level cloud could be classified as stratocumulus clouds, whereas the high level clouds could be classified as cirrus clouds. Low level cloud layers showed high extinction coefficients values ranging between 0.0009 and 0.0044 m−1, whereas low extinction coefficients for high level clouds were observed at values ranging between 0.000001 and 0.000002 m−1. Optical depth showed a high variability for 20 and 21 November 2012. This indicates a change in the composition and/or thickness of the cloud. For 22 and 23 November 2012, almost similar values of optical depth were observed. Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO revealed high level clouds while the CSIR LIDAR could not. However, the two instruments complement each other well to describe the cloudy condition.

  16. An observational study of driving distractions on urban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the prevalence of driver engagement in secondary tasks and whether there were any differences by age and gender, as well as day of the week and time of the day. Two independent researchers observed 6578 drivers at nine randomly selected urban locations in Girona, Spain. Nearly 20% of the drivers observed were engaged in some type of secondary task, with the most common being: conversing with a passenger (11.1%), smoking (3.7%) and talking on a handheld mobile phone (1.3%). Surprisingly there were no differences by gender, but there were age-related differences with younger drivers being more frequently observed engaged in a number of different types of secondary tasks while driving (i.e. drinking, talking on a handheld mobile phone, and texting or keying numbers). Logistic regression showed that younger drivers, and to a lesser extent middle-age drivers, were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a technological distraction than older drivers. Conversely, non-technological distractions were significantly predicted by day of the week, time of the day and location. A substantial number of the drivers observed in this study were putting themselves at an increased risk of becoming involved in a crash by engaging in non-driving related tasks at the same time as driving. Furthermore, the higher crash rate among young drivers may be partially accounted for by their more frequent engagement in some types of secondary tasks while driving.

  17. Introducing peer observation of teaching to GP teachers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Lesley; White, Patrick T; Stephenson, Anne

    2006-03-01

    In medical education programmes which rely on clinical teachers spread across diverse sites, the application of peer observation of teaching offers the potential of both supporting teachers and maintaining quality. This paper reports on a questionnaire survey carried out with general practitioner (GP) teachers of medical undergraduate students from King's College London School of Medicine at Guy's, King's College and St Thomas' Hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine GP teachers' views on a proposed programme of peer observation of their teaching. The majority of GP teachers identified benefits of the proposed scheme with 69% saying it would help improve the education of future doctors. However, despite seeing the benefits, less than half wished to take part in the programme. Two thirds cited time and paperwork as major disincentives to taking part and 62% said that they felt it would make them feel under scrutiny. No associations were found between measures of workload and willingness to take part. This suggests that a fundamental fear of scrutiny and criticism may be the main hurdle to be overcome in implementing the scheme. Imposing peer observation on GP teachers in the form proposed could create suspicion and distance between the university department and practice-based GP teachers and may even result in a loss of teachers. The introduction of peer observation is more likely to be successful if GPs' apprehensions are addressed. Using peer observation to strengthen the process of quality assurance may undermine its role in the support and development of clinical teachers.

  18. An observational asteroseismic study of the pulsating B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884

    CERN Document Server

    Saesen, S; Aerts, C; Miglio, A; Carrier, F

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field {\\beta} Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physical description in the stellar structure and evolution model computations of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismic study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B-stars in the open cluster NGC 884. Our study illustrates the current status of ensemble asteroseismology of a young open cluster.

  19. Understanding motivations to participate in an observational research study: Why do patients enroll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Michael C; Beale, Eleanor E; Suarez, Laura; Beach, Scott R; Mastromauro, Carol A; Celano, Christopher M; Moore, Shannon V; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    By understanding common motivations for participating in observational research studies, clinicians may better understand the perceived benefits of research participation from their clients' perspective. We enrolled 164 cardiac patients in a study about the effects of gratitude and optimism. Two weeks post-enrollment, participants completed a four-item questionnaire regarding motivations for study enrollment. Altruistic motivation ranked highest, while intellectual, health-related, and financial motivations rated lower. Four subgroups of participants emerged, each with distinct characteristics and different priorities for participating. These findings may help front-line clinicians to understand which motivations for participation apply to their clients who enroll in non-treatment-based research projects.

  20. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk.To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71-1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results.Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with never-smokers in

  1. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Background Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. Methods The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. Results In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone’s background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs’ high

  2. An Observational Case Study of Near-peer Teaching in Medical and Pharmacy Experiential Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees’ perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care. PMID:27756922

  3. Coronal Mass Ejections and Dimmings: A Comparative Study using MHD Simulations and SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meng; Cheung, Mark; DeRosa, Marc L.; Nitta, Nariaki; Schrijver, Karel

    2017-08-01

    Solar coronal dimmings have been observed extensively in the past two decades. Due to their close association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), there is a critical need to improve our understanding of the physical processes that cause dimmings and determine their relationship with CMEs. In this study, we investigate coronal dimmings by combining simulation and observational efforts. By utilizing a data-driven global magnetohydrodynamics model (AWSoM: Alfven-wave Solar Model), we simulate coronal dimmings resulting from different CME energetics and flux rope configurations. We synthesize the emissions of different EUV spectral bands/lines and compare with SDO/AIA and EVE observations. A detailed analysis of simulation and observation data suggests that the “core” dimming is mainly caused by the mass loss from the CME, while the “remote” dimming could have a different origin (e.g., plasma heating). Moreover, the interaction between the erupting flux rope with different orientations and the global solar corona could significantly influence the coronal dimming patterns. Using metrics such as dimming depth, dimming slope, and recovery time, we investigate the relationship between dimmings and CME properties (e.g., CME mass, CME speed) in the simulation. Our result suggests that coronal dimmings encode important information about CMEs. We also discuss how our knowledge about solar coronal dimmings could be extended to the study of stellar CMEs.

  4. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  5. Use of acetaminophen and risk of endometrial cancer: evidence from observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan-Yuan; Yao, Peng; Verma, Surya; Han, Zhen-Kai; Hong, Tao; Zhu, Yong-Qiang; Li, Hong-Xi

    2017-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses suggested that aspirin was associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer. However, there has been no study comprehensively summarize the evidence of acetaminophen use and risk of endometrial cancer from observational studies. We systematically searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) for relevant cohort or case-control studies up to February 28, 2017. Two independent authors performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion. A random-effects model was applied to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. All statistical tests were two-sided. Seven observational studies including four prospective cohort studies and three case-control studies with 3874 endometrial cancer cases were included for final analysis. Compared with never use acetaminophen, ever use this drug was not associated with risk of endometrial cancer (summarized RR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.93−1.13, I2 = 0%). Similar null association was also observed when compared the highest category of frequency/duration with never use acetaminophen (summarized RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.70−1.11, I2 = 15.2%). Additionally, the finding was robust in the subgroup analyses stratified by study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders and risk factors. There was no evidence of publication bias by a visual inspection of a funnel plot and formal statistical tests. In summary, the present meta-analysis reveals no association between acetaminophen use and risk of endometrial cancer. More large scale prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm our findings and carry out the dose-response analysis of aforementioned association. PMID:28410226

  6. Observational study on quality of life, safety, and effectiveness of first-line cetuximab plus chemotherapy in KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer patients: the ObservEr Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carmine; Di Fabio, Francesca; Rosati, Gerardo; Lolli, Ivan R; Ruggeri, Enzo M; Ciuffreda, Libero; Ferrari, Daris; Lo Re, Giovanni; Rosti, Giovanni; Tralongo, Paolo; Ferrara, Raimondo; Alabiso, Oscar; Chiara, Silvana; Ianniello, Giovanni P; Frassoldati, Antonio; Bilancia, Domenico; Campanella, Giovanna A; Signorelli, Carlo; Racca, Patrizia; Benincasa, Elena; Stroppolo, Maria Elena; Di Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Cetuximab improves efficacy when added to chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Effective management of skin reactions from cetuximab improves quality of life (QoL), and treatment compliance in clinical trials. No data are available from real-world settings. The ObservEr observational, multicenter, prospective study evaluated QoL, the incidence of skin reactions, and management of chemotherapy plus cetuximab in first-line for mCRC. The primary endpoint was QoL measured with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and EORTC QLQ-C30. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of skin and serious adverse events, median overall and progression-free survival, tumor response, and resection rates. Between May 2011 and November 2012, 228 patients with KRASwt mCRC were enrolled at 28 Italian centers, 225 evaluable, median age 65 years. QoL did not change during treatment and was not affected by the choice of prophylactic or reactive skin management. The incidence of cetuximab-specific grade ≥3 skin reactions was 14%, with no grade 4/5 events. Skin reactions correlated with survival (P = 0.016), and their incidence was influenced by chemotherapy regimen (oxaliplatin vs. irinotecan-Incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.72, P < 0.0001) and gender (male vs. female-IRR 1.38, P = 0.0008). Compliance at first postbaseline evaluation was 97.75%. Median overall survival was 23.6 months, median progression-free survival 8.3 months. Cetuximab plus chemotherapy did not compromise QoL in the routine clinical setting when patients receive close monitoring plus prophylactic or reactive management of skin reactions. We observed the same correlation between overall survival (OS) and skin reactions reported in controlled clinical trials, also in this setting.

  7. Posterior muscle chain activity during various extension exercises: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    De Ridder, Eline MD; Oosterwijck, Jessica O; Vleeming, Andry; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Back extension exercises are often used in the rehabilitation of low back pain. However, at present it is not clear how the posterior muscles are recruited during different types of extension exercises. Therefore, the present study will evaluate the myoelectric activity of thoracic, lumbar and hip extensor muscles during different extension exercises in healthy persons. Based on these physiological observations we will make recommendations regarding the use of extensions exercises...

  8. A prospective observational study of dengue fever with thrombocytopenia with reference to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhara Kuppegala Chikkaveeraiah

    2016-03-01

    Results: This observational study revealed that dengue fever can be managed symptomatically according WHO guidelines and platelet transfusion is done only when platelet count is less than 10000/cumm or in bleeding diathesis irrespective of platelet count. Conclusions: Steroid usage alone or along with platelet transfusion had no effect on the platelet count or on the overall outcome of the patient. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 902-907

  9. Demystifying the Enigma of Smoking – An Observational Comparative Study on Tobacco Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallakunta, Rajesh; Reddy, Sudhakara Reddy; Chennoju, Sai Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a hazardous habit which causes definite changes in the oral cavity, consequently there exist changes in the mucosa when subjected to smoking. Palatal mucosa is first to be affected. The present study determines the palatal status in reverse smokers and conventional smokers. Aim To study and compare the clinical, cytological and histopathological changes in palatal mucosa among reverse and conventional smokers. Materials and Methods Study sample was categorized into two groups. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of reverse smoking and Group 2 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of conventional smoking. Initially, clinical appearance of the palatal mucosa was recorded, followed by a cytological smear and biopsy of the involved area among all the subjects. The findings were studied clinically, the specimens were analysed cytologically and histopathologically, and compared among the two groups. Results The severity of clinical changes of the palatal mucosa among reverse smokers was statistically significant when compared to those of conventional smokers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in cytological staging between the groups with a p-value of 0.35. The histopathological changes in both the groups showed a significant difference with a p-value of 0.02. A significant positive correlation was observed between the clinical appearance, and cytological, histopathological changes. Conclusion Profound clinically aggressive changes were observed in group I compared to group II. Severity of dysplastic changes have been detected in few subjects through histopathological examination irrespective of no prominent clinical and cytological changes observed among the two groups. PMID:27190962

  10. Cruciferous vegetables consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bo; Li, Xuepeng; Yu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background To quantify the effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption on the incidence of ovarian cancer by meta-analyzing the existing observational studies and provides quantitative and high-level evidence. Methods A detailed literature search of Medline and EMBASE for all relevant papers published. A meta-analysis was conducted for the association between cruciferous vegetable consumption and risk of ovarian cancer. Results A total of 4,306 cases in 375,562 controls in 11 independent stud...

  11. Development of a Modular Research Platform to Create Medical Observational Studies for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Martin; Grotejohann, Birgit; Tassoni, Adrian; Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-23

    Observational studies have proven to be a valuable resource in medical research, especially when performed on a large scale. Recently, mobile device-based observational studies have been discovered by an increasing number of researchers as a promising new source of information. However, the development and deployment of app-based studies is not trivial and requires profound programming skills. The aim of this project was to develop a modular online research platform that allows researchers to create medical studies for mobile devices without extensive programming skills. The platform approach for a modular research platform consists of three major components. A Web-based platform forms the researchers' main workplace. This platform communicates via a shared database with a platform independent mobile app. Furthermore, a separate Web-based login platform for physicians and other health care professionals is outlined and completes the concept. A prototype of the research platform has been developed and is currently in beta testing. Simple questionnaire studies can be created within minutes and published for testing purposes. Screenshots of an example study are provided, and the general working principle is displayed. In this project, we have created a basis for a novel research platform. The necessity and implications of a modular approach were displayed and an outline for future development given. International researchers are invited and encouraged to participate in this ongoing project.

  12. Periodontal disease and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. METHODS: PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. RESULTS: Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.48-2.91; P<0.001, with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression.

  13. Iron supplementation and mortality in incident dialysis patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Zitt

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting.In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP levels (800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality.Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels are associated with increased mortality in the setting of concomitant inflammation.

  14. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    -control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting...... recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...

  15. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  16. The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD statement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Routinely collected health data, obtained for administrative and clinical purposes without specific a priori research goals, are increasingly used for research. The rapid evolution and availability of these data have revealed issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines, such as Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE. The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data (RECORD statement was created to fill these gaps. RECORD was created as an extension to the STROBE statement to address reporting items specific to observational studies using routinely collected health data. RECORD consists of a checklist of 13 items related to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion section of articles, and other information required for inclusion in such research reports. This document contains the checklist and explanatory and elaboration information to enhance the use of the checklist. Examples of good reporting for each RECORD checklist item are also included herein. This document, as well as the accompanying website and message board (http://www.record-statement.org, will enhance the implementation and understanding of RECORD. Through implementation of RECORD, authors, journals editors, and peer reviewers can encourage transparency of research reporting.

  17. Hand Hygiene Adherence Among Health Care Workers at Japanese Hospitals: A Multicenter Observational Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihama, Tomoko; Honda, Hitoshi; Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Shimizu, Taro; Kamiya, Toru; Sato, Yumiko; Arakawa, Soichi; Lee, Jong Ja; Iwata, Kentaro; Mihashi, Mutsuko; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2016-03-01

    Although proper hand hygiene among health care workers is an important component of efforts to prevent health care-associated infection, there are few data available on adherence to hand hygiene practices in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine hand hygiene adherence at teaching hospitals in Japan. An observational study was conducted from July to November 2011 in 4 units (internal medicine, surgery, intensive care, and/or emergency department) in 4 geographically diverse hospitals (1 university hospital and 3 community teaching hospitals) in Japan. Hand hygiene practice before patient contact was assessed by an external observer. In a total of 3545 health care worker-patient observations, appropriate hand hygiene practice was performed in 677 (overall adherence, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 18%-20%). Subgroup rates of hand hygiene adherence were 15% among physicians and 23% among nurses. The ranges of adherence were 11% to 25% between hospitals and 11% to 31% between units. Adherence of the nurses and the physicians to hand hygiene was correlated within each hospital. There was a trend toward higher hand hygiene adherence in hospitals with infection control nurses, compared with hospitals without them (29% versus 16%). The hand hygiene adherence in Japanese teaching hospitals in our sample was low, even lower than reported mean values from other international studies. Greater adherence to hand hygiene should be encouraged in Japan.

  18. Study of equatorial Kelvin waves using the MST radar and radiosonde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kishore

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to study equatorial Kelvin waves using a high power coherent VHF radar located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in the Indian sub-continent. Simultaneous radiosonde observations taken from a nearby meteorological station located in Chennai (13.04° N, 80.17° E were also used to see the coherence in the observed structures. These data sets were analyzed to study the mean winds and equatorial waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Equatorial waves with different periodicities were identified. In the present study, particular attention has been given to the fast Kelvin wave (6.5-day and slow Kelvin wave (16-day. Mean zonal wind structures were similar at both locations. The fast Kelvin wave amplitudes were somewhat similar in both observations and the maximum amplitude is about 8m/s. The phase profiles indicated a slow downward progression. The slow Kelvin wave (16-day amplitudes shown by the radiosonde measurements are a little larger than the radar derived amplitudes. The phase profiles showed downward phase progression and it translates into a vertical wavelength of ~10-12km. The radar and radiosonde derived amplitudes of fast and slow Kelvin waves are larger at altitudes near the tropopause (15-17km, where the mean wind attains westward maximum.

  19. WATCH Scrubs: a video observational study of workplace-based learning at Sacred Heart Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Eliot L; Sinha, Yashashwi; Davies, Benjamin; J Quinn, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Workplace-based learning remains the cornerstone of clinical training. Teaching in the clinical environment promotes active engagement as trainees are required to combine their competencies (e.g. skills in history taking, examination and clinical reasoning) to determine an appropriate course of action. High-quality clinical teaching supports and scaffolds trainees' learning in clinical workplaces. This study aimed to explore the quality of clinical teaching at a large teaching hospital. A retrospective video observational study of 9 years of workplace-based learning at Sacred Heart Hospital, a large private teaching hospital, was conducted. Each academic year was observed by one researcher. Clinical teaching encounters were identified and analysed using the Warwick Assessment insTrument for Clinical teacHing (WATCH). Descriptive observation notes were recorded and analysed thematically. A total of 131 teaching encounters provided by 12 tutors were identified. The 15-item instrument demonstrated a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. The hidden curriculum, role modelling and reflection played prominent roles in trainees' personal and professional development. Trainees' learning in clinical workplaces extends beyond the formal teaching they receive to include the development of professional behaviours through role modelling and reflection on clinical encounters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  20. Time standards of nursing in Primary Health Care: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Bonfim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine time standards for interventions and activities conducted by nursing professionals in Family Health Units (FHU in Brazil to substantiate the calculation of work force. METHOD This was an observational study carried out in 27 FHU, in 12 municipalities in 10 states, in 2013. In each unit, nursing professionals were observed every 10 minutes, for eight work hours, on five consecutive days via the work sampling technique. RESULTS A total of 32,613 observations were made, involving 47 nurses and 93 nursing technicians/assistants. Appointments were the main intervention carried out by nurses, with a mean time of 25.3 minutes, followed by record-keeping, which corresponded to 9.7%. On average, nursing technicians/assistants spent 6.3% of their time keeping records and 30.6 intervention minutes on immunization/vaccination control. CONCLUSION The study resulted in standard times of interventions carried out by the FHU nursing team, which can underpin the determination of nursing staff size and human resource policies. Furthermore, the study showed the panorama of interventions currently employed, allowing for the work process to be reviewed and optimized.

  1. Bias adjustment of satellite-based precipitation estimation using gauge observations: A case study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwen; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Xu, Xinyi; Braithwaite, Dan; Verbist, Koen M. J.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates (SPEs) are promising alternative precipitation data for climatic and hydrological applications, especially for regions where ground-based observations are limited. However, existing satellite-based rainfall estimations are subject to systematic biases. This study aims to adjust the biases in the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) rainfall data over Chile, using gauge observations as reference. A novel bias adjustment framework, termed QM-GW, is proposed based on the nonparametric quantile mapping approach and a Gaussian weighting interpolation scheme. The PERSIANN-CCS precipitation estimates (daily, 0.04°×0.04°) over Chile are adjusted for the period of 2009-2014. The historical data (satellite and gauge) for 2009-2013 are used to calibrate the methodology; nonparametric cumulative distribution functions of satellite and gauge observations are estimated at every 1°×1° box region. One year (2014) of gauge data was used for validation. The results show that the biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data are effectively reduced. The spatial patterns of adjusted satellite rainfall show high consistency to the gauge observations, with reduced root-mean-square errors and mean biases. The systematic biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation time series, at both monthly and daily scales, are removed. The extended validation also verifies that the proposed approach can be applied to adjust SPEs into the future, without further need for ground-based measurements. This study serves as a valuable reference for the bias adjustment of existing SPEs using gauge observations worldwide.

  2. Utilizing Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Special Observations to Study Air Quality Over Megacities: A Case Study of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, G. B.; Neu, J. L.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Fu, D.; Payne, V.; Pfister, G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2013, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the NASA Aura spacecraft has been making special "transect" observations over 19 large cities across the globe. In all there are over 50 transect observations of each city, allowing for studying the chemistry of the troposphere during different seasons and differing atmospheric conditions. The cities that have been observed include, Beijing, Delhi and Mexico City. In addition, the TES group at JPL has been developing new data products using combined radiances from other satellite instruments. They have produced an ozone data product using a combination of TES and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiances. There has also been progress in creating an ozone product from combining OMI and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances using the TES retrieval framework. This product offers the possibility of better spatial coverage than the TES or TES/OMI products. We have selected an observation from October 13, 2013 over Mexico City for doing a case study where high values of ozone were seen in the lower troposphere in retrievals from TES and TES/OMI. Other trace gases measured by TES, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid were also enhanced over the city. TES was also able to capture downwind conditions where the trace gases were no longer enhanced except for formic acid and peroxyacetyl nitrate which showed elevated values. We will utilize trajectory analysis, the TES data as well as combined TES-OMI retrievals, the new combined AIRS-OMI retrievals of ozone to examine this case in more detail to understand possible broader scale effects of Mexico City pollution. Model results will be utilized to provide further context in understanding the atmospheric conditions being studied. We feel the TES special observations of megacities will provide an opportunity to study the effects of local sources versus broader regional sources on pollutions of these large cities.

  3. Self-report and observer ratings of personality functioning: a study of the OPD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Schauenburg, Henning; Hörz, Susanne; Rentrop, Michael; Komo-Lang, Miriam; Klinkerfuß, Mathias; Köhling, Johanna; Grande, Tilman; Ehrenthal, Johannes C

    2014-01-01

    Recent considerations around DSM-5 criteria of personality disorders (PDs) demand new concepts of assessing levels of personality functioning. Of special interest are multiperspective approaches accounting for clinicians' as well as patients' points of view. The study investigates observer-rated and self-assessed levels of personality functioning measured by the level of structural integration as defined by the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis System (OPD). Both perspectives were positively related. The combination of both measures was most efficient in discriminating among 3 diagnostic groups of varying degrees of personality dysfunction. Future studies should take into account expert ratings as well as self-report data.

  4. Media Literacy in the European Union: Tendencies Observed in the Regulations and the Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study is about the European Union’s Media Literacy Policy and its main concern is to observe the leading tendencies in the media literacy studies and regulations. Therefore the recent literature is examined in order to find out the development and the goals of the European Union’s media literacy policy. Some the findings are: Media literacy is becoming a priority for policy-makers recently.The move from a communication to a recommendation is a sign that progress is being made. However lo...

  5. Recent studies in satellite observations of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO ChiJie; WANG XiaoGang; PU ZuYin; MA ZhiWei; ZHAO Hui; ZHOU GuiPing; WANG JingXiu; LIU ZhenXing

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a main process converting the magnetic energy into thermal and kinetic energy in plasmas. It is one of the fundamental problems of crucial importance not only to space plasmas physics and space weather studies,such as the solar flare, coronal mass ejections and magnetospheric substorms, but also to the stability analysis in magnetically confined fusion. In general, except for cases with periodical boundary conditions, three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection occurs on magnetic separatrices generated by magnetic nulls. Here we briefly introduce/review the theories and some recent satellite observations of 3D magnetic reconnection. Topics to be further studied are also discussed.

  6. A new stratified risk assessment tool for whiplash injuries developed from a prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Kongsted, Alice; Qerama, Erisela;

    2013-01-01

    (pafter whiplash. Neck......OBJECTIVES: An initial stratification of acute whiplash patients into seven risk-strata in relation to 1-year work disability as primary outcome is presented. DESIGN: The design was an observational prospective study of risk factors embedded in a randomised controlled study. SETTING: Acute whiplash...... patients from units, general practitioners in four Danish counties were referred to two research centres. PARTICIPANTS: During a 2-year inclusion period, acute consecutive whiplash-injured (age 18-70 years, rear-end or frontal-end car accident and WAD (whiplash-associated disorders) grades I-III, symptoms...

  7. Increased healing in diabetic toe ulcers in a multidisciplinary foot clinic—An observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Nielsen, A.A.; Nielsen, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study toe ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers attending a multidisciplinary foot clinic over a 10 years period. METHODS: The study was retrospective, consecutive and observational during 2001 through 2011. The patients were treated according to the International Consensus...... on the Diabetic Foot. During the period the chiropodist staffing in the foot clinic was doubled; new offloading material and orthopedic foot corrections for recalcitrant ulcers were introduced. Healing was investigated in toe ulcers in Cox regression models. RESULTS: 2634 patients developed foot ulcers, of which...

  8. A mixed methods observational simulation-based study of interprofessional team communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kurt; Musaeus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    communication interactions and link team performance to patient outcome. This study had two aims. First, to develop a theory-based evaluation instrument that measures and qualifies team communication. And second, to investigate the quality and content of summaries and re-evaluations evolving step wise......Interprofessional team communication has been identified as an important focus for safety in medical emergency care. However, in-depth insight into the complexity of team communication is limited. Video observational studies might fill a gap in terms of understanding the meaning of specific...

  9. Self-reported and observed seat belt use--A case study: Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovac, Krsto; Tešić, Milan; Marić, Bojan; Đerić, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The issue of seat belt use in middle- and low-income countries is strongly evident and has as a result higher rates of fatalities and seriously injured on the roads. The first systematic field research of the seat belt use while driving was carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 2011-2012. Research methodology consisted of two mutually conditioned parts (observation and self-reported behavior). Specific features of the methodology used are in the relationship between the observed and interviewed drivers which enabled the analysis of their observed and self-reported behavior while driving. The logistic regression method was used in this work to make the analysis of the influence of personal human characteristics (gender, age, education, exposure) and vehicles' characteristics (age) on the observed and self-reported driving behavior, from the point of view of seat belt use while driving. The influence of the listed factors on driving behavior, depending on road type (urban or rural), was given special attention in the analysis. The paper shows that certain factors do not have the same impact on driving behavior, in various conditions. Based on results from this study, it will be possible to define certain critical groups of road users and the way in which they must be addressed in order to increase the seat belt wearing rate.

  10. REFLECTIVE PRACTICE THROUGH JOURNAL WRITING AND PEER OBSERVATION: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Samrajya LAKSHMI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal writing and Peer Observation in an educational context have become popular techniques, with several different types of applications. They have now been used quite widely in both language teaching and in teacher training. However, despite its reported advantages in both teaching and research, there are not many Peer Observation and Diary studies available based on the writing of experienced language teachers. The Teacher participants maintain Journal writing and Peer Observation as a means of reflective practice. They consider these practices as a mirror, which reflects the teacher’s own image as a practioner. The post-reflection discussion reveals that the teacher participants believe in reflective practice as an effective means of self-evaluation and of developing sensitivity to students’ learning. This paper examines Peer Observation and journal writing of two teachers working on the same language programme in terms of a variety of topic headings, and suggests that reflective practice can be a useful tool for both classroom research and teachers’ professional development.

  11. An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalush, David S; Jatko, Megan K; Segars, W Paul

    2005-03-01

    To address the task of detecting nonischemic motion abnormalities from animated displays of gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography data, we performed an observer study to evaluate the difference in detection performance between gating to 8 and 16 frames. Images were created from the NCAT mathematical phantom with a realistic heart simulating hypokinetic motion in the left lateral wall. Realistic noise-free projection data were simulated for both normal and defective hearts to obtain 16 frames for the cardiac cycle. Poisson noise was then simulated for each frame to create 50 realizations of each heart, All datasets were processed in two ways: reconstructed as a 16-frame set, and collapsed to 8 frames and reconstructed. Ten observers viewed the cardiac images animated with a realistic real-time frame rate. Observers trained on 100 images and tested on 100 images, rating their confidence on the presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. None of the observers showed a significant difference in performance between the two gating methods. The 95% confidence interval on the difference in areas under the ROC curve (Az8 - Az16) was -0.029-0.085. Our test did not find a significant difference in detection performance between 8-frame gating and 16-frame gating. We conclude that, for the task of detecting abnormal motion, increasing the number of gated frames from 8 to 16 offers no apparent advantage.

  12. Responses of the human motor system to observing actions across species: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicole C; Reid, Connor; Welsh, Timothy N

    2014-10-22

    Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics.

  13. A new u-statistic with superior design sensitivity in matched observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2011-09-01

    In an observational or nonrandomized study of treatment effects, a sensitivity analysis indicates the magnitude of bias from unmeasured covariates that would need to be present to alter the conclusions of a naïve analysis that presumes adjustments for observed covariates suffice to remove all bias. The power of sensitivity analysis is the probability that it will reject a false hypothesis about treatment effects allowing for a departure from random assignment of a specified magnitude; in particular, if this specified magnitude is "no departure" then this is the same as the power of a randomization test in a randomized experiment. A new family of u-statistics is proposed that includes Wilcoxon's signed rank statistic but also includes other statistics with substantially higher power when a sensitivity analysis is performed in an observational study. Wilcoxon's statistic has high power to detect small effects in large randomized experiments-that is, it often has good Pitman efficiency-but small effects are invariably sensitive to small unobserved biases. Members of this family of u-statistics that emphasize medium to large effects can have substantially higher power in a sensitivity analysis. For example, in one situation with 250 pair differences that are Normal with expectation 1/2 and variance 1, the power of a sensitivity analysis that uses Wilcoxon's statistic is 0.08 while the power of another member of the family of u-statistics is 0.66. The topic is examined by performing a sensitivity analysis in three observational studies, using an asymptotic measure called the design sensitivity, and by simulating power in finite samples. The three examples are drawn from epidemiology, clinical medicine, and genetic toxicology.

  14. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children’s outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to identify quantitative as well as qualitative neighborhood characteristics related to outdoor play by means of neighborhood observations. Methods Questionnaires including questions on outdoor play behavior of the child were distributed among 3,651 parents of primary school children (aged 4–12 years. Furthermore, neighborhood observations were conducted in 33 Dutch neighborhoods to map neighborhood characteristics such as buildings, formal outdoor play facilities, public space, street pattern, traffic safety, social neighborhood characteristics, and general impression. Data of the questionnaires and the neighborhood observations were coupled via postal code of the respondents. Multilevel GEE analyses were performed to quantify the correlation between outdoor play and independently measured neighborhood characteristics. Results Parental education was negatively associated with outdoor play among children. Neither the presence nor the overall quality of formal outdoor play facilities were (positively related to outdoor play among children in this study. Rather, informal play areas such as the presence of sidewalks were related to children’s outdoor play. Also, traffic safety was an important characteristic associated with outdoor play. Conclusions This study showed that, apart from individual factors such as parental education level, certain modifiable characteristics in the neighborhood environment (as measured by neighborhood observations were associated with outdoor play among boys and girls of different age groups in The Netherlands. Local policy makers from different sectors can use these research findings in creating more activity

  15. Observing the Testing Effect using Coursera Video-recorded Lectures: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zhihao eYONG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the testing effect in Coursera video-based learning. One hundred and twenty-three participants either (a studied an instructional video-recorded lecture four times, (b studied the lecture three times and took one recall test, or (c studied the lecture once and took three tests. They then took a final recall test, either immediately or a week later, through which their learning was assessed. Whereas repeated studying produced better recall performance than did repeated testing when the final test was administered immediately, testing produced better performance when the final test was delayed until a week after. The testing effect was observed using Coursera lectures. Future directions are documented.

  16. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  17. Proton beam therapy for pediatric malignancies: a retrospective observational multicenter study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Demizu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Takashi; Ishida, Yuji; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Numajiri, Haruko; Fuji, Hiroshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in the treatment for pediatric malignancies using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy has improved survival. However, late toxicities of radiotherapy are a concern in long-term survivors. A recent study suggested reduced secondary cancer and other late toxicities after proton beam therapy (PBT) due to dosimetric advantages. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of PBT for pediatric patients treated in Japan. A retrospective observational study in pediatric patients who received PBT was performed. All patients aged loss (two cases), cerebral vascular disease, and tissue necrosis occurred in five patients. This study provides preliminary results for PBT in pediatric patients in Japan. More experience and follow-up with this technique are required to establish the efficacy of PBT in this patient population.

  18. ShopTrip Pilot Study : The Preference-Conscious Choice Modelled and Observed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Selsøe-Sørensen, Henrik; Qvistgaard, Francoise

    The goal of the current pilot study was to construct and test a new kind of setup for observing the consumer’s purchasing behaviour, with a particular focus on fairness and misleadingness issues as opposed to marketing and sales. The setup described represents a compromise between ecological...... validity and experimental control in at least two ways: the way the consumer’s behaviour is monitored and the way the consumer’s behaviour is brought about. The first part of the pilot study involved a simulation of an ‘e-shopping environment’ which had the advantage of creating a relatively realistic...... of the pilot study, the participants were presented with actual products and instructed to assume the role of ‘health detectives’ in order to enhance the degree of preference consciousness even further. In the third and final part of the pilot study, the participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire...

  19. Statistical study of electrostatic solitary waves associated with reconnection: Geotail observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. Y.; Deng, X. H.; Zhou, M.; Tang, R. X.; Liu, K.; Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-02-01

    The role of waves in the dynamics of the magnetotail has long been a topic of interest in magnetospheric physics. The characteristics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs) associated with reconnection have been studied statistically in the magnetotail by surveying the large amounts data obtained from Waveform Capture (WFC) which is an important component of Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on the Geotail spacecraft. About 150 reconnection events with WFC data available are selected, and approximately 10 thousands of ESW waveforms are picked up by hands for statistical study. The ESWs are observed near diffusion region and near the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). Two kinds of waveforms of ESWs are observed: bi-polar and tri-polar pulses. It is found that the pulse width of the ESWs is in the order of 1 5 ms and the peak-to-peak amplitude is in the order of 0.1 5 mV/m. The amplitudes of ESWs are larger in the near-earth tail region than that in deep tail region. ESWs have been observed with or without guide magnetic field . The characteristics of ESWs in different reconnection region and under different strength of guild magnetic field, their possible generation mechanism will be discussed.

  20. Multi-spacecraft observations to study the shock extension in the inner heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Aline; Schwenn, Rainer; Marsch, Eckart; Lago, Alisson Dal; de Gonzalez, Alicia L. Clúa; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; da Silva, Marlos R.

    2009-03-01

    The two Helios probes traveled at variable longitudinal and radial separations through the inner heliosphere. They collected most valuable high resolution plasma and magnetic fie