WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-rad test runs

  1. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  2. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following steps... water from the pretest value, the test is void. (7)(i) For bag samples, as soon as possible transfer...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  4. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  5. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.1234-96 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1234-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature...

  6. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  7. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1537 - Idle test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... test run. The following steps shall be taken for each test: (a) Check the device(s) for removing water from the exhaust sample and the sample filter(s). Remove any water from the water trap(s). Clean and... test run, the test is void. ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1437 - Test run-manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-manufacturer. 86.1437 Section... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1437 Test run—manufacturer. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the manufacturer for its data submittal pursuant to obtaining a...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1337-2007 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-2007 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test...) Immediately after the engine is turned off, turn off the engine cooling fan(s) if used. As soon as...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 86.1337... Procedures § 86.1337-96 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1... system from the CVS). As soon as possible, transfer the “cold start cycle” exhaust and dilution air...

  12. 40 CFR 86.884-12 - Test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 86.884-12 Section 86.884-12... Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-12 Test run. (a) The temperature of the air... may be used, if desired, but no allowance will be made for possible increased smoke emissions...

  13. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, $\\Lambda = \\sigma H + \\Lambda_0$, in which the $\\Lambda$CDM limit is recovered by taking $\\sigma=0$. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lema\\"itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that $\\sigma H_0/ \\Lambda_0 \\lesssim 2.63 \\times 10^{-2}$ and $6.74 \\times 10^{-2}$ for $\\Lambda(t)$ coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  14. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qiang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ=σH+Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ=0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann–Lemaïtre–Robertson–Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0/Λ0≲2.63×10−2 and 6.74×10−2 for Λ(t coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  15. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ = σH +Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ = 0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0 /Λ0 ≲ 2.63 ×10-2 and 6.74 ×10-2 for Λ (t) coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  16. Validity of the modified Conconi running test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentija, D; Vucetic, V; Markovic, G

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a fast ramp treadmill protocol for determination of the heart rate deflection point (HR (dp)) and speed of deflection (S (dp)) in trained runners. Fifty-one trained male runners performed a standard (T (stand); speed increase 1 km . h (-1) every 60 s) and a fast (T (fast); speed increase 1 km . h (-1) every 30 s) incremental treadmill test until volitional exhaustion. Heart rate was continuously recorded, and the HR (dp) was estimated after data averaging as the point of deflection in the linear speed/HR relationship. The HR (dp) and S (dp) recorded in T (fast) were compared with the corresponding values obtained in T (stand) by examining the Student's T-test, correlation coefficient (r), and limits of agreement (LoA). The HR (dp) recorded during standard and fast treadmill protocol were highly correlated (r = 0.92, p increased significantly with the faster ramp function (p increase 1 km x h (-1) every 30 s) may be used for determination of the HR (dp) in trained runners, while S (dp) is protocol dependent and caution is warranted regarding its practical applicability.

  17. Reliability and validity of the maximal anaerobic running test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Alberts, M; Rijntjes, R P; Luhtanen, P; Rusko, H

    1996-07-01

    Physically active men (n = 13) twice performed the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) on a treadmill and once the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer. The MART consisted of n 20-s runs with 100-s recovery between the runs. The speed of the first run was 14.6 km.h-1 and the inclination 4 degrees. Thereafter, the speed was increased by 1.37 km.h-1 every run until exhaustion. During all tests oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and blood samples were taken from the fingertip 40s after each run to determine the lactate concentration (BLa). Power at submaximal BLa levels and maximal power (P5mM, P10mM and Pmax, respectively) were calculated and P was expressed as the oxygen demand of running according to the American College of Sports Medicine equation. In the MART the Pmax was 108 ml.kg-1.min-1 and peak BLa was 15.6 mM. The reliability for the power indices in the MART were as follows: r = 0.92 (p cycle ergometer test measure slightly different qualities.

  18. Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Myburgh, K H; Schall, R

    1990-01-01

    Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance in races of 10-90 km. Race time at 10 or 21.1 km was the best predictor of performance at 42.2 km in specialist marathon runners and at 42.2 and 90 km in specialist ultra-marathon runners (r = 0.91-0.97). Peak treadmill running velocity was the best laboratory-measured predictor of performance (r = -0.88(-)-0.94) at all distances in ultra-marathon specialists and at all distances except 42.2 km in marathon specialists. Other predictive variables were running velocity at the lactate turnpoint (r = -0.80(-)-0.92); % VO2max at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.76-0.90) and VO2max (r = 0.55(-)-0.86). Peak blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.68-0.71) and VO2 at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.10-0.61) were less good predictors. These data indicate: (i) that in groups of trained long distance runners, the physiological factors that determine success in races of 10-90 km are the same; thus there may not be variables that predict success uniquely in either 10 km, marathon or ultra-marathon runners, and (ii) that peak treadmill running velocity is at least as good a predictor of running performance as is the lactate turnpoint. Factors that determine the peak treadmill running velocity are not known but are not likely to be related to maximum rates of muscle oxygen utilization.

  19. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-01-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  20. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2003-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

  1. APEX: A Prime EXperiment at Jefferson Lab - Test Run Results and Full Run Plans; Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacham, James [Ohio University, JLAB

    2015-06-01

    APEX is an experiment at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in Virginia, USA, that searches for a new gauge boson (A') with sub-GeV mass and coupling to ordinary matter of g' ~ (10-6 - 10⁻²)e. Electrons impinge upon a fixed target of high-Z material. An A' is produced via a process analogous to photon bremsstrahlung, decaying to an e⁺+e⁻ pair. A test run was held in July of 2010, covering mA' = 175 to 250 MeV and couplings g'/e > 10⁻³. A full run is approved and will cover mA' ~ 65 to 525 MeV and g'/e > 2.3 x 10⁻⁴, and is expected to occur sometime in 2016 or 2017.

  2. 40 CFR 86.134-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72 °F. (vii... conditioning systems shall be set to operate in “automatic” temperature and fan modes with the system set at 72...-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature urban...

  3. Running economy assessment within cardiopulmonary exercise testing for recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of running economy (RE) on running performance within recreational runners of different maximal aerobic capacity, and the feasibility of RE assessment within routine cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Sixty-eight recreational runners (m: 49, f: 19; age: 21-54) completed a graded exercise test (GXT) until exhaustion. Maximal oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point were obtained via CPET. RE was calculated as relative oxygen uptake per covered distance (mL/kg/km) one step below respiratory compensation point (RCP). Subjects were grouped for RE via median split and categorized into one of six fitness levels (Very Poor, Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent, Superior) (ACSM 2010). Irrespective of fitness levels, recreational runners with a more energy efficient movement (REVO2max values ranged between 35.2 and 66.0 ml/min/kg. Running velocity at RCP of runners within VO2max categories Good and Superior differed significantly (P<0.05) between RE groups. This study provides evidence that RE influences submaximal running performance in recreational distance runners within a broad range of maximal aerobic capacity. Complementing routine CPET with RE assessment at physiological threshold intensities and ACSM based categorization seems feasible to delineate the impact of movement efficiency and aerobic fitness on performance in recreational runners.

  4. Test of the classic model for predicting endurance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James E; Howley, Edward T; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2010-05-01

    To compare the classic physiological variables linked to endurance performance (VO2max, %VO2max at lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (RE)) with peak treadmill velocity (PTV) as predictors of performance in a 16-km time trial. Seventeen healthy, well-trained distance runners (10 males and 7 females) underwent laboratory testing to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RE, percentage of maximal oxygen uptake at the LT (%VO2max at LT), running velocity at LT, and PTV. Velocity at VO2max (vVO2max) was calculated from RE and VO2max. Three stepwise regression models were used to determine the best predictors (classic vs treadmill performance protocols) for the 16-km running time trial. Simple Pearson correlations of the variables with 16-km performance showed vVO2max to have the highest correlation (r = -0.972) and %VO2max at the LT the lowest (r = 0.136). The correlation coefficients for LT, VO2max, and PTV were very similar in magnitude (r = -0.903 to r = -0.892). When VO2max, %VO2max at LT, RE, and PTV were entered into SPSS stepwise analysis, VO2max explained 81.3% of the total variance, and RE accounted for an additional 10.7%. vVO2max was shown to be the best predictor of the 16-km performance, accounting for 94.4% of the total variance. The measured velocity at VO2max (PTV) was highly correlated with the estimated velocity at vVO2max (r = 0.8867). Among well-trained subjects heterogeneous in VO2max and running performance, vVO2max is the best predictor of running performance because it integrates both maximal aerobic power and the economy of running. The PTV is linked to the same physiological variables that determine vVO2max.

  5. Limited measurement dependence in multiple runs of a Bell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, James E.; Kay, Alastair

    2013-09-01

    The assumption of free will—the ability of an experimentalist to make random choices—is central to proving the indeterminism of quantum resources, the primary tool in quantum cryptography. Relaxing the assumption in a Bell test allows violation of the usual classical threshold by correlating the random number generators used to select measurements with the devices that perform them. In this paper, we examine not only these correlations, but those across multiple runs of the experiment. This enables an explicit exposition of the optimal cheating strategy and how the correlations manifest themselves within this strategy. Similar to other recent results, we prove that there remain Bell violations for a sufficiently high, yet nonmaximal degree of free will which cannot be simulated by a classical attack, regardless of how many runs of the experiment those choices are correlated over.

  6. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  7. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-09-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC09 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC09 in air- and oxygen-blown modes. Test Run TC09 was started on September 3, 2002, and completed on September 26, 2002. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run, with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen was smooth. The gasifier temperature varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 125 to 270 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC09, 414 hours of solid circulation and over 300 hours of coal feed were attained with almost 80 hours of pure oxygen feed.

  9. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  10. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-12-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC10 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC10 in air- (mainly for transitions and problematic operations) and oxygen-blown mode. Test Run TC10 was started on November 16, 2002, and completed on December 18, 2002. During oxygen-blown operations, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,825 F at pressures from 150 to 180 psig. After initial adjustments were made to reduce the feed rate, operations with the new fluidized coal feeder were stable with about half of the total coalfeed rate through the new feeder. However, the new fluidized-bed coal feeder proved to be difficult to control at low feed rates. Later the coal mills and original coal feeder experienced difficulties due to a high moisture content in the coal from heavy rains. Additional operational difficulties were experienced when several of the pressure sensing taps in the gasifier plugged. As the run progressed, modifications to the mills (to address processing the wet coal) resulted in a much larger feed size. This eventually resulted in the accumulation of large particles in the circulating solids causing operational instabilities in the standpipe and loop seal. Despite problems with the coal mills, coal feeder, pressure tap nozzles and the standpipe, the gasifier did experience short periods of stability during oxygenblown operations. During these periods, the syngas quality was high. During TC10, the gasifier gasified over 609 tons of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and

  11. The discriminative power of the Interval Shuttle Run Test and the Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run Test for playing level of soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Verheijen, R.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the discriminative power of the recently developed Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) and the widely used Maximal Multistage 20 m Shuttle Run Test (MMSRT) for soccer players at different levels of competition. The main difference between the tests is that

  12. Test Run Report of the P348 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Gninenko, S N

    2015-01-01

    The P348 Collaboration preformed test measurements in the H4 SPS beam line during a period of 2 weeks in September-October. The measurements were designed with two main objectives. The first was to test the new detector components such as Micromegas and straw tube tracker, high-energy electron tagging system, ECAL, and HCAL. The second was to explore the feasibility of searching for invisible decays of dark photons in the sub- GeV mass range. Here we report various results of the test measurements. The main outcome of the run is that by using simple selection criteria, without good track definition, we reject background in the signal region down to the level of a few ×10^−8 per incident electron. As we do not see any other issues that represent fundamental problems for the experiment, our conclusion is that after small modifications the P348 detector is ready to start data taking in the year 2016. We recall that the A‘ with a mass in sub-GeV range is still one of the favorable explanation of the muon g-2...

  13. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-04-05

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC07 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC07. Prior to TC07, the Transport Reactor was modified to allow operations as an oxygen-blown gasifier. Test Run TC07 was started on December 11, 2001, and the sand circulation tests (TC07A) were completed on December 14, 2001. The coal-feed tests (TC07B-D) were started on January 17, 2002 and completed on April 5, 2002. Due to operational difficulties with the reactor, the unit was taken offline several times. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,700 and 1,780 F at pressures from 200 to 240 psig. In TC07, 679 hours of solid circulation and 442 hours of coal feed, 398 hours with PRB coal and 44 hours with coal from the Calumet mine, and 33 hours of coke breeze feed were attained. Reactor operations were problematic due to instrumentation problems in the LMZ resulting in much higher than desired operating temperatures in the reactor. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable and the modifications to the lower part of the gasifier performed well while testing the gasifier with PRB coal feed.

  14. 40 CFR 86.237-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous... test run, gaseous emissions. (a) The complete dynamometer test consists of a cold start drive of... terminates after the first period (505 seconds) is run. (d) The provisions of § 86.137(b) apply to...

  15. 40 CFR 86.137-90 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-90 Dynamometer test run, gaseous... first period (505 seconds) is run. (2) Petroleum-fueled and methanol-fueled diesel vehicles. The...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1045.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... maximum test speed. (g) Special and alternate procedures. If you are unable to run the duty...

  17. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel.

  18. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). VHTR Program

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: 1. Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. 2. Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. 3. Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tristructural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S.-produced fuel.

  19. LHC to skip low-energy test runs

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartwright, Jon

    2007-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider will not be ready in time to perform a low-energy "engineering run", which was originally scheduled to take place this November, according to an official at CERN. This will leave the operators no chance to gain exerinece with the particle accelerator's steering and detection systems before the high-energy runs begin in spring next year." (1 page)

  20. The interval shuttle run test for intermittent sport players : evaluation of reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Visscher, C.; Lambert, M.I.; Lamberts, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of the interval shuttle run test (ISRT) as a submaximal and maximal field test to measure intermittent endurance capacity was examined. During the ISRT, participants alternately run for 30 seconds and walk for 15 seconds. The running speed is increased from 10 km.h(-1) every 90 secon

  1. 40 CFR 1048.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... § 1048.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition... 86.132-96(h) and then operate the engine for 60 minutes over repeat runs of the duty cycle...

  2. 40 CFR 1054.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1054.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... your production engines will be equipped with a vapor line that routes running loss vapors into...

  3. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaochuan [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Terada, Takahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP), Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on-Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  4. AGR-2 IRRADIATION TEST FINAL AS-RUN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise, Collin

    2014-07-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a half calendar years. The test

  5. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise P. Collin

    2012-06-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one

  6. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    .... 1438] RIN 7100-AD-86 Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total... federal financial regulatory agency to conduct stress tests on an annual basis. The Board is adopting this final rule to implement the company-run stress test requirements in the Dodd-Frank Act regarding...

  7. 40 CFR 86.137-96 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions. 86.137-96 Section 86.137-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.137-96 Dynamometer test run,...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test? 1042.501 Section 1042.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 1042.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures...

  9. 9 CFR 54.11 - Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. 54.11 Section 54.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. (a) State, Federal, and...

  10. Can we test Dark Energy with Running Fundamental Constants ?

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a link between the running of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and a time evolving scalar dark energy field. Employing a versatile parameterization for the equation of state, we exhaustively cover the space of dark energy models. Under the assumption that the change in $\\alpha$ is to first order given by the evolution of the Quintessence field, we show that current Oklo, Quasi Stellar Objects and Equivalence Principle observations restrict the model parameters considerably stronger than observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Large Scale Structure and Supernovae Ia combined.

  11. Can we test dark energy with running fundamental constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We investigate a link between the running of the fine structure constant α and a time evolving scalar dark energy field. Employing a versatile parametrization for the equation of state, we exhaustively cover the space of dark energy models. Under the assumption that the change in α is to first order given by the evolution of the quintessence field, we show that current Oklo, quasi-stellar object and equivalence principle observations restrict the model parameters considerably more strongly than observations of the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and supernovae Ia combined.

  12. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING TWO FIELD TESTS WITH THE TREADMILL RUN TEST IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performances obtained during soccer-specific field tests of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET, with the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max obtained in both field tests as well as that obtained in the traditional test of running to exhaustion on a treadmill (TRT, in young trained soccer players. Twenty-one National-level youth players performed, in random order, the MST and YIET to determine the relationship between the two field tests. From these, eight randomly chosen players performed their field tests as well as a TRT, equipped with an ambulatory gas exchange measurement device. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the players' performance (i.e. distance covered in the MST and YIET was correlated (r = 0.65, p 0.05. In contrast, significant correlations were observed between the players' performance in the MST with the measured VO2max obtained in the same MST and in the YIET (both p < 0.05; and attained almost statistical significance with the measured VO2max in the TRT (p = 0.06. The lack of association between distances covered in the YIET with all the measured VO2max values suggest that measured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players' intermittent endurance performance. In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field-based assessment of soccer player's endurance performance

  13. LHC Report: Tests of new LHC running modes

    CERN Multimedia

    Verena Kain for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    On 13 September, the LHC collided lead ions with protons for the first time. This outstanding achievement was key preparation for the planned 2013 operation in this mode. Outside of two special physics runs, the LHC has continued productive proton-proton luminosity operation.   Celebrating proton-ion collisions. The first week of September added another 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity to ATLAS’s and CMS’s proton-proton data set. It was a week of good and steady production mixed with the usual collection of minor equipment faults. The peak performance was slightly degraded at the start of the week but thanks to the work of the teams in the LHC injectors the beam brightness – and thus the LHC peak performance – were restored to previous levels by the weekend. The LHC then switched to new running modes and spectacularly proved its potential as a multi-purpose machine. This is due in large part to the LHC equipment and controls, which have been designed wi...

  14. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

    2013-01-01

    Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

  15. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test? 1039.501 Section 1039.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures...

  16. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86.341-79 Section 86.341-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only....

  17. Testing LHT at the LHC Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Liu, Yandong

    2016-01-01

    We study the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity (LHT) in the process of $pp \\to W_H^+W_H^- \\to W^+W^- A_H A_H$ at the 14 TeV LHC. With the $W$-jet tagging technique, we demonstrate that the bulk of the model parameter space can be probed at the level of more than $5\\sigma$ in the signature of two fat $W$-jets plus large missing energy. Furthermore, we propose a novel strategy of measuring the principle parameter $f$ that is crucial to testify the LHT model and to fix mass spectrum, including dark matter particle. Our proposal can be easily incorporated into current experimental program of diboson searches at the LHC Run-II.

  18. RUNS TEST FOR A CIRCULAR DISTRIBUTION AND A TABLE OF PROBABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    of the well-known Wald - Wolfowitz runs test for a distribution on a straight line. The primary advantage of the proposed test is that it minimizes the number of assumptions on the theoretical distribution.

  19. 40 CFR 89.407 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted to precondition the engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water... is void and may be aborted. The test mode may be restarted by preconditioning with the previous mode... pretest value, the test segment is void. ...

  20. Testing for Long-Run Relation between Economic Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... cointegration test based on Johansen's procedure indicate the existence of a cointegration between export earnings of ..... going by the result of the Trace statistic, the null ..... Shumway R. H. and Stoffer D. S. (2010), Time.

  1. Comparison of Sprint and Run Times with Performance on the Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male volunteers were studied to examine the relationship between the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and sprint-run times and to determine the influence of age and weight. Results indicate the WAnT is a moderate predictor of dash and run times but becomes a stronger predictor when adjusted for body weight. (Author/MT)

  2. The relationship between the interval shuttle run test and maximal oxygen uptake in soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, KAPM; Visscher, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the interval shuttle run test (ISRT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in soccer players. The ISRT was developed to measure interval endurance capacity. During the ISRT, subjects alternately run for 30 sec and walk for 15 sec with

  3. 40 CFR 91.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water temperatures are stabilized. The temperatures are defined as stabilized if they are maintained... another mode, the test is void and must be restarted as described at paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (11... period for each mode. If this requirement is not met, the mode is void and must be restarted. (12) If at...

  4. Test runs of a Belle II PXD prototype readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getzkow, Dennis; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Soeren; Lautenbach, Klemens [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut (Germany); Gessler, Thomas [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Belle II PXD readout system (called ONSEN for Online Selection Nodes) uses ATCA (Advanced Telecommunications Architecture) boards with Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGAs and high speed optical links (6.5 Gbit/s each). The full system consists of 9 carrier boards and 33 daughter cards. The ONSEN system has several interfaces: (a) it receives PXD data from the DHH (Data Handling Hybrid) system, (b) it receives ROI (Regions-of-Interest) data for online data reduction from the HLT (High Level Trigger) system by GbE, and (c) it features data ports to two event builders: EVB1 combines data from all detectors except PXD (in order to generate the ROIs) and EVB2 combines the reduced PXD data with all other data. One of the critical issues is the matching of trigger numbers in the data (received by DHH from the timing distribution system) and trigger numbers in the ROIs (received by the HLT). In order to test the interfaces, in particular for a high HLT rate up to 30 kHz, a prototype system with 3 daughter cards was installed at KEK and tested with DHH, HLT and EVB2. Test results are presented.

  5. Yo-Yo IR1 vs. incremental continuous running test for prediction of 3000-m performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Klose, Andreas; Schelleckes, Katrin; Jekat, Charlotte M; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare physiological responses during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) Test and an incremental continuous running field Test (ICRT) and to analyze their predictive value on 3000-m running performance. Forty moderately trained individuals (18 females) performed the ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test to exhaustion. The ICRT was performed as graded running test with an increase of 2.0 km·h-1 after each 3 min interval for lactate diagnostic. In both tests, blood lactate levels were determined after the test and at 2 and 5 min of recovery. Heart rate (HR) was recorded to monitor differences in HR slopes and HR recovery. Comparison revealed a correlation between ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test performance (R2=0.83, Prunning time (R2=0.77, Prunning performances such as 3000-m runs but maximum HR and blood lactate values differ significantly. The ICRT may have higher predictive power for middle- to long- distance running performance such as 3000-m runs offering a reliable test for coaches in the recruitment of athletes or supervision of training concepts.

  6. Reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test for Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mitchell G; Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Berry, Jason T; Young, Warren B

    2011-04-01

    Australian football requires frequent intermittent sprinting close to peak running speed. However, tests assessing the capability to maintain intermittent peak running speed are not reported in scientific literature. Therefore, our objective is to report the reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test. The intermittent peak running speed test required footballers to perform 10 repetitions on 25-second intervals. Each repetition required 15-m jogging, 20-m acceleration to peak speed, 10 m to sustain peak speed, 20-m deceleration, and finally a 15-m jog. Intermittent peak running speed was determined by portable global positioning system. To assess reliability, 26 footballers performed the intermittent peak running speed test on 2 occasions 3-5 days apart. Our results revealed that average peak speed had a coefficient of variation of 2.2% and an intraclass correlation of 0.91. To assess construct validity, average peak speed was compared between elite, sub-elite, and regional footballers. The average peak speed of the elite footballers (28.6 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) was higher than that of the sub-elite (27.4 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) and regional (27 ± 1.9 km · h(-1)) competitors (p intermittent peak running speed test possesses acceptable reliability and distinguishes between elite and sub-elite footballers.

  7. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  8. System and Component Software Specification, Run-time Verification and Automatic Test Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following background technology is described in Part 5: Run-time Verification (RV), White Box Automatic Test Generation (WBATG). Part 5 also describes how WBATG...

  9. MEASUREMENT OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A HANG-GLIDER-WING BY GROUND RUN TESTS USING A TEST VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Hozumi, Koki; KOMODA, Masaki; Ono, Takatsugu; TSUKANO, Yukichi; 穂積, 弘毅; 古茂田, 真幸; 小野, 孝次; 塚野, 雄吉

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate longitudinal force and moment characteristics of a hang-glider-wing, ground run tests were conducted using a test vehicle. A hang-glider-wing was installed on a test vehicle using a six-components-balance for wind tunnel use. Aerodynamic force and moment were measrued during the vehicle run at various constant speeds. Geometrical twist distribution along the wing span was recorded as well. Measured force and moment data were corrected for possible ground effect and upw...

  10. PEP Run Report for Simulant Shakedown/Functional Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.

    2009-12-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes." The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3-8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration

  11. 78 FR 67218 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Company-Run Annual Stress Test Reporting Template and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Stress Test Reporting Template and Documentation for Covered Institutions With Total Consolidated Assets... requirement for national banks and Federal savings associations titled, ``Company-Run Annual Stress Test....gov/tools-forms/forms/bank-operations/stress-test-reporting.html ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  12. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  13. Test report for run-in acceptance testing of hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, B.G.

    1997-08-15

    This report will provide the findings of the demonstration test conducted on the Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-SY-101 HMR Pump-3 in accordance with WHC-SDWM-TP-434 ``Test plan for run-in acceptance testing of hydrogen mitigation/retrieval pump-3`` at the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building from 7 June 1996 through 30 July 1996 per work package 4A-96-92/W. The DST 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation retrieval Pump-3 is a 200-HP submersible electric driven pump that has been modified for use in the DST 241-SY-101 containing mixed waste located in the 200W area. The pump has a motor driven rotation mechanism that allows the pump column to rotate through 355{degree}. Prior to operation, pre-operational checks were performed which included loop calibration grooming and alignment of instruments, learning how plumb HMR-3 assembly hung in a vertical position and bump test of the motor to determine rotation direction. The pump was tested in the MASF Large Diameter Cleaning Vessel (LDCV) with process water at controlled temperatures and levels. In addition, the water temperature of the cooling water to the motor oil heat exchanger was recorded during testing. A 480-volt source powered a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). The VFD powered the pump at various frequencies and voltages to control speed and power output of the pump. A second VFD powered the oil cooling pump. A third VFD was not available to operate the rotational drive motor during the 72 hour test, so it was demonstrated as operational before and after the test. A Mini Acquisition and Control System (Mini-DACS) controls pump functions and monitoring of the pump parameters. The Mini-DACS consists of three computers, software and some Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Startup and shutdown of either the pump motor or the oil cooling pump can be accomplished by the Mini-DACS. When the pump was in operation, the Mini-DACS monitors automatically collects data electronically. However, some required data

  14. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  15. 40 CFR 86.340-79 - Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.340-79 Gasoline-fueled engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to...

  16. Testing for purchasing power parity in the long-run for ASEAN-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    For more than a decade, there has been a substantial interest in testing for the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis empirically. This paper performs a test on revealing a long-run relative Purchasing Power Parity for a group of ASEAN-5 countries for the period of 1996-2016 using monthly data. For this purpose, we used the Pedroni co-integration method to test for the long-run hypothesis of purchasing power parity. We first tested for the stationarity of the variables and found that the variables are non-stationary at levels but stationary at first difference. Results of the Pedroni test rejected the null hypothesis of no co-integration meaning that we have enough evidence to support PPP in the long-run for the ASEAN-5 countries over the period of 1996-2016. In other words, the rejection of null hypothesis implies a long-run relation between nominal exchange rates and relative prices.

  17. Lactate minimum test during incremental running after a submaximal cycling exercise: a novel test with training applications for triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Campous, D; Barbado, C; Nuñez, M J; Chicharro, J L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether running speed determined in a lactate minimum test (lactate minimum intensity, LMI) during a treadmill incremental exercise performed just after submaximal cycling corresponds to the speed of a respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00 (RER-1) and, by extension, to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) previously obtained in a standard incremental exercise test. Eighteen moderately trained triathletes (15 men, 3 women) underwent two exercise sessions 72 h apart in random order: 1) a standard incremental treadmill test to identify the speed corresponding to RER-1, and 2) a submaximal exercise test on a bicycle-ergometer to obtain the LT (lactate threshold) followed by the incremental portion of the lactate minimum test on the treadmill. No significant differences were detected between running speed and heart rate at RER-1 and LMI (14.44±1.24 vs. 14.11±1.36 km·h-1 and 166.38±9.30 vs. 169.55±8.97 beats·min-1, respectively). Moreover, 95% of the differences between the results of the two incremental tests for running speed and heart rate were within the limits of agreement. These findings suggest the possibility of obtaining a valid physiological profile of a triathlete using a single test to assess the level of training in both cycling and running.

  18. Methodological framework for heart rate variability analysis during exercise: application to running and cycling stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Hernando, Alberto; Casajús, Jose A; Laguna, Pablo; Garatachea, Nuria; Bailón, Raquel

    2017-09-26

    Standard methodologies of heart rate variability analysis and physiological interpretation as a marker of autonomic nervous system condition have been largely published at rest, but not so much during exercise. A methodological framework for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is proposed, which deals with the non-stationary nature of HRV during exercise, includes respiratory information, and identifies and corrects spectral components related to cardiolocomotor coupling (CC). This is applied to 23 male subjects who underwent different tests: maximal and submaximal, running and cycling; where the ECG, respiratory frequency and oxygen consumption were simultaneously recorded. High-frequency (HF) power results largely modified from estimations with the standard fixed band to those obtained with the proposed methodology. For medium and high levels of exercise and recovery, HF power results in a 20 to 40% increase. When cycling, HF power increases around 40% with respect to running, while CC power is around 20% stronger in running.

  19. Familiarization, reliability, and comparability of a 40-m maximal shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Hauck, Hanna; Abraham, Corinne S; Merry, Kevin L; Beaver, Dean; Woods, Bernadette; McInnes, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine familiarization and reliability associated with a 40-m maximal shuttle run test (40-m MST), and to compare performance measures from the test with those of a typical unidirectional multiple sprint running test (UMSRT). 12 men and 4 women completed four trials of the 40-m MST (8 × 40-m; 20 s rest periods) followed by one trial of a UMSRT (12 × 30-m; repeated every 35 s); with seven days between trials. All trials were conducted indoors and performance times were recorded via twin-beam photocells. Significant between-trial differences in mean 40-m MST times were indicative of learning effects between trials 1 and 2. Test-retest reliability across the remaining trials as determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) revealed: a) very good reliability for measures of fastest and mean shuttle time (CV = 1.1 - 1.3%; ICC = 0.91 - 0.92); b) good reliability for measures of blood lactate (CV = 10.1 - 23.9%; ICC = 0.74 - 0.82) and ratings of perceived exertion (CV = 5.3 - 7.6%; ICC = 0.79 - 0.84); and c) poor reliability for measures of fatigue (CV = 38.7%; ICC = 0.59). Comparisons between performance indices of the 40-m MST and the UMSRT revealed significant correlations between all measures, except pre-test blood lactate concentration (r = 0. 47). Whilst the 40-m MST does not appear to provide more information than can be gleaned from a typical UMSRT, following the completion of a familiarization trial, the 40-m MST provides an alternative and, except for fatigue measures, reliable means of evaluating repeated sprint ability. Key pointsTests of multiple sprint performance are a popular means of evaluating repeated sprint ability.Multiple sprint tests incorporating changes of direction may be more ecologically valid than unidirectional protocols.The 40-m maximal shuttle run test is a reliable way of evaluating repeated sprint ability following the completion of one familiarization trial

  20. TESTING OF THE SPINTEK ROTARY MICROFILTER USING ACTUAL HANFORD WASTE SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUBER HJ

    2010-04-13

    The SpinTek rotary microfilter was tested on actual Hanford tank waste. The samples were a composite of archived Tank 241-AN-105 material and a sample representing single-shell tanks (SST). Simulants of the two samples have been used in non-rad test runs at the 222-S laboratory and at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The results of these studies are compared in this report. Two different nominal pore sizes for the sintered steel rotating disk filter were chosen: 0.5 and 0.1 {micro}m. The results suggest that the 0.5-{micro}m disk is preferable for Hanford tank waste for the following reasons: (1) The filtrate clarity is within the same range (<<4 ntu for both disks); (2) The filtrate flux is in general higher for the 0.5-{micro}m disk; and (3) The 0.1-{micro}m disk showed a higher likelihood of fouling. The filtrate flux of the actual tank samples is generally in the range of 20-30% compared to the equivalent non-rad tests. The AN-105 slurries performed at about twice the filtrate flux of the SST slurries. The reason for this difference has not been identified. Particle size distributions in both cases are very similar; comparison of the chemical composition is not conclusive. The sole hint towards what material was stuck in the filter pore holes came from the analysis of the dried flakes from the surface of the fouled 0.1-{micro}m disk. A cleaning approach developed by SRNL personnel to deal with fouled disks has been found adaptable when using actual Hanford samples. The use of 1 M nitric acid improved the filtrate flux by approximately two times; using the same simulants as in the non-rad test runs showed that the filtrate flux was restored to 1/2 of its original amount.

  1. W-026 integrated engineering cold run operational test report for balance of plant (BOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-24

    This Cold Run test is designed to demonstrate the functionality of systems necessary to move waste drums throughout the plant using approved procedures, and the compatibility of these systems to function as an integrated process. This test excludes all internal functions of the gloveboxes. In the interest of efficiency and support of the facility schedule, the initial revision of the test (rev 0) was limited to the following: Receipt and storage of eight overpacked drums, four LLW and four TRU; Receipt, routing, and staging of eleven empty drums to the process area where they will be used later in this test; Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 9); Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 1). The above listed operations were tested using the rev 0 test document, through Section 5.4.25. The document was later revised to include movement of all staged drums to and from the LLW and TRU process and RWM gloveboxes. This testing was performed using Sections 5.5 though 5.11 of the rev 1 test document. The primary focus of this test is to prove the functionality of automatic operations for all mechanical and control processes listed. When necessary, the test demonstrates manual mode operations as well. Though the gloveboxes are listed, only waste and empty drum movement to, from, and between the gloveboxes was tested.

  2. A comparison of two different shuttle run tests for the estimation of VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, L M; Cooley, D; Kearney, V; Smith, S

    1996-06-01

    The aims of this experiment were twofold. The first was to determine whether there was a significant difference between two types of 20-m shuttle run test used to estimate VO2max, these being the Canadian version (CT) and the European versione (ET). The second aim was to determine which of the two tests best estimated direct VO2 measurement in our laboratory. To accomplish the first aim, 500 schoolchildren aged 12 to 16 years were randomly chosen from schools within Tasmania to undertake the two tests within seven days of each other. On the day of testing the children were assigned to one of the two tests and had no knowledge as to which test was being undertaken. Half of the children underwent the CT test first while the other half undertook the ET test first. Seven days after the first test was completed the appropriate second test was undertaken. The instructions to each child centred around the necessity to complete as many shuttles as possible staying in time with a pre-recorded signal. A relationship between the two sets of shuttle run data indicated that there was a significant correlation between the ET and CT, r = 0.834 (p test revealed that when the estimates of VO2max were compared however, there was a significant difference between the two tests (p VO2max at 34.9 +/- 0.45 ml.kg-1.min-1 whereas the CT estimated VO2max at 43.3 +/- 0.40 ml.kg-1.min-1. When this data was correlated, the co-efficient dropped to r = 0.761 which was still significant (p VO2max test (DM) which was conducted via standard open circuit spirometry using a Quinton Metabolic Cart (QMC). The highest correlation was DM:ET being r = 0.93 whereas DM:CT was r = 0.87, both being significant at p VO2max as 37.6 +/- 0.37 ml.kg-1.min-1 whereas ET underestimated DM and measured VO2max at 34.7 +/- 0.56 ml.kg-1.min-1. The CT (41.9 +/- 0.62 ml.kg-1.min-1) over estimated DM by 11.4% however, the difference here also being significant (p test or the other in the estimation of VO2max as the two

  3. Influence of running stride frequency in heart rate variability analysis during treadmill exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailón, Raquel; Garatachea, Nuria; de la Iglesia, Ignacio; Casajús, Jose Antonio; Laguna, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The analysis and interpretation of heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise is challenging not only because of the nonstationary nature of exercise, the time-varying mean heart rate, and the fact that respiratory frequency exceeds 0.4 Hz, but there are also other factors, such as the component centered at the pedaling frequency observed in maximal cycling tests, which may confuse the interpretation of HRV analysis. The objectives of this study are to test the hypothesis that a component centered at the running stride frequency (SF) appears in the HRV of subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing, and to study its influence in the interpretation of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV during exercise. The HRV of 23 subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing is analyzed. The instantaneous power of different HRV components is computed from the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution of the modulating signal assumed to carry information from the autonomic nervous system, which is estimated based on the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation model. Besides the LF and HF components, the appearance is revealed of a component centered at the running SF as well as its aliases. The power associated with the SF component and its aliases represents 22±7% (median±median absolute deviation) of the total HRV power in all the subjects. Normalized LF power decreases as the exercise intensity increases, while normalized HF power increases. The power associated with the SF does not change significantly with exercise intensity. Consideration of the running SF component and its aliases is very important in HRV analysis since stride frequency aliases may overlap with LF and HF components.

  4. An alternative approach to the Army Physical Fitness Test two-mile run using critical velocity and isoperformance curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of critical velocity (CV) and isoperformance curves as an alternative to the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) two-mile running test. Seventy-eight men and women (mean +/- SE; age: 22.1 +/- 0.34 years; VO2(MAX): 46.1 +/- 0.82 mL/kg/min) volunteered to participate in this study. A VO2(MAX) test and four treadmill running bouts to exhaustion at varying intensities were completed. The relationship between total distance and time-to-exhaustion was tracked for each exhaustive run to determine CV and anaerobic running capacity. A VO2(MAX) prediction equation (Coefficient of determination: 0.805; Standard error of the estimate: 3.2377 mL/kg/min) was developed using these variables. Isoperformance curves were constructed for men and women to correspond with two-mile run times from APFT standards. Individual CV and anaerobic running capacity values were plotted and compared to isoperformance curves for APFT 2-mile run scores. Fifty-four individuals were determined to receive passing scores from this assessment. Physiological profiles identified from this procedure can be used to assess specific aerobic or anaerobic training needs. With the use of time-to-exhaustion as opposed to a time-trial format used in the two-mile run test, pacing strategies may be limited. The combination of variables from the CV test and isoperformance curves provides an alternative to standardized time-trial testing.

  5. Determination of maximum aerobic velocity by a five minute test with reference to running world records. A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, A; Berthon, P; Laubignat, J F

    1996-01-01

    Field measurement of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) is closely linked to effort-duration then to the used protocol. We construct the relationship between running speed and running-duration logarithm from running world records. It appears a noteworthy point at 4.97 minutes, to be suggested as MAV duration point. By agreement, MAV could be measured on field by a five minute test whatever the sport may be.

  6. On the mechanism of running-in during wear tests of a babbitt B83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.; Fazlyakhmetov, R. F.; Pshenichnyuk, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    Based on an analysis of changes in the structure of cast babbitt of grade B83 in the process of wear tests and on a comparison of the wear curves of cast babbitt and electroplated coating of the same phase composition, there is proposed a wear mechanism at the running-in stage of B83, which is reduced to the spalling-off of coarse particles of the intermetallic β phase, pressing-in of the cleaved particles into the soft plastic matrix, and the formation of a fairly homogeneous coating uniformly paved by small, hard particles.

  7. Wind tunnel tests on slow-running vertical-axis wind-rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasegaram, S.

    1981-09-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the Savonius-type, slow-running, vertical-axis wind-rotors as well as on rotor designs on different subclasses under comparable design and test conditions. It is seen that the performance of the conventional Savonius rotor could be considerably improved upon and the best results are achieved by using two-bladed rotors with a more sophisticated sectional profile than in the conventional design. Rotors with several blades, although capable of considerably higher performance than the Savonius rotor, do not appear to be as good as those with two blades and improved sectional geometry.

  8. Large Scale Model Test Investigation on Wave Run-Up in Irregular Waves at Slender Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2013-01-01

    from high speed video recordings. Based on the measured run-up heights different types of prediction formulae for run-up in irregular waves were evaluated. In conclusion scale effects on run-up levels seems small except for differences in spray. However, run-up of individual waves is difficult...

  9. FAMILIARIZATION, RELIABILITY, AND COMPARABILITY OF A 40-M MAXIMAL SHUTTLE RUN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Glaister

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine familiarization and reliability associated with a 40-m maximal shuttle run test (40-m MST, and to compare performance measures from the test with those of a typical unidirectional multiple sprint running test (UMSRT. 12 men and 4 women completed four trials of the 40-m MST (8 × 40-m; 20 s rest periods followed by one trial of a UMSRT (12 × 30-m; repeated every 35 s; with seven days between trials. All trials were conducted indoors and performance times were recorded via twin-beam photocells. Significant between-trial differences in mean 40-m MST times were indicative of learning effects between trials 1 and 2. Test-retest reliability across the remaining trials as determined by coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC revealed: a very good reliability for measures of fastest and mean shuttle time (CV = 1.1 - 1.3%; ICC = 0.91 - 0.92; b good reliability for measures of blood lactate (CV = 10.1 - 23.9%; ICC = 0.74 - 0.82 and ratings of perceived exertion (CV = 5.3 - 7.6%; ICC = 0.79 - 0.84; and c poor reliability for measures of fatigue (CV = 38.7%; ICC = 0.59. Comparisons between performance indices of the 40-m MST and the UMSRT revealed significant correlations between all measures, except pre-test blood lactate concentration (r = 0. 47. Whilst the 40-m MST does not appear to provide more information than can be gleaned from a typical UMSRT, following the completion of a familiarization trial, the 40-m MST provides an alternative and, except for fatigue measures, reliable means of evaluating repeated sprint ability

  10. Thin film fabrication and system integration test run for a microactuator for a tuneable lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheisel, Dominik; Rissing, Lutz

    2014-03-01

    An electromagnetic microactuator, for controlling of a tuneable lens, with an integrated electrostatic element is fabricated by thin film technology. The actuator consists of two parts: the first part with microcoil and flux guide and the second part with a ring shaped back iron on a polyimide membrane. The back iron is additionally useable as electrode for electrostatic measurement of the air gap and for electrostatic actuation. By attracting the back iron an optical liquid is displaced and forms a liquid lens inside the back iron ring covered by the membrane. For testing the thin film fabrication sequence, up-scaled systems are generated in a test run. To fabricate the flux guide in an easy and quick way, a Ni-Fe foil with a thickness of 50 μm is laminated on the Si-wafer. This foil is also utilized in the following fabrication sequence as seed layer for electroplating. Compared to Ni-Fe structures deposited by electroplating, the foil is featuring better soft magnetic properties. The foil is structured by wet chemical etching and the backside of the wafer is structured by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). For post fabrication thinning, the polyimide membrane is treated by oxygen plasma etching. To align the back iron to the microcoil and the flux guide, a flip-chip-bonder is used during test run of system integration. To adjust a constant air gap, a water solvable polymer is tested. A two component epoxy and a polyimide based glue are compared for their bonding properties of the actuator parts.

  11. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  12. How to finance investment in Bangladesh: Finding long-run factors in a bounds test method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biru Paksha Paula

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment in Bangladesh has been at almost one-fourth of the country’s output since the early 2000s. Consequently, Bangladesh’s growth has also remained stagnant at around 6 percent since then. The question of how to increase investment in Bangladesh has been of crucial discussion of late. This study examines the long run determinants of investment in Bangladesh by applying the bounds test over 1976-2010. There should not be any policy dilemma about the effect of lending rates, which must be reduced to boost investment and domestic credit should be expanded. Further liberalization in trade and finance is recommended since economic openness and financial deepening show a positive impact on capital formation. The policy prescriptions for Bangladesh are not different from those for other nations that embarked on liberalization to augment investment for accelerating growth.

  13. 78 FR 59791 - Annual Company-Run Stress Tests at Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets of More...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... test by the Federal Reserve and the requirements for semi-annual company run stress tests. See 12 CFR....154 Annual stress test. (a) General requirements--(1) Savings and loan holding companies with average... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12...

  14. Effects of measurement dependence on generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell test in the single-run and multiple-run scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei; Li, Xin-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    Bell tests, as primitive tools to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems, rely on an assumption, i.e., measurement independence. Since ensuring measurement independence in a practical Bell test is difficult, it is crucial to explore the effects of relaxing this assumption. Recently, in the simplest Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell (CHSH-Bell) test, Koh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 160404 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.160404] built the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of CHSH-Bell correlation function that an adversary (Eve) can fake. As well, Pope et al. [Phys. Rev. A 88, 032110 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.032110] and Yuan et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 91, 032111 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032111] settled the same problem in the multiple-run scenario with the general input distribution and the factorizable one, respectively. However, pertinent results in the generalized CHSH-Bell test are still missing. Here, we study this problem and establish the relation among measurement dependence, guessing probability, and the maximum value of the generalized CHSH-Bell correlation function that Eve can fake. Furthermore, we also consider the multiple-run scenario and show the relations in both input distributions. Interestingly, compared with the simplest CHSH-Bell test, we find that it is more difficult for Eve to fake a violation in the generalized CHSH-Bell test in some special cases. We expect that our conclusions will serve as a reference for quantum information processing tasks such as quantum key distribution, randomness expansion, and other tasks in the device-independent framework.

  15. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Grahm C; Edke, Mangesh; Griffin, Timothy M

    2012-08-15

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle data and a high-speed infrared video file. During the first night of wheel running, mice reached consistent running speeds within the first 40 force events, indicating a rapid habituation to wheel running, given that mice generated >2,000 force-event files/night. Average running speeds and peak normal and tangential forces were consistent throughout the first four nights of running, indicating that one night of running is sufficient to characterize the locomotor biomechanics of healthy mice. Twelve weeks of wheel running significantly increased spontaneous wheel-running speeds (16 vs. 37 m/min), lowered duty factors (ratio of foot-ground contact time to stride time; 0.71 vs. 0.58), and raised hindlimb peak normal forces (93 vs. 115% body wt) compared with inexperienced mice. Peak normal hindlimb-force magnitudes were the primary force component, which were nearly tenfold greater than peak tangential forces. Peak normal hindlimb forces exceed the vertical forces generated during overground running (50-60% body wt), suggesting that wheel running shifts weight support toward the hindlimbs. This force-instrumented running-wheel system provides a comprehensive, noninvasive screening method for monitoring gait biomechanics in mice during spontaneous locomotion.

  16. Relationship between the modified star excursion balance test and the 4x10 m shuttle run test in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Calatayud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico son habilidades cruciales en la actividad física prepuberal y la participación deportiva, por lo tanto es necesaria la identificación de pruebas eficientes para su evaluación. Evaluar la correlación entre la agilidad y el equilibrio dinámico en niños escolares de primaria. Veintisiete niños y veinte niñas de 10 años participaron voluntariamente en el estudio. El Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT modificado y el 4x10 m Shuttle Run Test se utilizaron respectivamente para evaluar el equilibrio dinámico y agilidad. Las puntuaciones compuestas del equilibrio dinámico con apoyo diestro mostraron solo entre los niños una moderada correlación significativa (r = -0.51, p < 0.05 con la prueba de agilidad. Sin embargo, entre las niñas se mostró una correlación significativa (r = -0.45, p < 0.05 durante la distancia de alcance posterolateral obtenida en el SEBT. La realización del test completo o de las distancias alcanzadas a nivel posteromedial y posterolateral del SEBT se asocia moderadamente con la agilidad entre los niños, mientras que la distancia posterolateral se asocia con la agilidad entre las niñas.

  17. 78 FR 47217 - Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress Tests for Banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Company-Run Stress Tests for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets of More Than $10 Billion...'') stress tests, applicable to all bank and savings-and-loan holding companies, national banks, state-member... ``$10-50 billion companies''). The guidance discusses supervisory expectations for DFA stress...

  18. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  19. Toxicological assessment of heavy straight run naphtha in a repeated dose/reproductive toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Steup, David; Schreiner, Ceinwen; Podhasky, Paula; Malley, Linda A; Roberts, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline blending stocks (naphthas) are comprised of normal, iso- and cycloparaffins and aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers ranging from C4 to C12. Heavy straight run naphtha (HSRN, CAS number 64741-41-9) was selected for toxicity screening because substances of this type contain relatively high levels (28%) of cycloparaffins by comparison to other naphtha streams and the data complement toxicity information on other gasoline blending streams. Rats were exposed by inhalation to wholly vaporized material at levels of approximately 100, 500, or 3000 parts per million (ppm) daily to screen the potential for systemic toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and developmental effects to postnatal day 4. All animals survived the treatment period. Principal effects of repeated exposure included increased liver weights in males and females, increased kidney weights in males, and histological changes in the thyroid, secondary to liver enzyme induction. These changes were not considered to be toxicologically meaningful and are not relevant to humans. There were no treatment-related effects in functional observation tests or motor activity; no significant reductions in fertility or changes in other reproductive parameters; and no evidence of developmental toxicity in offspring. The overall no observed adverse effect concentration was 3000 ppm (approximately 13, 600 mg/m(3)). In conclusion the HSRN effects on liver and kidney are consistent with the results of other studies of volatile fractions or other naphthas or formulated gasoline, and there were no HSRN effects on neurological developmental or reproductive parameters.

  20. Apparatus and method for heat-run test on high-power PWM converters with low energy expenditure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Siva Prasad; G Narayanan

    2013-06-01

    Before installation, a voltage source converter is usually subjected to heat-run test to verify its thermal design and performance under load. For heat-run test, the converter needs to be operated at rated voltage and rated current for a substantial length of time. Hence, such tests consume huge amount of energy in case of high-power converters. Also, the capacities of the source and loads available in the research and development (R & D) centre or the production facility could be inadequate to conduct such tests. This paper proposes a method to conduct heat-run tests on highpower, pulse width modulated (PWM) converters with low energy consumption. The experimental set-up consists of the converter under test and another converter (of similar or higher rating), both connected in parallel on the ac side and open on the dc side. Vector-control or synchronous reference frame control is employed to control the converters such that one draws certain amount of reactive power and the other supplies the same; only the system losses are drawn from the mains. The performance of the controller is validated through simulation and experiments. Experimental results, pertaining to heat-run tests on a high-power PWM converter, are presented at power levels of 25 kVA to 150 kVA.

  1. A New Content-Based Image Retrieval Using the Multidimensional Generalization of Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauhatong, Thurdsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Atsuta, Kiyoaki; Kondo, Shozo

    This paper proposes two new similarity measures for the content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The similarity measures are based on the k-means clustering algorithm and the multidimensional generalization of the Wald-Wolfowitz (MWW) runs test. The performance comparisons between the proposed similarity measures and a current CBIR similarity measure based on the MWW runs test were performed, and it can be seen that the proposed similarity measures outperform the current similarity measure with respect to the precision and the computational time.

  2. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a

  3. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a half calendar years. The test

  4. Running the running

    CERN Document Server

    Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\pm0.013$ at $68\\%\\,\\mathrm{CL}$, suggesting the presence of a running of the running at the level of two standard deviations. We find no significant correlation between $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}}$ and foregrounds parameters, with the exception of the point sources amplitude at $143\\,\\mathrm{GHz}$, $A^{PS}_{143}$, which shifts by half sigma when the running of the running is considered. We further study the cosmological implications of this anomaly by including in the analysis the lensing amplitude $A_L$, the curvature parameter ...

  5. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 x 1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below

  6. Reliability and validity of data for 2 newly developed shuttle run tests in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim; Ketelaar, Majolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; Helders, Paul J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of data obtained with 2 newly developed shuttle run tests (SRT-I and SRT-II) to measure aerobic power in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified at level I or II on the Gross Motor Function Cl

  7. Testing the running coupling $k_{T}$-factorization formula for the inclusive gluon production

    CERN Document Server

    Durães, F O; Goncalves, V P; Navarra, F S

    2016-01-01

    The inclusive gluon production at midrapidities is described in the Color Glass Condensate formalism using the $k_T$ - factorization formula, which was derived at fixed coupling constant considering the scattering of a dilute system of partons with a dense one. Recent analysis demonstrated that this approach provides a satisfactory description of the experimental data for the inclusive hadron production in $pp/pA/AA$ collisions. However, these studies are based on the fixed coupling $k_T$ - factorization formula, which does not take into account the running coupling corrections, which are important to set the scales present in the cross section. In this paper we consider the running coupling corrected $k_T$ - factorization formula conjectured some years ago and investigate the impact of the running coupling corrections on the observables. In particular, the pseudorapidity distributions and charged hadrons multiplicity are calculated considering $pp$, $dAu/pPb$ and $AuAu/PbPb$ collisions at RHIC and LHC energi...

  8. Testing the running coupling kT-factorization formula for the inclusive gluon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, F. O.; Giannini, A. V.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.

    2016-09-01

    The inclusive gluon production at midrapidities is described in the color glass condensate formalism using the kT-factorization formula, which was derived at fixed coupling constant considering the scattering of a dilute system of partons with a dense one. Recent analysis demonstrated that this approach provides a satisfactory description of the experimental data for the inclusive hadron production in p p /p A /A A collisions. However, these studies are based on the fixed coupling kT-factorization formula. This formula does not take into account the running coupling corrections, which are important to set the scales present in the cross section. In this paper we consider the running coupling corrected kT-factorization formula conjectured some years ago and investigate the impact of the running coupling corrections on the observables. In particular, the pseudorapidity distributions and charged hadrons' multiplicity are calculated considering p p , d A u /p P b , and A u A u /P b P b collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. We compare the corrected running coupling predictions with those obtained using the original kT-factorization assuming a fixed coupling or a prescription for the inclusion of the running of the coupling. Considering the Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi unintegrated gluon distribution and a simplified model for the nuclear geometry, we demonstrate that the distinct predictions are similar for the pseudorapidity distributions in p p /p A /A A collisions and for the charged hadrons' multiplicity in p p /p A collisions. On the other hand, the running coupling corrected kT-factorization formula predicts a smoother energy dependence for d N /d η in A A collisions.

  9. Reliability of the Three-minute All-out Test for Non-motorized Treadmill Tethered Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, M C T; Sousa, F A B; Dos Reis, I G M; Gobatto, C A

    2016-07-13

    The 3-min all-out test was developed and validated on a cycle ergometer using a modification of a linear mathematical equation (1/time vs. power) obtained from the original critical power model. The purpose of this development was to obtain, in a single test, the aerobic and anaerobic capacity parameters and identify the exercise transition moment from heavy to severe intensity. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptation of the all-out 3-min cycle ergometer to a non-motorized treadmill with tethered running. In addition, we tested the reproducibility of this adapted protocol, highlighting the need for mechanical power evaluation using a specific ergometer. Consequently, 10 physically active individuals visited the laboratory 4 times for testing and data collection. The results suggested that the protocol adaptation for the 3-min all-out test for non-motorized treadmill with tethered running was reproducible and feasible. It was also possible to show that the AO3 application in this ergometer ensures the specificity of the sports that involve the running exercise, from assessment of both aerobic and anaerobic parameters, accomplished in a single day of application.

  10. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  11. Testing the running of the cosmological constant with Type Ia Supernovae at high z

    CERN Document Server

    Espana-Bonet, C; Shapiro, I L; Solà, J; Espana-Bonet, Cristina; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Shapiro, Ilya L.; Sola, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Within the Quantum Field Theory context the idea of a "cosmological constant" (CC) evolving with time looks quite natural as it just reflects the change of the vacuum energy with the typical energy of the universe. In the particular frame of Ref.[30], a "running CC" at low energies may arise from generic quantum effects near the Planck scale, M_P, provided there is a smooth decoupling of all massive particles below M_P. In this work we further develop the cosmological consequences of a "running CC" by addressing the accelerated evolution of the universe within that model. The rate of change of the CC stays slow, without fine-tuning, and is comparable to H^2 M_P^2. It can be described by a single parameter, \

  12. A novel mouse running wheel that senses individual limb forces: biomechanical validation and in vivo testing

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Grahm C.; Edke, Mangesh; Griffin, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical data provide fundamental information about changes in musculoskeletal function during development, adaptation, and disease. To facilitate the study of mouse locomotor biomechanics, we modified a standard mouse running wheel to include a force-sensitive rung capable of measuring the normal and tangential forces applied by individual paws. Force data were collected throughout the night using an automated threshold trigger algorithm that synchronized force data with wheel-angle dat...

  13. Reliability of a Shuttle Run Test for Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Are Classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bosma, Liesbeth; Takken, Tim

    2011-01-01

    For children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level III there is no running-based field test available to assess their cardiorespiratory fitness. The current study investigated whether a shuttle run test can be reliably (test-retest) performed in a group of children with…

  14. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  15. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  16. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  17. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  18. Changes in Run Distance Observed in two explosives at the threshold for sustained ignition using the Modified Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard; Forbes, Jerry; Tasker, Douglas; Orme, Rebecca

    2009-06-01

    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 88% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. The final ingredients of each comprised different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pressure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results were fairly consistent for the lower input pressures. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition threshold for sustained ignition in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to variation in run to detonation distance in a range of input stresses just prior to prompt detonation.

  19. An educational intervention to increase awareness reduces unnecessary laboratory testing in an internal medicine resident-run clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Erika; Song, Shuang; Al-Abboud, Omar; Shams, Shahed; English, John; Naji, Wisam; Huang, Yafei; Robison, Leon; Balis, Fred; Kawsar, Hameem I

    2017-07-01

    At our resident-run clinic in an underserved community, laboratory test costs in 2013 exceeded the government subsidy by $400 000. To optimize limited resources and improve patient care, an education program to reduce testing was implemented. Between November 2014 and January 2015, residents attended lectures on utilization of laboratory testing, focusing on standard practice guidelines, and analyses of unnecessary tests. Multivariate nonparametric statistical methods and subgroup analysis were used to evaluate cost reduction. There were 453 clinic visits during the intervention period and 471 visits during the control period. Lectures were independently associated with a significant laboratory cost reduction. Median laboratory cost per visit decreased from $106.00 to $74.00. Total cost in the study period decreased from $79 403 to $51 463. There were similar reductions of laboratory costs in two subgroups: age groups of <50 years and ≥50 years, new encounters, and follow-up visits . In the analysis of individual tests, the cost of TSH and Vitamin D tests had the greatest reduction ($8176 and $5088 respectively). An appropriate physician education program can reduce laboratory tests and costs. Screening tests with inadequate evidence support were reduced most, whereas those with proven benefits did not decrease significantly.

  20. 40 CFR 86.137-94 - Dynamometer test run, gaseous and particulate emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such that the system meets the design criteria of § 86.109 and § 86.110. For samples in which the... necessary. (iv) For formaldehyde samples, the flow rates shall be set such that the system meets the design... according to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (§ 86.115). Note: During particulate testing, adjust the...

  1. Multi-Stage 20-m Shuttle Run Fitness Test, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Velocity at Maximal Oxygen Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisis, Giorgos P; Zacharogiannis, Elias; Mandila, Dafni; Smirtiotou, Athanasia; Argeitaki, Polyxeni; Cooke, Carlton B

    2014-06-28

    The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run fitness test (20mMSFT) is a popular field test which is widely used to measure aerobic fitness by predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance. However, the velocity at which VO2max occurs (vVO2max) is a better indicator of performance than VO2max, and can be used to explain inter-individual differences in performance that VO2max cannot. It has been reported as a better predictor for running performance and it can be used to monitor athletes' training for predicting optimal training intensity. This study investigated the validity and suitability of predicting VO2max and vVO2max of adult subjects on the basis of the performance of the 20mMST. Forty eight (25 male and 23 female) physical education students performed, in random order, a laboratory based continuous horizontal treadmill test to determine VO2max, vVO2max and a 20mMST, with an interval of 3 days between each test. The results revealed significant correlations between the number of shuttles in the 20mMSFT and directly determined VO2max (r = 0.87, pVO2max was y = 0.0276x + 27.504, whereas for vVO2max it was y = 0.0937x + 6.890. It can be concluded that the 20mMSFT can accurately predict VO2max and vVO2max and this field test can provide useful information regarding aerobic fitness of adults. The predicted vVO2max can be used in monitoring athletes, especially in determining optimal training intensity.

  2. Multi-Stage 20-m Shuttle Run Fitness Test, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Velocity at Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradisis Giorgos P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run fitness test (20mMSFT is a popular field test which is widely used to measure aerobic fitness by predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max and performance. However, the velocity at which VO 2 max occurs (vVO 2 max is a better indicator of performance than VO 2 max, and can be used to explain inter-individual differences in performance that VO 2 max cannot. It has been reported as a better predictor for running performance and it can be used to monitor athletes’ training for predicting optimal training intensity. This study investigated the validity and suitability of predicting VO2max and vVO2max of adult subjects on the basis of the performance of the 20mMST. Forty eight (25 male and 23 female physical education students performed, in random order, a laboratory based continuous horizontal treadmill test to determine VO2max, vVO 2 max and a 20mMST, with an interval of 3 days between each test. The results revealed significant correlations between the number of shuttles in the 20mMSFT and directly determined VO 2 max (r = 0.87, p<0.05 and vVO 2 max (r = 0.93, p<0.05. The equation for prediction of VO 2 max was y = 0.0276x + 27.504, whereas for vVO 2 max it was y = 0.0937x + 6.890. It can be concluded that the 20mMSFT can accurately predict VO 2 max and vVO 2 max and this field test can provide useful information regarding aerobic fitness of adults. The predicted vVO 2 max can be used in monitoring athletes, especially in determining optimal training intensity.

  3. Results from the 1997 run of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov test-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Halley, A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Analysis results of data from the ring imaging Cherenkov test-beam using hybrid photo diodes are presented. Details are given of the geometrical arrangement of the prototype and data-taking conditions, together with results of simulation and studies of the detector performance, photon yield and Cherenkov angle resolution using different radiators. Good agreement with simulation is found for both gas and aerogel photon yield calculations and the observed Cherenkov angle resolution.1

  4. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    Sports. 2009. 2. Bar-Or O & Inbar O. Relationships among anaerobic capacity, sprint and middle distance running of school children. In Shephard, RJ. and Lavallée, H. eds., Physical fitness assessment. Springfield, 1978. 3. Inbar O & Bar-Or O. Relationships of anaerobic and aerobic arm and leg capacities...... to swimming performance of 8-12 year old children. In Shephard, R.J. and Lavallée, H. eds., Frontiers of activity and child health. Quebec: Pélican, 1977. 4. Andersen LB., et Al. An Intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. J Sports Med Physical Fitness 2008....... in two field tests, the short shuttle run test (SSRT), 10x5 m measuring agility and speed , and the long modified 20 metre shuttle run, the Andersen test (AT) measuring cardio-respiratory fitness (4), representing anaerob and aerob performance respectively. Methods: The population and data was collected...

  5. Washing Up with Hot and Cold Running Neutrons: Tests of Fundamental Physical Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Steve K.

    2005-05-01

    The properties of the Neutron and its interactions with matter have been long applied to tests of fundamental physical principles. An example of such an application is a test of the stability of the fundamental constants of physics based on possible changes in low energy absorption resonances and the isotopic composition of a prehistoric natural reactor that operated two billion years ago in equatorial Africa. A recent re-analysis of this event indicates that some fundamental constants have changed. The focus of the presentation will be on the uses of cold and ultracold neutrons (UCNs), and in particular, the experimental search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) which would be evidence for time reversal asymmetry in the microscopic interactions within the neutron. Ultracold neutrons are neutrons with kinetic energy sufficiently low that they can be reflected from material surfaces for all angles of incidence, allowing UCNs to be stored in material bottles for times approaching the beta decay lifetime of the neutron. Vagaries associated with the production, transport, and storage of UCNs will be described, and an overview progress on development of a new neutron EDM experiment to be operated at LANSCE will be presented. This new experiment has potential to improve the measurement sensitivity by a factor of 100. Although an EDM has not be observed for any elementary particle, experimental limits have been crucial for testing extensions to the so-called Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Our anticipated sensitivity will be sufficient to address questions regarding the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.

  6. Running and cycling economy in athletes; determining factors,training interventions and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Støren, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    Løps- og sykkeløkonomi hos idrettsutøvere; bestemmende faktorer,treningsintervensjoner og testingArbeidet som denne doktorgradsavhandlingen er basert på ble utført ved Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet og Høgskolen i Telemark. Det består av en rekke på fem eksperimentelle studier som har undersøkt bestemmende faktorer for løps- og sykkeløkonomi, treningsintervensjoner og testmetoder. De viktigste målemetodene i dette doktorgradsarbeidet var målinger av oksygenopptak under submaks...

  7. The use of portable NIRS to measure muscle oxygenation and haemodynamics during a repeated sprint running test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Hesford, Catherine M; Cooper, Chris E

    2013-01-01

    Portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices were originally developed for use in exercise and sports science by Britton Chance in the 1990s (the RunMan and microRunman series). However, only recently with the development of more robust, and wireless systems, has the routine use in elite sport become possible. As with the medical use of NIRS, finding applications of the technology that are relevant to practitioners is the key issue. One option is to use NIRS to track exercise training-induced adaptations in muscle. Portable NIRS devices enable monitoring during the normal 'field' routine uses to assess fitness, such as repeat sprint shuttle tests. Knowledge about the acute physiological responses to these specific tests has practical applications within team sport training prescription, where development of both central and peripheral determinants of high-intensity intermittent exercise needs to be considered. The purpose of this study was to observe NIRS-detected parameters during a repeat sprint test. We used the PortaMon, a two wavelength spatially resolved NIR spectrometer manufactured by Artinis Inc., to assess NIR changes in the gastrocnemius muscle of both the left and right leg during high-intensity running. Six university standard rugby players were assessed (age 20 ± 1.5 years; height 183 ± 1.0 cm; weight 89.4 ± 5.8 kg; body fat 12.2 ± 3.0 %); the subjects completed nine repeated shuttle runs, which incorporated forward, backward and change of direction movements. Individual sprint time, total time to complete test, blood lactate response (BL), heart rate values (HR) and haemoglobin variables (ΔHHb, ΔtHb, ΔHbO2 and ΔTSI%) were measured. Total time to complete the test was 260 ± 20 s, final blood lactate was 14.3 ± 2.8 mM, and maximal HR 182 ± 5 bpm. NIRS variables displayed no differences between right and left legs. During the test, the group-averaged data showed a clear decrease in HbO2 (max. decrease 11.41 ± 4.95 μM), increase in HHb

  8. Trial-Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Deibert, S. L.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat,' 'thermal-cycle,' or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial-run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine four moisture-cured silicones, four foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden (CO), Miami (FL), and Phoenix (AZ) for one year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  9. Testing on a Large Scale Running the ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Software on 700 PC Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris; Adragna, P; Alexandrov, L; Amorim, A; Armstrong, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J T M; Barros, N; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Blair, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Caprini, M; Caramarcu, C; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Della Pietra, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Ellis, Nick; Ermoline, Y; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garitaonandia, H; Gaudio, G; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W N; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hansen, J; Hauser, R; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hughes-Jones, R E; Joos, M; Kazarov, A; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kohno, T; Kolos, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kugel, A; Landon, M; Lankford, A; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Le Vine, M J; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Masik, J; McLaren, R; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Garcia-Murillo, R; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Albuquerque-Portes, M; Pretzl, K; Prigent, D; Roda, C; Ryabov, Yu; Salvatore, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Sole-Segura, E; Seixas, M; Sloper, J; Soloviev, I; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Strong, S; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Van Wasen, J; Vandelli, W; Vaz-Gil-Lopes, L; Vermeulen, J C; von der Schmitt, H; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wiesmann, M; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zobernig, H; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High Level Trigger (HLT) software system will be comprised initially of 2000 PC nodes which take part in the control, event readout, second level trigger and event filter operations. This high number of PCs will only be purchased before data taking in 2007. The large CERN IT LXBATCH facility provided the opportunity to run in July 2005 online functionality tests over a period of 5 weeks on a stepwise increasing farm size from 100 up to 700 PC dual nodes. The interplay between the control and monitoring software with the event readout, event building and the trigger software has been exercised the first time as an integrated system on this large scale. New was also to run algorithms in the online environment for the trigger selection and in the event filter processing tasks on a larger scale. A mechanism has been developed to package the offline software together with the DAQ/HLT software and to distribute it via peer-to-peer software efficiently to this large pc cluster. T...

  10. Testing on a Large Scale running the ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Software on 700 PC Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris; Adragna, P; Albuquerque-Portes, M; Alexandrov, L; Amorim, A; Armstrong, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J T M; Barros, N; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Blair, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Caprini, M; Caramarcu, C; Ciobotaru, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Della Pietra, M; Di Mattia, A; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Ellis, Nick; Ermoline, Y; Ertorer, E; Falciano, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Garcia-Murillo, R; Garitaonandia, H; Gaudio, G; George, S; Gesualdi-Mello, A; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W N; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hansen, J; Hauser, R; Hillier, S J; Hughes-Jones, R E; Höcker, A; Joos, M; Kazarov, A; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Kohno, T; Kolos, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kugel, A; Landon, M; Lankford, A; Le Vine, M J; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Masik, J; McLaren, R; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Morettini, P; Mornacchi, G; Männer, R; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Padilla, C; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Pretzl, K; Prigent, D; Roda, C; Ryabov, Yu; Salvatore, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Seixas, M; Sloper, J; Sole-Segura, E; Soloviev, I; Spiwoks, R; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Strong, S; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Teixeira-Dias, P; Torres, R; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Van Wasen, J; Vandelli, W; Vaz-Gil-Lopes, L; Vermeulen, J C; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wiesmann, M; Wu, X; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zobernig, H; von der Schmitt, H; Ünel, G; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Data Acquisition (DAQ) and High Level Trigger (HLT) software system will be comprised initially of 2000 PC nodes which take part in the control, event readout, second level trigger and event filter operations. This high number of PCs will only be purchased before data taking in 2007. The large CERN IT LXBATCH facility provided the opportunity to run in July 2005 online functionality tests over a period of 5 weeks on a stepwise increasing farm size from 100 up to 700 PC dual nodes. The interplay between the control and monitoring software with the event readout, event building and the trigger software has been exercised the first time as an integrated system on this large scale. New was also to run algorithms in the online environment for the trigger selection and in the event filter processing tasks on a larger scale. A mechanism has been developed to package the offline software together with the DAQ/HLT software and to distribute it via peer-to-peer software efficiently to this large pc cluster. T...

  11. Comparison of VO2 Max Prediction Value, Physiological Response, and Borg Scale between 12-Minute and 3200-Meter Run Fitness Tests among Indonesian Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidi Abdillah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the VO2 max and physiological responses between 12-minute and 3200-meter run fitness tests. Methods: The subjects were 40 soldiers aged 18–21 years old of the Infantry Battalion 303/SSM of Cikajang, Garut, West Java, Indonesia. The 12-minute and 3200-meter run fitness tests were conducted with one week resting period. The measurement of the VO2 max prediction was based on each of the formulations and the measurement of physiological response included blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, Borg scale and oxygen saturation before and after the tests. This study used a cross-sectional method while the data were analyzed statistically using t-test (p=0.05. Results: The results showed that the VO2 max prediction in 12-minute run fitness test was 52.046±2.980 mL/KgBB/min and the 3200-meter run test was 55.323±3.238 mL/KgBB/min. The value was statistically significant (p=0.008. There was no significant difference in the physiological response in both tests, except the SpO2 parameter after the tests (p=0.021. Conclusions: There is a significant difference in VO2 max prediction between 12 minutes and 3200 meter run test. No significant difference was found in the physiological response in both tests, except the SpO2 parameter.

  12. Running GCM physics and dynamics on different grids: Algorithm and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molod, A.

    2006-12-01

    The major drawback in the use of sigma coordinates in atmospheric GCMs, namely the error in the pressure gradient term near sloping terrain, leaves the use of eta coordinates an important alternative. A central disadvantage of an eta coordinate, the inability to retain fine resolution in the vertical as the surface rises above sea level, is addressed here. An `alternate grid' technique is presented which allows the tendencies of state variables due to the physical parameterizations to be computed on a vertical grid (the `physics grid') which retains fine resolution near the surface, while the remaining terms in the equations of motion are computed using an eta coordinate (the `dynamics grid') with coarser vertical resolution. As a simple test of the technique a set of perpetual equinox experiments using a simplified lower boundary condition with no land and no topography were performed. The results show that for both low and high resolution alternate grid experiments, much of the benefit of increased vertical resolution for the near surface meridional wind (and mass streamfield) can be realized by enhancing the vertical resolution of the `physics grid' in the manner described here. In addition, approximately half of the increase in zonal jet strength seen with increased vertical resolution can be realized using the `alternate grid' technique. A pair of full GCM experiments with realistic lower boundary conditions and topography were also performed. It is concluded that the use of the `alternate grid' approach offers a promising way forward to alleviate a central problem associated with the use of the eta coordinate in atmospheric GCMs.

  13. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  14. Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the body's inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO(2 max to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT, a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test.Four villages in coastal Kenya were surveyed during 2009-2010. Children 5-18 years were tested for infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Sh, malaria, filaria, and geohelminth infections by standard methods. After anthropometric and hemoglobin testing, fitness was assessed with the 20 mSRT. The 20 mSRT proved easy to perform, requiring only minimal staff training. Parasitology revealed high prevalence of single and multiple parasitic infections in all villages, with Sh being the most common (25-62%. Anemia prevalence was 45-58%. Using multiply-adjusted linear modeling that accounted for household clustering, decreased aerobic capacity was significantly associated with anemia, stunting, and wasting, with some gender differences.The 20 mSRT, which has excellent correlation with VO(2, is a highly feasible fitness test for low-resource settings. Our results indicate impaired fitness is common in areas endemic for parasites, where, at least in part, low fitness scores are likely to result from anemia and stunting associated with chronic infection. The 20 mSRT should be used as a common metric to quantify physical fitness and compare sub

  15. Standard guide for measuring the wear volumes of piston ring segments run against flat coupons in reciprocating wear tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers and describes a profiling method for use accurately measuring the wear loss of compound-curved (crowned) piston ring specimens that run against flat counterfaces. It does not assume that the wear scars are ideally flat, as do some alternative measurement methods. Laboratory-scale wear tests have been used to evaluate the wear of materials, coatings, and surface treatments that are candidates for piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel engines or spark ignition engines. Various loads, temperatures, speeds, lubricants, and durations are used for such tests, but some of them use a curved piston ring segment as one sliding partner and a flat or curved specimen (simulating the cylinder liner) as its counterface. The goal of this guide is to provide more accurate wear measurements than alternative approaches involving weight loss or simply measuring the length and width of the wear marks. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its ...

  16. Reliability of a Cycle Ergometer Peak Power Test in Running-based Team Sport Athletes: A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P

    2015-07-01

    Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.

  17. The 10x5 metre shuttle run test may be a good predictor of aerobic performance in pre-pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christina; Petersen, Mette; Froberg, Karsten

    in two field tests, the short shuttle run test (SSRT), 10x5 m measuring agility and speed , and the long modified 20 metre shuttle run, the Andersen test (AT) measuring cardio-respiratory fitness (4), representing anaerob and aerob performance respectively. Methods: The population and data was collected....... Conclusion: The SSRT may provide scientists, teachers and health care professionals with an important tool to estimate physical fitness in children in an easy, non-expensive, fast and fun way in the future. References: 1. Andersen LB, et Al. Secular trends in physical fitness in Danish adol.. Scand J Med Sci...

  18. Influência da aptidão aeróbia no running anaerobic sprint test (RAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Luiz de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a possível influência de diferentes níveis de aptidão aeróbia (VO2MAX sobre os parâmetros do running anaerobic sprint test (RAST. Para isso, 38 indivíduos (Idade = 18,1±2,5 anos, Estatura = 173±1 cm e Massa corporal = 65,1±6,5 kg foram classificados em dois grupos, baixa e elevada aptidão aeróbias (GBA: n=22 e GEA: n=16. O VO2MAX foi determinado por um esforço incremental em esteira rolante até a exaustão voluntária. O RAST foi composto de seis esforços máximos de 35m separados por 10s de intervalo passivo. O VO2MAX foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos (GBA = 51,7±1,9 mL.kg-1.min-1; GEA = 58,6±3,1 mL.kg-1.min-1. A potência média (PM foi significativamente superior no grupo GBA (552,7±132,1 W em relação ao grupo GEA (463,6±132,8 W. O impulso (ImP foi significativamente correlacionado com o VO2MAX no GEA. Pode-se concluir que há um indicativo que o metabolismo aeróbio exerce uma influência na realização do RAST.

  19. Strategies for Maximizing Successful Drug Substance Technology Transfer Using Engineering, Shake-Down, and Wet Test Runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sushil; Bain, David; Bowers, John; Larivee, Victor; Leira, Francisco; Xie, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The technology transfer of biological products is a complex process requiring control of multiple unit operations and parameters to ensure product quality and process performance. To achieve product commercialization, the technology transfer sending unit must successfully transfer knowledge about both the product and the process to the receiving unit. A key strategy for maximizing successful scale-up and transfer efforts is the effective use of engineering and shake-down runs to confirm operational performance and product quality prior to embarking on good manufacturing practice runs such as process performance qualification runs. We consider key factors to consider in making the decision to perform shake-down or engineering runs. We also present industry benchmarking results of how engineering runs are used in drug substance technology transfers alongside the main themes and best practices that have emerged. Our goal is to provide companies with a framework for ensuring the "right first time" technology transfers with effective deployment of resources within increasingly aggressive timeline constraints.

  20. Crack path for run-out specimens in fatigue tests: is it belonging to high- or very-high-cycle fatigue regime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shanyavskiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue tests run-out specimens up to 106 – 5x107 load cycles are used to determine the stress level named “fatigue limit”. Nevertheless, it is not clear what kind of fatigue cracking takes or will take place in these specimens. To discuss this problem, fatigue tests of titanium alloy VT3-1 specimens have been performed under tension with different values of R-ratio and under rotating-bending after various thermo-mechanical treatments (tempering, surface hardening and their combinations. Well-known S-N curves in High-Cycle- Fatigue regime have been plotted with run-out specimens usually used for “fatigue limit” determination. Then, after fatigue tests, run-out specimens have been tensed up to their failure, and fracture surface analyses have been performed for all tested specimens. It is found that run-out specimens in all combinations of treatments, for different R-ratio, have fracture surfaces for crack path in Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime. Based on this result, all S-N curves have been reconstructed in duplex curves for High- and Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime without using knowledge about “fatigue limit”. Detailed fracture surfaces analyses have been developed, and crack paths have been compared for various combinations of materials and surface states.

  1. Diagnostic values of combination of free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xin; Li Yong; Zeng Meiying

    2014-01-01

    Background A free running asthma screening test is usually used for screening exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.The total serum allergen IgE level can reveal the patient's atopy characteristics.Our study is to evaluate the diagnostic values of the combination of the two tests in asthmatic children and compare this new diagnostic method with the Intemational Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC) questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test,which are popular diagnostic tool for pediatric asthma.Methods A total of 773 school children were recruited in this study.The children's asthma was diagnosed by means of a combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level.The new diagnostic method value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with other diagnostic tools such as ISSAC questionnaires and the bronchial provocation test.Results The AUC of this new diagnostic method was higher than 0.9.When the cut-off value of total serum allergen IgE level was ≥47 KU/L,the sensitivity and the specificity were 71.4% and 85.1%,respectively,which were better than those of either the ISSAC questionnaires or bronchial provocation test.Conclusion The combination of the free running asthma screening test and total serum allergen IgE level may be an effective diagnostic tool for children's asthma.

  2. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  4. Repo Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Skeie, D.; von Thadden, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of financial institutions that borrow short- term and invest into long-term marketable assets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to runs. We endogenize the profits of the intermediary and derive distinct liquidity and

  5. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  6. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  7. Running Test and Optimization of Bamboo OSB Medium Experimental Line%竹质OSB中试线的运行试验及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅万四; 周建波

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo OSB ( BOSB) medium experimental line and key equipments are presented for the first time based on the analysis of BOSB production technologies and processes requirements. Component of BOSB medium experimental line and key equipments stated. The paper illustrated BOSB flaker, glue blender, orienting former. Then medium experimental line is given to a great deal of test run and optimization. The tests indicated that the medium experimental line operated smoothly for producing BOSB. Tested BOSB key performance indicators were higher than the LY/T 1580-2000 (OSB/4).

  8. The ATLAS RunTimeTester

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS RunTimeTester is a job based software test system. The RunTimeTester runs jobs, and optional tests on the job outputs. Job and test results are reported via a web site. The system currently runs $\\approx$ 8000 jobs daily, and the web site receives $\\approx$ 25K hits a week. This note provides an overview of the system.

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  10. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: Assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan Kayihan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT using different formulae. Material and Methods: Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST. VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993, Cureton et al. (1995 and Kline et al. (1987 for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982 for the 20-MST. Results: The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000. The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001, 0.486 (p < 0.001 and 0.608 (p < 0.001, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779 was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. Conclusions: When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/ walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  11. Calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) using sodium combustion analysis code ASSCOPS version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Ohno, Shuji; Miyake, Osamu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-11-01

    The calculation of Sodium Fire Test-I (Run-E6) was performed using the ASSCOPS (Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustions in Pool and Spray) code version 2.0 in order to determine the parameters used in the code for the calculations of sodium combustion behavior of small or medium scale sodium leak, and to validate the applicability of the code. The parameters used in the code were determined and the validation of the code was confirmed because calculated temperatures, calculated oxygen concentration and other calculated values almost agreed with the test results. (author)

  12. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  13. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  14. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  15. PEP Integrated Test D Run Report Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2009-12-11

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes" of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario (Test B and D) has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario (Test A) has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP and vessels UFP VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In Test D, 19M sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic) was added to the waste slurry in the UFP VSL T02 vessel after the solids were concentrated to ~20% undissolved solids. The NaOH was added to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by heating to 85°C using direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. The main difference of Test D compared to Test B is that the leach temperature is 85°C for 24 hrs as compared to 100°C for 12 hours. The other difference is the Test D simulant had Cr in the

  16. Do Generous Welfare States Generate Efficiency Gains Which Counterbalance Short Run Losses? Testing Downside Risk Theory with Economic Panel Data for the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headey, Bruce; Muffels, Ruud

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the theory that the downside risk insurance provided by more generous welfare states generates long run efficiency gains, which counterbalance the short run efficiency losses caused by work disincentives in these states (Feldstein 1974, 1976; Sinn 1995, 1996). Testing downside risk theory requires long term…

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  18. Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980-2000): an analysis of 55 studies of the 20m shuttle run test in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Léger, Luc A; Olds, Tim S; Cazorla, Georges

    2003-01-01

    It is widely believed that the performance of children and adolescents on aerobic fitness tests is declining. To test this hypothesis, this meta-analysis compared the results of 55 reports of the performance of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years who have used the 20m shuttle run test (20mSRT). All data were collected in the period 1981-2000. Following corrections for methodological variation, the results of all studies were expressed using the common metric of running speed (km/h) at the last completed stage. Raw data were combined with pseudodata generated from reported means and standard deviations using Monte Carlo simulation. Where data were available on children and adolescents from the same country of the same age and sex, but tested at different times, linear regression was used to calculate rates of change. This was possible for 11 (mainly developed) countries, representing a total of 129,882 children and adolescents in 151 age x sex x country slices. There has been a significant decline in performance in the 11 countries where data were available, and in most age x sex groups, with a sample-weighted mean decline of 0.43% of mean values per year. The decline was most marked in older age groups and the rate of decline was similar for boys and girls. There has been a very rapid secular decline in the 20mSRT performance of children and adolescents over the last 20 years, at least in developed countries. The rate of decline is not related to the change in the country's relative wealth, as quantified by per capita gross domestic product (GDP).

  19. Crossvalidation of two 20-m shuttle-run tests for predicting VO2max in female collegiate soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael S; Esco, Michael R; Martin, Tyler D; Pritchett, Robert C; McHugh, Aindrea N; Williford, Henry N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to compare the maximal attained speed (MAS) from the 20-m shuttle (MST) and 20-m square-shuttle (SST) tests and (b) to crossvalidate 2 equations for predicting maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) that were previously developed from MST and SST in a group of female collegiate soccer players. Thirty-nine subjects (age: 20.1 ± 1.5 years) participated in the study. A maximal graded exercise treadmill test was used to measure VO2max. In addition, VO2max was predicted from the MAS obtained during MST ((pred)VO2maxMST) and SST ((pred)VO2maxSST) using previously developed equations. Measured VO2max for the group was 44.2 ± 3.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1). The MAS was 12.5 ± 0.6 km·h(-1) for MST and 13.3 ± 0.8 km·h(-1) for SST (p < 0.05). The prediction methods yielded a (pred)VO2maxMST of 49.6 ± 3.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and predVO2maxSST of 41.8 ± 3.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), which were significantly different from measured VO2max (p < 0.05). The validity statistics revealed the following constant error (CE), correlation coefficient (r), standard error of estimate (SEE), and total error (TE) for (pred)VO2maxMST and (pred)VO2maxSST: CE = 5.35 ± 3.83, r = 0.45 (p < 0.05), SEE = 2.97 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), TE = 6.39 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); and CE = -2.43 ± 2.49, r = 0.69 (p < 0.05), SEE = 2.39 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), TE = 3.43 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. Residual plots indicated no proportional bias for either prediction model. The results of this study suggest that female collegiate soccer players had a higher MAS from SST compared with that from MST. In addition, SST appeared to be a more accurate predictor of VO2max than MST in the group of athletes.

  20. Effect of compression stockings on physiological responses and running performance in division III collegiate cross-country runners during a maximal treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Brian C; Coughlin, Adam M; Hew-Butler, Tamara D; Goslin, Brian R

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing trend for runners to use compression stockings (CS) to improve performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS on physiological variables associated with running performance. Participants were 10 NCAA division III cross-country runners. The study used a randomized, crossover design with 2 conditions (with CS and without CS). Both conditions consisted of a maximal treadmill test that involved 3-minute stages of increasing speed and incline, separated by a minute and one-half walking recovery stage. Seven days later, the participants repeated the maximal test but switched CS condition. Heart rate, blood lactate (BLa), blood lactate threshold, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion, and time to fatigue were measured. Before and during the maximal treadmill tests, the variables showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the CS conditions. Blood lactate was lower while wearing CS when measured during recovery at the 1-minute (CS = 13.3 ± 2.9 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 14.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.03) and the 5-minute (CS = 11.0 ± 2.7 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 12.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.02) periods. Time to fatigue was longer without CS (CS = 23.570 ± 2.39 minutes, non-CS = 23.93 ± 2.49 minutes, p = 0.04). These findings suggest that CS may not improve running performance, but could lend credence to certain manufacturers' claims of improved recovery through lower BLa values after exercise.

  1. Evaluation of the running-based anaerobic sprint test as a measure of repeated sprint ability in collegiate-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Daniel A; Thériault, Francis; Serresse, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) refers to an individual's ability to perform maximal sprints of short duration in succession with little recovery between sprints. The running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) has been adapted from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) protocol as a tool to assess RSA and anaerobic power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between performance variables and physiological responses obtained during the RAST and the WAnT using 8 collegiate-level soccer players. Participants performed a single trial of both the WAnT and the RAST. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was monitored throughout each trial, and blood lactate (BL) measures were recorded postexercise. The oxygen uptake (VO2) profile suggested that the RAST required greater contributions from aerobic metabolism although there was no difference in VO2peak (p < 0.05). Peak BL values were also similar between the RAST and the WAnT (p < 0.05). Neither peak physiological values nor performance variables (peak and mean power) were significantly correlated between protocols. The weak association in physiological responses indicates that different combinations of metabolic contributions exist between protocols, suggesting that individual performances on each test are not related in collegiate soccer players. Further studies on these relationships with players of other competitive levels and team sport athletes are warranted.

  2. IMPLEMENTING FISCAL OR MONETARY POLICY IN TIME OF CRISIS? RUNNING GRANGER CAUSALITY TO TEST THE PHILLIPS CURVE IN SOME EURO ZONE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Gianluigi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide empirical evidence about the theoretical relationship between inflation and unemployment in 9 European countries. Based on two major goals for economic policymakers namely, to keep both inflation and unemployment low, we use the ingredients of the Phillips curve to orient fiscal and monetary policies. These policies are prerogative for the achievement of a desirable combination of unemployment and inflation. More in detail, we attempt to address two basic issues. One strand of the study examines the size and sign of the impact of unemployment rate on percentage changes in inflation. In our preferred econometric model, we have made explicit the evidence according to which one unit increase (% in unemployment reduces inflation of roughly 0.73 percent, on average. Next, we turn to the question concerning the causal link between inflation and unemployment and we derive a political framework enables to orient European policymakers in the implementation of either fiscal or monetary policy. In this context, by means of the Granger causality test, we mainly find evidence of a directional causality which runs from inflation to unemployment in 4 out of 9 European countries under analysis. This result implies that political authorities of Austria, Belgium, Germany and Italy should implement monetary policy in order to achieve pre-established targets of unemployment and inflation. In the same context, a directional causality running from unemployment to inflation has been found in France and Cyprus suggesting that a reduction in the unemployment level can be achieved through controlling fiscal policy. However, succeeding in this goal may lead to an increasing demand for goods and services which, in turn, might cause a higher inflation than expected. Finally, while there is no statistical evidence of a causal link between unemployment and inflation in Finland and Greece, a bidirectional causality has been found in Estonia. This

  3. A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Both groups performed identical testing during all visits, except during visit 4, where only EXP performed a 30 min downhill run and CON performed no exercise. During visits 2, 3, and 6 all participants performed MIE, and the following measurements were obtained: time to exhaustion (TTE), EIP, maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum blood lactate (BLamax), and the contribution of pain to terminating the MIE (assessed using a questionnaire). Additionally during visits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 the following markers of EIMD were obtained: muscle soreness, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), creatine kinase (CK). Results: There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.32) between any trials for any of the measures obtained during MIE for CON. In EXP, TTE decreased by 34 s (3%), from pre 2 to 48 h post (p MVC, and VA. The exact mechanisms responsible for this require further investigation. PMID:28337151

  4. Changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Tu, Jui-Hung

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the time course of changes in running economy following a 30-min downhill (-15%) run at 70% peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Ten young men performed level running at 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak (5 min for each intensity) before, immediately after, and 1 - 5 days after the downhill run, at which times oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration were measured. Stride length, stride frequency, and range of motion of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during the level runs were analysed using high-speed (120-Hz) video images. Downhill running induced reductions (7 - 21%, P run. Oxygen consumption increased (4 - 7%, P stride frequency, as well as reductions in stride length and range of motion of the ankle and knee. The results suggest that changes in running form and compromised muscle function due to muscle damage contribute to the reduction in running economy for 3 days after downhill running.

  5. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Pullinen, T; Candau, R; Avela, J; Huttunen, P; Komi, P V

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyzed. Blood samples were drawn to analyze serum creatine kinase activity (S-CK), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and blood lactate (B-La). A video analysis was performed (200 frames x s(-1)) to investigate running mechanics. A kinematic arm was used to determine the external work of each subject. The results of the present study demonstrate that after the marathon, a standardized 5-min submaximal running test resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate (P stride frequency and a similar decrease in stride length were observed (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate clearly that weakened running economy cannot be explained by changes in running mechanics. Therefore, it is suggested that the increased physiological loading is due to several mechanisms: increased utilization of fat as an energy substrate, increased demands of body temperature regulation, and possible muscle damage.

  6. TESTING CMAQ CHEMISTRY SENSITIVITIES IN BASE CHASE AND EMISSION CONTROL RUNS AT SEARCH AND SOS 99 SURFACE SITES IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ was run to simulate urban conditions in the southeastern U.S. in July 1999 at 32, 8, and 2 km grid spacings. Runs were made with two older mechanisms, Carbon Bond IV (CB4) and the Regional Acid Deposition Model, version 2 (RADM2), and with the more recent California Statewid...

  7. A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismas, Bryna C R; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C; Midgley, Adrian W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Both groups performed identical testing during all visits, except during visit 4, where only EXP performed a 30 min downhill run and CON performed no exercise. During visits 2, 3, and 6 all participants performed MIE, and the following measurements were obtained: time to exhaustion (TTE), EIP, maximal oxygen consumption [Formula: see text], rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum blood lactate (BLamax), and the contribution of pain to terminating the MIE (assessed using a questionnaire). Additionally during visits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 the following markers of EIMD were obtained: muscle soreness, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), creatine kinase (CK). Results: There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.32) between any trials for any of the measures obtained during MIE for CON. In EXP, TTE decreased by 34 s (3%), from pre 2 to 48 h post (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between group (EXP, CON) and termination of the MIE due to "pain" during 48 h post (χ(2) = 14.7, p = 0.002). Conclusion: EIMD resulted in premature termination of a MIE test (decreased TTE), which was associated with EIP, MVC, and VA. The exact mechanisms responsible for this require further investigation.

  8. Can Unshod Running Reduce Running Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    quadrupeds run, their internal organs expand and contract like an accordion as they stride when running. As a cheetah strides forward, its lungs expand...and take in air. When the cheetah compresses its stride, the lungs are collapsed and the cheetah breathes out. This take-a-step and take-a- breath

  9. Wave Run-Up on Rubble Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van de Walle, Bjorn; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Seven sets of data for wave run-up on a rubble mound breakwater were combined and re-analysed, with full-scale, large-scale and small-scale model test results being taken into account. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru-2%/Hm0 was considered, where R u-2% is the wave run-up height exceeded by...

  10. Determinants Of Savings Behavior In Pakistan: Long Run - Short Run Association And Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fawad

    2015-01-01

    The existing studies on private savings have mostly investigated the long run and short association of different variables with private savings, whereas no known study has investigated both long run and short run causality of variables against private savings by using data of Pakistan. The current study used time series data of Pakistan over the period of 1972 to 2012 and employed long run cointegration test, first normalized equation for long run association, vector error correction model fo...

  11. PDU Run 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  12. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  13. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  14. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  15. Running surface couplings

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the renormalization group improved effective action and running surface couplings in curved spacetime with boundary. Using scalar self-interacting theory as an example, we study the influence of the boundary effects to effective equations of motion in spherical cap and the relevance of surface running couplings to quantum cosmology and symmetry breaking phenomenon. Running surface couplings in the asymptotically free SU(2) gauge theory are found.

  16. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  17. Running to Extremes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHILIP JONES

    2010-01-01

    @@ For some, simply running 21 km, or a full marathon at 42 kin, isn't enough of an achievement. I mean, you can run a marathon in almost every major city in the world and many of them are centerpiece events watched by a global audience.

  18. Design for High-speed Ball Screw Running-life Test Machine Based on Linear Motor%基于直线电机的高速滚珠丝杠副寿命试验机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童亮; 王准

    2014-01-01

    A high-speed ball screw running-life test machine based on a linear motor was designed according to the testing requirements for the high-speed ball screw.A high-speed ball screw running-life test machine which used the linear motor as the loading mechanism,the rotation servo motor for the screw drive mechanism and the programmable multi-axis controller as motion controller,was de-signed and met the testing requirements of life testing and related parameters of the ball screw in the case of the long-running high-speed,high acceleration,big load under the conditions of continuous sta-ble varying loading.The test results demonstrate the feasibility of the system.%针对高速滚珠丝杠副性能指标的测量需求,设计了一套基于直线电机的高速滚珠丝杠副寿命测试试验系统,系统以直线电机为加载机构、旋转伺服电机为丝杠驱动机构、多轴运动控制卡为运动控制器。据此系统设计的滚珠丝杠副高速加载跑合寿命试验机在连续稳定变负载的情况下,可以对滚珠丝杠在高速、高加速度、大负荷等条件下进行长时间运行测试,满足寿命试验机对滚珠丝杠副寿命试验和相关参数的测试要求。试验结果证明了系统的可行性。

  19. Energetics of bipedal running. II. Limb design and running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T J; Chen, M S; Taylor, C R

    1998-10-01

    Compared with quadrupeds, bipedal runners of the same weight have longer legs, take longer steps and can presumably use slower, more economical muscle fibers. One might predict that bipedal running is less expensive, but it is not. We hypothesized that bipeds recruit a larger volume of muscle to support their weight, eliminating the potential economy of longer legs and slower steps. To test our hypothesis, we calculated the relative volume of muscle needed to support body weight over a stride in small dogs (Canis familiaris) and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) of the same weight. First, we confirmed that turkeys and dogs use approximately the same amount of energy to run at the same speed, and found that turkeys take 1. 8-fold longer steps. Higher muscle forces and/or longer muscle fibers would require a greater volume of active muscle, since muscle volume is proportional to the product of force and fascicle length. We measured both mean fascicle length and mean mechanical advantage for limb extensor muscles. Turkeys generated approximately the same total muscle force to support their weight during running and used muscle fascicles that are on average 2.1 times as long as in dogs, thus requiring a 2.5-fold greater active muscle volume. The greater volume appears to offset the economy of slower rates of force generation, supporting our hypothesis and providing a simple explanation for why it costs the same to run on two and four legs.

  20. On the Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; GOLD

    2009-01-01

    Istarted running at age 14, inspired in equal parts by an incipient teenage desire for athletic greatness, the movie Personal Best, and the fact that all my classmates on sports teams got a free period during gym class.

  1. Learning to Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiafu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In Africa, there live antelopes and lions.In the morning, the antelope wakes up from sleep. His first sense is that he has to run faster than the fastest lion, otherwise, he will be eaten out. In the meanwhile, when the lion opens his eyes, his first thought is he must run faster than the slowest antelope,otherwise, he will starve to death.

  2. É possível determinar a economia de corrida através do teste progressivo até a exaustão? Is possible to predict running economy using maximal incremental exercise test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Cássio de Moraes Bertuzzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de se estimar a economia de corrida (EC a partir do coeficiente angular gerado pela relação VO2 vs. intensidade de testes progressivos até a exaustão (EC INCLINA. Para tanto, 16 corredores de provas de longa duração (idade 32 ± 7 anos, massa corporal 70,0 ± 6,7 kg, estatura 173,3 ± 5,0 cm, O2máx 57,9 ± 5,8 ml·kg-1·min-1 foram submetidos a um teste incremental e a dois testes de cargas constantes (12 km·h-1 e a intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório para a mensuração da EC. Foram detectadas correlações fracas entre o EC INCLINA e a EC estabelecida a 12 km·h-1 (r = 0,49; p = 0,054 e na intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório (r = 0,55; p = 0,027. Além disso, o EC INCLINA também estava negativamente correlacionado com a concentração sanguínea de lactato (r = -0,75; p = 0,001 e a razão de troca respiratória (r = -0,80; p The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between running economy (RE and the slope of the regression line obtained as the individual relationship between oxygen uptake and the corresponding intensity in the incremental test (EC INCLINA. Sixteen recreational long-distance runners (age 32 ± 7 years, body mass 70,0 ± 6.7 kg, height 173.3 ± 5.0 cm, VO2max 57.9 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed a progressive incremental test and two submaximal workload tests (at 12 km·h-1 and 90% second ventilatory threshold to determine the RE. There was significant correlation between EC INCLINA and RE measured at 12 km·h-1 (r = 0.49; p = 0.054 and at 90% second ventilatory threshold (r = 0.55; p = 0.027. In addition, EC INCLINA also was negatively correlated with peak blood lactate (r = -0.75; p = 0.001 and peak respiratory exchange rate (r = -0.80; p < 0.001. These findings suggest that EC INCLINA would be an alternative parameter employed to determine the endurance performance in recreational long

  3. 油管悬挂器及下放工具性能鉴定试验方法∗%Performance Identification Test Method for Tubing Hanger and Running Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萌; 张来斌; 郑文培; 柴亚军; 段梦兰; 李荣

    2016-01-01

    Performance identification test method for tubing hanger and running tool can guarantee product performance and reliability and it is of great significance on reducing the possibility of potential accidents� Basic concept and objectives of the performance identification test are described on the basis of introduction to structure and function of the tubing hanger and running tool� Based on related standards and characteristics of research ob⁃ject, a performance identification test method is proposed for horizontal christmas tree tubing hanger and running tool� This method specifically divides the test process into test preparation, testing process and summary after tes⁃ting and adds the analysis on fault mode and effect of tested object and fault handling program in the test; it can give specific acceptance or failure criteria for different test objects and test items based on actual conditions and re⁃lated standard regulations� The conclusion is of great significance on guaranteeing operation safety of subsea christ⁃mas tree.%对油管悬挂器及其下放工具进行性能鉴定试验能确保产品的性能和可靠性,对于减小潜在事故发生的可能性具有重要意义。在介绍油管悬挂器及其下放工具结构功能的基础上,阐述了性能鉴定试验的基本概念及目的,参考相关标准并结合所研究对象的特点,提出了一套卧式采油树油管挂及其下放工具的性能鉴定试验方法。该方法将试验过程详细划分为试验准备、试验运行及试验后总结3个阶段,增加了对受试物体的故障模式和影响分析以及试验过程中故障的处理程序等;同时能针对不同的试验对象及试验项目,结合实际情况和相关标准中的规定,给出具体的接受或失效判据。所得结论对保证水下采油树安全运行意义重大。

  4. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  5. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  6. Prevention of running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  7. From Walking to Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Juergen; Blum, Yvonne; Seyfarth, Andre

    The implementation of bipedal gaits in legged robots is still a challenge in state-of-the-art engineering. Human gaits could be realized by imitating human leg dynamics where a spring-like leg behavior is found as represented in the bipedal spring-mass model. In this study we explore the gap between walking and running by investigating periodic gait patterns. We found an almost continuous morphing of gait patterns between walking and running. The technical feasibility of this transition is, however, restricted by the duration of swing phase. In practice, this requires an abrupt gait transition between both gaits, while a change of speed is not necessary.

  8. The Art of Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  9. Optimizing Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widule, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    The optimization of step length and step rate (frequency) is essential for sprinters. This article analyzes data that compare step rate and step length to height, as a function of running speed, for ten elite runners. How results of such analyses can be used in training runners is also discussed. (IAH)

  10. The 'X60' CORADIA LIREX trains for Stockholm's regional-express system. Results of test and approval runs; Der S-Bahntriebzug CORADIA LIREX fuer Stockholm (X 60). Ergebnisse der Erprobungs- und Zulassungsversuche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, G.; Fischer, C. [ALSTOM LHB GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    It was back in spring 2002 that Transitio (a company specialized in the provision of rolling stock) ordered 55 new regional-express train sets for the network around the Swedish capital. Even before all the tenders had been processed and contracts awarded, it had emerged clearly that, in addition to financial considerations, the requirements regarding safety, reliability, comfort and impacts on the environment were going to play an above-average role. For this reason, very detailed technical solutions were included in proposals and these were refined even further during the subsequent contract negotiations, going as far as including definitions of how the above-mentioned aspects were to be technically tested. The authors report on the outcome of the programme of tests and the approval runs with the new trains. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  12. Running kinematics and shock absorption do not change after brief exhaustive running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Chu, Yungchien; Lovalekar, Mita; Burdett, Ray G; Lephart, Scott M

    2011-06-01

    Because of the nature of running, the forces encountered require a proper coordination of joint action of the lower extremity to dissipate the ground reaction forces and accelerations through the kinetic chain. Running-related muscle fatigue may reduce the shock absorbing capacity of the lower extremity and alter running kinematics. The purpose of this study was to determine if a bout of exhaustive running at a physiologically determined high intensity, changes running kinematics, impact accelerations, and alters shock attenuating capabilities. It was hypothesized that as a result of fatigue induced by an exhaustive run, running kinematics, impact accelerations at the head and shank, acceleration reduction, and shock attenuation would change. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used for this study. Twelve healthy, competitive male and female distance runners participated. Subjects performed 2 testing sessions consisting of a VO2max treadmill protocol to determine the heart rate at ventilatory threshold and a fatigue-inducing running bout at the identified ventilatory threshold heart rate. Kinematic data included knee flexion, pronation, time to maximum knee flexion, and time to maximum pronation. Acceleration data included shank acceleration, head acceleration, and shock attenuation. No significant differences resulted for the kinematic or acceleration variables. Although the results of this study do not support the original hypotheses, the influence of running fatigue on kinematics and accelerations remains inconclusive. Future research is necessary to examine fatigue-induced changes in running kinematics and accelerations and to determine the threshold at which point the changes may occur.

  13. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  14. The Running Gravitational Couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Djamel; Percacci, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    We compute the running of the cosmological constant and Newton's constant taking into account the effect of quantum fields with any spin between 0 and 2. We find that Newton's constant does not vary appreciably but the cosmological constant can change by many orders of magnitude when one goes from cosmological scales to typical elementary particle scales. In the extreme infrared, zero modes drive the cosmological constant to zero.

  15. PEP Run Report for Integrated Test A, Caustic Leaching in UFP-VSL-T01A, Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Su, Yin-Fong; Geeting, John GH; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Smith, Dennese M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Young, Joan K.

    2009-12-04

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.”(a) The PEP, located in the Process Engineering Laboratory-West (PDLW) located in Richland, Washington, is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  16. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...

  18. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  19. Run-Time Data-Flow Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑慧; 臧斌宇; 吴蓉; 朱传琪

    2002-01-01

    Parallelizing compilers have made great progress in recent years. However, there still remains a gap between the current ability of parallelizing compilers and their final goals.In order to achieve the maximum parallelism, run-time techniques were used in parallelizing compilers during last few years. First, this paper presents a basic run-time privatization method.The definition of run-time dead code is given and its side effect is discussed. To eliminate the imprecision caused by the run-time dead code, backward data-flow information must be used.Proteus Test, which can use backward information in run-time, is then presented to exploit more dynamic parallelism. Also, a variation of Proteus Test, the Advanced Proteus Test, is offered to achieve partial parallelism. Proteus Test was implemented on the parallelizing compiler AFT.In the end of this paper the program fpppp.f of Spec95fp Benchmark is taken as an example, to show the effectiveness of Proteus Test.

  20. Testes de broncoprovocação com metacolina e com exercício em bicicleta e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente Bronchial provocation tests using methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. T. G. Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a responsividade de vias aéreas à metacolina e ao teste de exercício na bicicleta ergométrica e corrida livre em crianças com asma intermitente. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado. Trinta crianças de ambos os sexos com asma intermitente participaram do estudo. Cada teste foi realizado em 3 dias diferentes, através de randomização: a broncoprovocação com metacolina, método do dosímetro; b teste de exercício: corrida livre em um corredor de 50 m; c teste de exercício: bicicleta ergométrica com ar seco. A freqüência cardíaca atingida foi 80 a 90% da freqüência cardíaca máxima. A espirometria foi realizada aos 3, 6, 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos após o exercício. Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício foi definido como a queda de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 > 10% em relação aos valores pré-teste. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi 11±3 anos. O VEF1 e VEF1/CVF (capacidade vital forçada foram normais e similares antes dos três testes de broncoprovocação. A freqüência cardíaca máxima foi de 178±7 bpm durante o exercício na bicicleta e 181±6 bpm na corrida livre (p > 0,05. Broncoespasmo significante foi visto em 23 crianças após o teste com metacolina, em 19 após a corrida livre e em 14 crianças após exercício em bicicleta (p OBJECTIVE: To compare airway responsiveness to methacholine, cycle ergometer exercise and free running in children with intermittent asthma. METHODS: A randomized study was conducted with 30 children of both genders with intermittent asthma. Each child was submitted to challenge testing on three separate days, in random order: a Methacholine challenge using a dosimeter; b Exercise challenge testing - free running along a 50-meter-long corridor; c Dry-air exercise challenge on a cycle ergometer. Target heart rate during exercise was 80 to 90% of the maximum predicted value. Spirometry was performed 3, 6,10,15,20 and 30 minutes after exercise. Exercise

  1. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  2. The physiology of deep-water running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Dowzer, Clare N; Cable, N T

    2003-12-01

    Deep-water running is performed in the deep end of a swimming pool, normally with the aid of a flotation vest. The method is used for purposes of preventing injury and promoting recovery from strenuous exercise and as a form of supplementary training for cardiovascular fitness. Both stroke volume and cardiac output increase during water immersion: an increase in blood volume largely offsets the cardiac decelerating reflex at rest. At submaximal exercise intensities, blood lactate responses to exercise during deep-water running are elevated in comparison to treadmill running at a given oxygen uptake (VO2). While VO2, minute ventilation and heart rate are decreased under maximal exercise conditions in the water, deep-water running nevertheless can be justified as providing an adequate stimulus for cardiovascular training. Responses to training programmes have confirmed the efficacy of deep-water running, although positive responses are most evident when measured in a water-based test. Aerobic performance is maintained with deep-water running for up to 6 weeks in trained endurance athletes; sedentary individuals benefit more than athletes in improving maximal oxygen uptake. There is some limited evidence of improvement in anaerobic measures and in upper body strength in individuals engaging in deep-water running. A reduction in spinal loading constitutes a role for deep-water running in the prevention of injury, while an alleviation of muscle soreness confirms its value in recovery training. Further research into the applications of deep-water running to exercise therapy and athletes' training is recommended.

  3. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  4. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  5. Run-off-road crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one-third of all fatalities and one-sixth of all seriously injured are the consequence of run-off-road crashes. The outcome of run-off-road crashes is relatively severe, one fatality in five seriously injured, which is twice the average in the Netherlands. Serious run-off-road cr

  6. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  7. Pediatric running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Craig K; Statuta, Siobhan M; Solari, Ian L

    2010-07-01

    As more children have become involved in athletic activities and running, there has been a significant increase in overuse injuries. The young athlete with open growth plates is vulnerable to unique overuse injuries involving the apophyses, articular cartilage, and growth plate. The physician caring for these young athletes needs to be aware of these conditions to diagnose and treat them appropriately. Physicians should also be aware of the risk of overtraining and overuse injury in athletes participating in year-round sports and competition. Current guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes are primarily based on consensus and expert opinion. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes and runners. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ctypes. ctypes run!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the new features of Python 2.5 is the introduction of ctypes as a standard library module. At the simplest level, ctypes adds the standard C types to Python: signed and unsigned bytes, shorts, ints and longs; as well as structs, unions, pointers and functions. At run-time it can load a shared library (DLL and import its symbols, allowing a Python application to make function calls into the library without any special preparation.  ctypes can be used to wrap native libraries in place of interface generators such as SWIG, to manipulate memory and Python objects at the lowest level, and to prototype application development in other languages.

    This paper begins with a quick introduction to ctypes, shows some advanced techniques, and describes some examples of how it has been used by the author in his recent work.

  9. Oxygen delivery does not limit peak running speed during incremental downhill running to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefeldt, G; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VI), respiratory exchange ratio (R), stride frequency and blood lactate concentrations were measured continuously in nine trained athletes during two continuous incremental treadmill runs to exhaustion on gradients of either 0 degree or -3 degrees. Compared to the run at 0 degree gradient, the athletes reached significantly higher maximal treadmill velocities but significantly lower VO2, VI, R and peak blood lactate concentrations (P less than 0.001) during downhill running. These lower VO2 and blood lactate concentrations at exhaustion indicated that factors other than oxygen delivery limited maximal performance during the downhill run. In contrast, stride frequencies were similar at each treadmill velocity; the higher maximal speed during the downhill run was achieved with a significantly longer stride length (P less than 0.001); maximal stride frequency was the same between tests. Equivalent maximal stride frequencies suggested that factors determining the rate of lower limb stride recovery may have limited maximal running speed during downhill running and, possibly, also during horizontal running.

  10. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, Pmechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP.

  11. Design of a Control System for the Running-in Test Bench of AC-DC Wheel Set Motor%交直流轮对电机跑合试验台控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春红

    2014-01-01

    After assembly of the wheel set motor,it is required to make running-in test on the wheel set in order to check whether the gear box, motor bearings and wheel set bearings conform to the installation requirement.Three control systems are designed,namely data collection,AC-DC drive and intelligence test and control.In the design of the data collecting system,sensors are used to collect signals about ,temperature and rotation speed during motor running-in.The AC-DC drive is designed to meet the requirement of the drive of the AC-DC haulage motor.The intelligent control design adopts ADVANTECH industrial computer as control terminal,and MCGS configuration software and communication equipment 485 are used to perform the function of automatic collection of experimental data.The test device,with manual and automatic functions has high control precision and other advantages.%轮对电机组装完成之后,为了检查齿轮箱、电机轴承、轮对轴承等是否符合安装要求,需要对轮对进行跑合试验。从数据采集、交直流传动和智能测控这三个控制系统进行设计。数据采集系统设计采用传感器采集电机跑合过程中的振动、温度、转速等信号。交直流传动设计是为了满足交直流机车电机传动的需求。智能测控设计采用研华工控机作为控制终端,用MC GS组态软件和485通讯实现试验过程数据自动采集等功能。试验装置具备手动和自动两种功能,具有控制精度高等优点。

  12. Stability Criterion for Humanoid Running

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-Hui; HUANGQiang; LIKe-Jie

    2005-01-01

    A humanoid robot has high mobility but possibly risks of tipping over. Until now, one main topic on humanoid robots is to study the walking stability; the issue of the running stability has rarely been investigated. The running is different from the walking, and is more difficult to maintain its dynamic stability. The objective of this paper is to study the stability criterion for humanoid running based on the whole dynamics. First, the cycle and the dynamics of running are analyzed. Then, the stability criterion of humanoid running is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion is illustrated by a dynamic simulation example using a dynamic analysis and design system (DADS).

  13. Polarization Issues in Run 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,S.Y.; Ahrens, L.; Huang, H.; Zeno, K.

    2008-07-01

    The RHIC proton beam polarization has a strong dependence on intensity in Run 2008, whereas the dependence is almost absent in Run 2006. Meanwhile, the RHIC beam transverse emittance also has a dependence on intensity in Run 2008, but little in Run 2006. Using the emittance measurement at the AGS IPM and the BtA multiwires, the source of this difference between 2006 and 2008 runs is traced to the Booster. It is found that at least the degree of the vertical scraping in the Booster is different in 2006 and 2008. The effect of this scraping for the RHIC beam emittance and polarization is studied.

  14. Development of an Evaluation System for Vertical Vibration of Railway Vehicles with Field-Portable Actuators (1st Report, Data Processing Method to Estimate Running-Vehicle Vibration from Stationary Vibration Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Takigami, Tadao

    The authors are developing a vibration evaluation system, which consists of field-portable exciters (actuators) and data processing software, to estimate vertical vibration and ride quality of railway vehicles. One of the main characteristics of the system is that the acceleration power spectral density (PSD) at arbitrary point on the carbody in running condition is synthesized numerically from measured data obtained when each axle box or each wheelset is excited individually using limited number of actuators. This paper focuses upon the data processing method for the vibration evaluation system. A series of excitation tests for a commuter vehicle is carried out to confirm the basic concept to estimate the PSD by using the rolling stock testing plant at Railway Technical Research Institute. Some excitation methodologies and data processing formulae are compared among each other. It is clearly shown that the estimated PSDs well agree with actual PSD. It is found out that the estimation gives high accurate results when only excited axle box acceleration are used in estimation analysis.

  15. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  16. The QCD Running Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, A; de Teramond, G F

    2016-01-01

    We review the present knowledge for $\\alpha_s$, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in QCD. The dependence of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics -from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ at high $Q^2$, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small $Q^2$, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of $\\alpha_s$, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in the high $Q^2$ domain of QCD. We review how $\\alpha_s$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as ...

  17. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  18. Thermal-Load Mechanic Running Test of Power Turbine%燃气轮机动力涡轮热负荷机械运转试验方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三多; 刘京春; 王兆丰

    2014-01-01

    阐述了利用工厂动力设备,在非专用试验车台上,进行兆瓦级大功率工业燃气轮机动力涡轮工厂检验性试车的方法。采用空气管路连接动力涡轮进气口与排气口,构成密闭闭环回路,利用电动机驱动动力涡轮运转,涡轮叶片搅动空气使其升温,实现了热态空负荷机械运转的试验状态,达到了在额定工作转速下进行机械磨合运转试验,和在一定温度下对动力涡轮进行热态检验试验的目的。本方法对其他型号动力涡轮试车具有重要参考价值。%A rig test method was illustrated for the power turbine of the high-power industrial gas turbine of MWs order on unspecialized test rig using plant power facility. An air line was used to connect the power turbine inlet with its outlet to construct a closed circuit loop, using electric motor to drive the power turbine, with the turbine blades stirring air to heat the air. In this way, a closed circuit cycle was constructed through air-line connection and the power turbine was driven by electric motor. The power turbine was given me-chanic grounding-in test at normal operation speed and thermal test verification by heating air , making a mechanic running test of thermal state and void load. The study is of great importance of reference for the test of other types of power turbines.

  19. Analysis of Test Run Problems and Solution Measures of Low-Temperature Methanol Wash Unit%低温甲醇洗装置试车问题分析及解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学军; 乔洪凯; 郭晓鹏

    2012-01-01

    A comparison is made of low-temperature methanol wash and NHD processes for removal of acid gases in large plants for chemical processing of coal. A description is given of the process flow and special features of the low-temperature methanol wash unit. Experience in the test run is presented, with emphasis on the problems encountered and their solutions, such as water plugging in the tube pass of heat exchanger ( E6 ) during start-up, thorough absorption of CO2 in gas delivery to the system, insufficient accuracy in adjustment of the butterfly valve and inability of two-way sealing of valves in the battery limit.%对大型煤化工酸性气体脱除采用的低温甲醇洗与NHD工艺进行了对比,概述了低温甲醇洗装置的工艺流程及特点.介绍了低温甲醇洗装置试车经验,重点阐述开车过程中出现的换热器(E6)管程水堵塞、系统导气时CO2彻底吸收、蝶阀调节精度不足和界区阀不能双向密封等问题及解决措施.

  20. 刘江黄河大桥主桥运行环境下的振动测试%Vibration Test of the Running Environment of the Main Bridge of Liujiang Yellow River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2014-01-01

    Based on the vibration test of the running environment of the main bridge of Liujiang Yellow River Bridge measured vibration Liu Jiang Yellow River main bridge operating environment, this paper got the response vibration stability diagram of vertical and lateral acceleration under different frequencies, torsional vibration mode and torsional frequency, judged the effect of the damage of boom on vertical and lateral vibration, so as to predict the current operating status of bridge.%本文通过对刘江黄河大桥主桥运行环境下的振动实测,得到桥梁的在不同频率下的竖向加速度、横向加速度的响应振动稳定图,扭转振型及扭转频率,判断吊杆的损伤对横、竖向振动的影响,推知桥梁目前的运行状态。

  1. In vitro interaction cocktail assay for nine major cytochrome P450 enzymes with 13 probe reactions and a single LC/MSMS run: analytical validation and testing with monoclonal anti-CYP antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Ari; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Turpeinen, Miia; Uusitalo, Jouko; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2007-07-01

    A sensitive and rugged LC/MSMS method was developed for a comprehensive in vitro metabolic interaction screening assay with N-in-1 approach reported earlier. A cocktail consisting of ten cytochrome P450 (CYP)-selective probe substrates with known kinetic, metabolic and interaction properties in vivo was incubated in a pool of human liver microsomes, and metabolites of melatonin (CYP1A2), coumarin (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), amodiaquine (CYP2C8) tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), midazolam (CYP3A4) and testosterone (CYP3A4) were simultaneously analysed with a single LC/MSMS run. Altogether, 13 metabolites and internal standard phenacetin were analysed in multiple reaction mode. Polarity switching mode was utilized to acquire negative ion mode electrospray data for hydroxychlorzoxazone and positive ionization data for the rest of the analytes. Fast gradient elution was applied, giving total injection cycle of 8 min. The method was modified for two different LC/MSMS systems, and was validated for linear range, detection limit, accuracy and precision for each metabolite. In addition, cocktail inhibition system was further tested using monoclonal anti-CYP antibodies as inhibitors for each probe reaction. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 基于游程检验的上海股票市场弱式有效性研究%Effectiveness Research on Shanghai Stock Market Weakness Based on Runs Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴丽俊; 李先流

    2011-01-01

    有效市场假说理论是股票市场理论研究的基础之一,股票市场的有效性对政府的监管和投资者的投资策略都有着重要影响.本文选取2006年至2010年上海股票市场的一系列指数的日收盘价进行游程检验,得出上海股票市场是弱式有效市场的结论.%The efficient market hypothesis theory is one basis of the stock market theory research, the effectiveness of the stock market has a significant impact on government regulation and investment strategies of investors. This paper selects closing price in a series of indexes from 2006 to 2010 of Shanghai stock market to runs test, making the concluding of Shanghai stock market is weak form efficient market.

  3. A novel running mechanic's class changes kinematics but not running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Lehecka, Nick; King, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    A novel method of running technique instruction, Midstance to Midstance Running (MMR), was studied to determine how MMR affected kinematics and running economy (RE) of recreational runners. An experimental pre-post randomized groups design was used. Participants (n = 18) were recreational runners who ran at least 3 days a week and 5 km per run. All testing was performed on a treadmill at 2.8 m·s. The intervention group (n = 9) completed 8 weeks of instruction in MMR; the control group (n = 9) continued running without instruction. The MMR group showed significant decreases in stride length (SL) (p = 0.02) and maximum knee flexion velocity in stance (p = 0.01), and a significant increase in stride rate (SR) (p = 0.02) after 8 weeks. No significant changes were found in heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, or RE. Midstance to Midstance Running was effective in changing SR and SL, but was not effective in changing other kinematic variables such as foot contact position and maximum knee flexion during swing. Midstance to Midstance Running did not affect RE. Evidence suggests that MMR may be an appropriate instructional method for recreational runners trying to decrease SL and increase SR.

  4. The QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  5. Oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, N J; Berg, K; Deka, P; Meendering, J R; Ryan, C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod on the treadmill as well as overground. 10 healthy recreational runners, 5 male and 5 female, whose mean age was 23.8±3.39 volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects participated in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot on treadmill, 2) shod on treadmill, 3) barefoot overground, and 4) shod overground. For each condition, subjects ran for 6 min at 70% vVO (2)max pace while VO (2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. A 2 × 2 (shoe condition x surface) repeated measures ANOVA revealed that running with shoes showed significantly higher VO (2) values on both the treadmill and the overground track (pbarefoot. It was concluded that at 70% of vVO (2)max pace, barefoot running is more economical than running shod, both overground and on a treadmill.

  6. CDF RunRun Control and Online Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Arisawa; W.Badgett; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the CDF RunRun Control and online event monitoring system.Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes,Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines,using JDBC database connections to configure clients,and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface.The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts;the eent monitoring programs,the display to browse their results,the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections ,the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with run Control,and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs.

  7. Running-based pica in rats. Evidence for the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Katayama, Tomomi

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary running in an activity wheel establishes aversion to paired taste in rats. A proposed mechanism underlying this taste aversion learning is gastrointestinal discomfort caused by running. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) of rats, because it is known that rats engage in pica behavior after various nausea-inducing treatments including irradiation, motion sickness, and injection of emetic drugs such as lithium chloride (LiCl). Following a demonstration of the already-known phenomenon of LiCl-based pica in Experiment 1, we successfully showed running-based pica behavior in Experiment 2 where the running treatment was compared with a non-running control treatment (i.e., confinement in a locked wheel). These results suggest that not only LiCl but also running induces nausea in rats, supporting the gastrointestinal discomfort hypothesis of running-based taste aversion learning.

  8. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  9. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; Van de Walle, Björn; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A clear difference between full-scale wave run-up measurements and small-scale model test results had been noticed during a MAST II project. This finding initiated a thorough study of wave run-up through the European MAST III OPTICREST project. Full-scale measurement have been carried out on the ......-up and may explain the dependency of wave run-up on the water level observed in Zeebrugge. An influence of the spectral shape has also been noticed....

  10. Financial Dollarization: Short-Run Determinants in Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakos C. Neanidis; Christos S. Savva

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of financial dollarization in transition economies from a short-run perspective. Using monthly data of deposit and loan dollarization we study the drivers of short-term fluctuations in dollarization and test their importance at different levels of dollarization. The results provide evidence that (a) the positive short-run effects of depreciation on deposit dollarization are exacerbated in high-dollarization countries; (b) short-run loan dollarization is ma...

  11. Influence of footwear designed to boost energy return on running economy in comparison to a conventional running shoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J; Mcgrath, R; Brook, O; Taylor, P J; Dillon, S

    2016-01-01

    Running economy is a reflection of the amount of inspired oxygen required to maintain a given velocity and is considered a determining factor for running performance. Athletic footwear has been advocated as a mechanism by which running economy can be enhanced. New commercially available footwear has been developed in order to increase energy return, although their efficacy has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effects of energy return footwear on running economy in relation to conventional running shoes. Twelve male runners completed 6-min steady-state runs in conventional and energy return footwear. Overall, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, shoe comfort and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. Moreover, participants subjectively indicated which shoe condition they preferred for running. Differences in shoe comfort and physiological parameters were examined using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, whilst shoe preferences were tested using a chi-square analysis. The results showed that VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly lower, and shoe comfort was significantly greater, in the energy return footwear. Given the relationship between running economy and running performance, these observations indicate that the energy return footwear may be associated with enhanced running performance in comparison to conventional shoes.

  12. 低温乙烯输出系统试车故障分析%Analysis of Fault Occurred in Test Run of Sending-out System for Cryogenic Ethylene Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先禹

    2009-01-01

    为解决低温乙烯储罐输出系统在试车运行阶段频繁停车的问题,从故障现象及泵解体后发现的损坏部位分析,排除了泵转子平衡、安装高度、杂质、进口管径、操作方法等方面的原因,确定故障是由系统内的气体积聚引起.通过对气体产生量和排气能力的定量计算,判断保持进口管线的稳定流型和降低气体在进口管线中的积聚时间是解决问题的根本,总结出了相应的措施方法后,取得了良好效果.%In order to solve the problems occurred in the test run of the sending - out system for cryogenic ethylene plant, the fault phenomena and the damaged structure were analyzed. The fault possibilities from the aspects of pump rotator balance, installation ele-vation, debris, inlet diameter or operation condition had been removed. Finally, it was determined that the fault was due to the accu-mulation of the gas in the system. Through quantitative calculation for the productive gas and discharge capacity, it was recognized that to keep stable flow and to decrease the duration of gas accumulation in the inlet pipe were key methods to solve the problem. The appli-cation of these correct methods have resulted in good effects.

  13. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  14. RUN TO RUN CONTROL OF TIME-PRESSURE DISPENSING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yixiang; Li Hanxiong; Ding Han; Xiong Youlun

    2004-01-01

    In electronics packaging the time-pressure dispensing system is widely used to squeeze the adhesive fluid in a syringe onto boards or sub-strates with the pressurized air.However,complexity of the process,which includes the air-fluid coupling and the nonlinear uncertainties,makes it diffi-cult to have a consistent process per-formance.An integrated dispensing process model is first introduced and then its input-output regression rela-tionship is used to design a run to run control methodology for this process.The controller takes EWMA scheme and its stability region is given.Ex-perimental results verify the effective-ness of the proposed run to run control method for dispensing process.

  15. Applying the cost of generating force hypothesis to uphill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Hoogkamer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, several different approaches have been applied to explain the metabolic cost of uphill human running. Most of these approaches result in unrealistically high values for the efficiency of performing vertical work during running uphill, or are only valid for running up steep inclines. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the metabolic cost of uphill running, based upon our understanding of level running energetics and ground reaction forces during uphill running. In contrast to the vertical efficiency approach, we propose that during incline running at a certain velocity, the forces (and hence metabolic energy required for braking and propelling the body mass parallel to the running surface are less than during level running. Based on this idea, we propose that the metabolic rate during uphill running can be predicted by a model, which posits that (1 the metabolic cost of perpendicular bouncing remains the same as during level running, (2 the metabolic cost of running parallel to the running surface decreases with incline, (3 the delta efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the COM vertically is constant, independent of incline and running velocity, and (4 the costs of leg and arm swing do not change with incline. To test this approach, we collected ground reaction force (GRF data for eight runners who ran thirty 30-second trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–9°. We also measured the metabolic rates of eight different runners for 17, 7-minute trials (velocity: 2.0–3.0 m/s; incline: 0–8°. During uphill running, parallel braking GRF approached zero for the 9° incline trials. Thus, we modeled the metabolic cost of parallel running as exponentially decreasing with incline. With that assumption, best-fit parameters for the metabolic rate data indicate that the efficiency of producing mechanical power to lift the center of mass vertically was independent of incline and running velocity, with a value of ∼29

  16. Run-to-Run Control Strategy for Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    quite serious ( diabetic coma), and the long- term implications of varying glucose levels ( nephropathy , retinopathy, and other tissue damage ) have...Trial Re- search Group, \\The e ect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long{term complications in insulin{dependent...1 RUN-TO-RUN CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DIABETES MANAGEMENT F.J. Doyle III1, B. Srinivasan2, and D. Bonvin2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, University

  17. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Piketty in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    I examine the idea of 'the long run' in Piketty (2014) and related works. In contrast to simplistic interpretations of long-run models of income- and wealth-distribution Piketty (2014) draws on a rich economic analysis that models the intra- and inter-generational processes that underly the development of the wealth distribution. These processes inevitably involve both market and non-market mechanisms. To understand this approach, and to isolate the impact of different social and economic factors on inequality in the long run, we use the concept of an equilibrium distribution. However the long-run analysis of policy should not presume that there is an inherent tendency for the wealth distribution to approach equilibrium.

  19. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  20. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  1. Palm cooling does not improve running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, C M; Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Devor, S T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a combination of exercise and environmental heat stress. Twelve subjects completed two randomly ordered time-to-exhaustion runs at 75% VO2max, 30 °C, and 50% relative humidity with and without palm cooling. Time to exhaustion runs started once the warm-up had elicited a core temperature of 37.5 °C. Heart rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Feeling Scale, and core temperature were recorded at 2-min intervals during each run. Time to exhaustion was longer in control than treatment (46.7±31.1 vs. 41.3±26.3 min, respectively, prate-of-rise of core temperature was not different between control and treatment (0.047 vs. 0.048 °C · min-1, respectively). The use of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a run in hot conditions did not eliminate or even attenuate the rise in core temperature. Exercise time in hot conditions did not increase with the use of the palm cooling device and time to exhaustion was reduced. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level.

  3. Effect of motion control running shoes compared with neutral shoes on tibial rotation during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alice; Birch, Ivan; Kuisma, Raija

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether a motion control running shoe reduces tibial rotation in the transverse plane during treadmill running. An experimental study measuring tibial rotation in volunteer participants using a repeated measures design. Human Movement Laboratory, School of Health Professions, University of Brighton. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested. The group comprised males and females with size 6, 7, 9 and 11 feet. The age range for participants was 19 to 31 years. The total range of proximal tibial rotation was measured using the Codamotion 3-D Movement Analysis System. A one-tailed paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in the total range of proximal tibial rotation when a motion control shoe was worn (mean difference 1.38°, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.73, P=0.04). There is a difference in tibial rotation in the transverse plane between a motion control running shoe and a neutral running shoe. The results from this study have implications for the use of supportive running shoes as a form of injury prevention. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How to run 100 meters?

    CERN Document Server

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: a system of ordinary differential equations, based on Newton's second law and energy conservation, is coupled to the condition of optimizing the time to run a fixed distance. We show that the monotony of the velocity curve vs time is the opposite of that of the oxygen uptake (V O2) vs time. Since the oxygen uptake is monotone increasing for a short run, we prove that the velocity is exponentially increasing to its maximum and then decreasing. For longer races, the oxygen uptake has an increasing start and a decreasing end and this accounts for...

  5. Destructive testing in gauge R&R studies. Correlation. Runs and Runs tests. (and other contributions)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Trip, A.; Ruggeri, F.; Faltin, F.W.; Kennett, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Short description of the Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability: An essential reference for statisticians, engineers, and quality professionals in industry, academia, and government, Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability offers an essential knowledge source in an area

  6. Effect Of Running Shoes on Foot Impact During Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Running is part of almost every sport, and requires a great amount of stamina, endurance, mental toughness and overall strength. At every step, the foot experiences ground reaction forces necessary to support the motion of the body. With the advancements in shoe technology, running shoes have grown in popularity among runners, as well as non-runners, because they reduce the risk of injuries from the impact felt by the foot. The purpose of this report is to analyze the effect of running shoes on impact forces on the foot. This is achieved through the use of three force pads fixed at different locations on the foot The force measured by each sensor is then used to estimate the vertical ground reaction force, using the sensors' calibrations equations . Based on the ground reaction force, the effective mass corresponding to the momentum change occurring during the transient phase of the impact is estimated. The results show that running at 9 miles per hour without running shoes generates an effective mass of (14....

  7. Running of the Running and Entropy Perturbations During Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In single field slow-roll inflation, one expects that the spectral index $n_s -1$ is first order in slow-roll parameters. Similarly, its running $\\alpha_s = dn_s/d \\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_s = d\\alpha_s/d \\log k$ are second and third order and therefore expected to be progressively smaller, and usually negative. Hence, such models of inflation are in considerable tension with a recent analysis hinting that $\\beta_s$ may actually be positive, and larger than $\\alpha_s$. Motivated by this, in this work we ask the question of what kinds of inflationary models may be useful in achieving such a hierarchy of runnings, particularly focusing on two--field models of inflation in which the late-time transfer of power from isocurvature to curvature modes allows for a much more diverse range of phenomenology. We calculate the runnings due to this effect and briefly apply our results to assessing the feasibility of finding $|\\beta_s| \\gtrsim |\\alpha_s|$ in some specific models.

  8. Fitness Assessment Comparison Between the "Jackie Chan Action Run" Videogame, 1-Mile Run/Walk, and the PACER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan; Siegel, Shannon; Costa, Pablo; Jarvis, Sarah; Klug, Nicholas; Medina, Ernie; Wilkin, Linda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a correlation existed among the scores of the "Jackie Chan Studio Fitness(™) Action Run" active videogame (XaviX(®), SSD Company, Ltd., Kusatsu, Japan), the 1-mile run/walk, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) aerobic fitness tests of the FITNESSGRAM(®) (The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX) in order to provide a potential alternative testing method for days that are not environmentally desirable for outdoor testing. Participants were a convenience sample from physical education classes of students between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Participants (n=108) were randomly assigned to one of three groups with the only difference being the order of testing. The tests included the "Jackie Chan Action Run" active videogame, the 1-mile run/walk, and the PACER. Testing occurred on three different days during the physical education class. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was reported. Significant correlations (r=-0.598 to 0.312) were found among the three aerobic fitness tests administered (Peducation teachers to perform aerobic fitness testing in an indoor setting that requires less space. Also, children may be more willing to participate in the "Jackie Chan Action Run" based on the lower RPE.

  9. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  10. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  11. Body borne loads impact walk-to-run and running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T N; O'Donovan, M; Hasselquist, L; Corner, B D; Schiffman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a biomechanics-based assessment of body borne load during the walk-to-run transition and steady-state running because historical research has limited load carriage assessment to prolonged walking. Fifteen male military personnel had trunk and lower limb biomechanics examined during these locomotor tasks with three different load configurations (light, ∼6 kg, medium, ∼20 kg, and heavy, ∼40 kg). Subject-based means of the dependent variables were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the effects of load configuration. During the walk-to-run transition, the hip decreased (P=0.001) and knee increased (P=0.004) their contribution to joint power with the addition of load. Additionally, greater peak trunk (P=0.001), hip (P=0.001), and knee flexion (Prun transition. Body borne load had no significant effect (P>0.05) on distribution of lower limb joint power during steady-state running, but increased peak trunk (Prun transition the load carrier may move joint power production distally down the kinetic chain and adopt biomechanical profiles to maintain performance of the task. The load carrier, however, may not adopt lower limb kinematic adaptations necessary to shift joint power distribution during steady-state running, despite exhibiting potentially detrimental larger lower limb joint loads. As such, further study appears needed to determine how load carriage impairs maximal locomotor performance.

  12. The CDF Run IIb silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M.; Bacchetta, N.; Behari, S.; Benjamin, D.; Bisello, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Burghard, A.; Busetto, G.; Cabrera, S.; Canepa, A.; Castro, A.; Cardoso, G.; Chertok, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Derylo, G.; Fang, I.; Flaugher, B. E-mail: brenna@fnal.gov; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Gorelov, I.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Holbrook, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Junk, T.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Krieger, B.; Kruse, M.; Lander, R.; Lu, R.-S.; Lukens, P.; Malferrari, L.; Manea, C.; Margotti, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Merkel, P.; Moccia, S.; Nakano, I.; Naoumov, D.; Novak, J.; Okusawa, T.; Orlov, Y.; Pancaldi, G.; Pantano, D.; Pavlicek, V.; Pellett, D.; Seidel, S.; Semeria, F.; Takei, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Wang, Z.; Watje, P.; Weber, M.; Wester, W.; Wilkes, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yao, W.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Zucchini, A

    2004-02-01

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high-luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {mu}m, CMOS technology. Single-sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  13. The Millennium Run Observatory: First Light

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R; Angulo, R E; Bertin, E; Blaizot, J; Henriques, B M B; Marleau, G -D; White, S D M

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated and the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation models based on the suite of Millennium Run dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analyzed using the standard software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in forty filters from the rest-frame UV to IR for two stellar population synthesis models, three different models of IGM absorption, and two cosmologi...

  14. How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion.

  15. Percentile values for aerobic performance running/walking field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status Valores de percentiles de los tests de campo de capacidad aeróbica en niños de 6 a 17 años: influencia del peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Castro-Piñero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide percentiles values for four different aerobic performance tests in 2752 (1,261 girls Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9 years. Aerobic performance was assessed by the shuttle run test (20mSRT, 1-mile, 1/2-mile and 1/4-mile run/walk tests. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Boys had significantly better score than girls in the studied tests in all age groups, except in 1/4-mile test in 6-7 year old children. Underweight children had similar performance than their normalweight counterparts, and underweight boys had better performance than their obese counterparts. Overweight and obese children had lower performance than their normalweight counterparts. Having percentile values of the most used field tests to measure aerobic performance in youth may help to identify children and adolescents at risk for the major chronic diseases, as well as to evaluate the effects of alternative interventions.El propósito de este estudio fue proporcionar los valores de percentiles para cuatro pruebas de rendimiento aeróbico en 2752 (1261 chicas niños españoles con edades de 6 a 17,9 años. El rendimiento aeróbico se evalúo mediante la carrera durante 20 minutos (20mSRT, y las pruebas de correr / caminar 1 milla, ½ milla y ¼ de milla. Se midieron el peso y la talla y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Los chicos tuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mejores que las chicas en las pruebas evaluadas y para todos los grupos de edad, excepto en la prueba de ¼ de milla en el grupo de 6-7 años. Los niños con peso bajo mostraron un rendimiento similar a sus homólogos con peso normal y los primeros tuvieron un rendimiento mejor que sus homólogos obesos. Los niños obesos y con sobrepeso tuvieron un menor rendimiento que sus homólogos con peso normal. El disponer de valores de percentiles para las pruebas empleadas más habitualmente para evaluar el rendimiento aeróbico en los j

  16. [Stress fracture after changing to barefoot running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-12-15

    Barefoot running is increasing in popularity but little is known about the implications in respect to injuries. It has been proposed that barefoot running is associated with a decrease in running injuries as it represents a more natural way of running. A 50-year-old runner with a weekly running distance of 50 km presented suffering from a stress fracture of the second metatarsal after six weeks of intensive barefoot running.

  17. Simulating test and energy-saving analysis of elevator running based on waiting-time%考虑等待时间的电梯运行模拟测试与节能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿晓霞; 王波; 段军

    2012-01-01

    Up till now, the main target of elevator scheduling algorithms at home and abroad is minimization of passenger waiting time, which results in fewer passenger numbers and higher energy consumption during elevator operation in non-rush hour traffic. In order to balance the service efficiency and energy-saving of elevator, a new elevator scheduling rule for energy-saving based on elevator waiting-time is proposed. In order to quantitatively analyze the energy-saving effects of the new elevator scheduling rule based on the waiting-time, the new software is developed. The software can simulate elevator operation, calculate energy consumption and analyze energy-saving effected by generating randomly passenger flows, and then the amount of energy consumption, the elevator start and stop frequency and running distances are compared in different combined conditions of the height of building, the numbers of elevator, the elevator rated capacity, the concentration ratio of passenger in 5 min while different waiting-times are used and not used. The results of simulating tests show that the average energy-saving effects of 7.1%~9.4% can be gotten by using different waiting-time, and that introducing the elevator scheduling rule based on the waiting-time into the traditional elevator scheduling algorithms is a low-cost effective method of elevator energy-saving.%国内外电梯调度算法都以追求乘客候梯时间的最小化为主要目标,导致电梯在非高峰交通时段载客率较低,运行能耗较大.为兼顾电梯服务效率和节能,提出了一种基于等待时间的电梯运行节能调度规则.为定量分析新规则的节能效果,利用所开发的电梯模拟运行、能耗计算与节能分析软件,通过随机产生客流,计算办公建筑电梯在不同组合条件(建筑物高度、电梯台数、电梯额定载客率、5 min乘客集中率)下,加入不同等待时间后的电梯启停次数、运行里程及电能消耗,并与相同组合

  18. Bremen Workshop : Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Schlütter, F.

    The objective of the workshop was a comparison between the prototype and the laboratory measurements. the emphasis is put on comparison between recorded run-up levels. Three enclosed reports present measurements and results from University of Ghent (UG)/ FCCD, Flanders Hydraulics (FH) and Aalborg...

  19. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  20. ATLAS Searches in Run I

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Title: Searches for di-Higgs production in 4b final states and new phenomena with boosted Higgs using the ATLAS detector at LHC Run I Abstract : Measurement of Higgs boson pair production has a fundamental importance in understanding the nature of the Higgs boson and electroweak symmetry breaking. TeVscale resonances decaying to a pair of Higgs boson are also predicted in various extensions of the Standard Models, e.g, Kaluza-Klein excitation of the gravitons in the bulk Randall- Sundrum extra dimensions, heavy scalar particles in two-Higgs-doublet models. This talk highlights ATLAS Run I searches for di-Higgs production in 4b final states with resolved topology using small-radius jets and boosted topology using large-radius jets with associated b-tagged track-jets. Other Run I searches employing techniques to identify boosted Higgs bosons are also presented in this talk. Title: Searches for vector-like quarks and resonances decaying into top-quarks with the ATLAS detector at LHC Run I Abstract : In theories ...

  1. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...

  2. The energetics of ultra-endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, Stefano; Salvadego, Desy; Rejc, Enrico; Buglione, Antonio; Antonutto, Guglielmo; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of long-lasting endurance events on the energy cost of running (C(r)), and the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), its fractional utilisation (F) and C(r) in determining the performance. Ten healthy runners (age range 26-59 years) participated in an ultra-endurance competition consisting of three running laps of 22, 48 and 20 km on three consecutive days in the North-East of Italy. Anthropometric characteristics and VO(2max) by a graded exercise test on a treadmill were determined 5 days before and 5 days after the competition. In addition, C(r) was determined on a treadmill before and after each running lap. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the three laps. Results revealed that mean C(r) of the individual laps did not increase significantly with lap number (P = 0.200), thus ruling out any chronic lap effect. Even so, however, at the end of lap 3, C(r) was 18.0% (P increase of C(r-mean) during the competition yields to marked worsening of the performance, and (2) the three variables F, VO(2max) and C(r-mean) combined as described above explaining 87% of the total competition time variance.

  3. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  4. Running free: embracing a healthy lifestyle through distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard; Holloway, Immy

    2010-11-01

    Sport and leisure activity contribute to both health and quality of life. There is a dearth of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of active people, so the aim of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the experiences of one particular group of active leisure participants, distance runners, and to highlight the associated health and well-being benefits that result from participating in this increasingly popular form of active leisure. In doing so, this paper will briefly explore the potential opportunities and implications for sport and leisure policy and provision, and highlight examples of how distance running could positively contribute towards government objectives linked to tackling obesity levels, healthy living and physical well-being. It is suggested that similar benefits also exist across other forms of physical activity, exercise and sport. Qualitative methods of enquiry were adopted to understand the nature of the social world of long distance runners through interviews and observations, which were thematically analyzed. One of the key themes emerging from the data was the desire to embrace a healthy lifestyle, which then led to the emergence of four main sub-themes. The first was linked to the importance of seeking self-esteem and confirmation through running; second, an investigation of a selection of negative aspects associated with exercise addiction; third, the need to exercise among sport and leisure participants; and finally, an understanding of the concept of the 'running body'. Cautionary notes also identified negative aspects associated with exercise and physical activity. The findings highlight the potential role that distance running can play as an easily accessible and enjoyable leisure activity, one that can help facilitate increased participation in exercise and physical activity as an integral part of an active and healthy lifestyle.

  5. Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Chaouachi, Anis

    2011-04-01

    Sixteen semiprofessional Australian football players performed running bouts at incremental velocities of 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximum velocity on a Woodway nonmotorized force treadmill. As running velocity increased from 40 to 60%, peak vertical and peak horizontal forces increased by 14.3% (effect size [ES] = 1.0) and 34.4% (ES = 4.2), respectively. The changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 60 to 80% were 1.0% (ES = 0.05) and 21.0% (ES = 2.9), respectively. Finally, the changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 80% to maximum were 2.0% (ES = 0.1) and 24.3% (ES = 3.4). In addition, both stride frequency and stride length significantly increased with each incremental velocity (p velocity (p velocity (r = 0.47). For the kinematic variables, only stride length was found to have a significant positive correlation with maximum running velocity (r = 0.66). It would seem that increasing maximal sprint velocity may be more dependent on horizontal force production as opposed to vertical force production.

  6. Footwear and running cardio-respiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D A; Butler, R J; Beckman, B; Hackney, A C

    2009-05-01

    This study compared cardio-respiratory responses during running wearing a motion control shoe (MC) or a cushioning shoe (CU) in a cross-over single blinded design. Fourteen runners (10F/4M, age=27.3+/-5.1 years, body mass=64.1+/-12.2 kg, height=167.8+/-7.5 cm, VO (2)max=52.3+/-8.8 ml/kg/min) completed a 40-min run at approximately 65% VO (2) max under both shoe conditions. Oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min; L/min), minute ventilation (L/min), respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured at minutes 8-10, 18-20, 28-30 and 38-40 of exercise. Rating of perceived exertion was obtained at minutes 10, 20, 30 and 40. Two (footwear) by four (time) repeated measures ANOVAs showed no differences between footwear conditions in overall oxygen consumption (MC=36.8+/-1.5 vs. CU=35.3+/-1.4 mL/kg/min, p=0.143), minute ventilation (MC=50.4+/-4 vs. CU=48.5+/-3.8, p=0.147), respiratory exchange ratio (MC=0.90+/-0.01 vs. CU=0.89+/-0.01, p=0.331), heart rate (MC=159+/-3 vs. CU=160+/-3, p=0.926), or rate of perceived exertion. The design of motion control footwear does not appear to affect cardio-respiratory or perceived exertion responses during submaximal running. The findings are specific to the shoes tested. Nonetheless, the outcomes suggest that footwear selection to reduce certain overuse injuries does not increase the work of running.

  7. Wave Run-Up on a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouck, J. De; Troch, P.; Walle, B. Van de

    2001-01-01

    found by laboratory testing and reported in literature. The design of the crest height of a breakwater is mainly based on wave run-up values obtained by small scale model tests. Prototype measurements are seen as the big challenge to be addressed to verify small scale model test results. Therefore......-o dimensional models (1:30) and on one thr-e dimensional scale model (1:40). For a better determination of wave run-up on the scale models, a novel step gauge is developed. Still, differences between results of prototype measurement and small scale model test results and between the various laboratory results...

  8. Study of the helicopter blade running elevation measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Helicopter blade running elevation measurement is an important measure target in helicopter blade dynamic balance experimentation. The elevation influences the helicopter's security and other performance capabilities. In testing, however, it has been difficult to measure the elevation when the rotor reaches high speeds. To get a simple, fast and highly accurate measurement system, photo electricity technology was applied to measuring the blade running elevation. Discussed is the measurement principle of blade running elevation, the design of the measurement system and analysis of the measurement precision.

  9. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  10. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a differ...

  11. The Short-Run And Long-Run Relationship In The Indonesia Islamic Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shabri Abd Majid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at empirically examining the short-run andlong-run causal relationship between the Indonesian Islamic stock returns and selected macroeconomic variables namely inflation, money supply and exchangerate during the pre- and post- 2008 global financial turmoil period from 2002until 2007 and from 2008 until 2013 by using monthly data. The methodologyused in this study is time series econometric techniques i.e. the unit root test,cointegration test, error correction model (ECM and variance decompositions(VDCs. The findings showed that there is cointegration between Islamic stockprices and macroeconomic variables. The results suggest that inflation, moneysupply, and exchange rate significantly affected the Islamic stock returns inIndonesia. These variables should be taken into account by the policy makers as theimportant policy instruments in stabilizing Islamic stock markets in the countryDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2505

  12. RUNNING CONDITION FRETTING MAPS OF POLYMER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Tamás Vezér

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the industrial demand, the determination of the wear behaviour of polymeric materials is an important research task. Rubbers and elastomers are used widely in contacts, where wear is the dominant failure mechanisms. Furthermore, only the material properties under large displacements were investigated in the majority of existing studies. Depending on the input physical parameters of the tribological systems small oscillations are also observed on the measured signals (due to stick-slip like effect in the contact zone of the elastomers. To describe the failure behaviour under this special condition, a novel fretting fatigue test system was developed and built on a electro-dynamical shaker in this study. The contact area were defined with some additional test, like 2D full field strain analysis, compression and creep tests. Based on the methodology developed and applied for steels and polymer composites, Running Condition Fretting Maps for two elastomer grades (HNBR and TPU were determined.

  13. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future.

  14. Running Servers around Zero Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    PervilÀ, Mikko; Kangasharju, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Data centers are a major consumer of electricity and a significant fraction of their energy use is devoted to cooling the data center. Recent prototype deployments have investigated the possibility of using outside air for cooling and have shown large potential savings in energy consumption. In this paper, we push this idea to the extreme, by running servers outside in Finnish winter. Our results show that commercial, off-the-shelf computer equipment can tolerate extreme conditions such as ou...

  15. The Examination of the Heart Rate Recovery after Anaerobic Running in Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Taskin, Halil; Erkmen, Nurtekin; CICIOGLU, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate recovery depending on anaerobic running. A total of 23 professional soccer players who were player of Turkish Super Leagues, were examined. Anaerobic Run test was applied to the soccer players and their heart rates were recorded before running, just after running, in 3rd and 6th minutes of recovery period. Any statistical differences were not found between the heart rates before run and in 6th minute after run (p>0.05). On the other hand...

  16. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  17. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  18. Diagnostic Value of Run Chart Analysis: Using Likelihood Ratios to Compare Run Chart Rules on Simulated Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhøj, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Run charts are widely used in healthcare improvement, but there is little consensus on how to interpret them. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic properties of different sets of run chart rules. A run chart is a line graph of a quality measure over time. The main purpose of the run chart is to detect process improvement or process degradation, which will turn up as non-random patterns in the distribution of data points around the median. Non-random variation may be identified by simple statistical tests including the presence of unusually long runs of data points on one side of the median or if the graph crosses the median unusually few times. However, there is no general agreement on what defines “unusually long” or “unusually few”. Other tests of questionable value are frequently used as well. Three sets of run chart rules (Anhoej, Perla, and Carey rules) have been published in peer reviewed healthcare journals, but these sets differ significantly in their sensitivity and specificity to non-random variation. In this study I investigate the diagnostic values expressed by likelihood ratios of three sets of run chart rules for detection of shifts in process performance using random data series. The study concludes that the Anhoej rules have good diagnostic properties and are superior to the Perla and the Carey rules. PMID:25799549

  19. Effect of a global alteration of running technique on kinematics and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallam, George M; Wilber, Randall L; Jadelis, Kristen; Fletcher, Graham; Romanov, Nicholas

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we examined the consequences of a global alteration in running technique on running kinematics and running economy in triathletes. Sixteen sub-elite triathletes were pre and post tested for running economy and running kinematics at 215 and 250 m.min-1. The members of the treatment group (n=8) were exposed to 12 weeks of instruction in the "pose method" of running, while the members of the control group (n=8) maintained their usual running technique. After the treatment period, the experimental group demonstrated a significant decrease in mean stride length (from 137.25+/-7.63 cm to 129.19+/-7.43 cm; Pglobal change in running mechanics associated with 12 weeks of instruction in the pose method resulted in a decrease in stride length, a reduced vertical oscillation in comparison with the control group and a decrease of running economy in triathletes.

  20. Runs in superpositions of renewal processes with applications to discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmeyer, Gerold; Irle, Albrecht

    2006-02-01

    Wald and Wolfowitz [Ann. Math. Statist. 11 (1940) 147-162] introduced the run test for testing whether two samples of i.i.d. random variables follow the same distribution. Here a run means a consecutive subsequence of maximal length from only one of the two samples. In this paper we contribute to the problem of runs and resulting test procedures for the superposition of independent renewal processes which may be interpreted as arrival processes of customers from two different input channels at the same service station. To be more precise, let (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 be the arrival processes for channel 1 and channel 2, respectively, and (Wn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 their be superposition with counting process . Let further be the number of runs in W1,...,Wn and the number of runs observed up to time t. We study the asymptotic behavior of and Rt, first for the case where (Sn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and (Tn)n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 have exponentially distributed increments with parameters [lambda]1 and [lambda]2, and then for the more difficult situation when these increments have an absolutely continuous distribution. These results are used to design asymptotic level [alpha] tests for testing [lambda]1=[lambda]2 against [lambda]1[not equal to][lambda]2 in the first case, and for testing for equal scale parameters in the second.

  1. LHCb computing in Run II and its evolution towards Run III

    CERN Document Server

    Falabella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    his contribution reports on the experience of the LHCb computing team during LHC Run 2 and its preparation for Run 3. Furthermore a brief introduction on LHCbDIRAC, i.e. the tool to interface to the experiment distributed computing resources for its data processing and data management operations, is given. Run 2, which started in 2015, has already seen several changes in the data processing workflows of the experiment. Most notably the ability to align and calibrate the detector between two different stages of the data processing in the high level trigger farm, eliminating the need for a second pass processing of the data offline. In addition a fraction of the data is immediately reconstructed to its final physics format in the high level trigger and only this format is exported from the experiment site to the physics analysis. This concept have successfully been tested and will continue to be used for the rest of Run 2. Furthermore the distributed data processing has been improved with new concepts and techn...

  2. Influence of the Lower Jaw Position on the Running Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maurer

    Full Text Available The effects of manipulated dental occlusion on body posture has been investigated quite often and discussed controversially in the literature. Far less attention has been paid to the influence of dental occlusion position on human movement. If human movement was analysed, it was mostly while walking and not while running. This study was therefore designed to identify the effect of lower jaw positions on running behaviour according to different dental occlusion positions.Twenty healthy young recreational runners (mean age = 33.9±5.8 years participated in this study. Kinematic data were collected using an eight-camera Vicon motion capture system (VICON Motion Systems, Oxford, UK. Subjects were consecutively prepared with four different dental occlusion conditions in random order and performed five running trials per test condition on a level walkway with their preferred running shoes. Vector based pattern recognition methods, in particular cluster analysis and support vector machines (SVM were used for movement pattern identification.Subjects exhibited unique movement patterns leading to 18 clusters for the 20 subjects. No overall classification of the splint condition could be observed. Within individual subjects different running patterns could be identified for the four splint conditions. The splint conditions lead to a more symmetrical running pattern than the control condition.The influence of an occlusal splint on running pattern can be confirmed in this study. Wearing a splint increases the symmetry of the running pattern. A more symmetrical running pattern might help to reduce the risk of injuries or help in performance. The change of the movement pattern between the neutral condition and any of the three splint conditions was significant within subjects but not across subjects. Therefore the dental splint has a measureable influence on the running pattern of subjects, however subjects individuality has to be considered when choosing the

  3. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  4. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  5. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  6. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control system...

  7. Fatigue associated with prolonged graded running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2016-10-01

    Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.

  8. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  9. ATLAS Run II Exotics Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While Standard Model is in a good shape especially after Higgs boson discovery, there are a lot of questions beyond SM. The ATLAS detector is performing about 50 Exotics searches addressed these questions. This talk is discussing some of them with datasets collected during the 2015-2016 LHC run from 3 fb^-1 to 18 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy . Results on searches for resonances decaying into vector boson or fermions, for vector like quarks, for dark matter, and for other new phenomena using these data will be presented.

  10. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  11. Variable Joint Elasticities in Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Stephan; Grimmer, Sten; Lipfert, Susanne W.; Seyfarth, Andre

    In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.

  12. Platelet function and fibrinolytic activity following distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, J B; Brodthagen, U; Gormsen, J; Jordal, R; Nørregaard-Hansen, K; Paulev, P E

    1982-11-01

    6 long distance runners from the Danish marathon elite and 6 non-runners completed test runs of 28 and 12 km, respectively. Distance runners and non-runners showed the same responses in platelet function. We found a significant decrease in ADP induced platelet aggregability, a decreased serotonin release induced by ADP and collagen and an increase in platelet factor 4 immediately following the run. The antithrombin III levels remained constant. Euglobulin lysis time was shortened (by approximately 50%) and the plasminogen levels significantly increased. The last 2 findings indicate an equal increase in fibrinolytic activity during distance running in both groups. While short term, strenuous exercise induces platelet hyperaggregation, long term distance running induces a state of exhaustion of platelet aggregation capacity.

  13. Exchange rate and monetary fundamentals: Long run relationship revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanja Niyati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study re-examines the long run validity of the monetary approach to exchange rate determination for India. In particular, the long run association of bilateral nominal exchange rate of Indian rupee vis-à-vis USD, Pound-sterling, Yen and Euro against the corresponding monetary fundamentals that the model underlines has been tested using Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood framework and Gregory-Hansen co-integration approach. Irrespective of the exchange rates the study finds a co-integrating relationship among the variables using Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood approach. The Gregory-Hansen co-integration method allows for one break determined endogenously in three specifications also confirms the long run relationship. Our results, hence, suggest that the monetary model is a valid theory of long run equilibrium condition for the rupee-dollar, rupee-pound, rupee-yen and rupee-euro exchange rates.

  14. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P. K.; Chauhan, S.; Oza, M. P.

    2016-08-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971-2005 (May-October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorological sub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an R 2 of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann-Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological sub-divisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (-21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region's sensitivity to climatic variability.

  15. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Gupta; S Chauhan; M P Oza

    2016-08-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with detecting the trend of run-off over the mainland of India, during a time period of 35 years, from 1971–2005 May–October). Rainfall, soil texture, land cover types, slope, etc., were processed and run-off modelling was done using the Natural Resources ConservationService (NRCS) model with modifications and cell size of 5×5 km. The slope and antecedent moisture corrections were incorporated in the existing model. Trend analysis of estimated run-off was done by taking into account different analysis windows such as cell, medium and major river basins, meteorologicalsub-divisions and elevation zones across India. It was estimated that out of the average 1012.5 mm of rainfall over India (considering the study period of 35 years), 33.8% got converted to surface run-off. An exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an $R^2$ of 0.97 and RMSE of 8.31 mm. The run-off trend analysed using the Mann–Kendall test revealed that a significant pattern exists in 22 medium, two major river basins and three meteorological subdivisions, while there was no evidence of a statistically significant trend in the elevation zones. Among the medium river basins, the highest positive rate of change in the run-off was observed in the Kameng basin (13.6 mm/yr), while the highest negative trend was observed in the Tista upstream basin (−21.4 mm/yr). Changes in run-off provide valuable information for understanding the region’s sensitivity to climatic variability.

  16. LHCb : First years of running for the LHCb calorimeter system and preparation for run 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva). It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors: a Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and a Pre-Shower detector (PS) in front of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) which is followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL). They are used to select transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level and they provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The calorimeter has been pre-calibrated before its installation in the pit. The calibration techniques have been tested with data taken in 2010 and used regularly during run 1. For run 2, new calibration methods have been devised to follow and correct online the calorimeter detector response. The design and construction characteristics of the LHCb calorimeter will be recalled. Strategies for...

  17. Blood glutathione status following distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, B; Heine, O; Kothe, A; Prinz, U; Rost, R

    1997-02-01

    In 12 moderately trained subjects reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the blood before and during the first two hours and first two days after a 2.5-h run. The participants covered between 19 and 26 km (20.8 +/- 2.5 km, mean +/- SD). The running speed was between 53 and 82% of the speed at which blood lactate concentration reached 4 mmol/L lactate (67.9 +/- 8.2%, mean +/- SD) assessed during a previously performed treadmill test. Blood samples were collected 1 h before, immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 2 h after, as well as 1 and 2 days after the run. Immediately after exercise GSH was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and GSSG significantly increased (p < 0.01). In all subjects the ratio of GSH to GSSG showed a marked decline to 18 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD) of the pre-exercise values (p < 0.01). One hour later the mean GSH and GSSG values returned to baseline. However, there were considerable inter-individual differences. In some subjects the GSH/ GSSG ratio overshot the pre-exercise levels, in others the ratio remained low even two hours after exercise. Compared with the pre-exercise values TBARS concentrations did not change significantly at any time point after exercise. The findings suggest that after prolonged exercise in moderately trained subjects a critical shift in the blood glutathione redox status may be reached. The changes observed were generally short-lived, the duration of which may have depended on the relative importance of reactive oxygen species generation by the capillary endothelial cells and neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes after the end of exercise.

  18. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Predicting intermittent running performance: critical velocity versus endurance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Laursen, P B; Millet, G P; Pactat, F; Ahmaidi, S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest (30/30). Runs were performed until exhaustion at three intensities (100, 95 and 90 % of the speed reached at the end of the 30 - 15 intermittent fitness test, V (IFT)) to calculate i) CV from the slope of the linear relationship between the total covered distance and exhaustion time (ET) (iCV); ii) anaerobic distance capacity from the Y-intercept of the distance/duration relationship (iADC); and iii) EI from the relationship between the fraction of V (IFT) at which the runs were performed and the log-transformed ET (iEI). Anaerobic capacity was indirectly assessed by the final velocity achieved during the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (VMART). ET was longer for 15/15 than for 30/30 runs at similar intensities. iCV (15/15) and iCV (30/30) were not influenced by changes in ET and were highly dependent on V (IFT). Neither iADC (15/15) nor iADC (30/30) were related to VMART. In contrast, iEI (15/15) was higher than iEI (30/30), and corresponded with the higher ET. In conclusion, only iEI estimated endurance capacity during repeated intermittent running.

  20. Run-up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Leen; Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations....

  1. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  2. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  3. CDF Run Ⅱ Data File Catalog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Kowalkowski; F.Ratnikov; 等

    2001-01-01

    The CDF experiment started data taking in April 2001,The data are organized into datasets which contain events of similar physics properties and reconstruction version.the information about datasets is stored in the Data File Catalog,a relational database.This information is presented to the data processing framework as objects which are retrieved using compound keys.The objects and the keys are designed to be the algorithms' view of information stored in the database.Objects may use several DB tables.A database interface management layer exists for the purpose of managing the mapping of persistent data to transient objects that can be used by the framework.This layer exists between the algorithm code and the code which reads directly from datanbase tables.At the user end,it places get/put interface on a top of a transient class for retrieval or storage of objects of this class using a key.Data File Catalog code makes use of this facility and contains all the code needed to manipulate CDF Data File Catalog from a C++ program or from the command prompt,It supports an Oracle interface using OTL,and a mSQL interface,This code and the Oravcle implementation of Data File Catalog were subjected to test during CDF Commissioning Run last fall and during first weeks of Run II in April.It performed exceptionally well.

  4. GRETINA commissioning and engineering run resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Thomas; Beausang, Con; Ross, Tim; Hughes, Richard; Gell, Kristen; Good, Erin

    2012-10-01

    GRETINA, the first stage in the full Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETA), consists of seven modules covering approximately 1 solid angle. Each module is made up of four large, highly-segmented germanium detectors capable of measuring the interaction points of individual gamma-rays. GRETINA has recently been assembled and commissioned in LBNL via a series of engineering and commissioning runs. Here we report on an analysis of data from the first engineering run (ER01) which was intended to probe the response of the data acquisition system to high multiplicity gamma-ray cascades. For this experiment the 122Sn(40Ar, 4n) reaction at a beam energy of 210 MeV was utilized to populate high spin states in 158Er. A variety of beam currents, targets and trigger conditions were utilized to test the acquisition. Here we report on the measured energy resolution, both with calibration and in-beam sources as well as a gamma-gamma coincidence analysis to confirm the known level scheme and the capability of the data acquisition system for high fold coincidence measurements. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy via grant numbers DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05-ER41379.

  5. Can cycle power predict sprint running performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Jacobs, R; de Koning, J J

    1991-01-01

    A major criticism of present models of the energetics and mechanics of sprint running concerns the application of estimates of parameters which seem to be adapted from measurements of running during actual competitions. This study presents a model which does not perpetuate this solecism. Using data obtained during supra-maximal cycle ergometer tests of highly trained athletes, the kinetics of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways were modelled. Internal power wasted in the acceleration and deceleration of body limbs and the power necessary to overcome air friction was calculated from data in the literature. Assuming a mechanical efficiency as found during submaximal cycling, a power equation was constructed which also included the power necessary to accelerate the body at the start of movement. The differential equation thus obtained was solved through simulation. The model appeared to predict realistic times at 100 m (10.47 s), 200 m (19.63 s) and 400 m (42.99 s) distances. By comparison with other methods it is argued that power equations of locomotion should include the concept of mechanical efficiency.

  6. Maximal and submaximal physiological responses to adaptation to deep water running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Liane B; Lambert, Mike I; Zogaib, Paulo S; Barros Neto, Turibio L

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare physiological responses between runners adapted and not adapted to deep water running at maximal intensity and the intensity equivalent to the ventilatory threshold. Seventeen runners, either adapted (n = 10) or not adapted (n = 7) to deep water running, participated in the study. Participants in both groups undertook a maximal treadmill running and deep water running graded exercise test in which cardiorespiratory variables were measured. Interactions between adaptation (adapted vs. non-adapted) and condition (treadmill running vs. deep water running) were analysed. The main effects of adaptation and condition were also analysed in isolation. Runners adapted to deep water running experienced less of a reduction in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) in deep water running compared with treadmill running than runners not adapted to deep water running. Maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, maximal ventilation, VO2max at the ventilatory threshold, heart rate at the ventilatory threshold, and ventilation at the ventilatory threshold were significantly higher during treadmill than deep water running. Therefore, we conclude that adaptation to deep water running reduces the difference in VO2max between the two modalities, possibly due to an increase in muscle recruitment. The results of this study support previous findings of a lower maximal and submaximal physiological response on deep water running for most of the measured parameters.

  7. Does cycling effect motor coordination of the leg during running in elite triathletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Dowlan, Steve; Hodges, Paul W

    2008-07-01

    Triathletes report incoordination when running after cycling. We investigated the influence of the transition from cycling to running on leg movement and muscle recruitment during running in elite international level triathletes. Leg movement (three-dimensional kinematics) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity (surface electromyography) were compared between a control-run (no prior exercise) and a 30-min transition-run (preceded by 20 min of cycling; i.e., run versus cycle-run). The role of fatigue in motor changes was also investigated. Leg kinematics were not different between control- and transition-runs in any triathlete. Recruitment of TA was different in 5 of 14 triathletes, in whom altered TA recruitment patterns during the transition-run were more similar to recruitment patterns of TA during cycling. Changes in TA recruitment during the transition-run were not associated with altered force production of TA or other leg muscles during isometric fatigue testing, or myoelectric indicators of fatigue (median frequency, average rectified value). These findings suggest that short periods of cycling do not influence running kinematics or TA muscle activity in most elite triathletes. However, our findings are evidence that leg muscle activity during running is influenced by cycling in at least some elite triathletes despite their years of training. This influence is not related to kinematic variations and is unlikely related to fatigue but may be a direct effect of cycling on motor commands for running.

  8. Robotic Bipedal Running: Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to inc

  9. Head injury from a bungee run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Convery, Fiona; Watt, Michael; Fulton, Ailsa; McKinstry, Steven; Flannery, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    An adaptation of bungee jumping, 'bungee running', involves participants attempting to run as far as they can whilst connected to an elastic rope which is anchored to a fixed point. Usually considered a safe recreational activity, we report a potentially life-threatening head injury following a bungee running accident.

  10. Running Patterns of Highly Skilled Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunetts, Michael J.; Dillman, Charles J.

    The biomechanical elements inherent in the running styles of Olympic-level athletes were examined in order to obtain a range of parameter values for specific running velocities. Forty-eight athletes participated in middle and long distance running events that were filmed and later analyzed to determine the relationship between the physical…

  11. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  12. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Running has become popular in recent years, and numerous runners utilize wearable technologies in order to improve their run training. This paper investigates the development and trends in technologies used for run training, and describes how these are changing from solely focusing...

  13. Daily running promotes spatial learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Hojjatallah; Moloudi, Rohallah; Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Azizi-Malekabadi, Hamid; Hanninen, Osmo

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise). 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period). 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only) and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period). The results showed that chronic (30 days) and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days) treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats. Key pointsDaily running influence on spatial memory.The velocity of learning can be influenced by running activity.Path length is important parameter for measuring the speed of learning.

  14. Validity of the Nike+ device during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, N A; Simmons, M C; John, D; Thompson, D L; Bassett, D R; Basset, D R

    2010-02-01

    We determined the validity of the Nike+ device for estimating speed, distance, and energy expenditure (EE) during walking and running. Twenty trained individuals performed a maximal oxygen uptake test and underwent anthropometric and body composition testing. Each participant was outfitted with a Nike+ sensor inserted into the shoe and an Apple iPod nano. They performed eight 6-min stages on the treadmill, including level walking at 55, 82, and 107 m x min(-1), inclined walking (82 m x min(-1)) at 5 and 10% grades, and level running at 134, 161, and 188 m x min(-1). Speed was measured using a tachometer and EE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Results showed that the Nike+ device overestimated the speed of level walking at 55 m x min(-1) by 20%, underestimated the speed of level walking at 107 m x min(-1) by 12%, but closely estimated the speed of level walking at 82 m x min(-1), and level running at all speeds (p<0.05). Similar results were found for distance. The Nike+ device overestimated the EE of level walking by 18-37%, but closely estimated the EE of level running (p<0.05). In conclusion the Nike+ in-shoe device provided reasonable estimates of speed and distance during level running at the three speeds tested in this study. However, it overestimated EE during level walking and it did not detect the increased cost of inclined locomotion.

  15. Advanced overlay: sampling and modeling for optimized run-to-run control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, WoongJae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, DongSuk; Snow, Patrick; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur Nihat; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years overlay (OVL) control schemes have become more complicated in order to meet the ever shrinking margins of advanced technology nodes. As a result, this brings up new challenges to be addressed for effective run-to- run OVL control. This work addresses two of these challenges by new advanced analysis techniques: (1) sampling optimization for run-to-run control and (2) bias-variance tradeoff in modeling. The first challenge in a high order OVL control strategy is to optimize the number of measurements and the locations on the wafer, so that the "sample plan" of measurements provides high quality information about the OVL signature on the wafer with acceptable metrology throughput. We solve this tradeoff between accuracy and throughput by using a smart sampling scheme which utilizes various design-based and data-based metrics to increase model accuracy and reduce model uncertainty while avoiding wafer to wafer and within wafer measurement noise caused by metrology, scanner or process. This sort of sampling scheme, combined with an advanced field by field extrapolated modeling algorithm helps to maximize model stability and minimize on product overlay (OPO). Second, the use of higher order overlay models means more degrees of freedom, which enables increased capability to correct for complicated overlay signatures, but also increases sensitivity to process or metrology induced noise. This is also known as the bias-variance trade-off. A high order model that minimizes the bias between the modeled and raw overlay signature on a single wafer will also have a higher variation from wafer to wafer or lot to lot, that is unless an advanced modeling approach is used. In this paper, we characterize the bias-variance trade off to find the optimal scheme. The sampling and modeling solutions proposed in this study are validated by advanced process control (APC) simulations to estimate run-to-run performance, lot-to-lot and wafer-to- wafer model term monitoring to

  16. The examination of the heart rate recovery after anaerobic running in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Halil; Erkmen, Nurtekin; Cicioglu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate recovery depending on anaerobic running. A total of 23 professional soccer players who were player of Turkish Super Leagues, were examined. Anaerobic Run test was applied to the soccer players and their heart rates were recorded before running, just after running, in 3rd and 6th minutes of recovery period. Any statistical differences were not found between the heart rates before run and in 6th minute after run (p > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistical difference between the heart rates before run, after run and in 3rd minute after run; the heart rates after run and before run; the heart rates in 3rd and 6th minutes of recovery (p rates after run, before run (r = 0.457) and in 3rd minute of recovery (r = 0.537) and the heart rates in 3rd and 6th minutes of recovery (r = 0.629). On the other hand, no relation was found between the heart rates before run, in 3rd minute recovery (r = 0.247) and in 6th minute of recovery (r = -0.004) and the heart rates just after run and in 6th minute of recovery (r = 0.280) (p > 0.05). In conclusion, even if the increase of heart rate occurring after anaerobic run doesn't completely return to normal in 3rd minute of recovery, it will supply the athlete with a suitable condition for the second loading with regard to efficient rest. It is thought that a rest over 3 minutes should be given for athletes to make the heart rate after anaerobic run return to normal.

  17. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  18. Are multiple runs better than one?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2001-01-04

    This paper investigates whether it is better to use a certain constant amount of computational resources in a single run with a large population, or in multiple runs with smaller populations. The paper presents the primary tradeoffs involved in this problem and identifies the conditions under which there is an advantage to use multiple small runs. The paper uses an existing model that relates the quality of the solutions reached by a GA with its population size. The results suggest that in most cases a single run with the largest population possible reaches a better solution than multiple isolated runs. The findings are validated with experiments on functions of varying difficulty.

  19. Humans running in place on water at simulated reduced gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E Minetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth's gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology.

  20. The Effect of Cycling Cadence on Subsequent 10km Running Performance in Well-Trained Triathletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tew, Garry A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax wh...

  1. Superconductors for the medium-voltage grid. A superconducting power cable running through the inner city of Essen passes a two-year field test; Supraleiter fuer das Mittelspannungsnetz. Ein supraleitendes Stromkabel quer durch die Essener Innenstadt besteht zweijaehrigen Feldtest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Scientists are testing the longest high-temperature superconducting cable in the world under real conditions in Essen. One kilometre long, it connects two substations in the inner city. It replaces a conventional 110 kV line and renders one substation in the inner city obsolete. After two years of testing, it has passed the field test. It could be a blueprint for the future power supply system in urban areas. [German] Wissenschaftler testen in Essen das laengste Hochtemperatur-Supraleiterkabel der Welt unter realen Bedingungen. Mit einer Laenge von einem Kilometer verbindet es zwei Umspannstationen quer durch die Innenstadt. Es ersetzt eine konventionelle 110-kV-Leitung und macht eine Umspannanlage im Stadtzentrum ueberfluessig. In einer zweijaehrigen Erprobung hat es den Praxistest bestanden. Es koennte eine Blaupause fuer die kuenftige Stromversorgung in Ballungsraeumen sein.

  2. Analysis of RE4 Construction Cosmic Muon Test Data and Comparison with 2015 Collision Calibration Run Data for the Newly Installed RPC Chambers in the 4th Muon Endcap Station of the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Muhammad Ansar

    2015-01-01

    RPC are the heart of the muon system of CMS experiment at LHC, CERN. Recently a new endcap layer, RE4, was added to increase redundancy. These added chambers were tested during the construction period with cosmic muons in the 904 lab at Prevessin, CERN. This study analyzes the HV scan from those tests and compares them with the first 2015 collision data taken at Point-5. The analysis showed that most of the chambers were producing more than 90% efficiency and were in good agreement with the Point-5 results. Those which did not give good results were reported. Other variables like working point and maximum efficiency were also studied.

  3. What we can learn about running from barefoot running: an evolutionary medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-04-01

    Barefoot running, which was how people ran for millions of years, provides an opportunity to study how natural selection adapted the human body to run. Because humans evolved to run barefoot, a barefoot running style that minimizes impact peaks and provides increased proprioception and foot strength, is hypothesized to help avoid injury, regardless of whether one is wearing shoes.

  4. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  5. Enforced bipedal downhill running induces Achilles tendinosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gabriel Yin-Fat; Chung, Polly Yee-Man; Wang, Jenny Shijie; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei

    2011-01-01

    Enforced downhill running has been reported to induce tendinosis in the rat supraspinatus tendon but similar exercise failed to induce Achilles tendinosis in this animal. Due to the presence of acromial arch in the shoulder, accessing the supraspinatus tendon with physical modalities is difficult; thus this model may not be suitable for studying the treatment for tendinosis. To develop a rat model for Achilles tendinosis, we tested 14 mature Sprague-Dawley rats by dividing them into 2 groups of 7 each. The experimental group was subjected to a daily enforced downhill bipedal running program by suspending their upper bodies so that they ran with their hind limbs on a treadmill for 1 hr/day for 8 weeks. The downward inclination was 20 degrees and the speed was 17 m/min. The animals in the control group did not undergo any exercise. After 8 weeks, the Achilles tendons were harvested and subjected to histological and biomechanical analysis. Histological examination revealed tenocyte proliferation, change in tenocytes appearance, and collagen bundle disintegration in the running group. The biomechanical testing revealed significant decrease in stiffness (p = 0.002) and ultimate tensile strength (p = 0.016) in the running group than in the control group. Both the histological and biomechanical findings are suggestive of changes in the tendon of the running group that resembled the pathological changes of tendinosis in human. This new model of Achilles tendinosis in rat will be useful for studying the etiology and subsequent management strategies of this condition.

  6. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short intervention period.

  7. A Globally Convergent Algorithm for the Run-to-Run Control of Systems with Sector Nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    François, Grégory; Srinivasan, Balasubrahmanya; Bonvin, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Run-to-run control is a technique that exploits the repetitive nature of processes to iteratively adjust the inputs and drive the run-end outputs to their reference values. It can be used to control both static and finite-time dynamic systems. Although the run-end outputs of dynamic systems result from the integration of process dynamics during the run, the relationship between the input parameters p (fixed at the beginning of the run) and the run-end outputs z (available at the end of t...

  8. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  9. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  10. A Paradigm of Uphill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas; Milia, Raffaele; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical management of bioenergetics of runners when running uphill was investigated. Several metabolic and mechanical variables have been studied simultaneously to spread light on the locomotory strategy operated by humans for effective locomotion. The studied variables were: heart rate, heart rate variability, oxygen intake and blood lactate, metabolic cost, kinematics, ground reaction force and muscular activity. 18 high-level competitive male runners ran at 70% VO2max on different uphill slope conditions: 0%, 2% and 7%. Modifications were significant in almost all variables studied, and were more pronounced with increasing incline. Step frequency/length and ground reaction force are adjusted to cope with both the task of uphill progression and the available (limited) metabolic power. From 0% to 7% slope, step frequency and ground reaction force and metabolic cost increased concurrently by 4%, 12% and 53%, respectively (with a 4% step length decrease as well). It is hypothesised that this biomechanical management is allowed by an environment-body communication performed by means of specific muscular activity. PMID:23874850

  11. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  12. Diphoton Excess and Running Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-) scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that here is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section $\\sigma(pp\\to S\\to \\gamma\\gamma)$ as a function of the cutoff scale $\\Lambda$ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop $\\beta$ functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on $\\sigma(pp\\to S\\to \\gamma\\gamma)$ for explicit models.

  13. Is Moderate Intensity Cycling Sufficient to Induce Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Modifications of Subsequent Running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joel A; Dawber, James P; Lepers, Romuald; Brown, Marc; Stapley, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Walsh, JA, Dawber, JP, Lepers, R, Brown, M, and Stapley, PJ. Is moderate intensity cycling sufficient to induce cardiorespiratory and biomechanical modifications of subsequent running? J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1078-1086, 2017-This study sought to determine whether prior moderate intensity cycling is sufficient to influence the cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses during subsequent running. Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical variables measured after moderate intensity cycling were compared with control running at the same intensity. Eight highly trained, competitive triathletes completed 2 separate exercise tests; (a) a 10-minute control run (no prior cycling) and, (b) a 30-minute transition run (TR) (preceded by 20-minute of variable cadence cycling, i.e., run versus cycle-run). Respiratory, breathing frequency (fb), heart rate (HR), cost of running (Cr), rate constant, stride length, and stride frequency variables were recorded, normalized, and quantified at the mean response time (MRT), third minute, 10th minute (steady state), and overall for the control run (CR) and TR. Cost of running increased (p ≤ 0.05) at all respective times during the TR. The V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2 and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly (p stride frequency increased at the MRT and 3 minutes (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that at moderate intensity, prior cycling influences the cardiorespiratory response during subsequent running. Furthermore, prior cycling seems to have a sustained effect on the Cr during subsequent running.

  14. Comparison of Effects of Running and Playing Exercises on Differential Leucocyte Count in Young Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenikli, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…

  15. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact.

  16. Climate Verification Using Running Mann Whitney Z Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A robust method previously used to detect observed intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) climate regimes was adapted to test whether climate models could reproduce IMD variations in U.S. surface temperatures during 1919-2008. This procedure, called the running Mann Whitney Z (MWZ) method, samples data ranki...

  17. The effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 10km running performance in well-trained triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Garry

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD) completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km), and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run). During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC), PC+15% (fast cadence) and PC-15% (slow cadence). Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD). Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001) without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω(2) = 0.006) (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s(-1) for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges usually used by triathletes. Key PointsCompared with an isolated run, completion of a cycling event impairs the performance of a subsequent run independently of the pedalling cadence.The choice of cadence within triathletes' usual range does not seem to influence the performance of a 10km run.The results

  18. Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Abraham, Corinne S; Lockey, Richard A; Goodwin, Jon E; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on multiple sprint running performance. Using a randomized double-blind research design, 21 physically active men ingested a gelatin capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg x kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (maltodextrin) 1 h before completing an indoor multiple sprint running trial (12 x 30 m; repeated at 35-s intervals). Venous blood samples were drawn to evaluate plasma caffeine and primary metabolite concentrations. Sprint times were recorded via twin-beam photocells, and earlobe blood samples were drawn to evaluate pretest and posttest lactate concentrations. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the tests, with RPE recorded after every third sprint. Relative to placebo, caffeine supplementation resulted in a 0.06-s (1.4%) reduction in fastest sprint time (95% likely range = 0.04-0.09 s), which corresponded with a 1.2% increase in fatigue (95% likely range = 0.3-2.2%). Caffeine supplementation also resulted in a 3.4-bpm increase in mean heart rate (95% likely range = 0.1-6.6 bpm) and elevations in pretest (+0.7 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.1-1.3 mmol x L(-1)) and posttest (+1.8 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.3-3.2 mmol x L(-1)) blood lactate concentrations. In contrast, there was no significant effect of caffeine supplementation on RPE. Although the effect of recovery duration on caffeine-induced responses to multiple sprint work requires further investigation, the results of the present study show that caffeine has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance in both single and multiple sprint sports.

  19. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.;

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  20. 海上大型汽轮机油在运行中的化验检测%Laboratory Testing of Large Turbine Oil at Sea in the Running

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟浩; 钟鸿鹏; 苏文辉

    2013-01-01

    根据海上大型汽轮机油在现场的使用情况,给出了运动粘度、酸值、抗氧化安定性、开口闪点、破乳化值、液相锈蚀试验、机械杂质、水分等汽轮机油的质量指标和换油指标,简述了汽轮机油的检测周期和取、选样的注意事项.%According to the usage of large turbine oil at sea at the scene,given the kinematic viscosity,acid value,oxidation stability,opening the flash point,break emulsification value,the liquid rust test,mechanical impurities,water and other indicators of quality turbine oil and changeoil indicators,briefly turbine oil testing cycle and take a sampling of Notes.

  1. Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J; Scales, Jeffrey A

    2002-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the hindlimb muscles of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can produce maximal power during running accelerations. The mechanical power developed during single running steps was calculated from force-plate and high-speed video measurements as turkeys accelerated over a trackway. Steady-speed running steps and accelerations were compared to determine how turkeys alter their running mechanics from a low-power to a high-power gait. During maximal accelerations, turkeys eliminated two features of running mechanics that are characteristic of steady-speed running: (i) they produced purely propulsive horizontal ground reaction forces, with no braking forces, and (ii) they produced purely positive work during stance, with no decrease in the mechanical energy of the body during the step. The braking and propulsive forces ordinarily developed during steady-speed running are important for balance because they align the ground reaction force vector with the center of mass. Increases in acceleration in turkeys correlated with decreases in the angle of limb protraction at toe-down and increases in the angle of limb retraction at toe-off. These kinematic changes allow turkeys to maintain the alignment of the center of mass and ground reaction force vector during accelerations when large propulsive forces result in a forward-directed ground reaction force. During the highest accelerations, turkeys produced exclusively positive mechanical power. The measured power output during acceleration divided by the total hindlimb muscle mass yielded estimates of peak instantaneous power output in excess of 400 W kg(-1) hindlimb muscle mass. This value exceeds estimates of peak instantaneous power output of turkey muscle fibers. The mean power developed during the entire stance phase increased from approximately zero during steady-speed runs to more than 150 W kg(-1) muscle during the highest accelerations. The high power outputs observed during accelerations

  2. Pre-exercise stretching does not impact upon running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Philip R; Walker, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Pre-exercise stretching has been widely reported to reduce performance in tasks requiring maximal or near-maximal force or torque. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different pre-exercise stretching routines on running economy. Seven competitive male middle and long-distance runners (mean +/- SD) age: 32.5 +/- 7.7 years; height: 175.0 +/- 8.8 cm; mass: 67.8 +/- 8.6 kg; V(.-)O2max: 66.8 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this study. Each participant completed 4 different pre-exercise conditions: (a) a control condition, (b) static stretching, (c) progressive static stretching, and (d) dynamic stretching. Each stretching routine consisted of 2 x 30-second stretches for each of 5 exercises. Dependent variables measured were sit and reach test before and after each pre-exercise routine, running economy (ml x kg(-1) x km(-1)), and steady-state oxygen uptake (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)), which were measured during the final 3 minutes of a 10-minute run below lactate threshold. All 3 stretching routines resulted in an increase in the range of movement (p = 0.008). There was no change in either running economy (p = 0.915) or steady-state V(.-)O2 (p = 0.943). The lack of change in running economy was most likely because it was assessed after a period of submaximal running, which may have masked any effects from the stretching protocols. Previously reported reductions in performance have been attributed to reduced motor unit activation, presumably IIX. In this study, these motor units were likely not to have been recruited; this may explain the unimpaired performance. This study suggests that pre-exercise stretching has no impact upon running economy or submaximal exercise oxygen cost.

  3. FOCAL GENERATION OF PAROXYSMAL FAST RUNS DURING ELECTROGRAPHIC SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucetta, Sofiane; Chauvette, Sylvain; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A cortically generated Lennox-Gastaut type seizure is associated with spike-wave/polyspike-wave discharges at 1.0–2.5 Hz and fast runs at 7–16 Hz. Here we studied the patterns of synchronization during runs of paroxysmal fast spikes. Methods Electrographic activities were recorded using multisite intracellular and field potential recordings in vivo from cats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. In different experiments, the recording electrodes were located either at short distances (<1 mm) or at longer distances (up to 12 mm). The main experimental findings were tested in computational models. Results In the majority of cases, the onset and the offset of fast runs occurred almost simultaneously in different recording sites. The amplitude and duration of fast runs could vary by orders of magnitude. Within the fast runs, the patterns of synchronization recorded in different electrodes were as following: (i) synchronous, in phase, (ii) synchronous, with phase shift, (iii) patchy, repeated in phase/phase shift transitions and (iv) non-synchronous, slightly different frequencies in different recording sites or absence of oscillatory activity in one of the recording sites; the synchronous patterns (in phase or with phase shifts) were most common. All these patterns could be recorded in the same pair of electrodes during different seizures and they were reproduced in a computational network model. Intrinsically-bursting (IB) neurons fired more spikes per cycle than any other neurons suggesting their leading role in the fast run generation. Conclusions Once started, the fast runs are generated locally with variable correlations between neighboring cortical foci. PMID:18616553

  4. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  5. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  6. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-07-01

    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  7. Quantification of evaporative running loss emissions from gasoline-powered passenger cars in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClement, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect evaporative running emissions data from a cross section of in-use, light-duty passenger cars. Forty vehicles were procured and tested using the 'LA-4' cycle (the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycle (UDDS)) and the New York City Cycle (NYCC). The LA-4 cycle was run three times with a two minute idle period between the first two runs. The NYCC was run six times with a two minute idle between the first five runs of the cycle. Tests were performed at 95 and 105 degrees Farenheit, and using 7.5 and 9.0 Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel. The report describes two types of running losses - Type 1 where emissions are emitted at a constant, low level (typical of late model, properly operating vehicles), and Type II emissions, where there is a high rate of emissions (typical in uncontrolled vehicles).

  8. LHCb Vertex Locator: Performance and radiation damage in LHC Run 1 and preparation for Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumlak, T.; Obła˛kowska-Mucha, A.

    2016-07-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Heavy hadrons are identified through their flight distance in the Vertex Locator (VELO). The VELO comprises 42 modules made of two n+-on-n 300 μm thick half-disc silicon sensors with R- and Φ-measuring micro-strips. In order to allow retracting the detector, the VELO is installed as two movable halves containing 21 modules each. The detectors are operated in a secondary vacuum and are cooled by a bi-phase CO2 cooling system. During data taking in LHC Run 1 the LHCb VELO has operated with an extremely high efficiency and excellent performance. The track finding efficiency is typically greater than 98%. An impact parameter resolution of less than 35 μm is achieved for particles with transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c. An overview of all important performance parameters will be given. The VELO sensors have received a large and non-uniform radiation dose of up to 1.2 ×1014 1 MeV neutron equivalent cm-2 during the first LHC run. Silicon type-inversion has been observed in regions close to the interaction point. The preparations for LHC Run 2 are well under way and the VELO has already recorded tracks from injection line tests. The current status and plans for new operational procedures addressing the non-uniform radiation damage are shortly discussed.

  9. Parameters Influencing Wave Run-Up on a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walle, Björn Van de; Rouck, Julien De; Damme, Luc Van

    2002-01-01

    Full scale wave run-up measurements have been performed on the Zebrugge rubble mound breakwater. Wave run-up also has been investigated on various small scale models of the Zeebrugge breakwater. A significant difference between the results has been noticed. Additional small scale model testing ha...... of the wave run-up step gauge with respect to the armour unit pattern and the water level....

  10. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  11. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  12. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  13. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  14. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  15. Running biomechanics: shorter heels, better economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, M N; Bobbert, M F; van Soest, A J; Clark, J R; van Heerden, J

    2008-10-01

    Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even among elite runners. This variation might be due to variation in the storage and reutilization of elastic energy in tendons. Using a simple musculoskeletal model, it was predicted that the amount of energy stored in a tendon during a given movement depends more critically on moment arm than on mechanical properties of the tendon, with the amount of stored energy increasing as the moment arm gets smaller. Assuming a link between elastic energy reutilization and overall metabolic cost of running, a smaller moment arm should therefore be associated with superior running economy. This prediction was confirmed experimentally in a group of 15 highly trained runners. The moment arm of the Achilles tendon was determined from standardized photographs of the ankle, using the position of anatomical landmarks. Running economy was measured as the rate of metabolic energy consumption during level treadmill running at a speed of 16 km h(-1). A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption (r(2)=0.75, P<0.001).

  16. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  17. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  18. T-shirts from "Run for 32"

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Two views of t-shirts with "Run for 32" written on them The "Run for 32" race team, sponsored by TechSideline.com, participated in the SunTrust Rock 'n' Roll Half-Marathon, September 2, 2007. Shirt is inscribed with the names of the victims.; Compound Object

  19. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  20. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  1. SELECTION OF CHILDREN FOR RUNNING BASED ON FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Mihajlović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection includes designed, directed and unified process of assessment and establishing, as well as selection, extraction, election, identification and classification based on certain qualities and quantities. This research was done in order to implement the selection of children properly and successfully and to help selecting children for successful engagement in the running events of aerobic-anaerobic type, which makes the problem of this research. The aim of the research is to determine the impact of functional abilities on the performance of children in the 600m running, and to use certain parameters in the selection of children. The research sample consisted of 83 seventh grade students of an elementary school in Novi Sad, aged 13-14. By the modifications of Bergman Harvard step test and spirometry five predictor variables were obtained and their influence on the result of the 600m running was established. A high system correlation of predictor variables and criterion variables at the level of p = .00. is obtained by regression analysis, which means that these tests can be used for selection of children for running aerobic-anaerobic type with a high probability of good predictions.

  2. Effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature after running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego Quesada, J I; Lucas-Cuevas, A G; Gil-Calvo, M; Giménez, J V; Aparicio, I; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, R M; Salvador Palmer, R; Llana-Belloch, S; Pérez-Soriano, P

    2015-08-01

    High skin temperatures reduce the thermal gradient between the core and the skin and they can lead to a reduction in performance and increased risk of injury. Graduated compression stockings have become popular among runners in the last years and their use may influence the athlete's thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graduated compression stockings on skin temperature during running in a moderate indoor environment. Forty-four runners performed two running tests lasting 30min (10min of warm-up and 20min at 75% of their maximal aerobic speed) with and without graduated compressive stockings. Skin temperature was measured in 12 regions of interest on the lower limb by infrared thermography before and after running. Heart rate and perception of fatigue were assessed during the last minute of the running test. Compression stockings resulted in greater increase of temperature (p=0.002 and ES=2.2, 95% CI [0.11-0.45°C]) not only in the body regions in contact (tibialis anterior, ankle anterior and gastrocnemius) but also in the body regions that were not in contact with the garment (vastus lateralis, abductor and semitendinosus). No differences were observed between conditions in heart rate and perception of fatigue (p>0.05 and ESrunning with graduated compression stockings produces a greater increase of skin temperature without modifying the athlete's heart rate and perception of fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Empirical Test on Financial Objective of Non-operating State-owned Assets Value-running in Health Field%卫生领域国有资产价值运行的财务目标检验思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媚

    2014-01-01

    本文将卫生领域国有资产价值运行的财务目标定义为非营利性;并设计了财务目标检验思路:建立非营利性目标函数和营利性目标函数,比较固定资产和人员费用在不同目标函数中对财务目标的影响。%The financial objective of the health non-operating state-owned assets(NSA) value-running is defined as non-profit, an empirical test is designed; the non-profit objective function and for-profit objective function is established and the impact of fix asset and staff cost on financial objective in multiple regression functions are compared.

  4. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, Jose; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s${^-1}$. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta|<3.2$, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from $|\\eta|=1.5$ to $|\\eta|=4.9$. The calibration and performance of the LAr calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb$^{-1}$ of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the LAr calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as we...

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00354209; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<4.9$. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established through beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~\\ifb of proton-proton collision data were collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~\\ifb of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in the first year. We present a summary of the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale...

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Calorimeters in LHC Run-1 and Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with electromagnetic and hadronic liquid-argon (LAr) calorimeters and a hadronic scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) for measuring energy and direction of final state particles in the pseudorapidity range |η|<4.9. The calibration and performance of the calorimetry system was established during beam tests, cosmic ray muon measurements and in particular the first three years of pp collision data-taking. During this period, referred to as Run-1, approximately 27~fb−1 of data have been collected at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV. Following a period of detector consolidation during a long shutdown, Run-2 started in 2015 with approximately 3.9~fb−1 of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13~TeV recorded in this year. Results on the calorimeter operation, monitoring and data quality, as well as their performance will be presented, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, response uniformit...

  7. Machine-induced Background Simulation Studies for LHC Run 1, Run 2 and HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Bruce, Roderik; Cerutti, Francesco; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Gibson, Stephen; Lechner, Anton; Garcia Morales, Hector; Yin Vallgren, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The study of machine-induced background to the experiments is vital for several reasons. Too much background can be an issue for operation and the difficult part is to judge when exactly “too much” is attained. It is a complex topic as experiments are directly or indirectly affected by conditions all around the LHC ring e.g. collimation settings and vacuum quality. A detailed study of background can also help understanding the machine better to identify potential issues and complemented by dedicated machine tests. Finally such a study is relevant for the experiments to analyse the characteristics of machine background to make sure not to count it into a new physics signal. This report summarises simulation results of three background sources, local beam-gas, beam-halo from the betatron collimation in IR7 and for the first time beam-halo from momentum collimation in IR3. Two of the most dominant sources, local beam-gas and betatron halo, have been systematically studied for LHC Run 1 and Run 2 cases, and ...

  8. 玉米秸秆皮穰分离机械运行参数优化试验%Optimized test of running parameter on rind-pith separation equipment for corn stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德福; 于克强; 陈争光

    2013-01-01

    (mainly transportation rind out of the equipment). By experiments, the separation equipment was found to be practical to separate corn stalk from about ten percent moisture content to about seventy percent moisture content. Then, the separation equipment was examined and tested, and overall productivity was more than 0.5 t/h according to corn stalk with about twelve percent moisture content, the leaf-stripping percent was more than ninety-seven point six percent, and the pith-stripping percent was more than ninety-five point seven percent. The above results could be served as a guide for the designing and optimizing of rind-pith separation equipment for corn stalk.

  9. Are old running shoes detrimental to your feet? A pedobarographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makwana Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footwear characteristics have been implicated in fatigue and foot pain. The recommended time for changing running shoes is every 500 miles. The aim of our study was to assess and compare plantar peak pressures and pressure time integrals in new and old running shoes. Findings This was a prospective study involving 11 healthy female volunteers with no previous foot and ankle problems. New running shoes were provided to the participants. Plantar pressures were measured using the Novel Pedar system while walking with new and participants' personal old running shoes. Plantar pressures were measured in nine areas of the feet. Demographic data, age of old running shoes, Body Mass Index (BMI, peak pressures and pressure-time integral were acquired. The right and left feet were selected at random and assessed separately. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test to compare measurements between old and new running shoes. The mean peak pressures were higher in new running shoes (330.5 ± 79.6 kiloPascals kPa when compared to used old running shoes (304 ± 58.1 kPa (p = 0.01. The pressure-time integral was significantly higher in the new running shoes (110 ± 28.3 kPa s compared to used old running shoes (100.7 ± 24.0 kPa s (p = 0.01. Conclusion Plantar pressure measurements in general were higher in new running shoes. This could be due to the lack of flexibility in new running shoes. The risk of injury to the foot and ankle would appear to be higher if running shoes are changed frequently. We recommend breaking into new running shoes slowly using them for mild physical activity.

  10. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and min

  11. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  12. Relationship between speed and time in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D W; Vingren, J L; Nakamura, F Y; Kokobun, E

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different mathematical models to describe the relationship between treadmill running speed and time to exhaustion. All models generated a value for an aerobic parameter (critical speed; S (critical)). 35 university students performed 5-7 constant-speed 0%-slope treadmill tests at speeds that elicited exhaustion in ∼3 min to ∼10 min. Speed and time data were fitted using 3 models: (1) a 2-parameter hyperbolic model; (2) a 3-parameter hyperbolic model; and (3) a hybrid 3-parameter hyperbolic+exponential model. The 2-parameter model generated values for S (critical) (mean (± SD): 186 ± 33 m·min (-1)) and anaerobic distance capacity (ADC; 251 ± 122 m) with a high level of statistical certainty (i.e., with small SEEs). The 3-parameter models generated parameter estimates that were unrealistic in magnitude and/or associated with large SEEs and little statistical certainty. Therefore, it was concluded that, for the range of exercise durations used in the present study, the 2-parameter model is preferred because it provides a parsimonious description of the relationship between velocity and time to fatigue, and it produces parameters of known physiological significance, with excellent confidence.

  13. Energetics of running: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, R; Taylor, C R

    1990-07-19

    The amount of energy used to run a mile is nearly the same whether it is run at top speed or at a leisurely pace (although it is used more rapidly at the higher speed). This puzzling independence of energy cost and speed is found generally among running animals, although, on a per gram basis, cost is much higher for smaller animals. Running involves little work against the environment; work is done by muscles and tendons to lift and accelerate the body and limbs. Some of the work is recovered from muscle-tendon springs without metabolic cost and work rate does not parallel metabolic rate with either speed or size. Regardless of the amount of work muscles do, they must be activated and develop force to support the weight of the body. Load-carrying experiments have shown that the cost of supporting an extra newton of load is the same as the weight-specific cost of running. Size differences in cost are proportional to stride frequency at equivalent speeds, suggesting that the time available for developing force is important in determining cost. We report a simple inverse relationship between the rate of energy used for running and the time the foot applies force to the ground during each stride. These results support the hypothesis that it is primarily the cost of supporting the animal's weight and the time course of generating this force that determines the cost of running.

  14. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  15. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngeraa, T S; Pedersen, L M; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B; Rasmussen, L S; van Lieshout, J J; Pott, F C

    2013-02-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies. During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow but also challenges cerebral autoregulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The Relationship between Running Economy and Biomechanical Variables in Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Peyre-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Avila, Aluisio Otavio Vargas; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Coertjens, Marcelo; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationship between running economy (RE) and biomechanical parameters in a group running at the same relative intensity and same absolute velocity. Sixteen homogeneous male long-distance runners performed a test to determine RE at 4.4 m.s[superscript -1], corresponding to 11.1% below velocity at the ventilatory…

  17. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  18. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sim, M.; Dawson, B.; Landers, G.; Wiegerinck, E.T.G.; Swinkels, D.W.; Townsend, M.A.; Trinder, D.; Peeling, P.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate (CHO) consumption during prolonged endurance running on post-exercise inflammation and hepcidin levels was investigated. Eleven well-trained male endurance athletes completed a graded exercise test, followed by two experimental running trials in a randomized order. The two

  19. Large Hadron particle collider may not have its run this November

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), based at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, will not run in November this year as scheduled. The LHC was supposed to have a test run this yera, before switching on the scientific search for the Higgs boson in 2008."(1 page)

  20. Implications of a Running Dark Photon Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    For an "invisible" dark photon $Z_d$ that dominantly decays into dark states, the running of its fine structure constant $\\alpha_d$ with momentum transfer $q > m_{Z_d}$ could be significant. A similar running in the kinetic mixing parameter $\\varepsilon^2$ can be induced through its dependence on $\\alpha_d(q)$. The running of couplings could potentially be detected in "dark matter beam" experiments, for which theoretical considerations imply $\\alpha_d (m_{Z_d}) \\lesssim 0.5$.

  1. Gravitational Baryogenesis in Running Vacuum models

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K; Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    We study the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in the context of running vacuum models. Regardless if these models can produce a viable cosmological evolution, we demonstrate that they produce a non-zero baryon-to-entropy ratio even if the Universe is filled with conformal matter. This is a sound difference between the running vacuum gravitational baryogenesis and the Einstein-Hilbert one, since in the latter case, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We consider two running vacuum models and show that the resulting baryon-to-entropy ratio is compatible with the observational data.

  2. 40 CFR 86.537-90 - Dynamometer test runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../s). (iii) For methanol samples, the flow rates shall be set such that the system meets the design... rates shall be set such that the system meets the design criteria of § 86.509. For impinger samples in.... (11) Operate the vehicle according to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (§ 86.515). (12) At the...

  3. Tests of Local Position Invariance Using Continuously Running Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    principle) and that nongravitational measurements should be independent of the velocity of the freely falling reference frame (local Lorentz invariance...be independent of the clock composition, for example. Violation of LPI may manifest itself in an anomalous gravitational redshift of an atomic clock... violating parameters β1 and β2, the relative frequencies should vary with the gravitational potential as (ν/ν)1,2 = (β1 − β2)U/c2. (2) *steven.peil

  4. Test-Run of the Live Global Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-xin

    2014-01-01

    How can we make it possible for instructors and students from different countries and regions to meet“face-to-face”and experience live teaching and learning? The most economic and efficient solution is the“live global classroom”. This paper provides an example of the live global classroom approach conducted cooperatively by the American Alliance for International Education and the University of Science and Technology Beijing, which was aimed at educating undergraduate engineering stu-dents over the Internet. In this paper, we introduce the background for the live global classroom, the demands of the“Plan for Educating and Training Outstanding Engineers”in China, the operational model, the technical requirements for the project and its current organizational challenges. Internationalized e-learning is expected to lead the trend of remote teaching, not only in lan-guage learning but also in engineer educating in China.

  5. A test of Dutch long-run export supply behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S; Sterken, E

    The small country assumption affects the modelling of the export demand and export price equations. A large (monopolistic) country can set its export price as a mark-up over marginal cost, because it has market power. In contrast, small countries have to deal with competition which forces prices

  6. China Starts Running Test of Home-made Maglev Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    星光

    2009-01-01

    我国首列实用型磁悬浮列车已经研发成功。近日,北京控股磁悬浮技术有限公司常务副总经理王平说,公司研发的磁悬浮列车已经是样车,时速能连到达120公里,每节载客100-120人,由于噪音低,适合人口稠密的城市采用作为公共交通工具。

  7. Optimization of insulin pump therapy based on high order run-to-run control scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Jianyong; Sun, Huiling; Shen, Dong; Wang, Hui; Wang, Youqing

    2015-07-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump is widely considered a convenience and promising way for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects, who need exogenous insulin infusion. In the standard insulin pump therapy, there are two modes for insulin infusion: basal and bolus insulin. The basal-bolus therapy should be individualized and optimized in order to keep one subject's blood glucose (BG) level within the normal range; however, the optimization procedure is troublesome and it perturb the patients a lot. Therefore, an automatic adjustment method is needed to reduce the burden of the patients, and run-to-run (R2R) control algorithm can be used to handle this significant task. In this study, two kinds of high order R2R control methods are presented to adjust the basal and bolus insulin simultaneously. For clarity, a second order R2R control algorithm is first derived and studied. Furthermore, considering the differences between weekdays and weekends, a seventh order R2R control algorithm is also proposed and tested. In order to simulate real situation, the proposed method has been tested with uncertainties on measurement noise, drifts, meal size, meal time and snack. The proposed method can converge even when there are ±60 min random variations in meal timing or ±50% random variations in meal size. According to the robustness analysis, one can see that the proposed high order R2R has excellent robustness and could be a promising candidate to optimize insulin pump therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoperative intensity-modulated irradiation (IMRT) of endometrial cancers: results of the 'dummy run' quality assurance procedure for phase 2 RTCMIENDOMETRE multicentric French test; Irradiation avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI) postoperatoire des cancers de l'endometre: resultats de la procedure d'assurance de qualite -dummy run- de l'essai francais multicentrique de phase 2 RTCMIENDOMETRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreps, S.; Barillot, I. [CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Peignaux, K. [Centre Georges FrancoisLeclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Nickers, P. [Centre Oscar Lambret, 59 - Lille (France); Leblanc-Onfroy, M. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France); Williaume, D. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Haie-Meder, C. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Lerouge, D. [Centre Francois Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a study which aims at assessing the impact of the intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy on the acute intestinal toxicity of a postoperative irradiation of stage I and II endometrial cancers. Seven radiotherapy centres participated to this study. They followed a 'dummy run' procedure in order to assess their ability to respect the irradiation protocol. The authors discuss the contouring correlation for different organs. The use of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas leads to a better concordance between the centres. Short communication

  9. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  10. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from runners (N=200) who officially ran half-marathon road ... Department of Sport Science, School of Physiotherapy, Sport Science and ..... Van Mechelen W. Running injuries: A review of the epidemiological literature.

  11. Run 16, eIPM Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dawson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jao, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Three problems with the eIPMs were corrected during the 2015 summer shutdown. These involved ac coupling and 'negative profiles', detector 'dead zone' created by biasing, and gain control on ramp. With respect to Run 16, problems dealt with included gain depletion on horizontal MCP and rf pickup on profile signals; it was found that the MCP was severely damaged over part of the aperture. Various corrective measures were applied. Some results of these measured obtained during Run 16 are shown. At the end of Run 16 there was a three-­day beam run to study polarized proton beams in the AGS. Attempts to minimize beam injection errors which increase emittance by using the eIPMs to measure the contribution of injection mismatch to the AGS output beam emittance are recounted. .

  12. ALFA detector before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system are also described

  13. Input data to run Landis-II

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location...

  14. The CDF Run 2 Offline Computer Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JaroslavAntos; TanyaLevshina; 等

    2001-01-01

    Run 2 at Fermilab began in March,2001,CDF will collect data at a maximum rate of 20 MByte/sec during the run.The offline reconstruction of this data must keep up with the data taking rate.This reconstruction occurs on a large PC farm,which must have the capacity for quasi-real time data reconstruction,for reprocessing of some data and for generation and processing of Monte Carlo samples.In this paer we will give the design requirements ofr the farm,describe the hardware and software design used to meet those requirements,describe the early experiences with Run 2 data processing,and discussfuture prospects for the farm,including some ideas about Run 2b processing.

  15. Patellofemoral Joint and Achilles Tendon Loads During Overground and Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Richard W; Halsey, Lisa; Hayek, Andrew; Johnson, Holly; Willson, John D

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Level 4, controlled laboratory study. Background Little is known regarding how the potential differences between treadmill and overground running may affect patellofemoral joint and Achilles tendon loading characteristics. Objectives To compare measures of loading of the patellofemoral joint and Achilles tendon across treadmill and overground running in healthy, uninjured runners. Methods Eighteen healthy runners ran at their self-selected speed on an instrumented treadmill and overground, while 3-D running mechanics were sampled. A musculoskeletal model derived peak load, rate of loading, and estimated cumulative load per 1 km of continuous running for the patellofemoral joint and Achilles tendon for each condition. Data were analyzed via paired t tests and Pearson correlations to detect differences and assess relationships, respectively, between the 2 running mediums. Results No differences (P>.05) were found between treadmill and overground running for peak load, rate of loading, or estimated cumulative patellofemoral joint stress per 1 km of continuous running. However, treadmill running resulted in 12.5% greater peak Achilles tendon force (P0.70) and moderate agreements (r>0.50) for most patellofemoral joint and Achilles measures, respectively, between treadmill and overground running. Conclusion No differences were observed in loading characteristics to the patellofemoral joint between running mediums; however, treadmill running resulted in greater Achilles tendon loading compared with overground running. Future investigations should examine whether sudden bouts of treadmill running may increase the risk of mechanical overload of the Achilles tendon in runners who habitually train overground. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):664-672. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6494.

  16. The profile of the h(125) from Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Tatjana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews the h(125) boson measurements at LHC in Run-1. I will focus on latest results on the width and spin/parity (and CP invariance tests) as well searches for the non-SM decay modes of the h(125) boson. For example searches for lepton flavor violating decays of the Higgs boson and constraints on new phenomena via Higgs couplings and invisible decays will be discussed.

  17. Forced splitting of human sleep in free-running rhythms

    OpenAIRE

    Zulley, Jürgen; Carr, D

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of polyphasic sleep/wake regulation is based on the occurrence of nap-sleep at specific phase positions in the circadian cycle. Further support would be the split of the normal long major sleep episode into shorter components. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from the discovery of bimodal distribution in sleep duration. An experimental approach to test this hypothesis has been carried out by restricting sleep duration in free-running rhythms. The outcome was a biphasic distri...

  18. Run 1 Legacy Performance : electrons/photons

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, the run 1 legacy performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The two speakers should try to enlight the differences of performances between the two experiments, and explain what worked better/worse than planned, as well as the lessons for the run 2.

  19. Neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10 km running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavolainen, L; Nummela, A; Rusko, H; Häkkinen, K

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated neuromuscular characteristics and fatigue during 10 km running (10 K) performance in well-trained endurance athletes with different distance running capability. Nine high (HC) and ten low (LC) caliber endurance athletes performed the 10 K on a 200 m indoor track, constant velocity lap (CVL, 4.5 m x s(-1)) 5 times during the course of the 10 K and maximal 20 m speed test before (20 m(b)) and after (20 m(a)) the 10 K. Running velocity (V), ground contact times (CT), ground reaction forces (F) and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the leg muscles (vastus lateralis; VL, biceps femoris; BF, gastrocnemius; GA) were measured during 20 m(b), 20 m(a), and CVLs. The 10 K times differed (pactivity of GA in relation to the IEMG of the total contact phase during the CVLs was higher (prun did not differentiate endurance athletes with different V10K. However, a capability to produce force rapidly throughout the 10 K accompanied with optimal preactivation and contact phase activation seem to be important for 10 km running performance in well trained endurance athletes.

  20. THE EFFECT OF CYCLING CADENCE ON SUBSEQUENT 10KM RUNNING PERFORMANCE IN WELL-TRAINED TRIATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry A. Tew

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different pedalling cadences on the performance of a subsequent 10km treadmill run. Eight male triathletes (age 38.9 ± 15.4 years, body mass 72.2 ± 5.2 kg, and stature 176 ± 6 cm; mean ± SD completed a maximal cycling test, one isolated run (10km, and then three randomly ordered cycle-run sessions (65 minutes cycling + 10km run. During the cycling bout of the cycle-run sessions, subjects cycled at an intensity corresponding to 70% Pmax while maintaining one of three cadences, corresponding to preferred cadence (PC, PC+15% (fast cadence and PC-15% (slow cadence. Slow, preferred and fast cadences were 71.8 ± 3.0, 84.5 ± 3.6, and 97.3 ± 4.3 rpm, respectively (mean ± SD. Physiological variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were VO2, VE, RER, HR, RPE, and blood lactate. Biomechanical variables measured during the cycle-run and isolated run sessions were running velocity, stride length, stride frequency, and hip and knee angles at foot-strike and toe-off. Running performance times were also recorded. A significant effect of prior cycling exercise was found on 10km running time (p = 0.001 without any cadence effect (p = 0.801, ω2 = 0.006 (49:58 ± 8:20, 49:09 ± 8:26, 49:28 ± 8:09, and 44:45 ± 6:27 min·s-1 for the slow, preferred, fast, and isolated run conditions, respectively; mean ± SD. However, during the first 500 m of the run, running velocity was significantly higher after cycling at the preferred and fast cadences than after the slow cadence (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the slow cadence condition was associated with a significantly lower HR (p = 0.012 and VE (p = 0.026 during cycling than in the fast cadence condition. The results confirm the deterioration in running performance completed after the cycling event compared with the isolated run. However, no significant effect of cycling cadence on running performance was observed within the cadence ranges

  1. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, Jakub; Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-07-25

    Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors' accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running.

  2. Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uuskoski, Maria; Machek, Jan; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable sensors enable long-term monitoring of health and wellbeing indicators. An objective evaluation of sensors’ accuracy is important, especially for their use in health care. Objective The aim of this study was to use a wrist-worn optical heart rate (OHR) device to estimate heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE), and maximal oxygen intake capacity (VO2Max) during running and to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated parameters (HR, EE, and VO2Max) against golden reference methods. Methods A total of 24 healthy volunteers, of whom 11 were female, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD 8.2 years) participated in a submaximal self-paced outdoor running test and maximal voluntary exercise test in a sports laboratory. OHR was monitored with a PulseOn wrist-worn photoplethysmographic device and the running speed with a phone GPS sensor. A physiological model based on HR, running speed, and personal characteristics (age, gender, weight, and height) was used to estimate EE during the maximal voluntary exercise test and VO2Max during the submaximal outdoor running test. ECG-based HR and respiratory gas analysis based estimates were used as golden references. Results OHR was able to measure HR during running with a 1.9% mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). VO2Max estimated during the submaximal outdoor running test was closely similar to the sports laboratory estimate (MAPE 5.2%). The energy expenditure estimate (n=23) was quite accurate when HR was above the aerobic threshold (MAPE 6.7%), but MAPE increased to 16.5% during a lighter intensity of exercise. Conclusions The results suggest that wrist-worn OHR may accurately estimate HR during running up to maximal HR. When combined with physiological modeling, wrist-worn OHR may be used for an estimation of EE, especially during higher intensity running, and VO2Max, even during submaximal self-paced outdoor recreational running. PMID:28743682

  3. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, R. M.; Gallas, E. J.; C-L Tseng, J.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called "runBrowser" makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  4. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  5. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  6. CDF Run IIb Silicon Vertex Detector DAQ Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Behari et al.

    2003-12-18

    The CDF particle detector operates in the beamline of the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab, Batavia, IL. The Tevatron is expected to undergo luminosity upgrades (Run IIb) in the future, resulting in a higher number of interactions per beam crossing. To operate in this dense radiation environment, an upgrade of CDF's silicon vertex detector (SVX) subsystem and a corresponding upgrade of its VME-based DAQ system has been explored. Prototypes of all the Run IIb SVX DAQ components have been constructed, assembled into a test stand and operated successfully using an adapted version of CDF's network-capable DAQ software. In addition, a PCI-based DAQ system has been developed as a fast and inexpensive tool for silicon detector and DAQ component testing in the production phase. In this paper they present an overview of the Run IIb silicon DAQ upgrade, emphasizing the new features and improvements incorporated into the constituent VME boards, and discuss a PCI-based DAQ system developed to facilitate production tests.

  7. Heart-rate recommendations: transfer between running and cycling exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, K; Striegel, H; Dickhuth, H-H

    2003-04-01

    With the expanding use of portable heart rate (HR) monitors in endurance sports, HR is increasingly used as a marker for exercise intensity. Hereby, HR at the so-called individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) is one possible reference point. However, once determined, it is often attempted to apply HR recommendations from one type of ergometry to different kinds of exercises. We examined whether HR at IAT and at 4 mmol x l -1 blood lactate is predictable from cycling to running and vice versa. Data of 371 subjects (304 male, 67 female) were analyzed. All subjects underwent an incremental test on a treadmill (TR, starting speed 6 or 8 km x h -1, increments 2 km x h -1 every 3 min) and on a bicycle ergometer (BE, start at 50 Watt, increments 25 or 50 Watt every 3 min). IAT was determined at a net increase of lactate concentration of 1 - 5 mmol x l -1 above lactate concentration at lactate threshold for running (as in: Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998, 30 (10); 1552 - 1557) and 1.0 mmol x l -1 for cycling. A maximum time span of three weeks was allowed between the tests. We found that heart rate at IAT or at 4 mmol x l -1 blood lactate did not correlate between cycling and running. A sports specific test seems to be a prerequisite for reliable heart rate recommendations.

  8. Mechanical spring technology improves running economy in endurance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Riess, Kenneth James

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in participation in timed running events. With this increase, the motivation for individuals to run their best has motivated the running shoe industry to make design changes to traditional running foot wear in an effort to improve running economy (RE) and decrease running times. One such design change has been to incorporate mechanical springs (MS) into the midsole of the running shoe. Evaluation of this technology has yet to be performed. This study...

  9. Blood lactate thresholds and walking/running economy are determinants of backpack-running performance in trained soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Christopher; Clement, Richard; Pollonini, Luca; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2017-01-01

    We developed a standardized laboratory treadmill protocol for assessing physiological responses to a simulated backpack load-carriage task in trained soldiers, and assessed the efficacy of blood lactate thresholds (LTs) and economy in predicting future backpack running success over an 8-mile course in field conditions. LTs and corresponding physiological responses were determined in 17 elite British soldiers who completed an incremental treadmill walk/run protocol to exhaustion carrying 20 kg backpack load. Treadmill velocity at the breakpoint (r = -0.85) and Δ 1 mmol l(-1) (r = -0.80) LTs, and relative V˙O2 at 4 mmol l(-1) (r = 0.76) and treadmill walk/run velocities of 6.4 (r = 0.76), 7.4 (r = 0.80), 11.4 (r = 0.66) and 12.4 (r = 0.65) km h(-1) were significantly associated with field test completion time. We report for the first time that LTs and backpack walk/run economy are major determinants of backpack load-carriage performance in trained soldiers.

  10. Biomechanics of sprint running. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, A; Komi, P V; Gregor, R J

    1992-06-01

    Understanding of biomechanical factors in sprint running is useful because of their critical value to performance. Some variables measured in distance running are also important in sprint running. Significant factors include: reaction time, technique, electromyographic (EMG) activity, force production, neural factors and muscle structure. Although various methodologies have been used, results are clear and conclusions can be made. The reaction time of good athletes is short, but it does not correlate with performance levels. Sprint technique has been well analysed during acceleration, constant velocity and deceleration of the velocity curve. At the beginning of the sprint run, it is important to produce great force/power and generate high velocity in the block and acceleration phases. During the constant-speed phase, the events immediately before and during the braking phase are important in increasing explosive force/power and efficiency of movement in the propulsion phase. There are no research results available regarding force production in the sprint-deceleration phase. The EMG activity pattern of the main sprint muscles is described in the literature, but there is a need for research with highly skilled sprinters to better understand the simultaneous operation of many muscles. Skeletal muscle fibre characteristics are related to the selection of talent and the training-induced effects in sprint running. Efficient sprint running requires an optimal combination between the examined biomechanical variables and external factors such as footwear, ground and air resistance. Further research work is needed especially in the area of nervous system, muscles and force and power production during sprint running. Combining these with the measurements of sprinting economy and efficiency more knowledge can be achieved in the near future.

  11. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  12. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  13. Effects of unaccustomed downhill running on muscle damage, oxidative stress, and leukocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Man-Gyoon

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of unaccustomed downhill running on muscle damage, oxidative stress, and leukocyte apoptosis. Thirteen moderately trained male subjects performed three 40 min treadmill runs at ~70% VO2max on separate days: a level run (L) followed by two downhill runs (DH1 and DH2). Blood samples were taken at rest (PRE) and immediately (POST), 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after each run. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and oxidative stress level were significantly elevated at 24 h and 48 h following DH1 (P < 0.05). The level of oxidative stress at the POST measurement following DH1 and DH2 was greater than PRE. The rate of leukocyte apoptosis was significantly increased at the POST measurement following all three runs, and remained elevated for up to 48 h following DH1 (P < 0.01). CK activity and oxidative stress were elevated following an acute bout of moderate intensity downhill running, resulting in a greater apoptotic response at 24 h and 48 h post-exercise in comparison with level grade running or a second downhill run. These elevations were blunted following DH2. Although the link between exercise-induced muscle damage and leukocyte apoptosis is currently unknown, the differential response to DH1 vs. L and DH2 indicates that it may be mediated by the elevation of oxidative stress.

  14. CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher N; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Chronic voluntary wheel-running activity has been reported to hypersensitise central CB1 receptors in mice. On the other hand, pharmacological findings suggest that the CB1 receptor could be involved in wheel-running behaviour and in running-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We analysed wheel-running behaviour for 6 weeks and measured its consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis in CB1 knockout (CB1(-/-)) animals, compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) littermates. Because wheel running has been shown to affect locomotor reactivity in novel environments, memory for aversive events and depression-like behaviours, we also assessed these behaviours in control and running CB1(+/+) and CB1(-/-) mice. When compared with running CB1(+/+) mice, the distance covered weekly by CB1(-/-) mice was decreased by 30-40%, an observation accounted for by decreased time spent and maximal velocity on the wheels. Analyses of running distances with respect to the light/dark cycle revealed that mutant covered less distance throughout both the inactive and the active phases of that cycle. Locomotion in an activity cage, exploration in an open field, and immobility time in the forced swim test proved insensitive to chronic wheel running in either genotype. Wheel running, per se, did not influence the expression and extinction of cued fear memory but counteracted in a time-dependent manner the deficiency of extinction measured in CB1(-/-) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed by doublecortin labelling of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, was lowered by 40% in control CB1(-/-) mice, compared to control CB1(+/+) mice. Although CB1(-/-) mice ran less than their wild-type littermates, the 6-week running protocol increased neurogenesis to similar extents (37-39%) in both genotypes. This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus.

  15. Short-run and long-run effect of oil consumption on economic growth: ECM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Syahnur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oil consumption on economic growth of Aceh in the long-run and short-run by using Error Correction Model (ECM model during the period before the world commodity prices fall of 1985–2008. Four types of oil consumption will be focused on Avtur, Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. The data is collected from Central Bureau of Statistics of Aceh (BPS Aceh. The result of this study shows a merely positive effect of oil consumption type diesel to economic growth in Aceh both in the short run and the long run.

  16. Cross-training and periodization in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, D K; Wilder, R P

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the principles of cross-training and periodization will assist the coach and team physician in designing training programs that maximize performance while minimizing risk of injury. Cross-training is defined as simultaneous training for two or more sports or the use of multiple modes of training to enhance performance in one particular sport. This manuscript will review the benefits of three commonly used forms of cross training, deep water running, cycling and swimming, on running, training and performance. Periodization refers to the process of designing a progressive and appropriate training plan in order to optimize performance, yet minimize injury related to overtraining. The main structural components for periodization are macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles. Physiological determinants for distance running performance, including VO2 max, lactate threshold and running economy, are presented as key components for the design of endurance training programs. Training intensity can be prescribed or monitored using running speed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The clinician must often make recommendations regarding the appropriate level of training or offer an alternative. By understanding the principles of cross-training and periodization, the clinician can assist the coach or athlete in preventing injury as well as assisting the attainment of peak performance.

  17. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Martínez, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented.

  18. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  19. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  20. The effect of graduated compression tights, compared with running shorts, on counter movement jump performance before and after submaximal running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Stuart; Sternlicht, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wearing graduated compression tights, compared with loose fitting running shorts, would increase and or help sustain counter movement jump (CMJ) height after submaximal running. Fourteen competitive runners (6 women and 8 men) participated in this study. The subjects' mean (±SD) for age, height, body mass, percent body fat, resting heart rate, and maximal heart rate were 28.2 ± 14.0 years, 174.7 ± 8.6 cm, 70.2 ± 14.9 kg, 15.5 ± 8.1%, 67.2 ± 7.4 b.min, and 186.5 ± 9.5 b.min, respectively. During testing, subjects wore a Polar RS400 heart rate monitor. Each trial consisted of 15 minutes of continual treadmill running with 5 minutes performed at 50%, 70%, and 85% of the subject's heart rate reserve. Using a Vertec vertical leaper, each subject performed 3 CMJ, both pre- and postrun trials, with the mean value used to measure relative leg power. In addition to the CMJ height data, each subject rated their level of perceived exertion (RPE), and their comfort level, after the postrun trials. The mean postrun CMJ height in graduated compression tights of 60.3 ± 19.4 cm was significantly greater (at the p increase) and the postrun running shorts of 57.7 ± 19.6 cm (4.5% increase). In addition, the subjects reported a significantly lower level of perceived exertion and greater comfort values while wearing the graduated compression tights. The results of the present study support the use of graduated compression tights for maintenance of lower limb muscle power after submaximal endurance running.

  1. Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Telford, Richard D; Hawley, John A

    2004-01-01

    Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen than runners with poor RE at the same velocity. There is a strong association between RE and distance running performance, with RE being a better predictor of performance than maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in elite runners who have a similar VO2max). RE is traditionally measured by running on a treadmill in standard laboratory conditions, and, although this is not the same as overground running, it gives a good indication of how economical a runner is and how RE changes over time. In order to determine whether changes in RE are real or not, careful standardisation of footwear, time of test and nutritional status are required to limit typical error of measurement. Under controlled conditions, RE is a stable test capable of detecting relatively small changes elicited by training or other interventions. When tracking RE between or within groups it is important to account for BM. As VO2 during submaximal exercise does not, in general, increase linearly with BM, reporting RE with respect to the 0.75 power of BM has been recommended. A number of physiological and biomechanical factors appear to influence RE in highly trained or elite runners. These include metabolic adaptations within the muscle such as increased mitochondria and oxidative enzymes, the ability of the muscles to store and release elastic energy by increasing the stiffness of the muscles, and more efficient mechanics leading to less energy wasted on braking forces and excessive vertical oscillation. Interventions to improve RE are constantly sought after by athletes, coaches and sport scientists. Two interventions that have received recent widespread attention are strength training and

  2. Experience with Dry Running Vacuum Pumps in Helium Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arztmann, R.

    2008-03-01

    A process vacuum system for helium using dry running vacuum pumps only was shop tested and installed in a refrigeration plant to serve cavities operating at 2K for a cryogenic storage ring. The paper explains the joint development steps of Busch AG and Linde Kryotechnik AG to use dry running vacuum pumps for helium service at ambient temperature. A roots type booster pump followed by a non lube rotary screw pump provides very good performance in a helium vacuum pump system. Variable frequency drives on both pumps allow to adjust the pump characteristics to a wide range of operating parameters. Operation without friction of sealing elements in the compression space also of the screw pump promises extended maintenance intervals and virtually no wear on the rotors. The current plant operation at Max Plank Institute in Heidelberg, Germany Laboratory will provide additional experience for further applications.

  3. ALICE installs new hardware in preparation for the 2012 run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin and ALICE Matters

    2012-01-01

    2011 was a fantastic year for the heavy-ion run at ALICE despite unprecedented challenges and difficult conditions. The data collected is at least one order of magnitude greater than the 2010 data. Thanks to a planned upgrade to two subdetectors during the 2011/2012 winter shutdown and a reorganisation of ALICE’s Physics Working Groups that should allow them to better deal with the greater challenges imposed by the LHC, the collaboration is confident that the 2011 run will allow ALICE to extend its physics reach and improve its performance.   Photograph of ALICE taken by Antonio Saba during this year's winter shutdown. The annual winter shutdown has been a very intense period for the ALICE collaboration. In conjunction with the general maintenance, modifications and tests of the experiment, two major projects – the installation of 3 supermodules of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and 2 supermodules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) – hav...

  4. Constraints on sneutrino dark matter from LHC Run 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris,98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Catalan, Maria Eugenia Cabrera [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,São Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, UniversityA.M. Cantoblanco,28049 Madrid (Spain); Kraml, Sabine [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Kulkarni, Suchita; Laa, Ursula [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3,53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Institut für Hochenergiephysik, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften,Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-27

    A mostly right-handed sneutrino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is an interesting dark matter candidate, leading to LHC signatures which can be quite distinct from those of the conventional neutralino LSP. Using SMODELS v1.0.1 for testing the model against the limits published by ATLAS and CMS in the context of so-called Simplified Model Spectra (SMS), we investigate to what extent the supersymmetry searches at Run 1 of the LHC constrain the sneutrino-LSP scenario. Moreover, we discuss the most relevant topologies for which no SMS results are provided by the experimental collaborations but which would allow to put more stringent constraints on sneutrino LSPs. These include, for instance, the mono-lepton signature which should be particularly interesting to consider at Run 2 of the LHC.

  5. Speech transmission index from running speech: A neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F. F.; Cox, T. J.

    2003-04-01

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an important objective parameter concerning speech intelligibility for sound transmission channels. It is normally measured with specific test signals to ensure high accuracy and good repeatability. Measurement with running speech was previously proposed, but accuracy is compromised and hence applications limited. A new approach that uses artificial neural networks to accurately extract the STI from received running speech is developed in this paper. Neural networks are trained on a large set of transmitted speech examples with prior knowledge of the transmission channels' STIs. The networks perform complicated nonlinear function mappings and spectral feature memorization to enable accurate objective parameter extraction from transmitted speech. Validations via simulations demonstrate the feasibility of this new method on a one-net-one-speech extract basis. In this case, accuracy is comparable with normal measurement methods. This provides an alternative to standard measurement techniques, and it is intended that the neural network method can facilitate occupied room acoustic measurements.

  6. Physiological and biomechanical responses while running with and without a stroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D; Smith, J D; Kinser, K B; Dugan, E; Reed, M

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the effects of pushing a jogging stroller on biomechanical and physiological variables. The hypothesis was that running with a stroller for 30 minutes would shorten stride length and increase physiological indices of exercise. this was a repeated measures design. participants were recruited from road races in the Dallas/Fort Worth, TX area. Graded exercise tests were performed in a laboratory setting, field tests were performed on a 400 m all-weather outdoor track. 5 males and 5 females were assessed. participants performed a graded exercise test and 2 field tests. The 1st field test involved running at 75% VO2max for 30 minutes without a stroller and the 2nd involved running at the same speed with the stroller. VO2, stride length, heart rate, lactate, ventilation, and RPE were evaluated. No differences for VO2 or stride length were evident. Heart rate (p=0.0001), lactate concentration (p=0.025), ventilation (p=0.009), and RPE (p=0.002) increased from 10 to 30 minutes while running with the stroller. Heart rate (p=0.002), lactate concentration (p=0.0001), ventilation (p=0.006), and RPE (p=0.001) were significantly higher while running with the stroller after 30 minutes compared to running without it. These results indicate that pushing a stroller affects some indices of exercise intensity while running. Gait does not change. These data do not support an association between stroller use during running and an increase risk of orthopedic injury. Further studies should examine these variables at lower intensities that are run by most recreational joggers.

  7. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  8. CDF Run I B physics results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.

    2001-03-08

    The CDF Run I B physics program has been very successful, making numerous measurements over a wide variety of B physics topics. Measurements have included masses and lifetimes; discovery of the B{sub c}; B{sub s} {r_arrow} J/{psi}{phi} polarization; B{sup 0} {leftrightarrow} {bar B}{sup 0} mixing; sin (2{beta}); and rare decay limits. Recent results include a search for {Lambda}{sub b} {r_arrow} {Lambda}{gamma} and a study of B{sup 0} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K(*){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} decays. The tools and experience developed during Run I are quite valuable as CDF enters Run II.

  9. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hoerzer

    Full Text Available Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy. Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation was significantly lower (p = 0.041 than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5. This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  10. Sprint running performance: comparison between treadmill and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Sève, Pierrick

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the differences in performance between 100-m sprints performed on a sprint treadmill recently validated versus on a standard track. To date, studies comparing overground and treadmill running have mainly focused on constant and not maximal "free" running speed, and compared running kinetics and kinematics over a limited number of steps, but not overall sprint performance. Eleven male physical education students including two sprinters performed one 100-m on the treadmill and one on a standard athletics track in a randomized order, separated by 30 min. Performance data were derived in both cases from speed-time relationships measured with a radar and with the instrumented sprint treadmill, which allowed subjects to run and produce speed "freely", i.e. with no predetermined belt speed imposed. Field and treadmill typical speed-distance curves and data of maximal and mean speed, 100-m time and acceleration/deceleration time constants were compared using t tests and field-treadmill correlations were tested. All the performance parameters but time to reach top speed and deceleration time constant differed significantly, by about 20% on average, between field and treadmill (e.g. top speed of 8.84 ± 0.51 vs. 6.90 ± 0.39 m s(-1)). However, significant correlations were found (r > 0.63; P 100-m sprint performances are different, despite the fact that subjects could freely accelerate the belt. However, the significant correlations found make it possible to investigate and interpret inter-individual differences in field performance from treadmill measurements.

  11. Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth P; Weyand, Peter G

    2014-09-15

    Are the fastest running speeds achieved using the simple-spring stance mechanics predicted by the classic spring-mass model? We hypothesized that a passive, linear-spring model would not account for the running mechanics that maximize ground force application and speed. We tested this hypothesis by comparing patterns of ground force application across athletic specialization (competitive sprinters vs. athlete nonsprinters, n = 7 each) and running speed (top speeds vs. slower ones). Vertical ground reaction forces at 5.0 and 7.0 m/s, and individual top speeds (n = 797 total footfalls) were acquired while subjects ran on a custom, high-speed force treadmill. The goodness of fit between measured vertical force vs. time waveform patterns and the patterns predicted by the spring-mass model were assessed using the R(2) statistic (where an R(2) of 1.00 = perfect fit). As hypothesized, the force application patterns of the competitive sprinters deviated significantly more from the simple-spring pattern than those of the athlete, nonsprinters across the three test speeds (R(2) <0.85 vs. R(2) ≥ 0.91, respectively), and deviated most at top speed (R(2) = 0.78 ± 0.02). Sprinters attained faster top speeds than nonsprinters (10.4 ± 0.3 vs. 8.7 ± 0.3 m/s) by applying greater vertical forces during the first half (2.65 ± 0.05 vs. 2.21 ± 0.05 body wt), but not the second half (1.71 ± 0.04 vs. 1.73 ± 0.04 body wt) of the stance phase. We conclude that a passive, simple-spring model has limited application to sprint running performance because the swiftest runners use an asymmetrical pattern of force application to maximize ground reaction forces and attain faster speeds.

  12. Health related aspects of PA & sport/running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Johan de Jong

    2015-01-01

    The lecture presents an overview of the positive but also the negative health related aspects of running. An deeper insight will be offered when it comes to running, especially the mass running events.

  13. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...... evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  14. Running vacuum versus the $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Pérez, Javier de Cruz

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a constant $\\Lambda$-term is a traditional building block of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. We show that this assumption is not necessarily the optimal one from the phenomenological point of view. The class of running vacuum models, with a possible running of the gravitational coupling G, are capable to fit the overall cosmological data SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB better than the $\\Lambda$CDM, namely at a level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ and with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria supporting a strong level of statistical evidence on this fact. Here we report on the results of such analysis.

  15. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  16. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation...... of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...

  17. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  18. Short-run and long-run dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    that include acreage, output, and variable input utilization at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the short-run and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops...

  19. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  20. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  1. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  2. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipe; Dos Reis, Ivan; Ribeiro, Luiz; Martins, Luiz; Gobatto, Claudio

    2015-12-22

    Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s) completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and -0.35). Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = -0.71 and -0.76, respectively; p sprint ability than the other studied variables.

  3. EFFECTS OF LISTENING TO PREFERENTIAL MUSIC ON SEX DIFFERENCES IN ENDURANCE RUNNING PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Zachary; Maeda, Hotaka

    2015-10-01

    Music is a common accompaniment to exercise, but some running environments do not allow for personalized control over the music stimulus. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of listening to preferred versus non-preferred music on sex differences in running performance. The sample consisted of 20 women and 15 men (M = 20.7 yr., SD = 2.3) who reported running at least once per week over the previous year. The participants completed three 12-min. Cooper Tests (i.e., aerobic fitness test) accompanied by preferred, non-preferred, or no music in randomized order. A 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the effect of music preference and sex on endurance running performance while controlling for the distance run with no music. Women ran further in the preferred music condition. However, music selection did not significantly change running performance for men. Listening to preferred instead of non-preferred music had a larger effect on the endurance running performance of women than men.

  4. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  5. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    Full Text Available The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150 physically active young men performed the following tests: a a maximal incremental treadmill test, b two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1 and 12 km · h(-1 to determine the running economy, and c a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1 (p = 0.232 and 12 km · h(-1 (p = 0.259. Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337. These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running.

  6. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Effects of Barefoot Running on Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Ross G; Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Magyari, Peter M; Floyd, Shelley

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the potential cognitive benefits of running barefoot compared to shod. Young adults (N = 72, M age = 24.4 years, SD = 5.5) ran both barefoot and shod on a running track while stepping on targets (poker chips) and when not stepping on targets. The main finding was that participants performed better on a working memory test when running barefoot compared to shod, but only when they had to step on targets. These results supported the idea that additional attention is needed when running barefoot to avoid stepping on objects that could potentially injure the foot. Significant increases in participant's heart rate were also found in the barefoot condition. No significant differences were found in participants' speed across conditions. These findings suggested that working memory may be enhanced after at least 16 minutes of barefoot running if the individual has to focus attention on the ground.

  7. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p incremental running.

  8. Global Asset Pricing: Is There a Role for Long-run Consumption Risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Schmelling, Maik; Schrimpf, Andreas

    We estimate long-run consumption-based asset pricing models using a comprehensive set of international test assets, including broad equity market portfolios, international value/growth portfolios, and international bond portfolios. We find that differences in returns across assets within a country...... that consumption growth is more predictable over short to medium-run horizons than over longer horizons and that empirical evidence of a de- clining risk aversion parameter estimate in long-run risk models has to be interpreted with care....... are sometimes (and most prominently for the U.S.) better captured by the assets' exposure to long-run consumption risk as opposed to their exposure to one-period changes in consumption (the canonical consumption CAPM). Across countries, however, exposure to long-run consumption risk does not provide a better...

  9. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  10. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  11. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556

    2015-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  12. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  13. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  14. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  15. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  16. Book Review: HTML5: Up and Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cyzyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Pilgrim's HTML5: Up and Running was one of the first books published on the subject. If you’re looking for a really good, well-written, entertaining, concise overview of what’s going on right this very minute with HTML5 technologies and techniques, this is a good book to have.

  17. Considerations in Running a Foreign Language University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃芳

    2005-01-01

    To run a foreign language university well, four important things should be given priority: 1)pay constant attention to teacher education; 2) make sure the staff keep abreast of the latest teaching beliefs;3) back up teaching with high quality research; 4) do a good job in cultural and humanity education.

  18. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  19. Event alignment, warping between running speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Douglas, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from 60 to 120 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection...

  20. The CDF Run II Disk Inventory Manager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulHubbard; StephanLammel

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab(CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiprotion interactions at a center-of -mass energy of 2 TeV,Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year,The duration of the run is expected to be over two years.One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for RUn II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space,A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk.to coordinate user access to the data,and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed.The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process,a user and administrator command line interfaces.and a library with the routines of the client API.Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files.The system keeps track of user acess to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk.Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed.For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard.

  1. All Orthogonal Arrays with 18 Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    All combinatorially inequivalent orthogonal arrays with 18 runs and eight or less factors are generated. Their potential as practical experimental designs is evaluated by a classification using generalized word-length patterns of the original arrays and those of their projections into less factors.

  2. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    CERN Document Server

    Sloth, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    The apparent tension between the the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data might be removed by allowing for a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration, but in disagreement with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the non-trivial running of the spectral index hinted by the BICEP2 data could therefore be telling us some additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we can draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we might first have to carefully exclude the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mas...

  3. Jet performance in Run 2 at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kunigo, Takuto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Slides for the talk "Jet performance in Run 2" at BOOST 2016. In this talk, the jet energy calibration sequence ( including in-situ calibrations at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV ), jet energy scale and resolution uncertainties and the jet calibration plan for 2016 will be presented.

  4. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2011-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...

  5. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2010-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...

  6. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  7. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  8. D0 Upgrade for RUN II

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, P

    1999-01-01

    The D0 detector at The Fermilab Tevatron is undergoing a major upgrade to prepare for data taking with luminosities reaching 2 x 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. The upgrade includes a new central tracking array, new muon detector components and electronic upgrades to many subsystems. The D0 upgraded detector will be operational for RUN II in spring 2000.

  9. Daytime running lights : its safety evidence revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospective in-depth accident studies from several countries confirm that human perception errors are the main causal factor in road accidents. The share of accident types which are relevant for the effect of daytime running lights (DRL), such as overtaking and crossing accidents, in the total of

  10. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  11. Operation and Configuration of the LHC in Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany-Fernandez, R; Drosdal, L; Gorzawski, A; Kain, V; Lamont, M; Macpherson, A; Papotti, G; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Roy, G; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Venturini, W; Wenninger, J

    2013-01-01

    Between 2010 and 2013 the LHC was operated with protons at beam energies of 3.5 and 4 TeV. The proton beams consisted of single bunches and trains of 150 ns (2010), 75 ns (2011) and 50 ns (2011 and 2012). Performances well beyond what had been expected initially have been achieved with 50 ns beams, culminating in the discovery of a 125 GeV/c2 Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns was only used for electron-cloud scrubbing runs at injection and for collision tests in view of future operation. The cycle structure evolved over the years, and the operational * for ATLAS and CMS was lowered in steps from 3.5 m (2010) to 0.6 m (2012). Lead ion, mixed proton-lead, intermediate proton energy (1.38 TeV) and high-beta runs were also performed. This note provides an overview of LHC operation between 2010 and 2013. The aim is to document the various operational configurations and highlights of Run 1.

  12. A new methodology to measure the running biomechanics of amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Richard; Asfour, Shihab; Abdelrahman, Khaled Zakaria; Gailey, Robert

    2009-09-01

    We present a new methodology to measure the running biomechanics of amputees. This methodology combines the use of a spring-mass model and symmetry index, two standard techniques in biomechanics literature, but not yet used in concert to evaluate amputee biomechanics. The methodology was examined in the context of a pilot study to examine two transtibial amputee sprinters and showed biomechanically quantifiable changes for small adjustments in prosthetic prescription. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured in several trials for two transtibial amputees running at constant speed. A spring-mass model was used in conjunction with a symmetry index to observe the effect of varying prosthetic height and stiffness on running biomechanics. All spring-mass variables were significantly affected by changes in prosthetic prescription among the two subjects tested (p < 0.05). When prosthetic height was changed, both subjects showed significant differences, in Deltay(max), Deltal and contact time (t(c)) on the prosthetic limb and in k(vert) and k(leg) on the sound limb. The symmetry indices calculated for spring-mass variables were all significantly affected due to changes in prosthetic prescription for the male subject and all but the peak force (F(peak)) for the female subject. This methodology is a straight-forward tool for evaluating the effect of changes to prosthetic prescription.

  13. Dynamic viscoelastic behavior of lower extremity tendons during simulated running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zee, M; Bojsen-Moller, F; Voigt, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this project was to see whether the tendon would show creep during long-term dynamic loading (here referred to as dynamic creep). Pig tendons were loaded by a material-testing machine with a human Achilles tendon force profile (1.37 Hz, 3% strain, 1,600 cycles), which was obtained in an earlier in vivo experiment during running. All the pig tendons showed some dynamic creep during cyclic loading (between 0.23 +/- 0.15 and 0.42 +/- 0.21%, means +/- SD). The pig tendon data were used as an input of a model to predict dynamic creep in the human Achilles tendon during running of a marathon and to evaluate whether there might consequently be an influence on group Ia afferent-mediated length and velocity feedback from muscle spindles. The predicted dynamic creep in the Achilles tendon was considered to be too small to have a significant influence on the length and velocity feedback from soleus during running. In spite of the characteristic nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of tendons, our results demonstrate that these properties have a minor effect on the ability of tendons to act as predictable, stable, and elastic force transmitters during long-term cyclic loading.

  14. Limited transfer of newly acquired movement patterns across walking and running in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ogawa

    Full Text Available The two major modes of locomotion in humans, walking and running, may be regarded as a function of different speed (walking as slower and running as faster. Recent results using motor learning tasks in humans, as well as more direct evidence from animal models, advocate for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying different locomotion tasks. In the current study, we investigated the possible independence of the neural mechanisms underlying human walking and running. Subjects were tested on a split-belt treadmill and adapted to walking or running on an asymmetrically driven treadmill surface. Despite the acquisition of asymmetrical movement patterns in the respective modes, the emergence of asymmetrical movement patterns in the subsequent trials was evident only within the same modes (walking after learning to walk and running after learning to run and only partial in the opposite modes (walking after learning to run and running after learning to walk (thus transferred only limitedly across the modes. Further, the storage of the acquired movement pattern in each mode was maintained independently of the opposite mode. Combined, these results provide indirect evidence for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying the two locomotive modes.

  15. The effect of estimation and production procedures on running economy in recreational athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James A; Woolley, Brandon P; Lambrick, Danielle M

    2012-11-01

    Running economy is an important component in any endurance event. However, the influence of effort perception on running economy has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the oxygen cost of running (running economy) at identical ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during estimation (EST) and production (PR) procedures, during treadmill exercise. Fourteen, well-trained male participants actively produced (self-regulated) a range of submaximal exercise intensities equating to RPE values 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, and passively estimated their perception of exertion during an incremental graded-exercise test (GXT). Allometric scaling was used to ensure an appropriate comparison in running economy between conditions. The present study demonstrated that the overall running economy between conditions was statistically similar (p>0.05). A significant interaction was however identified between Conditions and RPE (peconomy significantly improved during PR but remained fairly consistent during EST between moderate and high perceptions of exertion (RPE 11-17). Despite similarities in running economy between conditions, physiological (oxygen uptake, heart rate, minute ventilation and blood lactate) and physical (running velocity) markers of exercise intensity were significantly higher during EST for equivalent perceptions of exertion (all peconomy and enhance athletic performance when compared to identical perceptions of exertion elicited during active production procedures. Athletes, coaches and physical trainers should consider the perceptual procedures utilised during training to ensure that an athlete trains at the most effective training intensity. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Tim W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Humans run faster by increasing a combination of stride length and stride frequency. In slow and medium-paced running, stride length is increased by exerting larger support forces during ground contact, whereas in fast running and sprinting, stride frequency is increased by swinging the legs more rapidly through the air. Many studies have investigated the mechanics of human running, yet little is known about how the individual leg muscles accelerate the joints and centre of mass during this task. The aim of this study was to describe and explain the synergistic actions of the individual leg muscles over a wide range of running speeds, from slow running to maximal sprinting. Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds. For speeds up to 7 m s(-1), the ankle plantarflexors, soleus and gastrocnemius, contributed most significantly to vertical support forces and hence increases in stride length. At speeds greater than 7 m s(-1), these muscles shortened at relatively high velocities and had less time to generate the forces needed for support. Thus, above 7 m s(-1), the strategy used to increase running speed shifted to the goal of increasing stride frequency. The hip muscles, primarily the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus and hamstrings, achieved this goal by accelerating the hip and knee joints more vigorously during swing. These findings provide insight into the strategies used by the leg muscles to maximise running performance and have implications for the design of athletic training programs.

  17. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run 2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run 1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run 2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  18. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run1 and Prospects for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  19. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  20. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  1. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  2. Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Praag, Henriette; Christie, Brian R.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Gage, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    Running increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain structure that is important for memory function. Consequently, spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) were tested in groups of mice housed either with a running wheel (runners) or under standard conditions (controls). Mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells and trained in the Morris water maze. LTP was studied in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 in hippocampal slices from these mice. Running improved water maze performance, increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cell numbers, and selectively enhanced dentate gyrus LTP. Our results indicate that physical activity can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. PMID:10557337

  3. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  4. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  5. Run-up distributions of waves breaking on sloping walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Distributions of run-up are calculated by assigning to each individual wave in an irregular wave train a run-up value according to Hunt's formula. The use of this formula permits a normalization of the run-up in such a way that the run-up distributions are independent of slope angle, mean wave

  6. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  7. CMS Full Simulation for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Hildreth, M; Lange, D J; Kortelainen, M J

    2015-01-01

    During LHC shutdown between run-1 and run-2 intensive developments were carried out to improve performance of CMS simulation. For physics improvements migration from Geant4 9.4p03 to Geant4 10.0p02 has been performed. CPU performance has been improved by introduction of the Russian roulette method inside CMS calorimeters, optimization of CMS simulation sub-libraries, and usage of statics build of the simulation executable. As a result of these efforts, CMS simulation has been speeded up by about factor two. In this work we provide description of updates for different software components of CMS simulation. Development of a multi-threaded (MT) simulation approach for CMS will be also discuss.

  8. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...... with a separate regression estimating the degree of persistence in the endogenous regressor. Importantly, our estimator can overcome a particular violation of the exclusion restriction that can arise when there is a time gap between the instrument and the endogenous explanatory variable. We apply our results...

  9. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-06-15

    We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m({mu}=m) =160.0{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} GeV. (orig.)

  10. Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Brown, Lee E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wistocki, David R; Davis, Gregory S; Naimo, Marshall A; Zito, Gina A; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    It is previously demonstrated that static stretching was associated with a decrease in running economy and distance run during a 30-minute time trial in trained runners. Recently, the detrimental effects of static stretching on economy were found to be limited to the first few minutes of an endurance bout. However, economy remains to be studied for its direct effects on performance during shorter endurance events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance, electromyography (EMG), ground contact time (GCT), and flexibility. Ten trained male distance runners aged 24 ± 5 years with an average VO2max of 64.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 were recruited. Subjects reported to the laboratory on 3 separate days interspersed by 72 hours. On day 1, anthropometrics and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were determined on a motor-driven treadmill. On days 2 and 3, subjects performed a 5-minute treadmill warm-up and either performed a series of 6 lower-body stretches for three 30-second repetitions or sat still for 10 minutes. Time to complete a 1-mile run under stretching and nonstretching conditions took place in randomized order. For the performance run, subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible at a set incline of 5% until a distance of 1 mile was completed. Flexibility from the sit and reach test, EMG, GCT, and performance, determined by time to complete the 1-mile run, were recorded after each condition. Time to complete the run was significantly less (6:51 ± 0:28 minutes) in the nonstretching condition as compared with the stretching condition (7:04 ± 0:32 minutes). A significant condition-by-time interaction for muscle activation existed, with no change in the nonstretching condition (pre 91.3 ± 11.6 mV to post 92.2 ± 12.9 mV) but increased in the stretching condition (pre 91.0 ± 11.6 mV to post 105.3 ± 12.9 mV). A significant condition-by-time interaction for GCT was also present, with no changes in

  11. Ergogenic effect of music during running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In running competitions portable music players and headphones are often banned. In some cases, runners have been disqualified after using such devices during competition. In this paper, it is discussed whether, aside from possible safety reasons, such competition regulations make sense and whether music can have an ergogenic effect on performance. Although a definitive conclusion on the regulation matter is not of our concern here, we review evidence of the fact that music is capable of enhan...

  12. FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Zahradnický; R. Lórencz

    2010-01-01

    A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

  13. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.; Edwards, H.; Finley, D.A.; Fowler, W.B.; Harrison, M.; Holmes, S.; Makara, J.N.; Malamud, E.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-..beta.. quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements.

  14. Xiamen Runs Faster with Marathon Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhijuan; YeShaojin

    2005-01-01

    On March 26, 15,920 contestants were running on Xiamen's Island Loop Road, dubbed as the world's most beautiful race lane. Along the 42.195kilometer lane, some 300 thousand spectators shouted and applauded for those runners. That was the Third Xiamen International Marathon Competition, which was called by local people """"a big festival"""". There has been never a sport game that makes the city so enthusiastic.

  15. The anatomy and biomechanics of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Terry L; Jewison, David J

    2012-04-01

    To understand the normal series of biomechanical events of running, a comparative assessment to walking is helpful. Closed kinetic chain through the lower extremities, control of the lumbopelvic mechanism, and overall symmetry of movement has been described well enough that deviations from normal movement can now be associated with specific overuse injuries experienced by runners. This information in combination with a history of the runner's errors in their training program will lead to a more comprehensive treatment and prevention plan for related injuries.

  16. Proposal for a running coupling JIMWLK equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, T

    2014-01-01

    In the CGC framework the initial stages of a heavy ion collision at high energy are described as "glasma" field configurations. The initial condition for these evolving fields depends, in the CGC effective theory, on a probability distribution for color charges. The energy dependence of this distribution can be calculated from the JIMWLK renormalization group equation. We discuss recent work on a practical implementation of the running coupling constant in the Langevin method of solving the JIMWLK equation.

  17. The Aerodynamic Signature of Running Spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Casas; Thomas Steinmann; Olivier Dangles

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of i...

  18. Running with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Amanda H; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a running control architecture for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that enables a transfemoral amputee to run with a biomechanically appropriate running gait and to intentionally transition between a walking and running gait. The control architecture consists firstly of a coordination level controller, which provides gait biomechanics representative of healthy running, and secondly of a gait selection controller that enables the user to intentionally transition between a running and walking gait. The running control architecture was implemented on a transfemoral prosthesis with powered knee and ankle joints, and the efficacy of the controller was assessed in a series of running trials with a transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, treadmill trials were conducted to assess the extent to which the coordination controller provided a biomechanically appropriate running gait. Separate trials were conducted to assess the ability of the user to consistently and reliably transition between walking and running gaits.

  19. CMS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1 to Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Erik Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built. It has an active area of 200~m$^2$ of silicon segmented into almost 10 million readout channels. We describe some operational aspects of the system during its first years of operation during the LHC run 1. During the long shutdown 1 of the LHC an extensive work program was carried out on the strip tracker services in order to facilitate operation of the system at sub-zero temperatures in the LHC run~2 and beyond. We will describe these efforts and give a motivation of the choice of run~2 operating temperature. Finally, a brief outlook on the operation of the system in the upcoming run~2 will be given.

  20. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, E. L. D.; Tamayo, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ(H2) or Λ(R). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by bar PΛ = - bar rhoΛ, relating its background pressure bar PΛ with its mean energy density bar rhoΛ ≡ Λ/8πG. This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely bar rhoΛ = Σibar rhoΛi. Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ(H2) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ(R) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.