WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-quorum sensing role

  1. Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria

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    Duffy Brion

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2. Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a universal microbial language, a kind of bacterial Esperanto. Many of the studies published in this field have drawn a direct correlation between the occurrence of the luxS gene in a given organism and the presence and functionality of a QS-2 therein. However, rarely hathe existence of potential AI-2 receptors been examined. This is important, since it is now well recognized that LuxS also holds a central role as a metabolic enzyme in the activated methyl cycle which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the major methyl donor in the cell. Results In order to assess whether the role of LuxS in these bacteria is indeed related to AI-2 mediated quorum sensing we analyzed genomic databases searching for established AI-2 receptors (i.e., LuxPQ-receptor of Vibrio harveyi and Lsr ABC-transporter of Salmonella typhimurium and other presumed QS-related proteins and compared the outcome with published results about the role of QS-2 in these organisms. An unequivocal AI-2 related behavior was restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes, while phenotypes of luxS mutant bacteria lacking these genes could often be explained simply by assuming deficiencies in sulfur metabolism. Conclusion Genomic analysis shows that while LuxPQ is restricted to Vibrionales, the Lsr-receptor complex is mainly present in pathogenic bacteria associated with endotherms. This suggests that QS-2 may play an important role in interactions with animal hosts. In most other species, however, the role of LuxS appears to be limited to metabolism

  2. The role of advanced sensing in smart cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancke, Gerhard P; Silva, Bruno de Carvalho E; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2012-12-27

    In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role in smart cities. From smart design of buildings, which capture rain water for later use, to intelligent control systems, which can monitor infrastructures autonomously, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies are immense. Ubiquitous sensing poses numerous challenges, which are of a technological or social nature. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art with regards to sensing in smart cities. Topics include sensing applications in smart cities, sensing platforms and technical challenges associated with these technologies. In an effort to provide a holistic view of how sensing technologies play a role in smart cities, a range of applications and technical challenges associated with these applications are discussed. As some of these applications and technologies belong to different disciplines, the material presented in this paper attempts to bridge these to provide a broad overview, which can be of help to researchers and developers in understanding how advanced sensing can play a role in smart cities.

  3. The Role of Advanced Sensing in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancke, Gerhard P.; de Carvalho e Silva, Bruno; Hancke, Gerhard P.

    2013-01-01

    In a world where resources are scarce and urban areas consume the vast majority of these resources, it is vital to make cities greener and more sustainable. Advanced systems to improve and automate processes within a city will play a leading role in smart cities. From smart design of buildings, which capture rain water for later use, to intelligent control systems, which can monitor infrastructures autonomously, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies are immense. Ubiquitous sensing poses numerous challenges, which are of a technological or social nature. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art with regards to sensing in smart cities. Topics include sensing applications in smart cities, sensing platforms and technical challenges associated with these technologies. In an effort to provide a holistic view of how sensing technologies play a role in smart cities, a range of applications and technical challenges associated with these applications are discussed. As some of these applications and technologies belong to different disciplines, the material presented in this paper attempts to bridge these to provide a broad overview, which can be of help to researchers and developers in understanding how advanced sensing can play a role in smart cities. PMID:23271603

  4. QUORUM SENSING AND ITS ROLE IN ORAL BIOFILMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boy M. Bachtiar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing systems has been identified as one of mechanism carried out by numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to coordinate virulence and biofilm development. Using quorum sensing bacterial colonies synchronize gene expression and phenotype change allowing them to protect their niche. The purpose of this review is to present a synopsis of the literature on bacterial quorum sensing and we highlight the role of specific signaling molecules that might be used as a target of inhibitor agent in dental preventive perspective.

  5. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Maeda, Toshinari; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Tomás, María; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell communication that is widely used by bacterial pathogens to coordinate the expression of several collective traits, including the production of multiple virulence factors, biofilm formation, and swarming motility once a population threshold is reached. Several lines of evidence indicate that QS enhances virulence of bacterial pathogens in animal models as well as in human infections; however, its relative importance for bacterial pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we discuss the present evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models, as well as from clinical studies, that link QS systems with human infections. We focus on two major QS bacterial models, the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, which are also two of the main agents responsible of nosocomial and wound infections. In addition, QS communication systems in other bacterial, eukaryotic pathogens, and even immune and cancer cells are also reviewed, and finally, the new approaches proposed to combat bacterial infections by the attenuation of their QS communication systems and virulence are also discussed. PMID:26244150

  6. Specific sensors for special roles in oil spill remote sensing

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    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.

    1997-01-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. The general public expects that the government and/or the spiller know the location and the extent of the contamination. The Emergencies Science Division (ESD) of Environment Canada, is responsible for remote sensing during oil spill emergencies along Canada's three coastlines, extensive inland waterways, as well as over the entire land mass. In addition to providing operational remote sensing, ESD conducts research into the development of airborne oil spill remote sensors, including the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) and the Laser Ultrasonic Remote SEnsing of Oil Thickness (LURSOT) sensor. It has long been recognized that there is not one sensor or 'magic bullet' which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide filed-of-view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. This is even more of a problem along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The specific laser- based sensors under development by Environment Canada are designed to respond to special roles in oil spill response. In particular, the SLEAF is being developed to unambiguously detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complicated marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non- specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that

  7. The role of satellite remote sensing in REDD/MRV

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    Jonckheere, Inge; Sandoval, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    REDD, which stands for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries' - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD and to implement a future REDD mechanism in a post- 2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes.It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification of carbon credits and co-benefits under the REDD mechanism are here presented.

  8. Role of spatial averaging in multicellular gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler; Fancher, Sean; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Gradient sensing underlies important biological processes including morphogenesis, polarization, and cell migration. The precision of gradient sensing increases with the length of a detector (a cell or group of cells) in the gradient direction, since a longer detector spans a larger range of concentration values. Intuition from studies of concentration sensing suggests that precision should also increase with detector length in the direction transverse to the gradient, since then spatial averaging should reduce the noise. However, here we show that, unlike for concentration sensing, the precision of gradient sensing decreases with transverse length for the simplest gradient sensing model, local excitation-global inhibition. The reason is that gradient sensing ultimately relies on a subtraction of measured concentration values. While spatial averaging indeed reduces the noise in these measurements, which increases precision, it also reduces the covariance between the measurements, which results in the net decrease in precision. We demonstrate how a recently introduced gradient sensing mechanism, regional excitation-global inhibition (REGI), overcomes this effect and recovers the benefit of transverse averaging. Using a REGI-based model, we compute the optimal two- and three-dimensional detector shapes, and argue that they are consistent with the shapes of naturally occurring gradient-sensing cell populations.

  9. From 'sense of number' to 'sense of magnitude' - The role of continuous magnitudes in numerical cognition.

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    Leibovich, Tali; Katzin, Naama; Harel, Maayan; Henik, Avishai

    2016-08-17

    In this review, we are pitting two theories against each other: the more accepted theory-the 'number sense' theory-suggesting that a sense of number is innate and non-symbolic numerosity is being processed independently of continuous magnitudes (e.g., size, area, density); and the newly emerging theory suggesting that (1) both numerosities and continuous magnitudes are processed holistically when comparing numerosities, and (2) a sense of number might not be innate. In the first part of this review, we discuss the 'number sense' theory. Against this background, we demonstrate how the natural correlation between numerosities and continuous magnitudes makes it nearly impossible to study non-symbolic numerosity processing in isolation from continuous magnitudes, and therefore the results of behavioral and imaging studies with infants, adults and animals can be explained, at least in part, by relying on continuous magnitudes. In the second part, we explain the 'sense of magnitude' theory and review studies that directly demonstrate that continuous magnitudes are more automatic and basic than numerosities. Finally, we present outstanding questions. Our conclusion is that there is not enough convincing evidence to support the number sense theory anymore. Therefore, we encourage researchers not to assume that number sense is simply innate, but to put this hypothesis to the test, and to consider if such an assumption is even testable in light of the correlation of numerosity and continuous magnitudes.

  10. Obesity: An overview of possible role(s) of gut hormones, lipid sensing and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok Kumar; Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major challenges for public health in 21st century, with 1.9 billion people being considered as overweight and 600 million as obese. There are certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and several forms of cancer which were found to be associated with obesity. Therefore, understanding the key molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of obesity could be beneficial for the development of a therapeutic approach. Hormones such as ghrelin, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) secreted by an endocrine organ gut, have an intense impact on energy balance and maintenance of homeostasis by inducing satiety and meal termination. Glucose and energy homeostasis are also affected by lipid sensing in which different organs respond in different ways. However, there is one common mechanism i.e. formation of esterified lipids (long chain fatty acyl CoAs) and the activation of protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) involved in all these organs. The possible role of gut microbiota and obesity has been addressed by several researchers in recent years, indicating the possible therapeutic approach toward the management of obesity by the introduction of an external living system such as a probiotic. The proposed mechanism behind this activity is attributed by metabolites produced by gut microbial organisms. Thus, this review summarizes the role of various physiological factors such as gut hormone and lipid sensing involved in various tissues and organ and most important by the role of gut microbiota in weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of edge-sensing in experiential psychotherapy.

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    Glanzer, David; Early, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    In experiential psychotherapy three modes of experiencing are managed in parallel--experiencing in the domain of explicit knowing, experiencing in implicit knowing, and experiencing in the zone of emergent formation where the other two meet. Gendlin (1996) argued that therapy is a "process that centrally involves experience before it becomes one of a set of defined 'packages' and again afterword when it dips back into the prepackaged zone at the edge of experiencing" (p. 4). In Gendlin's terms, the "edge" is where the prepackaged and packaged zones meet. Encounter at the edge, what we call edge sensing, is dwelling in the meeting point between what is known explicitly and what is known in an implicit bodied way. This encounter extends to dyadic encounter at the interpersonal edge in the therapeutic relationship. Edge sensing is an intrasubjective and intersubjective process crucial for the moving forward process of change.

  12. HAITI EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT: REVIEW OF THE REMOTE SENSING ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boccardo

    2012-08-01

    In a few days several map products based on the aforementioned analysis were delivered to end users: a review of the different types and purposes of this products will be provided and discussed. An assessment of the thematic accuracy of remotely sensed based products will be carried out on the basis of a review of the several available studies focused on this issue, including the main outcomes of a validation based on a comparison with in-situ data performed by the authors.

  13. Constructing "Common Sense" Policies for Schools: The Role of Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on how five journalists arrived at their decisions about how to report policy, particularly educational policy. It is part of a larger study that takes the position that the media play a central role in educational policy-making and that educators need to understand the power that journalists working within corporate…

  14. The Role of Number Sense in the Identification and Prevention of Mathematics Disability: A Consideration of the Phonemic Awareness/Number Sense Analogy

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    Howell, Sally; Kemp, Coral

    2004-01-01

    In a 1999 paper Gersten and Chard proposed that number sense might be to mathematics what phonemic awareness is to reading. They explained the role of phonemic awareness in reading acquisition and its influence on reading research and argued that an understanding of the concept of number sense could be equally influential in the field of…

  15. Stressor experience negatively affects life satisfaction in adolescents: the positive role of sense of coherence.

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    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different normative stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction separately for gender in Norwegian adolescents. The interaction effect of stress by sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction was also investigated. The data are based on a cross-sectional sample of 1239 adolescents (13-18 years) from public elementary and secondary schools in Central Norway. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between stressors, sense of coherence and life satisfaction, separately for gender. The results showed significant differences between genders, where boys reported higher scores than girls on sense of coherence and life satisfaction, whereas girls scored higher than boys on five of seven stressor domains. All stressors were significantly and inversely associated with life satisfaction in both genders; however, all associations were stronger for girls compared to boys. Sense of coherence showed a significant strong and positive association with life satisfaction, controlled for age and each individual stressor. A significant although weak interaction effect of stress related to romantic relationships by sense of coherence was found in association with life satisfaction for boys; the other interaction effects were nonsignificant in both genders. The results give support for a significant unique role of stressor experience and sense of coherence in relation to life satisfaction in both genders during adolescence, where the associations were especially strong in girls.

  16. Interdependence of Roles, Role Rotation, and Sense of Community in an Online Course

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    Jiang, Wenting

    2017-01-01

    More and more educational institutions are moving towards online distance learning. Although asynchronous online learning overcomes the constraints of time, place and pace, online distance learners feel isolated due to the lack of real-time communications. One possible solution for overcoming this sense of isolation is regulating student online…

  17. Production of Tyrosol by Candida albicans Biofilms and Its Role in Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Development▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alem, M.A.S.; Oteef, M.D.Y.; Flowers, T; Douglas, L J

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosol and farnesol are quorum-sensing molecules produced by Candida albicans which accelerate and block, respectively, the morphological transition from yeasts to hyphae. In this study, we have investigated the secretion of tyrosol by C. albicans and explored its likely role in biofilm development. Both planktonic (suspended) cells and biofilms of four C. albicans strains, including three mutants with defined defects in the Efg 1 and Cph 1 morphogenetic signaling pathways, synthesized extra...

  18. Inmate Violence and Correctional Staff Burnout: The Role of Sense of Security, Gender, and Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenhardt, Anna; Hostettler, Ueli

    2016-12-05

    Violence in the workplace has serious consequences for employees and organizations. Based on a survey in early 2012 among employees from all work areas of 89 of the total 112 correctional facilities in Switzerland resulting in a sample of 2,045 employees (response rate 48.5%), this study (a) analyzed whether victimization has an impact on correctional staff burnout, (b) tested the hypothetical mediating role of sense of security in the relationship between victimization and burnout, and (c) included gender and job characteristics because work experiences and exposure to violence of staff differ strongly with gender and work tasks. Two different forms of violence were considered: (a) experienced violence (inmates-on-staff) and (b) observed violence (inmate-on-inmate). Analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results show that victimization and witnessing violence between inmates negatively affect the personal sense of security and increase correctional staff burnout. In addition, the sense of security mediated the effect from experienced and observed violence on burnout. Gender and job characteristics also proved to be important. This is especially true for staff working as correctional officers and for employees working with young inmates and with inmates awaiting trial who reported a greater exposure to violence and a lower sense of security. The study adds to the knowledge on violence and its outcomes in corrections and contributes to the literature on the consequences of workplace violence in general and, specifically, in social service occupations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. An evaluation of the role played by remote sensing technology following the World Trade Center attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing technology has been widely recognized for contributing to emergency response efforts after the World Trade Center attack on September 11th, 2001. The need to coordinate activities in the midst of a dense, yet relatively small area, made the combination of imagery and mapped data strategically useful. This paper reviews the role played by aerial photography, satellite imagery, and LIDAR data at Ground Zero. It examines how emergency managers utilized these datasets, and identifies significant problems that were encountered. It goes on to explore additional ways in which imagery could have been used, while presenting recommendations for more effective use in future disasters and Homeland Security applications. To plan adequately for future events, it was important to capture knowledge from individuals who responded to the World Trade Center attack. In recognition, interviews with key emergency management and geographic information system (GIS) personnel provide the basis of this paper. Successful techniques should not be forgotten, or serious problems dismissed. Although widely used after September 11th, it is important to recognize that with better planning, remote sensing and GIS could have played an even greater role. Together with a data acquisition timeline, an expanded discussion of these issues is available in the MCEER/NSF report "Emergency Response in the Wake of the World Trade Center Attack: The Remote Sensing Perspective" (Huyck and Adams, 2002).

  20. Comparative Experiments on Disambiguating Word Senses An Illustration of the Role of Bias in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, R J

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental comparison of seven different learning algorithms on the problem of learning to disambiguate the meaning of a word from context. The algorithms tested include statistical, neural-network, decision-tree, rule-based, and case-based classification techniques. The specific problem tested involves disambiguating six senses of the word ``line'' using the words in the current and proceeding sentence as context. The statistical and neural-network methods perform the best on this particular problem and we discuss a potential reason for this observed difference. We also discuss the role of bias in machine learning and its importance in explaining performance differences observed on specific problems.

  1. The role of placental nutrient sensing in maternal-fetal resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The placenta mediates maternal-fetal exchange and has historically been regarded as a passive conduit for nutrients. However, emerging evidence suggests that the placenta actively responds to nutritional and metabolic signals from the mother and the fetus. We propose that the placenta integrates a multitude of maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient-sensing signaling pathways to match fetal demand with maternal supply by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and nutrient transport. This process, which we have called placental nutrient sensing, ensures optimal allocation of resources between the mother and the fetus to maximize the chances for propagation of parental genes without jeopardizing maternal health. We suggest that these mechanisms have evolved because of the evolutionary pressures of maternal undernutrition, which result in decreased placental growth and down-regulation of nutrient transporters, thereby limiting fetal growth to ensure maternal survival. These regulatory loops may also function in response to maternal overnutrition, leading to increased placental growth and nutrient transport in cases of maternal obesity or gestational diabetes. Thus, placental nutrient sensing modulates maternal-fetal resource allocation to increase the likelihood of reproductive success. This model implies that the placenta plays a critical role in mediating fetal programming and determining lifelong health.

  2. The Role of Placental Nutrient Sensing in Maternal-Fetal Resource Allocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Paula; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The placenta mediates maternal-fetal exchange and has historically been regarded as a passive conduit for nutrients. However, emerging evidence suggests that the placenta actively responds to nutritional and metabolic signals from the mother and the fetus. We propose that the placenta integrates a multitude of maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient-sensing signaling pathways to match fetal demand with maternal supply by regulating maternal physiology, placental growth, and nutrient transport. This process, which we have called placental nutrient sensing, ensures optimal allocation of resources between the mother and the fetus to maximize the chances for propagation of parental genes without jeopardizing maternal health. We suggest that these mechanisms have evolved because of the evolutionary pressures of maternal undernutrition, which result in decreased placental growth and down-regulation of nutrient transporters, thereby limiting fetal growth to ensure maternal survival. These regulatory loops may also function in response to maternal overnutrition, leading to increased placental growth and nutrient transport in cases of maternal obesity or gestational diabetes. Thus, placental nutrient sensing modulates maternal-fetal resource allocation to increase the likelihood of reproductive success. This model implies that the placenta plays a critical role in mediating fetal programming and determining lifelong health. PMID:25122064

  3. Making sense of a new nursing role: a phenomenological study of an organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Blair, N; Smith, B L; Bradley, K J; Gaskamp, C

    1999-01-01

    Although health care organizational change is a constant phenomenon, little is understood as to how staff experience this change. Unsuccessful change efforts have suggested the possible important relationship between understanding staff's experience and improved results. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe what staff on a medical-surgical unit experience during the initial phase of the implementation of a nursing care coordinator position, a first step in a broad organizational change. A purposeful sample of 11 nursing and non-nursing staff, considered unit experts, were interviewed using broad, open-ended questions designed to solicit their experience. Additionally, observations and document abstraction were used to add depth and clarification to the interviews. Analysis of data was conducted using a combination of Giorgi's and Colaizzi's procedures. Contextual elements framing staff's experiences included introduction of a new role with no organizational history into an increasingly demanding environment that staff perceived as constantly changing. Major themes of "experiencing the effect" and "struggling to make sense" were revealed. These findings suggest that the introduction of a new role can create turmoil and job insecurity in the current health care environment. Recommendations to support staff's efforts to "make sense" are provided.

  4. Psychological symptoms and competence at three organizational levels of industrial design: the main and moderating role of sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated the role of the sense of coherence in occupational well-being at three organizational positions of industrial designing (top-level designers, designers, and assisting personnel). In a sample of 422 industrial design personnel, sense of coherence was positively related to competence and negatively to psychological symptoms. It also moderated the relation of autonomy to competence and psychological symptoms but more strongly among the designers and the assisting personnel than among the top-level designers. Analysis showed autonomy was beneficial for individuals who also had high scores on sense of coherence. Longitudinal studies are needed on the role of sense of coherence as regards the psychological health of different subgroups.

  5. The current and potential role of satellite remote sensing in the campaign against malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, Yaniv; Wood, Danielle; Sutherlun, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Malaria and other vector borne diseases claim lives and cause illness, especially in less developed countries. Although well understood methods, such as spraying and insecticidal nets, are identified as effective deterrents to malaria transmission by mosquitoes, the nations that have the greatest burden from the disease also struggle to deploy such measures sufficiently. More targeted and up to date information is needed to identify which regions of malaria-endemic countries are most likely to be at risk of malaria in the near future. This will allow national governments, local officials and public health workers to deploy protective equipment and personnel where they are most needed. This paper explores the role of environmental data generated via satellite remote sensing as an ingredient to a Malaria Early Warning System. Data from remote sensing satellites can cover broad geographical areas frequently and consistently. Much of the relevant data may be accessed by malaria-endemic countries at minimal cost via international data sharing polices. While previous research studies have demonstrated the potential to assign malaria risk to a geographic region based on indicators from satellites and other sources, there is still a need to deploy such tools in a broader and more operational manner to inform decision making on malaria management. This paper describes current research on the use of satellite-based environmental data to predict malaria risk and examines the barriers and opportunities for implementing Malaria Early Warning Systems enabled by satellite remote sensing. A Systems Architecture Framework analyses the components of a Malaria Early Warning System and highlights the need for effective coordination across public and private sector organizations.

  6. Signaling Network of Environmental Sensing and Adaptation in Plants:. Key Roles of Calcium Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Considering the important issues concerning food, environment, and energy that humans are facing in the 21st century, humans mostly depend on plants. Unlike animals which move from an inappropriate environment, plants do not move, but rapidly sense diverse environmental changes or invasion by other organisms such as pathogens and insects in the place they root, and adapt themselves by changing their own bodies, through which they developed adaptability. Whole genetic information corresponding to the blueprints of many biological systems has recently been analyzed, and comparative genomic studies facilitated tracing strategies of each organism in their evolutional processes. Comparison of factors involved in intracellular signal transduction between animals and plants indicated diversification of different gene sets. Reversible binding of Ca2+ to sensor proteins play key roles as a molecular switch both in animals and plants. Molecular mechanisms for signaling network of environmental sensing and adaptation in plants will be discussed with special reference to Ca2+ as a key element in information processing.

  7. Vagal afferents sense meal-associated gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones: mechanism and physiological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Some gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones are potently secreted by meal intake and reduce food intake, therefore these hormones play a role in the meal-evoked satiety peptides. Previous reports have demonstrated that peripheral administration of these gastrointestinal or pancreatic hormones decrease feeding and the anorectic effects are abolished by lesions of vagal afferent nerves using surgical or chemical protocols, indicative of the involvement of the vagal afferents. Vagal afferent nerves link between several peripheral organs and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. The present review focuses on cholecystokinin, peptide YY(3-36), pancreatic polypeptide, and nesfatin-1 released from endocrine cells of the gut and pancreas. These hormonal peptides directly act on and increase cytosolic Ca(2+) in vagal afferent nodose ganglion neurons and finally suppress food intake via vagal afferents. Therefore, peripheral terminals of vagal afferents could sense gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones and regulate food intake. Here, we review how the vagal afferent neurons sense a variety of gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones and discuss its physiological significance in regulation of feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gut sensing of potassium intake and its role in potassium homeostasis.

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    Youn, Jang H

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular K(+) homeostasis has been explained by feedback mechanisms in which changes in extracellular K(+) concentration drive renal K(+) excretion directly or indirectly via stimulating aldosterone secretion. However, this cannot explain meal-induced kaliuresis, which often occurs without increases in plasma K(+) or aldosterone concentrations. Recent studies have produced evidence supporting a feedforward control in which gut sensing of dietary K(+) increases renal K(+) excretion (and extrarenal K(+) uptake) independent of plasma K(+) concentrations, namely, a gut factor. This review focuses on these new findings and discusses the role of gut factor in acute and chronic regulation of extracellular K(+) as well as in the beneficial effects of high K(+) intake on the cardiovascular system.

  9. The Role of the Senses in the Early Modern Italian Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karin Esmann

    According to the Italian humanists gardens can be regarded as a third nature (John Dixon Hunt: Greater Perfections 2000, Claudia Lazzaro: The Italian Renaissance Garden 1990). Different from the first nature, wilderness, and the second nature, the cultural landscape (Cicero) gardens are a special...... combination of nature and culture, more sophisticated, more deliberate, more complex in the mixture of culture and nature. In the Italian renaissance garden this third nature reached an artificial and aesthetic level as a pleasure garden which made use of all the senses, and in doing so it played an important...... role in constructing new conceptions of the connection between man and nature. This presentation will examine how the gardens around Italian Renaissance villas in Tuscany and in the surroundings of Rome, with their use of geometrical lay-out, water, sounds, views, plants and buildings not only...

  10. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body: mechanisms and role in adaptation to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barneo, José; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gao, Lin; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Pardal, Ricardo; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia

    2016-04-15

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental for cell and whole-body homeostasis. Our understanding of the adaptive processes that take place in response to a lack of O2(hypoxia) has progressed significantly in recent years. The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the acute cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation) triggered by hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of cells (glomeruli) in close contact with blood vessels and nerve fibers. Glomus cells, the O2-sensitive elements in the CB, are neuron-like cells that contain O2-sensitive K(+)channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia. This leads to cell depolarization, Ca(2+)entry, and the release of transmitters to activate sensory fibers terminating at the respiratory center. The mechanism whereby O2modulates K(+)channels has remained elusive, although several appealing hypotheses have been postulated. Recent data suggest that mitochondria complex I signaling to membrane K(+)channels plays a fundamental role in acute O2sensing. CB activation during exposure to low Po2is also necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. CB growth during sustained hypoxia depends on the activation of a resident population of stem cells, which are also activated by transmitters released from the O2-sensitive glomus cells. These advances should foster further studies on the role of CB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of highly prevalent human diseases.

  11. Building a sense of virtual community: the role of the features of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Lin, Chiun-Sin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, social networking sites have received increased attention because of the potential of this medium to transform business by building virtual communities. However, theoretical and empirical studies investigating how specific features of social networking sites contribute to building a sense of virtual community (SOVC)-an important dimension of a successful virtual community-are rare. Furthermore, SOVC scales have been developed, and research on this issue has been called for, but few studies have heeded this call. On the basis of prior literature, this study proposes that perceptions of the three most salient features of social networking sites-system quality (SQ), information quality (IQ), and social information exchange (SIE)-play a key role in fostering SOVC. In particular, SQ is proposed to increase IQ and SIE, and SIE is proposed to enhance IQ, both of which thereafter build SOVC. The research model was examined in the context of Facebook, one of the most popular social networking sites in the world. We adopted Blanchard's scales to measure SOVC. Data gathered using a Web-based questionnaire, and analyzed with partial least squares, were utilized to test the model. The results demonstrate that SIE, SQ, and IQ are the factors that form SOVC. The findings also suggest that SQ plays a fundamental role in supporting SIE and IQ in social networking sites. Implications for theory, practice, and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Role of satellite remote sensing in the geographic information economics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denégre, Jean

    In national and international economics, geographic information plays a role which is generally acknowledged to be important but which is however, difficult to assess quantitatively, its applications being rather miscellaneous and indirect. Computer graphics and telecommunications increae that importance still more and justify many investments and research into new cartographic forms. As part of its responsibility for participating in the promotion of those developments, by taking into account needs expressed by public or private users, the National Council for Geographic Information (C.N.I.G.) has undertaken a general evaluation of the economic and social utility of geographic information in France. The study involves an estimation of the cost of production and research activities, which are probably about 0.1% of the Cross National Product—similar to many other countries. It also devised a method of estimating "cost/advantage" ratios applicable to these "intangible" benefits. Within that framework, remote sensing emphasizes particular aspects related both to the increase of economic performances in cartographic production and to the advent of new products and new ways of utilization. A review of some significant sectors shows effective earnings of about 10-20%, or even 50% or 100% of the costs, and these are doubtless much greater for the efficacy in the exploitation of products. Finally, many applications, entirely new result from extensions in various fields which would have been impossible without remote sensing: here the "cost advantage" ratio cannot even be compared with previous processes. Studies were undertaken in parallel for defining different types of products derived from satellite imagery, as well as those domains where development effort is required in order to make new advances.

  13. Production of tyrosol by Candida albicans biofilms and its role in quorum sensing and biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Mohammed A S; Oteef, Mohammed D Y; Flowers, T Hugh; Douglas, L Julia

    2006-10-01

    Tyrosol and farnesol are quorum-sensing molecules produced by Candida albicans which accelerate and block, respectively, the morphological transition from yeasts to hyphae. In this study, we have investigated the secretion of tyrosol by C. albicans and explored its likely role in biofilm development. Both planktonic (suspended) cells and biofilms of four C. albicans strains, including three mutants with defined defects in the Efg 1 and Cph 1 morphogenetic signaling pathways, synthesized extracellular tyrosol during growth at 37 degrees C. There was a correlation between tyrosol production and biomass for both cell types. However, biofilm cells secreted at least 50% more tyrosol than did planktonic cells when tyrosol production was related to cell dry weight. The addition of exogenous farnesol to a wild-type strain inhibited biofilm formation by up to 33% after 48 h. Exogenous tyrosol appeared to have no effect, but scanning electron microscopy revealed that tyrosol stimulated hypha production during the early stages (1 to 6 h) of biofilm development. Experiments involving the simultaneous addition of tyrosol and farnesol at different concentrations suggested that the action of farnesol was dominant, and 48-h biofilms formed in the presence of both compounds consisted almost entirely of yeast cells. When biofilm supernatants were tested for their abilities to inhibit or enhance germ tube formation by planktonic cells, the results indicated that tyrosol activity exceeds that of farnesol after 14 h, but not after 24 h, and that farnesol activity increases significantly during the later stages (48 to 72 h) of biofilm development. Overall, our results support the conclusion that tyrosol acts as a quorum-sensing molecule for biofilms as well as for planktonic cells and that its action is most significant during the early and intermediate stages of biofilm formation.

  14. The Role of a Sense of School Belonging in Understanding the Effectiveness of Inclusion of Children with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily Jane; Hadwin, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This review integrates theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence of a sense of school belonging (SOSB) to highlight its importance in understanding the inclusion efficacy research for pupils with special educational needs (SEN). Specifically, it examines the role of a SOSB on pupils' cognitive, affective, behavioural and social developmental…

  15. The role of GIS and remote sensing in land degradation assessment and conservation mapping: some user experiences and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynden, van G.W.J.; Mantel, S.

    2001-01-01

    Planning strategies for sustainable land management require solid base line data on natural resources (soils, physiography, climate, vegetation, land use, etc.) and on socio-economic aspects. GIS and remote sensing have an important role in linkage and analysis of such data, in particular for detect

  16. Elucidation of the role of Grr1p in glucose sensing by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through genome-wide transcription analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Steen Lund; Bro, Christoffer; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    The role of Grr1p in glucose sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elucidated through genome-wide transcription analysis. From triplicate analysis of a strain with deletion of the GRR1-gene from the genome and an isogenic reference strain, 68 genes were identified to have significantly altered...

  17. The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia V Röder

    Full Text Available Intestinal glucose absorption is mediated by SGLT1 whereas GLUT2 is considered to provide basolateral exit. Recently, it was proposed that GLUT2 can be recruited into the apical membrane after a high luminal glucose bolus allowing bulk absorption of glucose by facilitated diffusion. Moreover, SGLT1 and GLUT2 are suggested to play an important role in intestinal glucose sensing and incretin secretion. In mice that lack either SGLT1 or GLUT2 we re-assessed the role of these transporters in intestinal glucose uptake after radiotracer glucose gavage and performed Western blot analysis for transporter abundance in apical membrane fractions in a comparative approach. Moreover, we examined the contribution of these transporters to glucose-induced changes in plasma GIP, GLP-1 and insulin levels. In mice lacking SGLT1, tissue retention of tracer glucose was drastically reduced throughout the entire small intestine whereas GLUT2-deficient animals exhibited higher tracer contents in tissue samples than wild type animals. Deletion of SGLT1 resulted also in reduced blood glucose elevations and abolished GIP and GLP-1 secretion in response to glucose. In mice lacking GLUT2, glucose-induced insulin but not incretin secretion was impaired. Western blot analysis revealed unchanged protein levels of SGLT1 after glucose gavage. GLUT2 detected in apical membrane fractions mainly resulted from contamination with basolateral membranes but did not change in density after glucose administration. SGLT1 is unequivocally the prime intestinal glucose transporter even at high luminal glucose concentrations. Moreover, SGLT1 mediates glucose-induced incretin secretion. Our studies do not provide evidence for GLUT2 playing any role in either apical glucose influx or incretin secretion.

  18. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  19. Evidence of a Light-Sensing Role for Folate in Arabidopsis Cryptochrome Blue-Light Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathalie Hoang; Jean-Pierre Bouly; Margaret Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Arabidopsis cryptochromes cry1 and cry2 are blue-light signalling molecules with significant structural similarity to photolyases-a class of blue-light-sensing DNA repair enzymes. Like photolyases, purified plant cryptochromes have been shown to bind both flavin and pterin chromophores. The flavin functions as a light sensor and undergoes reduction in response to blue light that initiates the signalling cascade. However, the role of the pterin in plant cryptochromes has until now been unknown. Here, we show that the action spectrum for light-dependent degradation of cry2 has a significant peak of activity at 380 nm, consistent with absorption by a pterin cofactor. We further show that cry1 protein expressed in living insect cells responds with greater sensitivity to 380 nm light than to 450 nm, consistent with a light-harvesting antenna pigment that transfers excitation energy to the oxidized flavin of cry1. The pterin biosynthesis inhibitor DHAP selectively reduces cryptochrome responsivity at 380 nm but not 450 nm blue light in these cell cultures, indicating that the antenna pigment is a folate cofactor similar to that of photolyases.

  20. Spatial Alignment of the Senses: The Role of Audition in Eye-Hand-Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Kluss

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensory modalities are usually appropriately aligned in space: audition, vision, and proprioception each direct actions to the same spatial coordinates. Subjects wearing prism glasses that shift the visual input first miss the target in a pointing task, but quickly adapt to the new sensorimotor configuration. This adaptation may take place either in the visual or the proprioceptive pathway, ie, the internal visual representation is shifted back or the proprioceptive one is shifted towards the new configuration. Usually, the proprioceptive component is affected, probably due to the often observed dominance of vision over other modalities. This process is changed when auditory stimuli are presented during prism exposure inducing a shift of the visual representation contrary to the aforementioned results, maybe because a cortical mechanism performs statistical reliability estimation: Both audition and proprioception remain unaffected by prism exposure and therefore force vision to realign. We investigated the influence of sound-source-location on prism-adaptation by assessing the effects of displaced (accordingly to the prism offset, centered and unlocalized sound-sources. We discuss the influence of spatial properties on sensory calibration, its implications on the notion of motor action as the binding element between senses and its role in spatial adaptation processes.

  1. The Role of Exploratory Conditions in Bio-Inspired Tactile Sensing of Single Topogical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Debrégeas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mechanism of tactile transduction during active exploration of finely textured surfaces using a tactile sensor mimicking the human fingertip. We focus in particular on the role of exploratory conditions in shaping the subcutaneous mechanical signals. The sensor has been designed by integrating a linear array of MEMS micro-force sensors in an elastomer layer. We measure the response of the sensors to the passage of elementary topographical features at constant velocity and normal load, such as a small hole on a flat substrate. Each sensor’s response is found to strongly depend on its relative location with respect to the substrate/skin contact zone, a result which can be quantitatively understood within the scope of a linear model of tactile transduction. The modification of the response induced by varying other parameters, such as the thickness of the elastic layer and the confining load, are also correctly captured by this model. We further demonstrate that the knowledge of these characteristic responses allows one to dynamically evaluate the position of a small hole within the contact zone, based on the micro-force sensors signals, with a spatial resolution an order of magnitude better than the intrinsic resolution of individual sensors. Consequences of these observations on robotic tactile sensing are briefly discussed.

  2. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  3. Quality of life in healthcare providers: the roles of Sense of Community and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: Sense of Community at work predicted greater Compassion Satisfaction, independent of coping style, gender, or job characteristics. Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that workplace Sense of Community is associated with an individual’s reported Compassion Satisfaction and may help explain resilience in healthcare staff.

  4. The proprioceptive senses: their roles in signaling body shape, body position and movement, and muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Uwe; Gandevia, Simon C

    2012-10-01

    This is a review of the proprioceptive senses generated as a result of our own actions. They include the senses of position and movement of our limbs and trunk, the sense of effort, the sense of force, and the sense of heaviness. Receptors involved in proprioception are located in skin, muscles, and joints. Information about limb position and movement is not generated by individual receptors, but by populations of afferents. Afferent signals generated during a movement are processed to code for endpoint position of a limb. The afferent input is referred to a central body map to determine the location of the limbs in space. Experimental phantom limbs, produced by blocking peripheral nerves, have shown that motor areas in the brain are able to generate conscious sensations of limb displacement and movement in the absence of any sensory input. In the normal limb tendon organs and possibly also muscle spindles contribute to the senses of force and heaviness. Exercise can disturb proprioception, and this has implications for musculoskeletal injuries. Proprioceptive senses, particularly of limb position and movement, deteriorate with age and are associated with an increased risk of falls in the elderly. The more recent information available on proprioception has given a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these senses as well as providing new insight into a range of clinical conditions.

  5. A role for AVIRIS in the Landsat and Advanced Land Remote Sensing Systems program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Simmonds, John J.

    1993-01-01

    As a calibrated imaging spectrometer flying at a 20 km altitude, AVIRIS may contribute to the Landsat and the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System efforts. These contributions come in the areas of: (1) on-orbit calibration, (2) specification of new spectral bands, (3) validation of algorithms, and (4) investigation of an imaging spectrometer of the Advanced Land Remote Sensing System.

  6. Educational multi-touch applications, number sense, and the homogenizing role of the educator

    OpenAIRE

    Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2016-01-01

    As part of an educational project proposed in Italian preschools, an educator followed a tested protocol proposing two chosen iPad apps to children of ages 5 to 6. Though her interventions were supposedly aimed at strengthening the number sense of the children, the result was a homogenization of their schemes, in various cases seemingly inhibiting development of number sense.

  7. Bacterial quorum sensing: its role in virulence and possibilities for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Steven T; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2012-11-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-cell communication that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly. This process enables bacteria to express energetically expensive processes as a collective only when the impact of those processes on the environment or on a host will be maximized. Among the many traits controlled by quorum sensing is the expression of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria. Here we review the quorum-sensing circuits of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae. We outline these canonical quorum-sensing mechanisms and how each uniquely controls virulence factor production. Additionally, we examine recent efforts to inhibit quorum sensing in these pathogens with the goal of designing novel antimicrobial therapeutics.

  8. Functional determinants of the quorum-sensing non-coding RNAs and their roles in target regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi; Feng, Lihui; Rutherford, Steven T; Papenfort, Kai; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2013-07-31

    Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to control collective behaviours including bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and virulence factor production. In Vibrio harveyi, five homologous small RNAs (sRNAs) called Qrr1-5, control quorum-sensing transitions. Here, we identify 16 new targets of the Qrr sRNAs. Mutagenesis reveals that particular sequence differences among the Qrr sRNAs determine their target specificities. Modelling coupled with biochemical and genetic analyses show that all five of the Qrr sRNAs possess four stem-loops: the first stem-loop is crucial for base pairing with a subset of targets. This stem-loop also protects the Qrr sRNAs from RNase E-mediated degradation. The second stem-loop contains conserved sequences required for base pairing with the majority of the target mRNAs. The third stem-loop plays an accessory role in base pairing and stability. The fourth stem-loop functions as a rho-independent terminator. In the quorum-sensing regulon, Qrr sRNAs-controlled genes are the most rapid to respond to quorum-sensing autoinducers. The Qrr sRNAs are conserved throughout vibrios, thus insights from this work could apply generally to Vibrio quorum sensing.

  9. Sense of mastery and metabolic risk: moderating role of the local fast-food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Dubé, Laurette; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark

    2010-04-01

    To test the moderating role of the extent of fast-food restaurants in one's immediate environment in the association between mastery and metabolic risk. Higher sense of mastery (perceived control over one's circumstances) has been associated with better metabolic outcomes. Mastery may be instrumental in resisting unhealthful environmental food cues when these become ubiquitous, resulting in a greater health impact of mastery. Blood samples were obtained from 344 individuals (50% men), aged 18 to 57 years (mean, 34.9 years), sampled from seven census tracts representing the spectrum of census tract-level socioeconomic status and language (French/English) in Montreal. Risk factors based on standards for high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin were summed to obtain a cumulative metabolic risk score. Mastery was self-reported, using a validated scale. The proportion of restaurants classified as fast-food within 500 m of participants' residences was determined, using a geographic information system. Main and interactive effects were tested with Poisson regression, accounting for clustering of observations and participants' age, gender, education, and income. Mastery interacted with fast-food exposure in relation to metabolic risk (p = .03). Higher mastery was significantly associated with lower metabolic risk for participants surrounded by a high proportion of fast food (relative risk, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.84; p restaurants (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.08; p = .37). A positive relationship between mastery and lower metabolic risk was most apparent in environments with higher fast-food exposure.

  10. Role of Remotely Sensed Observations and Computational Systems in Support of Decision-Making in Developing and Fragile States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maudood; Rickman, Doug; Limaye, Ashutosh; Crosson, Bill; Layman, Charles; Hemmings, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The topics covered in this slide presentation are: (1) Post-war growth of U.S scientific enterprise, (2) Success of air quality regulations, (3) Complexity and coupled systems, (4) Advances in remote sensing technology, (5) Development planning in the 21stcentury, (5a) The challenge for policy maker and scientist, (5b) Decision-making science, (5c) Role of public-private partnerships.

  11. Is there a role for quorum sensing signals in bacterial biofilms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelleberg, S.; Molin, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria form multicellular biofilm communities on most surfaces. Genetic analysis of biofilm formation has led to the proposal that extracellular signals and quorum-sensing regulatory systems are essential for differentiated biofilms. Although such a model fits the concept of density-driven cell...... adaptation during the different stages of biofilm formation. Hence, differentiated biofilms may also be the net result of many independent interactions, rather than being determined by a particular global quorum sensing system....

  12. The role of support and the sense of coherence indealing with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kurowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder. The course of this medical condition and its treatment depend to a large extent on the patients. The ability to overcome difficult situations, related to such disorder and ways of coping with stress, is influenced by a factor called Sense of Coherence (SOC. The Sense of Coherence (SOC explains the correlation between support and health. A high level of SOC gives faith in the meaning of life, the way in which life is arranged, life’s predictability – all that makes us eager to be fit and healthy. Social support is an external resource that influences health. Aim: Identification of the relationship between the need for support and the level of the Sense of Coherence as an exponent of the effectiveness of the treatment of schizophrenia. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 102 patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in the psychiatric ward in the Provincial Hospital for the Mentally Ill “Dziekanka” in Gniezno. Sense of Coherence was assessed using Antonovsky SOC-29 and the measurement of social support was assessed against the Kmiecik-Baran scale. Result: The subjects had an average level of Sense of Coherence and social support. Emotional support received from relatives and medical staff was perceived the highest. The performance support increased along with Sense of Coherence. Conclusions: Assessing the level of Sense of Coherence and support received by patients with schizophrenia will help to determine the need for social support and its well-adjusted types, which may have a significant impact on patients’ social functioning and finding more efficient ways of coping with the symptoms of the disease.

  13. Role of Nutrient-Sensing Signals in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kume

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The multipronged drug approach still fails to fully prevent the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, a new therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy is urgently required. Nutrient-sensing signals and their related intracellular machinery have evolved to combat prolonged periods of starvation in mammals; and these systems are conserved in the kidney. Recent studies have suggested that the activity of three nutrient-sensing signals, mTORC1, AMPK, and Sirt1, is altered in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, autophagy activity, which is regulated by the above-mentioned nutrient-sensing signals, is also altered in both podocytes and proximal tubular cells under diabetic conditions. Under diabetic conditions, an altered nutritional state owing to nutrient excess may disturb cellular homeostasis regulated by nutrient-responsible systems, leading to exacerbation of organelle dysfunction and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we discuss new findings showing relationships between nutrient-sensing signals, autophagy, and diabetic nephropathy and suggest the therapeutic potential of nutrient-sensing signals in diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Understanding the role of emotion in sense-making: a semiotic psychoanalytic oriented perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Sergio; Venuleo, Claudia

    2008-03-01

    We propose a model of emotion grounded on Ignacio Matte Blanco's theory of the unconscious. According to this conceptualization, emotion is a generalized representation of the social context actors are involved in. We discuss how this model can help to better understand the sensemaking processes. For this purpose we present a hierarchical model of sensemaking based on the distinction between significance--the content of the sign--and sense--the psychological value of the act of producing the sign in the given contingence of the social exchange. According to this model, emotion categorization produces the frame of sense regulating the interpretation of the sense of the signs, therefore creating the psychological value of the sensemaking.

  15. Sense of coherence and burnout in the energy and chemicals industry: The moderating role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet van der Westhuizen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are accommodating four different social generations in the working environment. This poses a challenge for Human Resources departments to manage these diverse age cohorts in the workforce, as they are likely to have different needs, values and variables affecting their wellness.Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether various age groups differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, and whether age significantly moderates the relationship between sense of coherence and burnout.Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that age groups may differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, the findings seem to be somewhat inconclusive in this regard. There also seems to be a paucity of research examining the interaction effect between sense of coherence, burnout and age. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used. A nonprobability convenience sample of adults (N = 246 – employed in South Africa by an international integrated energy and chemicals company – participated in the study. Correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objectives of the study.Main findings: The results showed that employees between the ages of 51 and 60 years of age experienced higher levels of comprehensibility and lower levels of reduced professional efficacy than their younger counterparts. The relationship between sense of coherence and exhaustion was also stronger for employees between 51 and 60 years old than for younger age categories.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when planning human resource interventions to enhance the well-being of employees from different age groups.Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the well-being literature by showing that employees’ age is

  16. Airborne Particles: What We Have Learned About Their Role in Climate from Remote Sensing, and Prospects for Future Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Desert dust, wildfire smoke, volcanic ash, biogenic and urban pollution particles, all affect the regional-scale climate of Earth in places and at times; some have global-scale impacts on the column radiation balance, cloud properties, atmospheric stability structure, and circulation patterns. Remote sensing has played a central role in identifying the sources and transports of airborne particles, mapping their three-dimensional distribution and variability, quantifying their amount, and constraining aerosol air mass type. The measurements obtained from remote sensing have strengths and limitations, and their value for characterizing Earths environment is enhanced immensely when they are combined with direct, in situ observations, and used to constrain aerosol transport and climate models. A similar approach has been taken to study the role particles play in determining the climate of Mars, though based on far fewer observations. This presentation will focus what we have learned from remote sensing about the impacts aerosol have on Earths climate; a few points about how aerosols affect the climate of Mars will also be introduced, in the context of how we might assess aerosol-climate impacts more generally on other worlds.

  17. The Roles of Semantic Sense and Form-Meaning Connection in Translation Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueying; Cheung, Him; Bel, David; Li, Li; Chen, Lin; Mo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic sense and form-meaning connection across the bilingual's languages as factors behind translation priming asymmetry, which refers to semantic priming between translation equivalents with L1 (first language) primes and L2 (second language) targets, but the lack of it in the reverse direction. In Experiment 1, many-sense…

  18. The Roles of Negative Career Thoughts and Sense of Coherence in Predicting Career Decision Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. Kirk; Dahl, A. Dennis; Wagner, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sense of coherence and negative career thoughts was investigated in a non-college-based population to determine the relationship and predictive value of these factors toward career decision status. Participants completed the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Career Thoughts Inventory, and Career Decision Profile's…

  19. Scrutinizing Common Sense: The Role of Practical Intelligence in Intellectual Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne

    2000-01-01

    Results from questionnaires administered to 296 gifted and mainstream eighth-graders from Singapore and clinical interviews found that regardless of academic ability, children "high" in practical intelligence displayed a heightened sense of self and a keener awareness of the hidden curriculum and larger goals of the school. (Contains…

  20. The role of sense of effort on self-selected cycling power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan James Christian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We explored the effects of the sense of effort and accompanying perceptions of peripheral discomfort on self-selected cycle power output under two different inspired O2 fractions.Methods: On separate days, eight trained males cycled for 5 minutes at a constant subjective effort (sense of effort of ‘3’ on a modified Borg CR10 scale, immediately followed by five 4-s progressive submaximal (sense of effort of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8; 40 s between bouts and two 4-s maximal (sense of effort of 10; 3 min between bouts bouts under normoxia (NM: fraction of inspired O2 [FiO2] 0.21 and hypoxia (HY: [FiO2] 0.13. Physiological (Heart Rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and quadriceps Root Mean Square (RMS electromyographical activity and perceptual responses (overall peripheral discomfort, difficulty breathing and limb discomfort were recorded.Results: Power output and normalized quadriceps RMS activity were not different between conditions during any exercise bout (p > 0.05 and remained unchanged across time during the constant-effort cycling. SpO2 was lower, while heart rate and ratings of perceived difficulty breathing were higher under HY, compared to NM, at all time points (p

  1. The Roles of Semantic Sense and Form-Meaning Connection in Translation Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueying; Cheung, Him; Bel, David; Li, Li; Chen, Lin; Mo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic sense and form-meaning connection across the bilingual's languages as factors behind translation priming asymmetry, which refers to semantic priming between translation equivalents with L1 (first language) primes and L2 (second language) targets, but the lack of it in the reverse direction. In Experiment 1, many-sense…

  2. Competition among states: Case studies in the political role of remote sensing capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Audrey Ann

    International politics is a competitive realm. One of the most powerful modern advantages in this competitive world is the ownership of independent and autonomous remote sensing satellites. Few have this venue for competition and those that do belong to a very exclusive groups of states. Kenneth Waltz, author of Theory of International Politics, theorized that states emulate the innovations, strategies and practices of those countries with the greatest capability and ingenuity. As Waltz explains, states will emulate the leader in an anarchic realm to attain the same capabilities that helped the hegemon attain or maintain its status. Waltz referred to this as a tendency toward sameness of the competitors. Modern-day states that pursue global preeminence often exhibit exceptional risk-taking and significant technological innovation. They also challenge the recognized hegemon in an area of expertise and leadership. Realists would say that these states are emulating the behavior of the states they view as successful in order to maintain or improve their position in the world order. Realists also point out that strategic interests lead states to try to gain or at least neutralize those areas that, if controlled by an adversary, could menace them. Realist writers suggest that states will be reluctant to cede control of an important new technology to another state, even a friendly one, lest they find themselves permanently disadvantaged in an on-going contest for wealth, influence and even preeminence. The purpose of this research is to investigate if remote sensing capabilities are a venue of competition among modern states and one that they view as a potential path to global preeminence. Why do some states expend scarce resources to develop and maintain an indigenous remote sensing capability when it appears that they can acquire much of the end product from other sources at a reasonable cost? If this is true, it should be possible to confirm that states acquire end

  3. The role of sports in making sense of the process of growing old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eman, Josefin

    2012-12-01

    Drawing on interviews with 22 athletically active old men and women, the study explores whether and how the practice of sports can affect old adults' processes of sense-making about old age and the process of growing old in ways that challenge dominant constructions about old age. Thereto, the study will explore the possible impact of gender in this process. The results show that men and women who continue to practice competitive sports into old age make sense of the process of growing old by focusing primarily on their physical abilities, at least in the context of sports. This focus on capability age allows them partly, although not completely, to challenge the usual thinking about old age and the process of growing old.

  4. THE EFFECT OF JOB EMBEDDEDNESS ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: The Mediating Role of Sense of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifacius Riwi Wijayanto

    2004-09-01

    Nurses (N = 170 and their immediate supervisors ( N = 41 from five privately owned hospital in Jogjakarta participated in this study. Of 340 questionnaires distributed to the respondents, 339 were returned yielding a response rate of 99 percent. Of those returned, 300 questionnaires were available for further analyses. Nurses were asked to respond to a questionnaire of 40 items concerning perception of embeddedness and 4 item concerning sense of responsibility to their employing organization. Nurses’ citizenship behavior were measured using 12 items as rated by their immediate supervisors. The results support the hypothesis that job embeddedness correlates positively with OCB. However, our result failed to support the prediction of the mediating effect of employees’ sense of responsibility in causal relationship between job embeddedness and OCB. The implications of the findings for further research on relationship between job embeddedness and OCB research are discussed.

  5. The role of quorum sensing in the pathogenicity of the cunning aggressor Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    that bacteria preferentially live in communities in the form of primitive organisms in which the behavior of individual cells is coordinated by cell-cell communication, known as quorum sensing (QS). Bacteria use QS for regulation of the processes involved in their interaction with each other, their environment...... in the protective mechanisms of P. aeruginosa and show how disruption of the QS can be used as an approach to control this cunning aggressor....

  6. The Role of Placental Nutrient Sensing in Maternal-Fetal Resource Allocation1

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Paula; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The placenta mediates maternal-fetal exchange and has historically been regarded as a passive conduit for nutrients. However, emerging evidence suggests that the placenta actively responds to nutritional and metabolic signals from the mother and the fetus. We propose that the placenta integrates a multitude of maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient-sensing signaling pathways to match fetal demand with maternal supply by regulating maternal physiology, pla...

  7. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  8. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  9. Filling Gaps in Global Data Sets: The Role of New Vegetation Remote Sensing Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.; Fisher, J. B.; Pavlick, R.; Saatchi, S. S.; Asner, G. P.; Frankenberg, C.; Townsend, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute substantial uncertainty to model projections of future climate, but the real controls and sensitivities are poorly constrained by observations, especially at large scales. Local studies provide the most direct information about cause and effect in the terresrial carbon system, but are difficult to scale up. Atmospheric analyses provide the best large-scale information, but inferences from atmospherioc CO2 are so coarse they are difficult to relate to specific mechanisms. Remote sensing is at the appropriate scale but vegetation index-based measures do not correspond directly to specific ecosystem processes and have been of limited success in parameterizing or falsifying models. We analyze extant global data sources for three key terrestrial carbon cycle quantities: ecosystem carbon fluxes, aboveground biomass and plant growth parameters (traits), revealing a sampling pattern far from optimum. Flux measurements are sparse in regions where fluxes are highest and most variable, biomass measurements are limited where biomass is highest, and plant trait data are scarcest where plant diversity is highest. The likely carbon cycle tipping point regions in high and low latitudes are scarcely observed by the standards of the mid-latitudes. Strategic and synergistic use of available in situ and emerging space-based observations can provide critical information needed to detect and forecast change. New remote sensing data products can contribute significantly to filling sampling gaps in the global observing system, as well as potentially addressing sensitivities at appropriate scales for testing global models. Environment and logistics limit extensive deployment of additional in situ observations in challenging tropical and Arctic-Boreal environments, so increasing use of space-based techniques is important for increasing sampling density and reducing uncertainty. Much greater integration between the remote sensing

  10. Role of LAMP1 Binding and pH Sensing by the Spike Complex of Lassa Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Israeli, Hadar; Shani, Orly; Katz, Aliza; Diskin, Ron

    2016-11-15

    To effectively infect cells, Lassa virus needs to switch in an endosomal compartment from its primary receptor, α-dystroglycan, to a protein termed LAMP1. A unique histidine triad on the surface of the receptor-binding domain from the glycoprotein spike complex of Lassa virus is important for LAMP1 binding. Here we investigate mutated spikes that have an impaired ability to interact with LAMP1 and show that although LAMP1 is important for efficient infectivity, it is not required for spike-mediated membrane fusion per se Our studies reveal important regulatory roles for histidines from the triad in sensing acidic pH and preventing premature spike triggering. We further show that LAMP1 requires a positively charged His230 residue to engage with the spike complex and that LAMP1 binding promotes membrane fusion. These results elucidate the molecular role of LAMP1 binding during Lassa virus cell entry and provide new insights into how pH is sensed by the spike.

  11. Finite-size effect on the dynamic and sensing performances of graphene resonators: the role of edge stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Wan; Dai, Mai Duc; Eom, Kilho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the finite-size effect on the dynamic behavior of graphene resonators and their applications in atomic mass detection using a continuum elastic model such as modified plate theory. In particular, we developed a model based on von Karman plate theory with including the edge stress, which arises from the imbalance between the coordination numbers of bulk atoms and edge atoms of graphene. It is shown that as the size of a graphene resonator decreases, the edge stress depending on the edge structure of a graphene resonator plays a critical role on both its dynamic and sensing performances. We found that the resonance behavior of graphene can be tuned not only through edge stress but also through nonlinear vibration, and that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be controlled by using the edge stress. Our study sheds light on the important role of the finite-size effect in the effective design of graphene resonators for their mass sensing applications.

  12. Role of the bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase in pH sensing and metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chin eChang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionarily conserved soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, adcy10 was recently identified as a unique source of cAMP in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Its activity is regulated by bicarbonate and fine-tuned by calcium. As such, and in conjunction with carbonic anhydrase (CA, sAC constitutes an HCO3-/CO¬2/pH sensor. In both alpha-intercalated cells of the collecting duct and the clear cells of the epididymis, sAC is expressed at significant level and involved in pH homeostasis via apical recruitment of vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA in a PKA-dependent manner. In addition to maintenance of pH homeostasis, sAC is also involved in metabolic regulation such as coupling of Krebs cycle to oxidative phosphorylation via bicarbonate/CO2 sensing. Additionally, sAC also regulates CFTR channel and plays an important role in regulation of barrier function and apoptosis. These observations suggest that sAC, via bicarbonate-sensing, plays an important role in maintaining homeostatic status of cells against fluctuations in their microenvironment.

  13. The role of Zn vacancies in UV sensing with ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Mirabella, S.

    2016-10-01

    The UV sensing properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) fabricated by a chemical bath deposition using two different hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) concentrations, 25 mM and 50 mM, are studied in this work. The NRs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and photoconductivity measurements. The SEM images indicate that 25 mM HMTA NRs exhibit merging that increases the growth induced defects in this sample with respect to the 50 mM sample. PL measurements demonstrate a higher optical transition from the doubly ionized Zn vacancy ( VZ n 2 - ) at 2.52 eV in the 50 mM ZnO NRs due to the reduced growth defect density. The photoconductivity measurements indicate better sensitivity and spectral selectivity in the 50 mM NRs, which we present as a result of the VZ n 2 - state. These results are summarised with a UV sensing model based on the optical properties of ZnO NRs, which provides a route for the development of improved sensors.

  14. Quorum quenching enzymes and their application in degrading signal molecules to block quorum sensing-dependent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Gao, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

    2013-08-26

    With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  15. Quorum Quenching Enzymes and Their Application in Degrading Signal Molecules to Block Quorum Sensing-Dependent Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  16. Emerging roles for the pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in response to acidotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderlin EJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Sanderlin,1 Calvin R Justus,1 Elizabeth A Krewson,2 Li V Yang1,21Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA; 2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA Abstract: Protons (hydrogen ions are the simplest form of ions universally produced by cellular metabolism including aerobic respiration and glycolysis. Export of protons out of cells by a number of acid transporters is essential to maintain a stable intracellular pH that is critical for normal cell function. Acid products in the tissue interstitium are removed by blood perfusion and excreted from the body through the respiratory and renal systems. However, the pH homeostasis in tissues is frequently disrupted in many pathophysiologic conditions such as in ischemic tissues and tumors where protons are overproduced and blood perfusion is compromised. Consequently, accumulation of protons causes acidosis in the affected tissue. Although acidosis has profound effects on cell function and disease progression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to acidotic stress. Recently a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8, and GPR68 (OGR1, has been identified and characterized. These GPCRs can be activated by extracellular acidic pH through the protonation of histidine residues of the receptors. Upon activation by acidosis the pH-sensing GPCRs can transduce several downstream G protein pathways such as the Gs, Gq/11, and G12/13 pathways to regulate cell behavior. Studies have revealed the biological roles of the pH-sensing GPCRs in the immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, skeletal, endocrine, and nervous systems, as well as the involvement of these receptors in a variety of pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation, pain, and cardiovascular disease. As GPCRs are

  17. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.

  18. Organizational change and employees' mental health: the protective role of sense of coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahkin, Krista; Väänänen, Ari; Koskinen, Aki; Bergbom, Barbara; Kouvonen, Anne

    2011-02-01

    To examine the impact of sense of coherence (SOC) on psychiatric events in the context of organizational merger. Data were derived from a prospective "Still Working" study using questionnaire and health register data. The study population (n = 4279) consisted of employees with no psychiatric events prior to the 5-year mental health follow-up. Employees with a weaker premerger SOC were at a higher risk of perceiving the organizational change negatively (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.57 to 2.14) and had an elevated risk of postmerger psychiatric events (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.94). A stronger SOC decreased the adverse effect of negative appraisal of change on psychiatric events. A strong premerger SOC seems to be a protective factor for mental health when the employee experiences negative changes during an organizational merger.

  19. Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Gandolfi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU-1 (refractive index unit are feasible.

  20. Role of Edge Inclination in an Optical Microdisk Resonator for Label-Free Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Davide; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Rebollo, Francisco Javier Aparicio; Ghulinyan, Mher; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the measurement and modeling of enhanced optical refractometric sensors based on whispering gallery modes. The devices under test are optical microresonators made of silicon nitride on silicon oxide, which differ in their sidewall inclination angle. In our approach, these microresonators are vertically coupled to a buried waveguide with the aim of creating integrated and cost-effective devices. Device modeling shows that the optimization of the device is a delicate balance of the resonance quality factor and evanescent field overlap with the surrounding environment to analyze. By numerical simulations, we show that the microdisk thickness is critical to yield a high figure of merit for the sensor and that edge inclination should be kept as high as possible. We also show that bulk-sensing figures of merit as high as 1600 RIU−1 (refractive index unit) are feasible. PMID:25730483

  1. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  2. From Plant Infectivity to Growth Patterns: The Role of Blue-Light Sensing in the Prokaryotic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Losi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavin-based photoreceptor proteins of the LOV (Light, Oxygen, and Voltage and BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using Flavins superfamilies are ubiquitous among the three life domains and are essential blue-light sensing systems, not only in plants and algae, but also in prokaryotes. Here we review their biological roles in the prokaryotic world and their evolution pathways. An unexpected large number of bacterial species possess flavin-based photosensors, amongst which are important human and plant pathogens. Still, few cases are reported where the activity of blue-light sensors could be correlated to infectivity and/or has been shown to be involved in the activation of specific genes, resulting in selective growth patterns. Metagenomics and bio-informatic analysis have only recently been initiated, but signatures are beginning to emerge that allow definition of a bona fide LOV or BLUF domain, aiming at better selection criteria for novel blue-light sensors. We also present here, for the first time, the phylogenetic tree for archaeal LOV domains that have reached a statistically significant number but have not at all been investigated thus far.

  3. Participation and Privacy perception in virtual environments: the role of sense of community, culture and sex between Italian and Turkish

    CERN Document Server

    Guazzini, Andrea; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; Vilone, Daniele; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information and communication technologies have enhanced our possibilities to communicate worldwide, eliminating borders and making it possible to interact with people coming from other cultures like never happened before. Such powerful tools have brought us to reconsider our concept of privacy and social involvement in order to make them fit into this wider environment. It is possible to claim that the ICT revolution is changing our world and is having a core role as a mediating factor for social movements (e.g., Arab spring) and political decisions (e.g., Brexit), shaping the world in a faster and shared brand new way. It is then interesting to explore how the perception of this brand new environment (in terms of social engagement, privacy perception and sense of belonging to a community) differs even in similar cultures separated by recent historical reasons, as for example in Italian and Turkish cultures.

  4. On the role of a coumarin derivative for sensing applications: Nucleotide identification using a micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoschi, Alexandre; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco; Meli, Valeria; Murgia, Sergio; Tamburro, Manuela; Caltagirone, Claudia; Cuomo, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The recognition of nucleotides is of crucial importance because they are the basic constituents of nucleic acids. The present study is focused on the selective interaction between a novel amphiphilic fluorophore containing coumarin and imidazole, CI (1-methyl-3-(12-((2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)dodecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide), and different nucleotide-monophosphates (NMPs). It was supposed that the solubilization of the low water soluble CI in a micelle system of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) would make the coumarin moiety of CI available to the interaction with the water-soluble NMPs. Changes in CTAC critical micelle concentration suggested that CI strongly interacted with the host cationic surfactant, thus forming a positively charged interface enriched with coumarin able to interact with the anionic NMPs. Steady-state fluorescence quenching revealed that CI/CTAC system was capable of distinguish between purine- and pyrimidine-based nucleotides. A modified Stern-Volmer equation permitted the use of a quenching model that accounted for the possible interactions between the micelles and the nucleotides. The data analysis allowed calculating selective parameters that differentiated according to the type of nucleotide either at 25 or 50°C. Our results established the utility of the novel coumarin derivative fluorophore, supported by the simple and suitable micellar systems, as a tool for DNA sensing applications.

  5. Innate immune sensing of cancer: clues from an identified role for type I IFNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Thomas F; Fuertes, Mercedes B; Woo, Seng-Ryong

    2012-08-01

    A subset of patients with a variety of cancers shows evidence of a natural adaptive immune response against their tumor, as evidenced by spontaneous T-cell infiltration, circulating anti-tumor T cells, or antibody responses. Evidence has indicated that such natural immune responses have positive prognostic import in early stage disease and may be predictive of clinical response to immunotherapeutics in advanced disease. However, these observations raise a new critical fundamental question-what innate immune signals might be generated in the context of non-pathogen-induced cancers that drive productive antigen presentation toward induction of an adaptive immune response? Gene expression profiling in melanoma revealed that tumors having high expression of T-cell markers also show evidence of a type I IFN transcriptional signature. Mechanistic experiments in mice have revealed that a spontaneous CD8(+) T-cell response against transplantable tumors depends on host type I IFN signaling, through a mechanism dependent upon CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs). The requirement for type I IFN production by host DCs has suggested a subset of innate immune sensing receptors and signaling pathways that might be involved with initiating this process. Elucidating further these innate immune mechanisms should provide new insights into cancer immunotherapy.

  6. A Novel Role for the Calcium Sensing Receptor in Rat Diabetic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic encephalopathy is a common complication of diabetes, and it may be involved in altering intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i at its onset. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor, however, the functional involvement of CaSR in diabetic encephalopathy remains unclear. Methods: In this study, diabetic rats were modeled by STZ (50 mg/kg. At the end of 4, 8 and 12 weeks, the CaSR expression in hippocampus was analyzed by Western blot. In neonatal rat hippocampal neurons, the [Ca2+]i was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in mitochondria, the level of NO and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential were measured by MitoSOX, DAF-FM and JC-1, respectively. Results: Our results showed in hippocampal neurons treated with high glucose, CaSR regulated [Ca2+]i through the PLC-IP3 pathway. CaSR expression was decreased and was involved in the changes in [Ca2+]i. Mitochondrial membrane potential, NO release and expression of p-eNOS decreased, while the production of ROS in mitochondria increased. Conclusion: Down-regulation of CaSR expression was accompanied by neuronal injury, calcium disturbance, increased ROS production and decreased release of NO. Up-regulation of CaSR expression attenuated these changes through a positive compensatory protective mechanism to inhibit and delay diabetic encephalopathy in rats.

  7. Safeguard against DNA sensing: The role of TREX1 in HIV-1 infection and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eYan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune recognition is crucial for host responses against viral infections, including infection by human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1. Human cells detect such invading pathogens with a collection of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that activate the production of antiviral proteins, such as the cytokine interferon-type I, to initiate antiviral responses immediately as well as the adaptive immune response for long-term protection. To establish infection in the host, many viruses have thus evolved strategies for subversion of these mechanisms of innate immunity. For example, acute infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses have long been thought to be non-immunogenic, signifying suppression of host defenses by these pathogens. Studies in the past few years have begun to uncover a multifaceted scheme of how HIV-1 evades innate immune detection, especially of its DNA, by exploiting host proteins. This review will discuss the host mechanisms of HIV-1 DNA sensing and viral immune evasion, with a particular focus on TREX1, a host 3’ to 5’ exodeoxyribonuclease (also known as DNase III.

  8. A possible significant role of zinc and GPR39 zinc sensing receptor in Alzheimer disease and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Zahid

    2016-04-01

    Zinc the essential trace element, plays a significant role in the brain development and in the proper brain functions at every stage of life. Misbalance of zinc (Zn(2+)) ions in the central nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Depression, and Epilepsy. In brain, Zn(2+) has been identified as a ligand, capable of activating and inhibiting the receptors including the NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), GABAA receptors, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), glycine receptors (glyR) and serotonin receptors (5-HT3). Recently GPR39 has been identified as a zinc-specific receptor, widely expressed in brain tissues including the frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. GPR39, when binding with Zn(2+) has shown promising therapeutic potentials. This review presents current knowledge regarding the role of GPR39 zinc sensing receptor in brain, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease and Epilepsy. Although the results are encouraging, further research is needed to clarify zinc and GPR39 role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and Epilepsy.

  9. The role of the cytoskeleton in sensing changes in gravity by nonspecialized cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorselen, Daan; Roos, Wouter H.; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that single cells in vitro respond to changes in gravity, and that this response might play an important role for physiological changes at the organism level during spaceflight. Gravity can lead to changes in cell proliferation, differentiation, signaling, and gene

  10. The role of quorum sensing in the pathogenicity of the cunning aggressor Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    , and, particularly, higher organisms We have focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen producing more than 30 QS-regulated virulence factors. P. aeruginosa causes several types of nosocomial infection, and lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We review the role of QS...

  11. The Role of Carbohydrate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Sugar Sensing and Differentiation in Sugar Beet Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hagége

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is influenced by changes in the levels and types of sugars produced metabolically. The normal (N, habituated organogenic (HO and habituated nonorganogenic (HNO sugar beet cell lines originate from the same mother plant but exhibit distinct levels of morphogenesis and differentiation, and contain different levels of simple carbohydrates. We aim to elucidate whether differences in the abundance and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar sensing/signalling help explain the different carbohydrate profiles and differentiation states of the cell lines. Using 13C NMR spectroscopy to analyze cultures of the cell lines over 28 days, we found that N cells accumulated sucrose; HO cells sucrose, glucose and fructose; and HNO cells glucose and fructose. Of three invertase isoforms, the activity of cell wall invertase (CWI was highest in all the cell lines, and CWI activity was greatest in HNO line. The specific accumulation of intracellular carbohydrates during subculture correlated strongly with CWI activity but less so with the vacuolar and cytoplasmic invertase isoforms, or with sucrose synthase activity. Cell lines showed differences in how sugars regulated invertase and sucrose synthase activity. The role of sugar sensing in the regulation of CWI activity was investigated in the cell lines using glucose and sucrose, as well as carbohydrate analogues such as mannitol, 2-O-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Differences in the regulation of CWI activity by carbohydrates across the three cell lines suggest that CWI can be fine-tuned according to the specific carbohydrate requirements of each line during growth. Differences in sugar signalling pathways across the cell lines were explored using glucose and sucrose in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinases or phosphatases. Taken together, our findings suggest that specific regulation of CWI activity plays an important role in determining the intracellular

  12. Sensing of dietary lipids by enterocytes: a new role for SR-BI/CLA-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestine is responsible for absorbing dietary lipids and delivering them to the organism as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL. It is important to determine how this process is regulated in enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the intestine, as prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. During the postprandial period, dietary lipids, mostly triglycerides (TG hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, are combined with bile products and reach the apical membrane of enterocytes as postprandial micelles (PPM. Our aim was to determine whether these micelles induce, in enterocytes, specific early cell signaling events that could control the processes leading to TRL secretion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of supplying PPM to the apex of Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were analyzed. Micelles devoid of TG hydrolysis products, like those present in the intestinal lumen in the interprandial period, were used as controls. The apical delivery of PPM specifically induced a number of cellular events that are not induced by interprandial micelles. These early events included the trafficking of apolipoprotein B, a structural component of TRL, from apical towards secretory domains, and the rapid, dose-dependent activation of ERK and p38MAPK. PPM supply induced the scavenger receptor SR-BI/CLA-1 to cluster at the apical brush border membrane and to move from non-raft to raft domains. Competition, inhibition or knockdown of SR-BI/CLA-1 impaired the PPM-dependent apoB trafficking and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first evidence that enterocytes specifically sense postprandial dietary lipid-containing micelles. SR-BI/CLA-1 is involved in this process and could be a target for further study with a view to modifying intestinal TRL secretion early in the control pathway.

  13. CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS OF HUMAN NEURAL CELLS PLAY CRUCIAL ROLES IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eChiarini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In aged subjects, late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD starts in the lateral entorhinal allocortex where a failure of clearance mechanisms triggers an accumulation neurotoxic of amyloid-β42 oligomers (Aβ42-os. In neurons and astrocytes, Aβ42-os enhance the transcription of Aβ precursor protein (APP and β-secretase/BACE1 genes. Thus, by acting together with γ-secretase, the surpluses of APP and BACE1 amplify the endogenous production of Aβ42-os which pile up, damage mitochondria, and are oversecreted. At the plasmalemma, exogenous Aβ42-os bind neurons' and astrocytes' calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs activating a set of intracellular signalling pathways which upkeep Aβ42-os intracellular accumulation and oversecretion by hindering Aβ42-os proteolysis. In addition, Aβ42-os accumulating in the extracellular milieu spread and reach mounting numbers of adjacent and remoter teams of neurons and astrocytes which in turn are recruited, again via Aβ42-osCaSR-governed mechanisms, to produce and release additional Aβ42-os amounts. This relentless self-sustaining mechanism drives AD progression towards upper cortical areas. Later on accumulating Aβ42-os elicit the advent of hyperphosphorylated (p-Tau oligomers which acting together with Aβ42-os and other glial neurotoxins cooperatively destroy wider and wider cognition-related cortical areas. In parallel, Aβ42-osCaSR signals also elicit an excess production and secretion of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor-A from astrocytes, of Aβ42-os and myelin basic protein from oligodendrocytes, and of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and (likely Aβ42-os from microglia. Activated astrocytes and microglia survive the toxic onslaught, whereas neurons and oligodendrocytes increasingly die. However, we have shown that highly selective allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics, like NPS 2143 and NPS 89626, efficiently suppress all the neurotoxic effects Aβ42-osCaSR signalling

  14. Making sense of high sensitivity troponin assays and their role in clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lori B

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac troponin assays have an established and undisputed role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction. As troponin assays gets more sensitive and more precise, the number of potential uses has rapidly expanded, but the use of this test has also become more complicated and controversial. Highly sensitive troponin assays can now detect troponin levels in most individuals, but accurate interpretation of these levels requires a clear understanding of the assay in the context of the clinical scenario. This paper provides a practical and up-to-date overview of the uses of highly sensitive troponin assays for diagnosis, prognosis, and risk stratification in clinical practice.

  15. 'It really makes good sense': the role of outcome evaluation in aphasia therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundMeasuring or evaluating outcomes is a common activity for many speech-language therapists (SLTs). A major focus has been on external forces claiming outcome evaluation to optimize quality and the use of resources without integrating the viewpoints of SLTs. AimsTo identify the purpose...... of insight and promotion of acceptance for the clients and significant others to planning the next step in therapy or in life with aphasia after therapy. In all of which the clients play a significant role, since their active participation is sought throughout the sessions. Conclusion & Implications...

  16. The role of aluminum sensing and signaling in plant aluminum resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping Liu; Miguel A. Piñeros; Leon V. Kochian

    2014-01-01

    As researchers have gained a better understanding in recent years into the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis of how plants deal with aluminum (Al) toxicity in acid soils prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics, it has become clear that an important component of these responses is the triggering and regulation of cellular pathways and processes by Al. In this review of plant Al signaling, we begin by summarizing the understanding of physiological mechanisms of Al resis-tance, which first led researchers to realize that Al stress induces gene expression and modifies protein function during the activation of Al resistance responses. Subsequently, an overview of Al resistance genes and their function provides verification that Al induction of gene expression plays a major role in Al resistance in many plant species. More recent research into the mechanistic basis for Al-induced transcrip-tional activation of resistance genes has led to the identifica-tion of several transcription factors as wel as cis-elements in the promoters of Al resistance genes that play a role in greater Al-induced gene expression as wel as higher constitutive expression of resistance genes in some plant species. Final y, the post-transcriptional and translational regulation of Al resistance proteins is addressed, where recent research has shown that Al can both directly bind to and alter activity of certain organic acid transporters, and also influence Al resistance proteins indirectly, via protein phosphorylation.

  17. Sense or Sensibility?: How Commitment Mediates the Role of Self-Service Technology on Loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Olsen, Line Lervik

    It has been well documented that employing self-service technology (SST) results in considerable cost savings but few studies have examined its impact on consumers’ behavior. We apply a well-recognized model from the field of services marketing in an SST context. We examine how the established relationships between satisfaction, affective and calculative commitments, and loyalty are affected when the service is provided through a technology interface as opposed to service personnel. We then present two alternative perspectives on the role of SST. The first is based on the predominant assumption that SST is a moderator of the relationship between customer loyalty and its drivers, while the other rests on the assumption that SST is just another context and that its role in affecting customer loyalty is mediated by drivers of loyalty. A cross-sectional study conducted in the banking industry shows that SST does not change everything. The classical model of how customers evaluate services and the predictors of loyalty are replicated in the SST setting. Interestingly, SST does not have a direct influence on loyalty by itself but its effects are mediated by commitment. However, it is the affective commitment that is more important in forming loyalty toward the service provider.

  18. Numerical simulation of the role of the utriculo-endolymphatic valve in the rotation-sensing capabilities of semicircular canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shuang; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Liu, Yingxi; Su, Yingfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wenlong

    2016-06-14

    The utriculo-endolymphatic valve (UEV) has an uncertain function, but its opening and closure have been predicted to maintain a constant endolymphatic pressure within the semicircular canals (SCCs) and the utricle of the inner ear. Here, the study׳s aim was to examine the role of the UEV in regulating the capabilities of the 3 SCCs in sensing angular acceleration by using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed endolymphatic flow and cupula displacement patterns in good agreement with previous experiments. Moreover, the open valve was predicted to permit endolymph exchange between the 2 parts of the membranous labyrinth during head rotation and, in comparison to the closed valve, to result in a reinforced endolymph flow in the utricle and an enhanced or weakened cupula deflection. Further, the model predicted an increase in the size of the orifice would result in greater endolymph exchange and thereby to a greater impact on cupula deflection. The model findings suggest the UEV plays a crucial role in the preservation of inner ear sensory function.

  19. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved.

  20. Ecto-phosphatases in protozoan parasites: possible roles in nutrition, growth and ROS sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-02-01

    The cellular plasma membrane contains enzymes whose active sites face the external medium rather than the cytoplasm. The activities of these enzymes, referred to as ecto-enzymes, can be measured using living cells. Ecto-phosphatases are ecto-enzymes that presumably hydrolyze extracellular phosphorylated substrates, releasing free inorganic phosphate. Although, several alternative functions have been suggested for these enzymes, such as participation in proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, virulence, and infection, little is known about the physiological roles of these enzymes in protozoa parasites. In this review, we discuss the principal features of ecto-phosphatases in protozoan parasites that are causative agents of important diseases such as Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis and, sleeping sickness.

  1. The Role of Natural Environments in Developing a Sense of Belonging: A Comparative Study of Immigrants in the U.S., Poland, the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Stodolska, M.; Horolets, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the role of natural environments in the development of a sense of belonging among immigrants in host countries. The data were collected with the use of in-depth interviews with 70 Latino and Chinese immigrants in the U.S., Ukrainian and Vietnamese immigrants in Poland, Moroccan i

  2. Current Fear of Crime, Sense of Community, and Loneliness in Italian Adolescents: The Role of Autonomous Mobility and Play during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezza, Miretta; Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    A structural equation model was used to examine the role of autonomous mobility and play in public and semipublic places in childhood to predict adolescents' sense of community, fear of crime, and, through the mediation of these two last psychosocial factors, feelings of loneliness. Participants included 789 Italian students (469 females and 320…

  3. Nutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract: possible role for nutrient transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, H E

    2008-12-01

    Although it is well established that the presence of nutrients in the gut lumen can bring about changes in GI function, the mechanisms and pathways by which these changes occur has not been fully elucidated. It has been known for many years that luminal nutrients stimulate the release of hormones and regulatory peptides from gut endocrine cells and that luminal nutrients activate intrinsic and extrinsic neural pathways innervating the gut. Activation of gut endocrine cells and neural pathways by nutrients in the gut lumen is key in coordination of postprandial GI function and also in the regulation of food intake. Recent evidence suggests that these pathways can be modified by long term changes in diet or by inflammatory processes in the gut wall. Thus it is important to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes not only to increase our understanding of as part of basic physiology but also to understand changes in these pathways that occur in the presence of pathophysiology and disease. This review summarizes some of the latest data that we have obtained, together with information from the other laboratories, which have elucidated some of the mechanisms involved in nutrient detection in the gut wall. The focus is on monosaccharides and protein hydrolysates as there is some evidence for a role for nutrient transporters in detection of these nutrients.

  4. AIM2 inflammasome in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity: Role in DNA sensing, inflammation, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of DNA by the cell is an important immunological signature that marks the initiation of an innate immune response. AIM2 is a cytoplasmic sensor that recognizes dsDNA of microbial or host origin. Upon binding to DNA, AIM2 assembles a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, which drives pyroptosis and proteolytic cleavage of the proinflammatory cytokines pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Release of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm during infection by Francisella, Listeria, Mycobacterium, mouse cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Aspergillus, and Plasmodium species leads to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. In contrast, inappropriate recognition of cytoplasmic self-DNA by AIM2 contributes to the development of psoriasis, dermatitis, arthritis, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome-independent functions of AIM2 have also been described, including the regulation of the intestinal stem cell proliferation and the gut microbiota ecology in the control of colorectal cancer. In this review we provide an overview of the latest research on AIM2 inflammasome and its role in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity.

  5. Exploring the role of green and blue infrastructure in reducing temperature in Iskandar Malaysia using remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; sheikhi, A.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Development of cities has led to various environmental problems as a consequence of non sustaibale town planning. One of the strategies to make cities a livable place and to achieve low levels of CO2 emissions (low carbon cities or LCC) is the integration of the blue and green infrastructure into the development and planning of new urban areas. Iskandar Malaysia (IM) located in the southern part of Malaysia is a special economic zone that has major urban centres. The planning of these urban centres will incorporate LCC strategies to achieve a sustainable development. The role of green (plants) and blue bodies (lakes and rivers) in moderating temperature in IM have been investigated in the current study. A remotely sensed satellite imagery was used to calculate the vegetation density and land surface temperature (LST). The effect of lakes in cooling the surrounding temperature was also investigated. Results show that increasing vegetation density by 1% can decrease the LST by 0.09°C. As for the water bodies we found as the distance increased from the lake side the temperature also increased about 1.7°C and the reduction in air humidity is 9% as the distance increased to 100 meter away from the lake.

  6. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  7. The role of the interaction of the vinculin proline-rich linker region with vinexin α in sensing the stiffness of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Matsuyama, Daisuke; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Craig, Susan W; Harada, Ichiro; Kioka, Noriyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is an important aspect of the extracellular microenvironment and is known to direct the lineage specification of stem cells and affect cancer progression, the molecular mechanisms that sense ECM stiffness have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that the proline-rich linker (PRL) region of vinculin and the PRL-region-binding protein vinexin are involved in sensing the stiffness of ECM substrates. A rigid substrate increases the level of cytoskeleton-associated vinculin, and the fraction of vinculin stably localizing at focal adhesions (FAs) is larger on rigid ECM than on soft ECM. Mutations in the PRL region or the depletion of vinexin expression impair these responses to ECM stiffness. Furthermore, vinexin depletion impairs the stiffness-dependent regulation of cell migration. These results suggest that the interaction of the PRL region of vinculin with vinexin α plays a crucial role in sensing ECM stiffness and in mechanotransduction.

  8. The Role of the QseC Sensor Kinase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Quorum Sensing and Swine Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least two quorum sensing molecules, autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and norepinephrine (NE), are present in the gastrointestinal tract and activate the E. coli QseBC quorum sensing system. AI-3 is produced by enteric bacteria, whereas NE is produced by the animal host, often during stress. Both 10% pre-co...

  9. The role of the QseC quorum-sensing sensor kinase in epinephrine-enhanced motility and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Meng, Jun; Huang, Yun-chao; Ye, Lian-hua; Li, Guang-jian; Huang, Jie; Chen, Hua-mei

    2014-09-01

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in infections related to devices. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli is mediated by the quorum-sensing E. coli regulator C (QseC), the histidine sensor kinase that can sense epinephrine (EPI)/norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we evaluate the role of the QseC quorum-sensing sensor kinase in epinephrine-enhanced motility and biofilm formation by E. coli. An E. coli MC1000 qseC mutant was constructed. We investigated the role of the QseC in the formation of biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride using the E. coli K-12 MC1000 strain as well as a corresponding qseC mutant. Addition of EPI/NE increased biofilm formation by wild-type K-12 MC1000 but not by the isogenic qseC mutant. Scanning confocal laser microscopy corroborated these results by showing that EPI/NE addition significantly increased biofilm's thickness. As expected, the addition of EPI/NE to the qseC mutant, which lacks the ability to sense the hormones, failed to stimulate biofilm formation. Since EPI/NE addition increased bacterial motility, we proposed that their stimulatory effects on biofilm formation occur by enhancing bacterial motility and altering biofilm architecture. We also found that EPI/NE regulate motility and the biofilm phenotype via QseC, as motility was diminished and biofilm formation was significantly decreased in a qseC deletion mutant. These results indicate that EPI/NE induce E. coli biofilm formation on the surface of polyvinyl chloride through QseC. Cross-talk between E. coli (quorum sensing) and host hormones may explain the pathogen-caused opportunistic infections that occur in patients with prosthetic devices used during hormone level fluctuations in the host.

  10. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja eParasuraman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects—biological motion perception and action understanding—is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively primitive, automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time—all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions.

  11. A review of the role of active remote sensing and data fusion for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Vogeler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatially explicit maps of wildlife habitat relationships have proven to be valuable tools for conservation and management applications including evaluating how and which species may be impacted by large scale climate change, ongoing fragmentation of habitat, and local land-use practices. Studies have turned to remote sensing datasets as a way to characterize vegetation for the examination of habitat selection and for mapping realized relationships across the landscape. Potentially one of the more difficult habitat types to try to characterize with remote sensing are the vertically and horizontally complex forest systems. Characterizing this complexity is needed to explore which aspects may represent driving and/or limiting factors for wildlife species. Active remote sensing data from lidar and radar sensors has thus caught the attention of the forest wildlife research and management community in its potential to represent three dimensional habitat features. The purpose of this review was to examine the applications of active remote sensing for characterizing forest in wildlife habitat studies through a keyword search within Web of Science. We present commonly used active remote sensing metrics and methods, discuss recent advances in characterizing aspects of forest habitat, and provide suggestions for future research in the area of new remote sensing data/techniques that could benefit forest wildlife studies that are currently not represented or may be underutilized within the wildlife literature. We also highlight the potential value in data fusion of active and passive sensor data for representing multiple dimensions and scales of forest habitat. While the use of remote sensing has increased in recent years within wildlife habitat studies, continued communication between the remote sensing, forest management, and wildlife communities is vital to ensure appropriate data sources and methods are understood and utilized, and so that creators of

  12. Role of Morphological Structure, Doping, and Coating of Different Materials in the Sensing Characteristics of Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Tripathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability.

  13. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Regulates Cytosolic [Ca2+] and Plays a Major Role in the Development of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR leading to right heart failure and premature death. The increased PVR results in part from pulmonary vascular remodeling and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction. Excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling stems from increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC proliferation and decreased PASMC apoptosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt in PASMC is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and a key stimulus for PASMC proliferation and migration, both contributing to the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling. PASMC from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH have increased resting [Ca2+]cyt and enhanced Ca2+ influx. Enhanced Ca2+ entry into PASMC due to upregulation of membrane receptors and/or Ca2+ channels may contribute to PASMC contraction and proliferation and to pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling. We have shown that the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR, which is a member of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR subfamily C, is upregulated and the extracellular Ca2+-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt is enhanced in PASMC from patients with IPAH in comparison to PASMC from normal subjects. Pharmacologically blockade of CaSR significantly attenuate the development and progression of experimental pulmonary hypertension in animals. Additionally, we have demonstrated that dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine, which are used to treat PAH patients but are only effective in 15-20% of patients, activate CaSR resulting in an increase in [Ca2+]cyt in IPAH-PASMC, but not normal PASMC. Our data indicate that CaSR functionally couples with transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels to mediate extracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ influx and increase in [Ca2+]cyt in IPAH-PASMC. Upregulated CaSR is necessary for the enhanced extracellular Ca2

  14. The sense of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, A S

    2001-08-21

    I propose that consciousness might be understood as the property of a system that functions as a sense in the biological meaning of that term. The theory assumes that, as a complex system, the sense of consciousness is not a fixed structure but implies structure with variations and that it evolved, as many new functions do, through the integration of simpler systems. The recognized exteroceptive and enteroceptive senses provide information about the organism's environment and about the organism itself that are important to adaptation. The sense of consciousness provides information about the brain and thus about the organism and its environment. It senses other senses and processes in the brain, selecting and relating components into a form that "makes sense"-where making sense is defined as being useful to the organism in its adaptation to the environment. The theory argues that this highly adaptive organizing function evolved with the growing complexity of the brain and that it might have helped resolve discrepancies created at earlier stages. Neural energies in the brain that are the input to the sense of consciousness, along with the processing subsystem of which they are a part, constitute the base of consciousness. Consciousness itself is an emergent effect of an organizing process achieved through the sense of consciousness. The sense of consciousness thus serves an organizing function although it is not the only means of organization in the brain. Its uniqueness lies in the character of the organization it creates with consciousness as a property of that organization. The paper relates the theory to several general conceptions-interactionism, epiphenomenalism and identity theory-and illustrates a number of testable hypotheses. Viewing consciousness as a property of a sense provides a degree of conceptual integration. Much of what we know about the evolution and role of the conventionally recognized senses should help us understand the evolution and role of

  15. Eavesdropping by bacteria: the role of SdiA in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium quorum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many gram-negative bacteria utilize N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) to sense and respond to their own population densities and to regulate gene transcription. The AHLs, produced by AHL synthases, bind to receptors belonging to the LuxR family of transcriptional regulators leading to activation...

  16. Ten years of operational boundary-layer measurements at the Richard - Assmann Observatory Lindenberg: The role of remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyrich, F; Engelbart, D A M [Deutscher Wetterdienst Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg/Richard - Assmann Observatorium Am Observatorium 12 D - 15864 Tauche - OT Lindenberg (Germany)], E-mail: frank.beyrich@dwd.de

    2008-05-01

    Remote sensing forms an essential part of the MOL-RAO boundary-layer measurements. Special emphasis will be put on the place of scintillometry as a technique to derive the sensible turbulent heat flux at the regional scale thus bridging the gap between local micrometeorological measurements and the typical spatial resolution of regional-scale meteorological models and of satellite images.

  17. Emergency Workers' Quality of Life: The Protective Role of Sense of Community, Efficacy Beliefs and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Pietrantoni, Luca; Palestini, Luigi; Prati, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    This study, involving a sample of 764 emergency workers, investigates dimensions of quality of life at work (Compassion fatigue, Burnout and Compassion satisfaction), and their relationships with Coping strategies and some psychosocial variables (Sense of Community, Collective Efficacy and Self-efficacy). Results indicate the usefulness of…

  18. Alcohol-based quorum sensing plays a role in adhesion and sliding motility of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated for its production of alcohol-based quorum sensing (QS) molecules including the aromatic alcohols phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and the aliphatic alcohol farnesol. Debaryomyces hansenii produced phenylethanol and tyrosol, which were primarily ....... © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Longitudinal Associations between Mothers' and Fathers' Sense of Competence and Children's Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dekovic, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D.; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the bidirectional associations between parents' sense of competence and children's externalizing problems, mediation of these associations by parenting behaviors, and differences between mothers and fathers concerning these associations. A sample of 551 families with children (49.9% girls; mean age = 7.83 years, SD…

  20. Fulfilling a sense of duty : how men and women giving care to spouses with multiple sclerosis interpret this role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; Doorne-Huiskes, A. van

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how spouses experience caregiving when predominantly motivated by a sense of duty and addresses whether any differences between female and male caregivers can be detected. For our purpose semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight male and five female

  1. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  2. Pathogen sensing pathways in human embryonic stem cell derived-endothelial cells: role of NOD1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Reed

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-EC, as well as other stem cell derived endothelial cells, have a range of applications in cardiovascular research and disease treatment. Endothelial cells sense Gram-negative bacteria via the pattern recognition receptors (PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein (NOD-1. These pathways are important in terms of sensing infection, but TLR4 is also associated with vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Here, we have compared TLR4 and NOD1 responses in hESC-EC with those of endothelial cells derived from other stem cells and with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. HUVEC, endothelial cells derived from blood progenitors (blood outgrowth endothelial cells; BOEC, and from induced pluripotent stem cells all displayed both a TLR4 and NOD1 response. However, hESC-EC had no TLR4 function, but did have functional NOD1 receptors. In vivo conditioning in nude rats did not confer TLR4 expression in hESC-EC. Despite having no TLR4 function, hESC-EC sensed Gram-negative bacteria, a response that was found to be mediated by NOD1 and the associated RIP2 signalling pathways. Thus, hESC-EC are TLR4 deficient but respond to bacteria via NOD1. This data suggests that hESC-EC may be protected from unwanted TLR4-mediated vascular inflammation, thus offering a potential therapeutic advantage.

  3. Deciphering the role of coumarin as a novel quorum sensing inhibitor suppressing virulence phenotypes in bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Reen, F Jerry; McCarthy, Ronan R; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-04-01

    The rapid unchecked rise in antibiotic resistance over the last few decades has led to an increased focus on the need for alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment and clinical management of microbial infections. In particular, small molecules that can suppress microbial virulence systems independent of any impact on growth are receiving increased attention. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell signalling communication system that controls the virulence behaviour of a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. QS systems have been proposed as an effective target, particularly as they control biofilm formation in pathogens, a key driver of antibiotic ineffectiveness. In this study, we identified coumarin, a natural plant phenolic compound, as a novel QS inhibitor, with potent anti-virulence activity in a broad spectrum of pathogens. Using a range of biosensor systems, coumarin was active against short, medium and long chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones, independent of any effect on growth. To determine if this suppression was linked to anti-virulence activity, key virulence systems were studied in the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Consistent with suppression of QS, coumarin inhibited biofilm, the production of phenazines and swarming motility in this organism potentially linked to reduced expression of the rhlI and pqsA quorum sensing genes. Furthermore, coumarin significantly inhibited biofilm formation and protease activity in other bacterial pathogens and inhibited bioluminescence in Aliivibrio fischeri. In light of these findings, coumarin would appear to have potential as a novel quorum sensing inhibitor with a broad spectrum of action.

  4. Trajectory and predictors of quality of life during the dying process: roles of perceived sense of burden to others and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Siew Tzuh; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Shi; Su, Po-Jung; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2014-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) at end of life (EOL) is related to important themes, e.g., "sense of burden to others" and "perceived posttraumatic growth," which have never been investigated concurrently. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the trajectory of QOL during the dying process and (2) to identify determinants of QOL, including the roles of perceived sense of burden to others and posttraumatic growth. A convenience sample of 313 terminally ill cancer patients was surveyed and longitudinally followed until death. QOL was measured by a modified McGill quality of life scale, and determinants were evaluated by a multiple linear regression model with the generalized estimating equation. Terminally ill Taiwanese cancer patients' QOL decreased substantially as their death approached. However, after controlling for confounders, patients' QOL did not change significantly in the last months of their life. QOL was significantly better for female and non-middle-aged patients with a religious affiliation of Buddhism/Taoism. Poorer QOL tended to be experienced by patients with greater physical symptom distress, anxiety, and depression. Patient QOL increased with greater tangible support, but decreased with greater emotional and affectionate social support. QOL was diminished by a greater degree of perceived burden to others but improved with greater perceived posttraumatic growth. Deteriorating QOL as death approaches may not be inevitable. Optimal QOL at EOL may be achieved by interventions designed to adequately manage physical and psychological symptoms, enhance social support, lighten perceived sense of burden to others, and facilitate experiences of posttraumatic growth.

  5. Structural and mechanistic roles of novel chemical ligands on the SdiA quorum-sensing transcription regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y; Nguyen, Nam X; Rogers, Jamie L; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B; Jiang, Youxing; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2015-03-31

    Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not in an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not

  6. Role of remote sensing in the evaluation of anthropogenic activity and its effect on environment and human econonomic development: an Indian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    In the scenario of a exponential growth of world population, changes in land use and evaluating the domestication and rearing of aquatic animals and plants; Remote Sensing has the role of an emerging discipline and provides essential tools of trade to the environmental scientist. Ecologically sustainable development of the aqua resources requires that management and use as compatible with the attributes of exploited resources. Aquaculture plays a crucial role in the development of fishing industry and contributes in rural development, increased foreign reserves besides replenishment of important aquatic species. The synoptivity, repititivity and multi spectral vision are the significant edges of Remote Sensing over conventional practices in the application domain. The present study aimed at mapping and monitoring of damages to the ecologically sensitive land farms like mangroves, sand deserts, wetlands, marshy areas etc., due to the development of aquaculture ponds and to analyze and understand the impact of pond aquaculture on water course, ground water quality, drinking water source etc. Indian Remote Sensing satellite:1D - Liss-III + PAN sensors merged data of two seasons is used to carry out change detection studies of mangroves, lakes/lagoons and coastal wetlands. To generate microscopic information of Machilipatnam and to monitor the water circulation in creeks the very high resolution IKONOS Panchromatic data is used. Geometrically rectified digital base map covering the study area is prepared on 1:63,630 scale. Satellite data of Land Sat TM, IRS Liss - II, Liss - III and PAN were used. Satellite data geometrically rectified with reference to base map using standard image-to-image tie up procedure besides necessary enhancement techniques for better interpretation. The economic impact of aquaculture is critically analyzed considering certain statistics and the resultant affects are presented. Tropical brackish water and saltwater aquaculture have contributed

  7. Detection of AI-2 Receptors in Genomes of Enterobacteriaceae Suggests a Role of Type-2 Quorum Sensing in Closed Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brion Duffy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The LuxS enzyme, an S-ribosyl-homocysteine lyase, catalyzes the production of the signal precursor for autoinducer-2 mediated quorum sensing (QS-2 in Vibrio. Its widespread occurrence among bacteria is often considered the evidence for a universal language for interspecies communication. Presence of the luxS gene and production of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2 signal have repeatedly been the only evidences presented to assign a functional QS-2 to the most diverse species. In fact, LuxS has a primary metabolic role as part of the activated methyl cycle. In this review we have analyzed the distribution of QS-2 related genes in Enterobacteriaceae by moving the focus of the investigation from AI-2 production to the detection of potential AI-2 receptors. The latter are common in pathogens or endosymbionts of animals, but were also found in a limited number of Enterobacteriaceae of the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pantoea that live in close association with plants or fungi. Although a precise function of QS-2 in these species has not been identified, they all show an endophytic or endosymbiontic lifestyle that suggests a role of type-2 quorum sensing in the adaptation to closed ecosystems.

  8. Influence of Nutrient Availability and Quorum Sensing on the Formation of Metabolically Inactive Microcolonies Within Structurally Heterogeneous Bacterial Biofilms: An Individual-Based 3D Cellular Automata Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machineni, Lakshmi; Rajapantul, Anil; Nandamuri, Vandana; Pawar, Parag D

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotic treatment has been attributed to the emergence of structurally heterogeneous microenvironments containing metabolically inactive cell populations. In this study, we use a three-dimensional individual-based cellular automata model to investigate the influence of nutrient availability and quorum sensing on microbial heterogeneity in growing biofilms. Mature biofilms exhibited at least three structurally distinct strata: a high-volume, homogeneous region sandwiched between two compact sections of high heterogeneity. Cell death occurred preferentially in layers in close proximity to the substratum, resulting in increased heterogeneity in this section of the biofilm; the thickness and heterogeneity of this lowermost layer increased with time, ultimately leading to sloughing. The model predicted the formation of metabolically dormant cellular microniches embedded within faster-growing cell clusters. Biofilms utilizing quorum sensing were more heterogeneous compared to their non-quorum sensing counterparts, and resisted sloughing, featuring a cell-devoid layer of EPS atop the substratum upon which the remainder of the biofilm developed. Overall, our study provides a computational framework to analyze metabolic diversity and heterogeneity of biofilm-associated microorganisms and may pave the way toward gaining further insights into the biophysical mechanisms of antibiotic resistance.

  9. From sensing to shaping microbiota: insights into the role of NOD2 in intestinal homeostasis and progression of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Iyshwarya; Gao, Nan

    2017-07-01

    NOD2 was the first susceptibility gene identified for Crohn's disease (CD), one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The field of NOD2 research has opened up many questions critical to understanding the complexities of microbiota-host interactions. In addition to sensing its specific bacterial components as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 also appears to shape the colonization of intestinal microbiota. Activated NOD2 triggers downstream signaling cascades exampled by the NF-κB pathway to induce antimicrobial activities, however, defective or loss of NOD2 functions incur a similarly activated inflammatory response. Additional studies have identified the involvement of NOD2 in protection against non-microbiota-related intestinal damages as well as extraintestinal infections. We survey recent molecular and genetic studies of NOD2-mediated bacterial sensing and immunological modulation, and integrate evidence to suggest a highly reciprocal but still poorly understood cross talk between enteric microbiota and host cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Detecting forest canopy layering: applying lidar remote sensing to further understand the role of vertical structure in species habitat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A. S.; Dubayah, R.; Swatantran, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full waveform lidar reflects off all forest canopy elements, showing not only height, but also the structure within the canopy from the top to the forest floor, making it an ideal remote sensing technology for research in forest ecosystem dynamics. Vertical stratification or canopy layering has long been noted as an essential element in the forest ecosystem and of importance for species habitat. This project explores the utility of lidar for characterizing forest canopy layering and applying canopy layering information to better understand species habitat preference. Canopy layering will be mapped across the landscape using full-waveform lidar remote sensing data from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Two methods for quantifying layering have been developed from LVIS data collected during the summer of 2009 for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The two layering datasets (one categorical, one continuous) describe how vertical stratification varies across the forest with canopy height and elevation. The relationships between of canopy layering and avian species habitat preference will also be assessed for bird species within Hubbard Brook Experimental forest. These results will provide ecologically meaningful information and a relevant method for quantifying canopy layering at the landscape scale, which will aid in a better understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics for forest management and species habitat research.

  11. Alcohol-based quorum sensing plays a role in adhesion and sliding motility of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated for its production of alcohol-based quorum sensing (QS) molecules including the aromatic alcohols phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and the aliphatic alcohol farnesol. Debaryomyces hansenii produced phenylethanol and tyrosol, which were primarily...... detected from the end of exponential phase indicating that they are potential QS molecules in D. hansenii as previously shown for other yeast species. Yields of phenylethanol and tyrosol produced by D. hansenii were, however, lower than those produced by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... and sliding motility abilities, which seemed to be related to a higher hydrophobicity of the cell surface of D. hansenii (CBS767) rather than the ability to form pseudomycelium. Addition of phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and farnesol was found to influence both adhesion and sliding motility of D. hansenii...

  12. Task analysis of patients' medication-taking practice and the role of making sense: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcar, Jana

    2006-03-01

    Patients on long-term medications have varied medication-taking practices and complex and often unmet medication information needs. The objective of this qualitative study was to describe from the patient's perspective the medication-taking tasks performed by patients currently receiving long-term medications and then to hypothesize how these tasks relate to patients' medication information needs. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with individuals between the ages of 18 and 65, who had a college or university education, and who were on at least one long-term medication. Grounded theory approach was used for data gathering and data analysis. Maximum variation and theoretical sampling were used and the sample size was determined when theoretical saturation was reached in the core category. Interpretive and theoretical validity were ensured through member checking, through the use of the constant comparative method, and by a review of the results by a panel of pharmacists and physicians. Ten participants aged between 41 and 64 years were included in the study sample. The participants had between one and 7 chronic illnesses, duration of these illnesses to date varied from 1 year to 40 years, and each participant was taking between one and 13 medications. A model was developed that consists of 4 thematic categories: (a) making sense of medication taking, (b) medication-taking acts, (c) mediation-taking self-assessment, and (d) context of medication taking. The main category was making sense of medication taking that consisted of 3 subcategories: (a) nonproblematic mode, (b) problematic mode, and (c) stunned mode. The model explains how and why a patients' need for medication-taking education may vary because their medication-taking practices changes. The model also connects each category to medication information that people may need. Findings contribute to our understanding of medication-taking practice of individuals on long-term medication and have

  13. Looking back to inform the future: The role of cognition in forest disturbance characterization from remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchetti, Raechel Anne

    Remotely sensed images have become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives. From novice users, aiding in search and rescue missions using tools such as TomNod, to trained analysts, synthesizing disparate data to address complex problems like climate change, imagery has become central to geospatial problem solving. Expert image analysts are continually faced with rapidly developing sensor technologies and software systems. In response to these cognitively demanding environments, expert analysts develop specialized knowledge and analytic skills to address increasingly complex problems. This study identifies the knowledge, skills, and analytic goals of expert image analysts tasked with identification of land cover and land use change. Analysts participating in this research are currently working as part of a national level analysis of land use change, and are well versed with the use of TimeSync, forest science, and image analysis. The results of this study benefit current analysts as it improves their awareness of their mental processes used during the image interpretation process. The study also can be generalized to understand the types of knowledge and visual cues that analysts use when reasoning with imagery for purposes beyond land use change studies. Here a Cognitive Task Analysis framework is used to organize evidence from qualitative knowledge elicitation methods for characterizing the cognitive aspects of the TimeSync image analysis process. Using a combination of content analysis, diagramming, semi-structured interviews, and observation, the study highlights the perceptual and cognitive elements of expert remote sensing interpretation. Results show that image analysts perform several standard cognitive processes, but flexibly employ these processes in response to various contextual cues. Expert image analysts' ability to think flexibly during their analysis process was directly related to their amount of image analysis experience. Additionally, results show

  14. Colombian forensic genetics as a form of public science: The role of race, nation and common sense in the stabilization of DNA populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter; Cruz-Santiago, Arely; Cárdenas, Roosbelinda

    2015-12-01

    Abstract This article examines the role that vernacular notions of racialized-regional difference play in the constitution and stabilization of DNA populations in Colombian forensic science, in what we frame as a process of public science. In public science, the imaginations of the scientific world and common-sense public knowledge are integral to the production and circulation of science itself. We explore the origins and circulation of a scientific object--'La Tabla', published in Paredes et al. and used in genetic forensic identification procedures--among genetic research institutes, forensic genetics laboratories and courtrooms in Bogotá. We unveil the double life of this central object of forensic genetics. On the one hand, La Tabla enjoys an indisputable public place in the processing of forensic genetic evidence in Colombia (paternity cases, identification of bodies, etc.). On the other hand, the relations it establishes between 'race', geography and genetics are questioned among population geneticists in Colombia. Although forensic technicians are aware of the disputes among population geneticists, they use and endorse the relations established between genetics, 'race' and geography because these fit with common-sense notions of visible bodily difference and the regionalization of race in the Colombian nation.

  15. Making sense of it: roles of the sensory circumventricular organs in feeding and regulation of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Mark; Hoyda, Ted D; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is associated with significant health risks including stroke and heart disease. The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased over the past 20 years. Although the development of obesity is clearly related to changing lifestyles, the central nervous system plays a key role in regulation of energy balance. To develop effective strategies for treating obesity, we must gain a clearer understanding of the neuro-circuitry and signaling mechanisms involved. Toward this end, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the roles played by the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the brain. These areas lack the normal blood-brain barrier and thus act as transducers of signals between the blood, other centers in the brain, and the cerebrospinal fluid. This review focuses on the roles played by the sensory CVOs in detecting and responding to a number of signals that carry information regarding nutritional status, including cholecystokinin, amylin, ghrelin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, leptin, adiponectin, and glucose.

  16. Role of surface hydroxyl groups in promoting room temperature CO sensing by Pd-modified nanocrystalline SnO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikutsa, Artem V.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Yashina, Lada V.; Gaskov, Alexander M.

    2010-10-01

    SnO 2/Pd nanocomposites were synthesized via sol-gel method followed by variable processing procedures. The materials are sensitive to CO gas in the concentration range 2-100 ppm at room operating temperature. It was shown that modification of nanocrystalline tin dioxide by Pd changes the temperature dependence of sensor response, decreasing the temperature of maximal signal. To understand the mechanism of room temperature CO sensitivity, a number of SnO 2/Pd materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, XPS and TPR techniques. From the results of FTIR, impedance and sensing measurements under variable ambient conditions it was concluded that improvement in CO sensitivity for Pd-modified SnO 2 is due to alteration of CO oxidation pathway. The reaction of CO with surface OH-groups at room temperature was proposed, the latter being more reactive than oxygen species due to the possible chain character of the reactions. It was proposed that Pd additive may initiate chain processes at room temperature.

  17. Acid-sensing ion channels expression, identity and role in the excitability of the cochlear afferent neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia eGonzález-Garrido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4 that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs. These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil-etilendiamina (TPEN increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2 and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs.

  18. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels Expression, Identity and Role in the Excitability of the Cochlear Afferent Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garrido, Antonia; Vega, Rosario; Mercado, Francisco; López, Iván A.; Soto, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by an increase in the extracellular proton concentration. There are four genes (ASIC1-4) that encode six subunits, and they are involved in diverse neuronal functions, such as mechanosensation, learning and memory, nociception, and modulation of retinal function. In this study, we characterize the ASIC currents of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). These ASIC currents are primarily carried by Na+, exhibit fast activation and desensitization, display a pH50 of 6.2 and are blocked by amiloride, indicating that these are ASIC currents. The ASIC currents were further characterized using several pharmacological tools. Gadolinium and acetylsalicylic acid reduced these currents, and FMRFamide, zinc (at high concentrations) and N,N,N’,N’–tetrakis-(2-piridilmetil)-ethylenediamine increased them, indicating that functional ASICs are composed of the subunits ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3. Neomycin and streptomycin reduced the desensitization rate of the ASIC current in SGNs, indicating that ASICs may contribute to the ototoxic action of aminoglycosides. RT-PCR of the spiral ganglion revealed significant expression of all ASIC subunits. By immunohistochemistry the expression of the ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, and ASIC3 subunits was detected in SGNs. Although only a few SGNs exhibited action potential firing in response to an acidic stimulus, protons in the extracellular solution modulated SGN activity during sinusoidal stimulation. Our results show that protons modulate the excitability of SGNs via ASICs. PMID:26733809

  19. Searching for a sense of purpose: the role of parents and effects on self-esteem among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meghan C C; Liang, Belle; Lund, Terese; Spencer, Renee

    2013-10-01

    Achieving a sense of purpose during adolescence is a developmental asset; however, searching for that purpose may be a developmental stressor. Supportive parent-child relationships may help youth during this stressful experience. The present study included 207 female students in the sixth, eighth, and tenth grades from two competitive private schools. Searching for purpose negatively predicted self-esteem. Hierarchical linear regression examined moderating effects of parental trust and alienation on searching for purpose as a predictor of self-esteem. Parental alienation significantly moderated the association between search for purpose and girls' self-esteem; conversely, parental trust did not moderate the association. Results suggest that parent-child relationships characterized by high levels of parental alienation may exacerbate the pernicious effects of search for purpose. Person-based analyses found four clusters corresponding to Foreclosed Purpose, Diffused Purpose, Uncommitted Purpose/Moratorium, and Achieved Purpose. We discuss implications for practice and research based on these results. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 in fatty acids sensing in chicken oral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Ryo; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-03-01

    Clarification of the mechanism of chickens' taste sense will provide meaningful information for creating and improving new feedstuff for chickens, because the character of taste receptors in oral tissues affects feeding behavior in animals. Although fatty acids are partly recognized via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) for fat taste in mammalian oral tissues, the fat taste receptor of chickens has not been elucidated. Here we cloned chicken GPR120 (cGPR120) from the chicken palate, which contains taste buds. By using Ca(2+) imaging methods, we identified oleic acid and linoleic acid as cGPR120 agonists. Interestingly, in a behavioral study the chickens preferred corn oil-rich feed over mineral oil (control oil)-rich feed. Because corn oil contains high amounts of oleic acid and linoleic acid, this result was thought to be reasonable. Taken together, the present results suggest that cGPR120 is one of the functional fat taste receptors in chickens.

  1. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population. PMID:28272446

  2. Synthesis of SnO{sub 2} hollow microspheres from ultrasonic atomization and their role in hydrogen sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, L.A., E-mail: plalchand_phy_aml@yahoo.co.in [Nanomaterials Research Lab., Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425401, Maharashtra (India); Shinde, M.D.; Bari, A.R.; Deo, V.V. [Nanomaterials Research Lab., Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425401, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-04-25

    Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} hollow microspheres were synthesized using ultrasonic atomization technique. It is interesting that hollow microspheres could be prepared from ultrasonic atomization technique without any aid of template and surfactant. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirmed the material to be SnO{sub 2} having tetragonal structure. Average crystallite size calculated from X-ray diffractogram using Scherer's equation was found to be 8.45 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the microscopic study of fine powder particles. Powder consists of hollow microspheres of average diameter of 0.58 {mu}m as well as nanoparticles of average diameter of 6 nm. The sensors fabricated from such powder show high hydrogen (1000 ppm) response (S = 2379) under the optimized experimental conditions. Sensor performance merits, such as, high hydrogen response, high hydrogen selectivity, short response time (2 s) and quick recovery time (15 s) may be due to both nanocrystallites and hollow microspheres associated in SnO{sub 2} sensing material. The dramatic change in gas response was explained by the rapid diffusion of the target gas through the nano-porous structure of SnO{sub 2} hollow microspheres.

  3. Absence of Role of Dietary Protein Sensing in the Metabolic Benefits of Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barataud, Aude; Goncalves, Daisy; Vinera, Jennifer; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces remission or substantial improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The beneficial effects of dietary proteins on energy and glucose homeostasis are mediated by the antagonist effects of peptides toward mu-opioid receptors (MORs), which are highly expressed in the distal gut. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of RYGB could depend at least in part on the interaction of peptides from food with intestinal MORs. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) was performed in obese and lean wild-type (WT) or MOR deficient (MOR−/−) mice. Food intake and body weight was monitored daily during 3 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was assessed from glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In obese WT and MOR−/− mice, DJB induced a rapid and sustained weight loss partly independent of food intake, and a rapid improvement in glycaemic parameters. Weight loss was a major determinant of the improvements observed. In lean WT and MOR−/− mice, DJB had no effect on weight loss but significantly enhanced glucose tolerance. We found that MORs are not essential in the metabolic beneficial effects of DJB, suggesting that protein sensing in the distal gut is not a link in the metabolic benefits of gastric surgery. PMID:28332577

  4. The determinants of coping with pain in chronically ill geriatric patients – the role of a sense of coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkiewicz, Anna; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna; Felsmann, Mirosława; Banaszkiewicz, Mariola; Marzec, Alicja; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background Given the rising population of the elderly in modern societies, the concern for their good functioning poses a challenge for the 21st century medicine and social services. Senior citizens are at an increased risk of developing chronic conditions, which in turn increase discomfort associated with physiological processes of aging. Sensations of pain have a particular influence on the mentioned discomfort, and pain is prevalent among older people. Therefore, from the perspective of an elderly person and senior care, it is crucial to identify determinants of effective coping with chronic pain. Objectives The aim of the research was to assess the relationship between a sense of coherence (SOC) and pain-coping strategies in chronically ill seniors. A total number of 188 individuals were included in the study, of whom 117 were female subjects and 71 were male subjects, with a mean age of 68.38 (standard deviation [SD] =6.35) years in the studied group. Subjects were sampled based on a diagnosis of a chronic medical illness with chronic pain as one of the major symptoms. Methods The Polish adaptation of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29) to assess an SOC, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) to assess pain-coping strategies, and the visual analog scale (VAS) to assess pain intensity were used in the study. Results and conclusion The mean score of respondents’ SOC was 133.44 (SD =24.35). Among most common pain-coping strategies used by the respondents were prayer and hope, and the declaration of coping with pain while redefining pain was the least often used coping strategy in the studied group. Individuals with stronger SOC were less prone to catastrophizing and more often declared that they were coping with and could control and reduce pain.

  5. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  6. Smoking in the lived world: how young people make sense of the social role cigarettes play in their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gary; Grogan, Sarah; Gough, Brendan; Conner, Mark

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study explored how young people (16- to 24-year olds), both smokers and non-smokers, talk about the social role of smoking in their everyday lives. In 22 focus group interviews, 47 high school children and 40 university undergraduates participated. On the basis of analyses, it is proposed that the perceived need to smoke cannot be reduced to addiction; cigarettes appear to play a complex social role in young people's lives. In order to resist smoking, participants highlighted the need to provide an excuse to peers, and some reasons (e.g. an interest in sport for boys) were considered more legitimate than others. Cigarettes (certain brands) were also claimed to be used as a way of controlling other people's perception of smokers, and also to serve as a social tool (for instance, to fill in awkward gaps in conversation). Additionally, smoking was argued to be subject to context (e.g. some schools possess a pro-smoking ethic, while others and universities are anti-smoking). Finally, it was claimed that stopping smoking is difficult since all of the foregoing social factors cannot easily be avoided. The findings of this study compliment and enrich existing social psychological approaches to smoking in young people, and lay the basis for anti-smoking campaigns which take into account the complex social role cigarettes play in the lives of young people.

  7. Role of specific quorum-sensing signals in the regulation of exopolysaccharide II production within Sinorhizobium meliloti spreading colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengsheng Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quorum sensing (QS in Sinorhizobium meliloti involves at least half a dozen different N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL signals. These signals are produced by SinI, the sole AHL synthase in S. meliloti Rm8530. The sinI gene is regulated by two LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, SinR and ExpR. Mutations in sinI, sinR and expR abolish the production of exopolysaccharide II (EPS II. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated a new type of coordinated surface spreading of Rm8530 that can be categorized as swarming. Motility assays on semi-solid surfaces revealed that both flagella and EPS II are required for this type of motility. The production of EPS II depends on AHLs produced by SinI. Of these AHLs, only C(16:1- and 3-oxo-C(16:1-homoserine lactones (HSLs stimulated swarming in an ExpR-dependent manner. These two AHLs induced the strongest response in the wggR reporter fusions. WggR is a positive regulator of the EPS II biosynthesis gene expression. The levels of the wggR activation correlated with the extent of swarming. Furthermore, swarming of S. meliloti required the presence of the high molecular weight (HMW fraction of EPS II. Within swarming colonies, a recombinase-based RIVET reporter in the wggR gene was resolved in 30% of the cells, indicating an enhanced regulation of EPS II production in the subpopulation of cells, which was sufficient to support swarming of the entire colony. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Swarming behavior of S. meliloti Rm8530 on semi-solid surfaces is found to be dependent on the functional QS regulatory cascades. Even though multiple AHL signals are produced by the bacterium, only two AHLs species, C(16:1- and 3-oxo-C(16:1-HSLs, affected swarming by up-regulating the expression of wggR. While EPS II is produced by Rm8530 as high and low molecular weight fractions, only the HMW EPS II facilitated initial stages of swarming, thus, suggesting a function for this polymer.

  8. Potential role of transient receptor potential channel M5 in sensing putative pheromones in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshimoto, Arisa; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Garske, Anna; Lopez, Roberto; Rolen, Shane; Flowers, Michael; Arevalo, Nicole; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Based on pharmacological studies of chemosensory transduction in transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) knockout mice it was hypothesized that this channel is involved in transduction for a subset of putative pheromones in mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Yet, in the same study an electroolfactogram (EOG) in the mouse olfactory epithelium showed no significant difference in the responses to pheromones (and odors) between wild type and TRPM5 knockout mice. Here we show that the number of OSNs expressing TRPM5 is increased by unilateral naris occlusion. Importantly, EOG experiments show that mice lacking TRPM5 show a decreased response in the occluded epithelia to putative pheromones as opposed to wild type mice that show no change upon unilateral naris occlusion. This evidence indicates that under decreased olfactory sensory input TRPM5 plays a role in mediating putative pheromone transduction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cyclic nucleotide gated channel A2 knockout (CNGA2-KO) mice that show substantially decreased or absent responses to odors and pheromones also have elevated levels of TRPM5 compared to wild type mice. Taken together, our evidence suggests that TRPM5 plays a role in mediating transduction for putative pheromones under conditions of reduced chemosensory input.

  9. Sense of coherence, depressive feelings and life satisfaction in older persons: a closer look at the role of integrity and despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wiesmann, Ulrich; Apers, Silke; Luyckx, Koen

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Antonovsky's sense of coherence (SOC) and well-being in a sample of Flemish elderly. In addition, the mediating role of Erikson's developmental task of integrity versus despair was examined in the relationship between SOC, depression, and life satisfaction. Data on sociodemographic variables, SOC, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, ego-integrity, and despair were collected. In total, 100 older persons with a mean age of 76.5 years participated. Mplus was used to test the mediating role of integrity and despair in the relationship between SOC and both life satisfaction and depression. A positive relationship between SOC and well-being was found. More precisely, elderly individuals with a strong SOC experienced less depressive symptoms and higher levels of satisfaction with their life. In addition, mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between SOC and depressive symptoms was partially mediated by the positive resolution of the integrity-despair crisis, whereas the relationship between SOC and life satisfaction was fully mediated by integrity and despair. Our findings indicate that SOC might be a resource for greater well-being in the elderly. Furthermore, our study offers a partial explanation for the relations found and points to the importance of finding integrity and resolving despair in this stage of life.

  10. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  11. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  12. "I have a connection!": The situated sense-making of an elementary student about the role of water in modeled vs. experienced ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa Elisabeth N.

    Current policy and research have led the field of science education towards a model of "science as practice." In the past decade, several research programs on model-based reasoning practices in education have articulated key dimensions of practice, including constructing and defending models, comparing models to empirical data, using representations to identify patterns in data and use those as inscriptions to buttress arguments. This study presents a detailed case of how the use of a physical microcosm and children's self-directed representations of an ecosystem constrained and afforded student sense-making in an urban elementary classroom. The case analyzed the experiences of a 10-year old fifth grade student, Jorge, and the variation in his expressed understanding of ecosystems as he interacted with academic tasks, along with models and representations, to design, observe and explain an ecological microcosm. The study used a conceptual framework that brings together theories of situated cognition and Doyle's work on academic task to explain how and why Jorge's perception and communication of dimensions of ecosystem structure, function, and behavior appear to "come in and out of focus," influenced by the affordances of the tools and resources available, the academic task as given by the teacher, and Jorge's own experiences and knowledge of phenomena related to ecosystems. Findings from this study suggest that elementary students' ability or inability to address particular ecological concepts in a given task relate less to gaps in their understanding and more to the structure of academic tasks and learning contexts. The process of a student interacting with curriculum follows a dynamic trajectory and leads to emergent outcomes. As a result of the complex interactions of task, tools, and his own interests and agency, Jorge's attunement to the role of water in ecosystems comes in and out of focus throughout the unit. The instructional constraint of needing to

  13. Role of O-GlcNAcylation in nutritional sensing, insulin resistance and in mediating the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslicki, Jason P; Belke, Darrell D; Shearer, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification in metabolic disease states and to summarize current knowledge of how exercise affects this important post-translational signalling pathway. O-GlcNAc modification is an intracellular tool capable of integrating energy supply with demand. The accumulation of excess energy associated with obesity and insulin resistance is mediated, in part, by the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), which results in the O-GlcNAcylation of a myriad of proteins, thereby affecting their respective function, stability, and localization. Insulin resistance is related to the excessive O-GlcNAcylation of key metabolic proteins causing a chronic blunting of insulin signalling pathways and precipitating the accompanying pathologies, such as heart and kidney disease. Lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise also modify the pathway. Exercise is a front-line and cost-effective therapeutic approach for insulin resistance, and recent work shows that the intervention can alter O-GlcNAc gene expression, signalling, and protein modification. However, there is currently no consensus on the effect of frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise on O-GlcNAc modification, the HBP, and its related enzymes. On one end of the spectrum, mild, prolonged swim training reduces O-GlcNAcylation, while on the other end, higher intensity treadmill running increases cardiac protein O-GlcNAc modification. Clearly, a balance between acute and chronic stress of exercise is needed to reap the benefits of the intervention on O-GlcNAc signalling.

  14. The role of secretory immunoglobulin A in the natural sensing of commensal bacteria by mouse Peyer's patch dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rol, Nicolas; Favre, Laurent; Benyacoub, Jalil; Corthésy, Blaise

    2012-11-16

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse population of commensal species collectively known as the microbiota, which interact continuously with the host. From very early in life, secretory IgA (SIgA) is found in association with intestinal bacteria. It is considered that this helps to ensure self-limiting growth of the microbiota and hence participates in symbiosis. However, the importance of this association in contributing to the mechanisms ensuring natural host-microorganism communication is in need of further investigation. In the present work, we examined the possible role of SIgA in the transport of commensal bacteria across the GI epithelium. Using an intestinal loop mouse model and fluorescently labeled bacteria, we found that entry of commensal bacteria in Peyer's patches (PP) via the M cell pathway was mediated by their association with SIgA. Preassociation of bacteria with nonspecific SIgA increased their dynamics of entry and restored the reduced transport observed in germ-free mice known to have a marked reduction in intestinal SIgA production. Selective SIgA-mediated targeting of bacteria is restricted to the tolerogenic CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8(-) dendritic cell subset located in the subepithelial dome region of PPs, confirming that the host is not ignorant of its resident commensals. In conclusion, our work supports the concept that SIgA-mediated monitoring of commensal bacteria targeting dendritic cells in the subepithelial dome region of PPs represents a mechanism whereby the host mucosal immune system controls the continuous dialogue between the host and commensal bacteria.

  15. Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  16. Make Sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...... to the brand and how these meaning narratives play out over time to create meta-narratives that drive brand meaning co-creation. In this paper we focus on the concept of brand identity since it is at the level of identity that the brand creates meaning for individuals (Kapferer, 2012; Csaba & Bengtsson, 2006)....

  17. Potential role of voltage-sensing phosphatases in regulation of cell structure through the production of PI(3,4)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Taira, Ikuko; Aoki, Naoya; Sakata, Souhei; Okamura, Yasushi; Homma, Koichi J

    2014-04-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase, VSP, consists of the transmembrane domain, operating as the voltage sensor, and the cytoplasmic domain with phosphoinositide-phosphatase activities. The voltage sensor tightly couples with the cytoplasmic phosphatase and membrane depolarization induces dephosphorylation of several species of phosphoinositides. VSP gene is conserved from urochordate to human. There are some diversities among VSP ortholog proteins; range of voltage of voltage sensor motions as well as substrate selectivity. In contrast with recent understandings of biophysical mechanisms of VSPs, little is known about its physiological roles. Here we report that chick ortholog of VSP (designated as Gg-VSP) induces morphological feature of cell process outgrowths with round cell body in DF-1 fibroblasts upon its forced expression. Expression of the voltage sensor mutant, Gg-VSPR153Q with shifted voltage dependence to a lower voltage led to more frequent changes of cell morphology than the wild-type protein. Coexpression of PTEN that dephosphorylates PI(3,4)P2 suppressed this effect by Gg-VSP, indicating that the increase of PI(3,4)P2 leads to changes of cell shape. In addition, visualization of PI(3,4)P2 with the fluorescent protein fused with the TAPP1-derived pleckstrin homology (PH) domain suggested that Gg-VSP influenced the distribution of PI(3,4)P2 . These findings raise a possibility that one of the VSP's functions could be to regulate cell morphology through voltage-sensitive tuning of phosphoinositide profile.

  18. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa RsaL bound to promoter DNA reaffirms its role as a global regulator involved in quorum-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaping; Gan, Jianhua; Zhao, Jingru; Kong, Weina; Zhang, Jing; zhu, Miao; Li, Fan; Song, Yaqin; Qin, Jin; Liang, Haihua

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses at least three well-defined quorum-sensing (QS) (las, rhl and pqs) systems that control a variety of important functions including virulence. RsaL is a QS repressor that reduces QS signal production and ensures homeostasis by functioning in opposition to LasR. However, its regulatory role in signal homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we conducted a ChIP-seq assay and revealed that RsaL bound to two new targets, the intergenic regions of PA2228/PA2229 and pqsH/cdpR, which are required for PQS synthesis. Deletion of rsaL reduced transcription of pqsH and cdpR, thus decreasing PQS signal production. The ΔrsaL strain exhibited increased pyocyanin production and reduced biofilm formation, which are dependent on CdpR or PqsH activity. In addition, we solved the structure of the RsaL–DNA complex at a 2.4 Å resolution. Although the overall sequence similarity is quite low, RsaL folds into a HTH-like structure, which is conserved among many transcriptional regulators. Complementation results of the rsaL knockout cells with different rsaL mutants further confirmed the critical role of the DNA-binding residues (including Arg20, Gln27, Gln38, Gly35, Ser37 and Ser42) that are essential for DNA binding. Our findings reveal new targets of RsaL and provide insight into the detailed characterization of the RsaL–DNA interaction. PMID:27924027

  19. Proton sense receptors in the role of respiratory disease research%质子感知受体在呼吸系统疾病中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影; 杨敬平

    2015-01-01

    G蛋白耦联受体家族卵巢癌G蛋白耦联受体1亚家族的OGR1、T细胞死亡耦联基因8、G蛋白耦联受体4及诱导细胞停滞于G2/M期的G蛋白耦联受体G2A,这4种受体是新近发现的一类质子感知受体.该类受体广泛分布于人的各种正常组织和肿瘤组织细胞中,不仅与肿瘤的发生和转移等病理过程有关,还与炎症反应、免疫系统和血管系统等病理生理过程有关.这篇文章综述了在呼吸系统疾病中,质子感知受体的作用及其相关的信号通路.%G protein coupled receptor family of ovarian cancer G protein coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) ,T cell death coupled gene 8 (TDAG8),G protein coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) and stagnation of induced cells in G2/M phase of G protein coupled receptor G2A, these four receptors are a newly discovered type of proton sensory receptors.They are widely expressed in both normal and tumor cells in human body, not only related to the occurrence and metastasis of tumor and other pathological process, but also related to inflammatory response, the immune system, vascular system and other pathological physiological processes.This article reviewed the regulatory role of these proton-sensing receptors and its function in the respiratory system disease.

  20. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  1. Making Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life. He states that overall his approach to teaching and researching is about "making sense" where inadequate or incongruous conceptions fall into place or are transformed so they are congruous and adequate. In his teaching the author applies the methods of…

  2. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  3. Individual and combined roles of the master regulators AphA and LuxR in control of the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Julia C; Rutherford, Steven T; Shao, Yi; Utria, Alan F; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2013-02-01

    Bacteria use a chemical communication process called quorum sensing to control transitions between individual and group behaviors. In the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing circuit, two master transcription factors, AphA and LuxR, coordinate the quorum-sensing response. Here we show that AphA regulates 167 genes, LuxR regulates 625 genes, and they coregulate 77 genes. LuxR strongly controls genes at both low cell density and high cell density, suggesting that it is the major quorum-sensing regulator. In contrast, AphA is absent at high cell density and acts to fine-tune quorum-sensing gene expression at low cell density. We examined two loci as case studies of coregulation by AphA and LuxR. First, AphA and LuxR directly regulate expression of the genes encoding the quorum-regulatory small RNAs Qrr2, Qrr3, and Qrr4, the consequence of which is a specifically timed transition between the individual and the group life-styles. Second, AphA and LuxR repress type III secretion system genes but at different times and to different extents. The consequence of this regulation is that type III secretion is restricted to a peak at mid-cell density. Thus, the asymmetric production of AphA and LuxR coupled with differences in their strengths and timing of target gene regulation generate a precise temporal pattern of gene expression.

  4. Role of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrial Death Pathway in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hao Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Alterations in calcium homeostasis in the intracellular endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes cause cell death via the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, contributing to ventricular dysfunction. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure has not been studied. This study examined the possible involvement of CaR in the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in an experimental model of heart failure. Methods and Results: In Wistar rats, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were induced by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (Iso. Calindol, an activator of CaR, and calhex231, an inhibitor of CaR, were administered by caudal vein injection. Cardiac remodeling and left ventricular function were then analyzed in these rats. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the administration of Iso, the rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure. The cardiac expression of ER chaperones and related apoptotic proteins was significantly increased in the failing hearts. Furthermore, the expression of ER chaperones and the apoptotic rate were also increased with the administration of calindol, whereas the expression of these proteins was reduced with the treatment of calhex231. We also induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure via thoracic aorta constriction (TAC in mice. After 2 and 4 weeks of TAC, the expression of ER chaperones and apoptotic proteins were increased in the mouse hearts. Furthermore, Iso induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, while pretreatment with calhex231 prevented ER stress and protected the myocytes against apoptosis. To further investigate the effect of CaR on the concentration of intracellular calcium, the calcium concentration in the SR and mitochondria was determined with Fluo-5N and x-rhod-1 and the mitochondrial membrane potential was examined with JC-1 using laser confocal microscopy. After treatment with Iso for 48 hours

  5. Functional Characterization of MODY2 Mutations Highlights the Importance of the Fine-Tuning of Glucokinase and Its Role in Glucose Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Carmen-María; Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Azriel, Sharona; Gutierrez-Nogués, Angel; Aragonés, Angel; Vincent, Olivier; Campos-Barros, Angel; Argente, Jesús; Navas, María-Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) acts as a glucose sensor in the pancreatic beta-cell and regulates insulin secretion. Heterozygous mutations in the human GK-encoding GCK gene that reduce the activity index increase the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion threshold and cause familial, mild fasting hyperglycaemia, also known as Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY2). Here we describe the biochemical characterization of five missense GK mutations: p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, p.His416Arg and p.Ala449Thr. The enzymatic analysis of the corresponding bacterially expressed GST-GK mutant proteins show that all of them impair the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme. In keeping with their position within the protein, mutations p.Ile130Thr, p.Asp205His, p.Gly223Ser, and p.His416Arg strongly decrease the activity index of GK, affecting to one or more kinetic parameters. In contrast, the p.Ala449Thr mutation, which is located in the allosteric activator site, does not affect significantly the activity index of GK, but dramatically modifies the main kinetic parameters responsible for the function of this enzyme as a glucose sensor. The reduced Kcat of the mutant (3.21±0.28 s−1 vs 47.86±2.78 s−1) is balanced by an increased glucose affinity (S0.5 = 1.33±0.08 mM vs 7.86±0.09 mM) and loss of cooperativity for this substrate. We further studied the mechanism by which this mutation impaired GK kinetics by measuring the differential effects of several competitive inhibitors and one allosteric activator on the mutant protein. Our results suggest that this mutation alters the equilibrium between the conformational states of glucokinase and highlights the importance of the fine-tuning of GK and its role in glucose sensing. PMID:22291974

  6. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in cardiomyocyte apoptosis via the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial death pathway in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang-Hao; Fu, Song-Bin; Leng, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xinying; Dong, Shiyun; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Ren, Huan; Li, Hulun; Zhong, Xin; Xu, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis in the intracellular endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) and mitochondria of cardiomyocytes cause cell death via the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, contributing to ventricular dysfunction. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure has not been studied. This study examined the possible involvement of CaR in the SR and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in an experimental model of heart failure. In Wistar rats, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure were induced by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (Iso). Calindol, an activator of CaR, and calhex231, an inhibitor of CaR, were administered by caudal vein injection. Cardiac remodeling and left ventricular function were then analyzed in these rats. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the administration of Iso, the rats developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure. The cardiac expression of ER chaperones and related apoptotic proteins was significantly increased in the failing hearts. Furthermore, the expression of ER chaperones and the apoptotic rate were also increased with the administration of calindol, whereas the expression of these proteins was reduced with the treatment of calhex231. We also induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure via thoracic aorta constriction (TAC) in mice. After 2 and 4 weeks of TAC, the expression of ER chaperones and apoptotic proteins were increased in the mouse hearts. Furthermore, Iso induced ER stress and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, while pretreatment with calhex231 prevented ER stress and protected the myocytes against apoptosis. To further investigate the effect of CaR on the concentration of intracellular calcium, the calcium concentration in the SR and mitochondria was determined with Fluo-5N and x-rhod-1 and the mitochondrial membrane potential was examined with JC-1 using laser confocal microscopy. After treatment with Iso for 48 hours, activation of CaR reduced [Ca(2+)]SR

  7. Transceptors at the boundary of nutrient transporters and receptors: A new role for Arabidopsis SULTR1;2 in sulfur sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Liang eZheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a sophisticated mechanism to sense the extracellular sulfur (S status so that sulfate transport and S assimilation/metabolism can be coordinated. Genetic, biochemical and molecular studies in Arabidopsis over the past ten years have started to shed some light on the regulatory mechanism of the S response. Key advances in transcriptional regulation (SLIM1, MYB and miR395, involvement of hormones (auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid and identification of putative sensors (OASTL and SULTR1;2 are highlighted here. Although our current view of S nutrient sensing and signaling remains fragmented, it is anticipated that through further studies a sensing and signaling network will be revealed in the near future.

  8. A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Hardesty, R. Michael; Turner, David D.; Behrendt, Andreas; Cadeddu, Maria P.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Schlüssel, Peter; Van Baelen, Joël.; Zus, Florian

    2015-09-01

    A review of remote sensing technology for lower tropospheric thermodynamic (TD) profiling is presented with focus on high accuracy and high temporal-vertical resolution. The contributions of these instruments to the understanding of the Earth system are assessed with respect to radiative transfer, land surface-atmosphere feedback, convection initiation, and data assimilation. We demonstrate that for progress in weather and climate research, TD profilers are essential. These observational systems must resolve gradients of humidity and temperature in the stable or unstable atmospheric surface layer close to the ground, in the mixed layer, in the interfacial layer—usually characterized by an inversion—and the lower troposphere. A thorough analysis of the current observing systems is performed revealing significant gaps that must be addressed to fulfill existing needs. We analyze whether current and future passive and active remote sensing systems can close these gaps. A methodological analysis and demonstration of measurement capabilities with respect to bias and precision is executed both for passive and active remote sensing including passive infrared and microwave spectroscopy, the global navigation satellite system, as well as water vapor and temperature Raman lidar and water vapor differential absorption lidar. Whereas passive remote sensing systems are already mature with respect to operational applications, active remote sensing systems require further engineering to become operational in networks. However, active remote sensing systems provide a smaller bias as well as higher temporal and vertical resolutions. For a suitable mesoscale network design, TD profiler system developments should be intensified and dedicated observing system simulation experiments should be performed.

  9. Schopenhauer on Sense Perception and Aesthetic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Schopenhauer's account of sense perception contains an acute critique of Kant's theory of cognition. His analysis of the role of the understanding in perception may be closer to Kant's than he conceded, but his physiological analysis of the role of the senses nonetheless proffers a more plausible account than Kant's transcendental conception of…

  10. Schopenhauer on Sense Perception and Aesthetic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Schopenhauer's account of sense perception contains an acute critique of Kant's theory of cognition. His analysis of the role of the understanding in perception may be closer to Kant's than he conceded, but his physiological analysis of the role of the senses nonetheless proffers a more plausible account than Kant's transcendental conception of…

  11. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  12. A Novel Role for the Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor EGL-46 in the Differentiation of Gas-Sensing Neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo Romanos, Teresa; Gramstrup Petersen, Jakob; Redo Riveiro, Alba;

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) provoke distinct olfactory behaviors via specialized sensory neurons across metazoa. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the BAG sensory neurons are specialized to sense changes in both O2 and CO2 levels in the environment. The precise functionality of the......-13. Thereby, three conserved transcription factors collaborate to ensure neuron type-specific identity features of the BAG gas-sensing neurons.......Oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) provoke distinct olfactory behaviors via specialized sensory neurons across metazoa. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the BAG sensory neurons are specialized to sense changes in both O2 and CO2 levels in the environment. The precise functionality...... is partially, though not completely, controlled by ETS-5, an ETS-domain-containing transcription factor, and EGL-13, a Sox transcription factor. We report here, the identification of EGL-46, a zinc-finger transcription factor, which regulates BAG gas-sensing fate in partially parallel pathways to ETS-5 and EGL...

  13. Ten years of operational boundary-layer measurements at the Richard - Aßmann Observatory Lindenberg: The role of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrich, F.; Engelbart, D. A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Remote sensing forms an essential part of the MOL-RAO boundary-layer measurements. Special emphasis will be put on the place of scintillometry as a technique to derive the sensible turbulent heat flux at the regional scale thus bridging the gap between local micrometeorological measurements and the typical spatial resolution of regional-scale meteorological models and of satellite images.

  14. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  15. Supercapacitive Iontronic Nanofabric Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruya; Si, Yang; Zhu, Zijie; Guo, Yaojun; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Ning; Sun, Gang; Pan, Tingrui

    2017-07-31

    The study of wearable devices has become a popular research topic recently, where high-sensitivity, noise proof sensing mechanisms with long-term wearability play critical roles in a real-world implementation, while the existing mechanical sensing technologies (i.e., resistive, capacitive, or piezoelectric) have yet offered a satisfactory solution to address them all. Here, we successfully introduced a flexible supercapacitive sensing modality to all-fabric materials for wearable pressure and force sensing using an elastic ionic-electronic interface. Notably, an electrospun ionic fabric utilizing nanofibrous structures offers an extraordinarily high pressure-to-capacitance sensitivity (114 nF kPa(-1) ), which is at least 1000 times higher than any existing capacitive sensors and one order of magnitude higher than the previously reported ionic devices, with a pressure resolution of 2.4 Pa, achieving high levels of noise immunity and signal stability for wearable applications. In addition, its fabrication process is fully compatible with existing industrial manufacturing and can lead to cost-effective production for its utility in emerging wearable uses in a foreseeable future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  17. Role of molar concentration in structural, optical and gas sensing performance of anatase phase TiO2 nanofilms: automated nebulizer spray pyrolysis (ANSP) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishnan, V.; Elango, P.; Ganesan, V.

    2017-07-01

    TiO2 nanofilms were deposited on a glass substrate at 500 °C using automated nebulizer spray pyrolysis. The anatase polycrystalline structure with increased grain size and variations of surfactant planes ( T c) were influenced by molar concentration on XRD study. AFM study shows the average roughness values were increased with increase in molar concentration. A granular domain like microstructure with crack and void-free particle was examined by FESEM. The maximum transmittance 95.5% (529.6 nm) for x = 0.05 M/L, further increment of molar concentration showed the decremented transmittance with red shift absorption edge and the calculated band gap values ( E g = 3.53-3.20 eV) also noted. The gas sensing performances of films were studied with respect to various gas sensing parameters and the ammonia (NH3) gas showed better sensing response ( S max = 89%) at 150 °C for 300 ppm gas concentration against other gases (C2H6O, CH4O, C3H8O and C3H6O).

  18. Acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in human lymphoma cells: a role for the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor TDAG8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Dong, Lixue; Dean, Eric; Yang, Li V

    2013-10-11

    Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65) is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  19. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65 is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  20. Sensing with toroidal metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-03-01

    Localized electromagnetic excitation in the form of toroidal dipoles has recently been observed in metamaterial systems. The origin of the toroidal dipole lies in the currents flowing on the surface of a torus. Thus, the exotic toroidal excitations play an important role in determining the optical properties of a system. Toroidal dipoles also contribute towards enabling high quality factor subwavelength resonances in metamaterial systems which could be an excellent platform for probing the light matter interaction. Here, we demonstrate sensing with toroidal resonance in a two-dimensional terahertz metamaterial in which a pair of mirrored asymmetric Fano resonators possesses anti-aligned magnetic moments at an electromagnetic resonance that gives rise to a toroidal dipole. Our proof of concept demonstration opens up an avenue to explore the interaction of matter with toroidal multipoles that could have strong applications in the sensing of dielectrics and biomolecules.

  1. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  2. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  3. Sensing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

    2013-04-22

    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation.

  4. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  5. Remote Sensing Based Analysis of the Role of Land Use/Land Cover on Surface Temperature and Temporal Changes in Temperature; a Case Study of Ajmer District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Bhalla, P.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    An attempt has been made in this research to analyze temporal variations in surface temperature in Ajmer District Rajasthan. The research is carried out to assess the relationship between the land surface temperatures (LST) and land cover (LC) changes both in quantitative and qualitative ways in Ajmer District area using Landsat TM/ETM+ data over the period 1989 to 2013.in this period we used three temporal TM/ETM data 1989, 2001 and 2013. Remote sensing of Land surface temperature (LST) has traditionally used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the indicator of vegetation abundance to estimate the land surface temperature (LST)-vegetation relationship. Unsupervised classification methods have been taken to prepare the LC map. LST is derived from the thermal band of Landsat TM/ETM+ using the calibration of spectral radiance and emissivity correction of remote sensing. NDVI is derived from the NIR & RED Band using image enhancement technique (Indices). Arc-GIS have been utilized for data visualization. This procedure allowed analyzing whether LULC classes match LST classes. However, the results of such overlaying are hard to interpret. LST and LULC maps of these areas give the understanding on how the classes and corresponding LST have changed from one date to the other. Another option is to collect statistical data. it was impossible to calculate linear regression between LULC map and LST map. A solution to that matter is to use Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) instead of LULC classification result.

  6. Sensing danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, B; Müller, K

    2017-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses. Based mainly on animal studies there is growing evidence to suggest that TLRs are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and in the pro...... the outcome of HSCT and new therapeutic perspectives that may be related to this development.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 12 December 2016; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.263....

  7. Role of Climate Variability and Human Activity on Poopó Lake Droughts between 1990 and 2015 Assessed Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Satgé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, an emergency state was declared in Bolivia when Poopó Lake dried up. Climate variability and the increasing need for water are potential factors responsible for this situation. Because field data are missing over the region, no statements are possible about the influence of mentioned factors. This study is a preliminary step toward the understanding of Poopó Lake drought using remote sensing data. First, atmospheric corrections for Landsat (FLAASH and L8SR, seven satellite derived indexes for extracting water bodies, MOD16 evapotranspiration, PERSIANN-CDR and MSWEP rainfall products potentiality were assessed. Then, the fluctuations of Poopó Lake extent over the last 26 years are presented for the first time jointly, with the mean regional annual rainfall. Three main droughts are highlighted between 1990 and 2015: two are associated with negative annual rainfall anomalies in 1994 and 1995 and one associated with positive annual rainfall anomaly in 2015. This suggests that other factors than rainfall influenced the recent disappearance of the lake. The regional evapotranspiration increased by 12.8% between 2000 and 2014. Evapotranspiration increase is not homogeneous over the watershed but limited over the main agriculture regions. Agriculture activity is one of the major factors contributing to the regional desertification and recent disappearance of Poopó Lake.

  8. Identification of genes in the VirR regulon of Pectobacterium atrosepticum and characterization of their roles in quorum sensing-dependent virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Rita; Burr, Tom; Carlton, Timothy; Liu, Hui; Hedley, Peter; Toth, Ian; Salmond, George P C

    2013-03-01

    In the economically important phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum, expression of plant cell wall degrading enzymes and other virulence determinants is controlled in a cell density-dependent fashion, termed quorum sensing (QS). Canonical QS systems in Gram-negative bacteria contain a LuxI-type protein, synthesizing a signalling molecule, and a LuxR-type regulator, responding to the signalling molecule above threshold concentrations. In P. atrosepticum, the central LuxR-type repressor of virulence, VirR, has been identified and its impacts on virulence characterized. Here we define the broader VirR regulon using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and in planta microarrays. Ninety-four direct VirR targets were identified by ChIP microarrays and a consensus VirR binding site was determined. Purified VirR was used in DNA gel shift assays on target promoters and VirR : promoter binding was disrupted by exogenous addition of the signalling molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OHHL). VirR autorepressed, and directly activated the transcription of rsmA in the absence of OHHL. Finally, we showed that VirR directly regulated the production of siderophores and controlled swimming motility. This is the first report characterizing the direct targets of VirR and provides clear evidence that this LuxR-type protein can act in vivo as both an activator and repressor of transcription in the absence of its cognate signalling molecule.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Burn-Out, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Body Handlers: The Mediating Role of Sense of Coherence and Spirituality at Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Levin, Yafit

    2015-12-17

    This study assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), burn-out (BO), and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli body handlers. We aimed to explore differences between two groups of Orthodox Jewish male volunteers: the "ZAKA" body handlers (ZAs: n = 102), and a comparison group of charity workers (CWs: n = 101). Furthermore, we assessed the contribution of two potential resilience buffers-sense of coherence (SOC) and spirituality at the workplace (SAW)-to PTSS, BO, and CS among these volunteers via self-report measures. Surprisingly, results show that ZAs reported significantly lower levels of PTSS and BO as compared with CWs. ZAs also reported significantly higher levels of CS as compared with CWs. Importantly, SOC mediated the link between groups and PTSS and BO. Both SOC and SAW mediated the link between groups and CS. These findings suggest that "ZAKA" body handlers demonstrate substantial resilience following repeated exposure to death and atrocities. To reduce work-related psychological distress and improve CS, SOC and SAW should be taken into account in the process of recruitment and training of body handlers.

  10. 酸敏感离子通道在类风湿关节炎中作用的研究进展%Research progress on role of acid-sensing ion channels in rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁鹏; 陈飞虎

    2015-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels ( ASICs) are cation chan-nels activated by extracellular H+, which belong to the amilo-ride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels/degenerin ( ENaC/DEG ) superfamily. These channels are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and have crucial biological func-tions. Recent studies have demonstrated that ASICs play an im- portant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This re-view concerns the cell biological characteristics of ASICs as well as its role in inflammation, pain, cartilage destruction and other aspects in rheumatoid arthritis.%酸敏感离子通道( acid-sensing ion channels, ASICs)是一类胞外H+激活的阳离子通道,属于阿米洛利敏感的上皮钠通道/退变素( epithelial Na+ channels/ degenerin, ENaC/DEG)超家族中的一员,该通道广泛分布在周围和中枢神经系统中,并且具有重要的生物学功能。近来研究表明,ASICs在类风湿关节炎发病过程中发挥着重要作用。该文对ASICs的细胞生物学特点以及ASICs在类风湿关节炎中对炎症、疼痛和软骨损伤等方面的作用进行综述。

  11. The role of remote sensing data in conservation and sustainable management of the ecological functions and ecosystem services of deltas. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, I.

    2013-12-01

    Several initiatives have developed over the last few years to describe the extent of wetland systems around the world, and to monitor changes in their condition. For example, this has become a priority action for the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). IUCN's Red List of Ecosystems has been proposed as a mechanism for assessing the status of ecosystems from the local to the global levels, and for measuring the change in status over time based on, for example, losses in area, and habitat degradation or conversion. Most recently, a collaborative team of experts has been assembled via the Belmont Forum to analyze the status of deltaic systems, deliver a science-based delta sustainability framework for risk assessment and decision support, build an international repository of integrated datasets on deltas, and implement the results of the modeling and decision support framework in selected deltas in partnership with local stakeholders. Direct observation of the extent and condition of wetlands, and monitoring of the species present is an important part of these global observation processes; however many regions are difficult to survey on the ground. In addition, in order to measure the rate at which the ecosystems are changing it is necessary to make repeated subsequent monitoring of their status, and inventorying of biodiversity; most organizations have limited capacity in terms of staff time and money to complete this work. Remotely sensed earth observation data represent a critical source of additional data on coastal wetland systems that is relatively easy to obtain and is regularly updated. It is generally assumed that any change to the biological diversity of an ecosystem (e.g. changes in size and distribution of populations, numbers and phylogenetic diversity of species) will affect the ecological function of ecosystems, and this will affect the capacity of the ecosystems to provide critical ecosystem services. However, the

  12. Association between calcium sensing receptor gene polymorphisms and chronic pancreatitis in a US population: Role of serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1type and alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkata Muddana; David C Whitcomb; Janette Lamb; Julia B Greer; Beth Elinoff; Robert H Hawes; Peter B cotton; Michelle A Anderson; Randall E Brand; Adam Slivka

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that calcium sensing receptor (CASR) polymorphisms are associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and to determine whether serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1type (SPfNK1) N34S or alcohol are necessary co-factors in its etiology.METHODS: Initially, 115 subjects with pancreatitis and 66 controls were evaluated, of whom 57 patients and 21 controls were predetermined to carry the high-risk SP/NK1 N34S polymorphism. We sequenced CASR gene exons 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, areas containing the majority of reported polymorphisms and novel mutations. Based on the initial results, we added 223 patients and 239 controls to analyze three common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisrns (SNPs) in exon 7 (A986S, R990G, and Q1011E).RESULTS: The CASR exon 7 R990G polymorphism was significantly associated with CP (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.59; P = 0.015). The association between CASR R990G and CP was stronger in subjects who reported moderate or heavy alcohol consumption (OR,3.12; 95% CI, 1.14-9.13; P = 0.018). There was no association between the various CASR genotypes and SPINK1 N34S in pancreatitis. None of the novel CASR polymorphisms reported from Germany and India was detected.CONCLUSION: Our United States-based study confirmed an association of CASR and CP and for the first time demonstrated that CASR R990G is a significant risk factor for CP. We also conclude that the risk of CP with CASR R990G is increased in subjects with moderate to heavy alcohol consumption.

  13. The Role of Calcium-Sensing Receptors in Endothelin-1-Dependent Effects on Adult Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: Possible Contribution to Adaptive Myocardial Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukova, Elena; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Arens, Christoph; Sitdikova, Guzel; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-deficiency as it occurs during endothelial dysfunction activates the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system and increases the expression of receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-1 that acts as a chaperon for calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) that have recently been identified to improve cardiac function. Here, we hypothesized that ET-1 increases the cardiac expression of CaR and thereby induces an adaptive type of hypertrophy. Expressions of RAMP-1, endothelin receptors, and CaR were analyzed by RT-PCR in left ventricular tissues of L-NAME-treated rats. Effects of ET-1 on CaR expression and cell function (load free cell shortening) were analyzed in adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. siRNA directed against CaR and RAMP-1 was used to investigate a causal relationship. PD142893 and BQ788 were used to dissect the contribution of ETB1 , ETB2 , and ETA receptors. Non-specific NO synthase inhibition with L-Nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) caused a cardiac upregulation of ETB receptors and CaR suggesting a paracrine effect of ET-1 on cardiomyocytes. Indeed, ET-1 induced the expression of CaR in cultured cardiomyocytes. Under these conditions, cardiomyocytes increased cell size (hypertrophy) but maintained normal function. Inhibition of ETA and ETB1 receptors led to ET-1-dependent reduction in cell shortening and attenuated up-regulation of CaR. Down-regulation of RAMP-1 reduced CaR responsiveness. In conclusion, ET-1 causes an adaptive type of hypertrophy by up-regulation of CaR in cardiomyocytes via ETA and/or ETB1 receptors. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2508-2518, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Role of Ca2+ and L-Phe in regulating functional cooperativity of disease-associated "toggle" calcium-sensing receptor mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR regulates Ca(2+ homeostasis in the body by monitoring extracellular levels of Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+]o and amino acids. Mutations at the hinge region of the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain (VFTD produce either receptor inactivation (L173P, P221Q or activation (L173F, P221L related to hypercalcemic or hypocalcemic disorders. In this paper, we report that both L173P and P221Q markedly impair the functional positive cooperativity of the CaSR as reflected by [Ca(2+]o-induced [Ca(2+]i oscillations, inositol-1-phosphate (IP1 accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 activity. In contrast, L173F and P221L show enhanced responsiveness of these three functional readouts to [Ca(2+]o. Further analysis of the dynamics of the VFTD mutants using computational simulation studies supports disruption in the correlated motions in the loss-of-function CaSR mutants, while these motions are enhanced in the gain-of-function mutants. Wild type (WT CaSR was modulated by L-Phe in a heterotropic positive cooperative way, achieving an EC50 similar to those of the two activating mutations. The response of the inactivating P221Q mutant to [Ca(2+]o was partially rescued by L-Phe, illustrating the capacity of the L-Phe binding site to enhance the positive homotropic cooperativity of CaSR. L-Phe had no effect on the other inactivating mutant. Moreover, our results carried out both in silico and in intact cells indicate that residue Leu(173, which is close to residues that are part of the L-Phe-binding pocket, exhibited impaired heterotropic cooperativity in the presence of L-Phe. Thus, Pro(221 and Leu(173 are important for the positive homo- and heterotropic cooperative regulation elicited by agonist binding.

  15. Potential roles for calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in murine anorectic response to deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2017-01-01

    Food contamination by the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) has the potential to adversely affect animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. In mice, the DON-induced anorectic response results from aberrant satiety hormone secretion by enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent in vitro studies in the murine STC-1 EEC model have linked DON-induced satiety hormone secretion to activation of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-coupled protein receptor, and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), a TRP channel. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms mediate DON's anorectic effects in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON-induced food refusal and satiety hormone release in the mouse are linked to activation of CaSR and TRPA1. Oral treatment with selective agonists for CaSR (R-568) or TRPA1 (allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)) suppressed food intake in mice, and the agonist's effects were suppressed by pretreatment with corresponding antagonists NPS-2143 or ruthenium red (RR), respectively. Importantly, NPS-2143 or RR inhibited both DON-induced food refusal and plasma elevations of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36); cotreatment with both antagonists additively suppressed both anorectic and hormone responses to DON. Taken together, these in vivo data along with prior in vitro findings support the contention that activation of CaSR and TRPA1 contributes to DON-induced food refusal by mediating satiety hormone exocytosis from EEC.

  16. Sensing at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for

  17. Making sense of evidence in management decisions: the role of research-based knowledge on innovation adoption and implementation in healthcare. study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyratsis Yiannis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We know that patient care can be improved by implementing evidence-based innovations and applying research findings linked to good practice. Successfully implementing innovations in complex organisations, such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS, is often challenging as multiple contextual dynamics mediate the process. Research studies have explored the challenges of introducing innovations into healthcare settings and have contributed to a better understanding of why potentially useful innovations are not always implemented in practice, even if backed by strong evidence. Mediating factors include health policy and health system influences, organisational factors, and individual and professional attitudes, including decision makers' perceptions of innovation evidence. There has been limited research on how different forms of evidence are accessed and utilised by organisational decision makers during innovation adoption. We also know little about how diverse healthcare professionals (clinicians, administrators make sense of evidence and how this collective sensemaking mediates the uptake of innovations. Methods The study will involve nine comparative case study sites of acute care organisations grouped into three regional clusters across England. Each of the purposefully selected sites represents a variety of trust types and organisational contexts. We will use qualitative methods, in-depth interviews, observation of key meetings, and systematic analysis of relevant secondary data to understand the rationale and challenges involved in sourcing and utilising innovation evidence in the empirical setting of infection prevention and control. We will use theories of innovation adoption and sensemaking in organisations to interpret the data. The research will provide lessons for the uptake and continuous use of innovations in the English and international health systems. Discussion Unlike most innovation studies, which involve

  18. 群体感应及其在动物病原菌致病中的作用%Quorum sensing and its roles in pathogenesis among animal-associated pathogens-A eview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清平; 吴葵; 叶应旺; 董晓晖; 张菊梅

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a phenomenon that microbes regulate some of their genes by signals related to the density of population. It is confirmed that acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL),some peptides,some furanones and some other small moleculars can be used as quorum-sensing signals by microbes. Microbes control their physiology with different QS systems in parallel or hierarchical ways. A lot of microbial pathogenesis connect with quorum sensing closely. More and more studies show that QS systems regulate microbial pathogenesis through the following points: ( 1) QS helping pathogens invasion and colonization; ( 2) QS regulating production of virulent factor; (3) QS giving pathogens the ability of immunity or drug resistance. We review the role of QS in microbial pathogenesis and address a new way to prevent and control microbial diseases.%群体感应是指微生物群体某些基因的表达受到与群体密度相关的信号分子调控的现象.微生物以酰基高丝氨酸内酯化合物、某些短肽分子、呋喃酮类化合物、以及一些小分子物质为信号分子,介导不同的群体感应系统.各群体感应系统之间以平行协同或层次串连的方式组织起来调控微生物各种基因表达.众多病原菌致病基因的表达与群体感应密切相关,主要表现在:群体感应帮助微生物对宿主的侵袭和定殖;调控毒力因子的产生和作用于宿主;以及介导病原菌对宿主的免疫能力和药物抗性.进行群体感应对微生物致病过程调控的研究,将有利于从群体感应人手进行病原菌防控新策略的探索.

  19. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  20. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  1. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  2. Integrated In Situ Sensing and Modeling to Assess Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Tropical Wet Forest Soils: The Role of Leaf Cutter Ant Atta Cepholotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Fernandez Bou, A. S.; Dierick, D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Schwendenmann, L.; Swanson, A. C.; Zelikova, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    This project focuses on the role of leaf cutter ants (LCA) Atta cepholotes in carbon cycling in neotropical wet forests. LCA are abundant in these forests and workers cut and carry vegetation fragments to their nests, where symbiotic fungi break down the plant material and produce the fungal hyphae on which the ants feed. LCA are the dominant herbivores in tropical forest ecosystems, removing 10-50% of vegetation annually. Their nests can achieve large sizes, extending several meters belowground and covering 50 square meters or more of the forest floor. We monitored soil moisture, temperature, and soil CO2 concentrations continuously in nest and control sites at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Intermittently, we also assessed soil respiration and LCA nest vent fluxes. Observed soil CO2 concentrations varied markedly with soil moisture conditions, ranging from a few thousand to over 60,000 ppm(v). Accordingly, soil CO2 surface efflux varied temporally by an order of magnitude or more (typical range 0.5 to 5 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1) for the same location as a consequence of soil moisture fluctuations. LCA nest vents equivalent CO2 efflux rates (accounting for vent diameter) can be substantially greater than soil surface values, with observed values ranging from about 1 to 50 mmol m-2 s-1 (it is worth noting that correcting for vent diameters yields equivalent CO2 efflux rates greater than 1000 mmol m-2 s-1). Similar to the soil surface efflux, vent efflux varied temporally by factors of 3 or more, suggesting a potential link between the vent productivity and nest activity, moisture content of surrounding soil, and atmospheric conditions (e.g., air temperature, wind). Using a soil model (Hydrus-1D) to account for unsaturated flow, heat transfer, CO2 production and diffusive transport, we captured moisture and temperature dynamics and the order of magnitude of observed CO2 concentration. Modelled surface fluxes also agreed well with observed soil surface CO2 efflux

  3. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  4. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  5. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  6. Public Universities and the Neoliberal Common Sense: Seven Iconoclastic Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberalism has utterly failed as a viable model of economic development, yet the politics of culture associated with neoliberalism is still in force, becoming the new common sense shaping the role of government and education. This "common sense" has become an ideology playing a major role in constructing hegemony as moral and intellectual…

  7. An international organization for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1991-01-01

    A recommendation is presented for the formation of a new commercially oriented international organization to acquire or develop, coordinate or manage, the space and ground segments for a global operational satellite system to furnish the basic data for remote sensing and meteorological, land, and sea resource applications. The growing numbers of remote sensing programs are examined and possible ways of reducing redundant efforts and improving the coordination and distribution of these global efforts are discussed. This proposed remote sensing organization could play an important role in international cooperation and the distribution of scientific, commercial, and public good data.

  8. Sensing of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E

    2007-04-30

    In general, nutrient sensing mechanisms in the intestine are not well understood. Potential sensors include the terminals of extrinsic afferent nerves, enteric nerves, endocrine cells and other epithelial cells including enterocytes and immune cells. This short review will concentrate on the neural pathways that are activated by the presence of glucose in the intestinal lumen and the role of a specialized endocrine cell, the enterochromaffin cell in glucose-sensing and the subsequent activation of extrinsic neural pathways.

  9. Mapping sense(s) of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovse, Astrid Ravn; Hovy, Dirk; Johannsen, Anders Trærup

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies point to the importance of critically investigating people’s sense(s) of place and their patterns of everyday mobility in relation to their linguistic practice (e.g., Johnstone 2010b, Britain 2013). Since sense of place is fundamentally a phenomenological entity......, the question of how to tap into this constitutes a methodological challenge to researchers (Latham 2003, Hall 2009). This paper presents an experimental method aimed at eliciting data on sense of place and everyday mobility in a feasible and low-tech manner through the use of mental maps and mobility maps....... During fieldwork among adolescents in a rural and an urban Danish setting, in a comparative study on connections between place, mobility and linguistic practice, it became clear that traditional sociolinguistic and ethnographic methods such as interviews and participant observation missed out important...

  10. Spatio-temporal topsoil organic carbon mapping of a semi-arid Mediterranean region: The role of land use, soil texture, topographic indices and the influence of remote sensing data to modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Schillaci, Calogero

    2017-06-02

    SOC is the most important indicator of soil fertility and monitoring its space-time changes is a prerequisite to establish strategies to reduce soil loss and preserve its quality. Here we modelled the topsoil (0–0.3m) SOC concentration of the cultivated area of Sicily in 1993 and 2008. Sicily is an extremely variable region with a high number of ecosystems, soils, and microclimates. We studied the role of time and land use in the modelling of SOC, and assessed the role of remote sensing (RS) covariates in the boosted regression trees modelling. The models obtained showed a high pseudo-R2 (0.63–0.69) and low uncertainty (s.d.<0.76gCkg−1 with RS, and <1.25gCkg−1 without RS). These outputs allowed depicting a time variation of SOC at 1arcsec. SOC estimation strongly depended on the soil texture, land use, rainfall and topographic indices related to erosion and deposition. RS indices captured one fifth of the total variance explained, slightly changed the ranking of variance explained by the non-RS predictors, and reduced the variability of the model replicates. During the study period, SOC decreased in the areas with relatively high initial SOC, and increased in the area with high temperature and low rainfall, dominated by arables. This was likely due to the compulsory application of some Good Agricultural and Environmental practices. These results confirm that the importance of texture and land use in short-term SOC variation is comparable to climate. The present results call for agronomic and policy intervention at the district level to maintain fertility and yield potential. In addition, the present results suggest that the application of RS covariates enhanced the modelling performance.

  11. Compressive Sensing Over Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil; Effros, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. Our results provide an explicit trade-off between the rate and the decoding complexity. The key difference of compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic approaches is at their decoding side. Although optimal decoders to recover the original signal, compressed by source coding have high complexity, the compressive sensing decoder is a linear or convex optimization. First, we investigate applications of compressive sensing on distributed compression of correlated sources. Here, by using compressive sensing, we propose a compression scheme for a family of correlated sources with a modularized decoder, providing a trade-off between the compression rate and the decoding complexity. We call this scheme Sparse Distributed Compression. We use this compression scheme for a general multi...

  12. Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Camelia; Abedi, Heidar-Ali; Omranipour, Ramesh; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-03-28

    There is disagreement among studies of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes in breast cancer patients over time. Reportedly, assessment of HRQoL prior to diagnosis may be crucial to provide a clear point of comparison for later measurements. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate changes in HRQoL, sense of coherence (SOC), spirituality and religious coping in a group of women with breast cancer from the pre-diagnosis phase to 6 months later in comparison with a control group, and (2) to explore the predictor role of SOC, spirituality, and religious coping within the breast cancer group at the 6-month follow-up. A sample of women with breast cancer (n = 162) and a matched control group (n = 210) responded to the following instruments on both occasions: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, the SOC Scale, the Spiritual Perspective Scale and the Brief Religious Coping Scale. A series of General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures was used to determine changes between the groups over time. Also, Multiple Linear Regression analyses were applied to each of the HRQoL dimensions, as dependent variable at the 6 months follow-up. Physical and role function, fatigue, and financial difficulties were rated worse by the women with breast cancer during the first 6 months in comparison to the controls, which was both a statistically (p life (p < 0.001), and emotional functioning (p < 0.01) during the same period of time. The degree of SOC (p < 0.01) and baseline ratings of several dimensions of HRQoL (p < 0.05) were the most important predictors of HRQoL changes. Collecting HRQoL data before a final diagnosis of breast cancer is important to identify women at risk of deterioration in HRQoL during and after treatment. Special attention should be paid to physical and role functioning impairment, fatigue, and financial difficulties experienced by these women. These results underscore that the degree of

  13. The impact of quorum sensing and swarming motility on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is nutritionally conditional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrout, J.D.; Chopp, D.L.; Just, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    The role of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is unclear. Some researchers have shown that quorum sensing is important for biofilm development, while others have indicated it has little or no role. In this study, the contribution of quorum sensing to biofilm development...

  14. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  15. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  16. Role of remote sensing in ocean management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Intelligent environmental sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  18. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  19. Making Sense of Optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Akash; Post, Ryan J; Ho, Yi-Yun; Warden, Melissa R

    2015-07-25

    This review, one of a series of articles, tries to make sense of optogenetics, a recently developed technology that can be used to control the activity of genetically-defined neurons with light. Cells are first genetically engineered to express a light-sensitive opsin, which is typically an ion channel, pump, or G protein-coupled receptor. When engineered cells are then illuminated with light of the correct frequency, opsin-bound retinal undergoes a conformational change that leads to channel opening or pump activation, cell depolarization or hyperpolarization, and neural activation or silencing. Since the advent of optogenetics, many different opsin variants have been discovered or engineered, and it is now possible to stimulate or inhibit neuronal activity or intracellular signaling pathways on fast or slow timescales with a variety of different wavelengths of light. Optogenetics has been successfully employed to enhance our understanding of the neural circuit dysfunction underlying mood disorders, addiction, and Parkinson's disease, and has enabled us to achieve a better understanding of the neural circuits mediating normal behavior. It has revolutionized the field of neuroscience, and has enabled a new generation of experiments that probe the causal roles of specific neural circuit components.

  20. Glucose Sensing Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa H. Routh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons whose activity is regulated by glucose are found in a number of brain regions. Glucose-excited (GE neurons increase while glucose-inhibited (GI neurons decrease their action potential frequency as interstitial brain glucose levels increase. We hypothesize that these neurons evolved to sense and respond to severe energy deficit (e.g., fasting that threatens the brains glucose supply. During modern times, they are also important for the restoration of blood glucose levels following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Our data suggest that impaired glucose sensing by hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons may contribute to the syndrome known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in which the mechanisms which restore euglycemia following hypoglycemia become impaired. On the other hand, increased responses of glucose sensing neurons to glucose deficit may play a role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and obesity. This review will discuss the mechanisms by which glucose sensing neurons sense changes in interstitial glucose and explore the roles of these specialized glucose sensors in glucose and energy homeostasis.

  1. Husserl’s theory of noematic sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Husserl’s transcendental turn and the discovery of the correlation between consciousness and the world the concept of the noema becomes one of the constant leitmotifs of Husserl’s philosophy. My paper will be devoted to the clarification of this concept and its implications for Husserl’s theory of sense. The leading question will be: How can the noema play the role of both the sense and the objective correlate of the intentional act? I will start with presenting the problematic of sense in Husserl’s phenomenology from the Logical Investigations to the Ideas I. The central part of my paper will be devoted to the influential debate regarding the interpretation of the noema. Finally, I intend to point out the most important ways in which the notion of the noema becomes enriched in later Husserl’s philosophy, as well as the difference between linguisitic and non-linguistic sense, based on the Analyses Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis. I hope to show that Husserl’s phenomenological theory of sense offers a valuable alternative to the exclusively language-oriented theories of sense. [This paper is the abridged and reworked version of my Master’s Thesis "Husser’s Notion of the Noema: The Phenomenological Theory of Sense" defended at KU Leuven in January 2016.

  2. Optimized Reputable Sensing Participants Extraction for Participatory Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  3. Anisotropic membrane curvature sensing by antibacterial peptides

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi; Lindén, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins and peptides have an intrinsic capacity to sense and induce membrane curvature, and play crucial roles for organizing and remodeling cell membranes. However, the molecular driving forces behind these processes are not well understood. Here, we describe a new approach to study curvature sensing, by simulating the direction-dependent interactions of single molecules with a buckled lipid bilayer. We analyze three antimicrobial peptides, a class of membrane-associated molecules that specifically target and destabilize bacterial membranes, and find qualitatively different sensing characteristics that would be difficult to resolve with other methods. These findings provide new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides, which might aid the development of new antibiotics. Our approach is generally applicable to a wide range of curvature sensing molecules, and our results provide strong motivation to develop new experimental methods to track position and orientation of membrane p...

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  5. The sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina

    investigate the sense of agency. The central aspect of the thesis work was to understand if brain lesioned children, diagnosed with hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (CP), have an altered sense of agency, and if this different experience has an influence on the feeling of control of their movements and their actual...

  6. Sense and Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Two sisters of opposing temperament but who share the pangs of tragic love provide the subjects for Sense and Sensibility. Elinor, practical and conventional, the epitome of sense, desires a man who is promised to another woman. Marianne, emotional and sentimental, the epitome of sensibility, loses

  7. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media gener

  8. Sense and Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Two sisters of opposing temperament but who share the pangs of tragic love provide the subjects for Sense and Sensibility. Elinor, practical and conventional, the epitome of sense, desires a man who is promised to another woman. Marianne, emotional and sentimental, the epitome of sensibility, loses

  9. Sense of participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohorques Montemayor, L.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sense of participation of a spatially distributed individual—in the intersections of physical and mediated networks. This sense is fundamental to an individuals’ experience as a participant in systems designed to this purpose including today’s social media and new media

  10. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  11. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade

  12. Quorum Sensing Enhances the Stress Response in Vibrio cholerae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Adam; Kan, Biao; Zhu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae lives in aquatic environments and causes cholera. Here, we show that quorum sensing enhances V. cholerae viability under certain stress conditions by upregulating the expression of RpoS, and this regulation acts through HapR, suggesting that a quorum-sensing-enhanced stress response plays a role in V. cholerae environmental survival.

  13. Streamflow modelling by remote sensing: a contribution to digital earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, M.L.; Latif, A.B.; Pohl, C.; Duan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing contributes valuable information to streamflow estimates. This paper discusses its relevance to the digital earth concept. The authors categorize the role of remote sensing in streamflow modelling and estimation. This paper emphasizes the applications and challenges of satellite-based

  14. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  15. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  16. Nanocoax Arrays for Sensing Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Binod

    We have adapted a nanocoax array architecture for high sensitivity, all-electronic, chemical and biological sensing. Arrays of nanocoaxes with various dielectric annuli were developed using polymer replicas of Si nanopillars made via soft lithography. These arrays were implemented in the development of two different kinds of chemical detectors. First, arrays of nanocoaxes constructed with different porosity dielectric annuli were employed to make capacitive detectors for gaseous molecules and to investigate the role of dielectric porosity in the sensitivity of the device. Second, arrays of nanocoaxes with partially hollowed annuli were used to fabricate three-dimensional electrochemical biosensors within which we studied the role of nanoscale gap between electrodes on device sensitivity. In addition, we have employed a molecular imprint technique to develop a non-conducting molecularly imprinted polymer thin film of thickness comparable to size of biomolecules as an "artificial antibody" architecture for the detection of biomolecules.

  17. Quorum sensing inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, T.; Givskov, Michael Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems comprise a new therapeutic target potentially substitutive or complementary to traditional antibiotic treatment of chronic diseases. One route to disrupt the previously established interrelationship between pathogenesis and QS is by blocking the dual functioning signal...

  18. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  19. Dense with Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  20. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...2013www.ll.mit.edu Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives (PHASE) is a promising new technology that detects trace explosive residues from significant... photoacoustic phenomena resulting from ultraviolet laser excitation. Exposed explosives are excited up to 100 meters away by using PHASE’s

  1. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  2. Deterministic sensing matrices in compressive sensing: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu L N; Shin, Yoan

    2013-01-01

    Compressive sensing is a sampling method which provides a new approach to efficient signal compression and recovery by exploiting the fact that a sparse signal can be suitably reconstructed from very few measurements. One of the most concerns in compressive sensing is the construction of the sensing matrices. While random sensing matrices have been widely studied, only a few deterministic sensing matrices have been considered. These matrices are highly desirable on structure which allows fast implementation with reduced storage requirements. In this paper, a survey of deterministic sensing matrices for compressive sensing is presented. We introduce a basic problem in compressive sensing and some disadvantage of the random sensing matrices. Some recent results on construction of the deterministic sensing matrices are discussed.

  3. Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Schneider, Emily; Greenberg, E Peter

    2016-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis uses acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing systems to regulate hundreds of genes. Here we show that cell-cell contact-dependent type VI secretion (T6S) toxin-immunity systems are among those activated by quorum sensing in B. thailandensis. We also demonstrate that T6S is required to constrain proliferation of quorum sensing mutants in colony cocultures of a BtaR1 quorum-sensing signal receptor mutant and its parent. However, the BtaR1 mutant is not constrained by and outcompetes its parent in broth coculture, presumably because no cell contact occurs and there is a metabolic cost associated with quorum sensing gene activation. The increased fitness of the wild type over the BtaR1 mutant during agar surface growth is dependent on an intact T6SS-1 apparatus. Thus, quorum sensing activates B. thailandensis T6SS-1 growth inhibition and this control serves to police and constrain quorum-sensing mutants. This work defines a novel role for T6SSs in intraspecies mutant control.

  4. Designing sparse sensing matrix for compressive sensing to reconstruct high resolution medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Tiwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing theory enables faithful reconstruction of signals, sparse in domain $ \\Psi $, at sampling rate lesser than Nyquist criterion, while using sampling or sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ which satisfies restricted isometric property. The role played by sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ and sparsity matrix $ \\Psi $ is vital in faithful reconstruction. If the sensing matrix is dense then it takes large storage space and leads to high computational cost. In this paper, effort is made to design sparse sensing matrix with least incurred computational cost while maintaining quality of reconstructed image. The design approach followed is based on sparse block circulant matrix (SBCM with few modifications. The other used sparse sensing matrix consists of 15 ones in each column. The medical images used are acquired from US, MRI and CT modalities. The image quality measurement parameters are used to compare the performance of reconstructed medical images using various sensing matrices. It is observed that, since Gram matrix of dictionary matrix ($ \\Phi \\Psi \\mathrm{} $ is closed to identity matrix in case of proposed modified SBCM, therefore, it helps to reconstruct the medical images of very good quality.

  5. Health Participatory Sensing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.

  6. Electroactive polymers for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical coupling in electroactive polymers (EAPs) has been widely applied for actuation and is also being increasingly investigated for sensing chemical and mechanical stimuli. EAPs are a unique class of materials, with low-moduli high-strain capabilities and the ability to conform to surfaces of different shapes. These features make them attractive for applications such as wearable sensors and interfacing with soft tissues. Here, we review the major types of EAPs and their sensing mechanisms. These are divided into two classes depending on the main type of charge carrier: ionic EAPs (such as conducting polymers and ionic polymer–metal composites) and electronic EAPs (such as dielectric elastomers, liquid-crystal polymers and piezoelectric polymers). This review is intended to serve as an introduction to the mechanisms of these materials and as a first step in material selection for both researchers and designers of flexible/bendable devices, biocompatible sensors or even robotic tactile sensing units. PMID:27499846

  7. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  8. Food electroanalysis: sense and simplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarpa, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    With the appearance of advanced approaches such as screen-printed technology, biosensors, microchips and nanotechnology, among others, electroanalysis is undergoing a true Renaissance. Inherent miniaturization of electrochemistry makes it a unique detection and transduction principle, highly compatible with the modern miniaturized analytical chemistry involving micro- and nanotechnologies. It also implies advantages on portability and further disposability. Another very unique feature linked to electrochemistry is the versatility for "selectivity design" towards the suitable selection of (nano)(bio)materials and by the direct manipulation of the electrical properties. Their remarkable sensitivity and low cost are additional valuable features. However, from my personal perspective, these "natural beauties" are underexploited in the analysis of food samples not only because of the complexity of food samples but also because electrochemistry has traditionally been seen as "a difficult thing". From my own experience, electrochemical approaches have been very useful in the evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro, in the development of screening methods, as high-performance detectors in advanced analytical microsystems such as capillary-electrophoresis microchips and in the development of microfluidic inmunosensors. In consequence, electroanalysis has also demonstrated an important role in fields such as antioxidant sensing, quality control assessment, detection of frauds and food safety. In this personal account, drawing from selected examples of my own work, I illustrate the marriage between electrochemistry and food analysis, food electroanalysis, by sense and simplicity.

  9. Bacterial danger sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor.

  10. Engaging All the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the process of making and inaugurating a Torah scroll, this article describes what is likely to trigger sensory responses in the participants in each phase of the process and the function of activating the five senses of touch, hearing, vision, smell, and taste....... By distinguishing between hermeneutical and artefactual uses of sacred texts and drawing on sensory integration theory, it argues that multi-sensory stimulation in handling the Torah scroll brings people close and enables nonconscious internal negotiation between individual memories, cultural representations......, and the immediate environment. In this way, sense-stimulation facilitates the transitivity crucial for individual subject formation as part of a greater collective....

  11. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  12. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  13. Color sensing under microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by recent results of artificial color due to Caulfield, we carry out intuitive experimental investigations on color sensing under microwave illumination. Experiemnts have been carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source and a microwave diode as a detector. More precise experimental studies have also been carried out utilizing a vector network analyzer. Preliminary results of the experiments validate the feasibility of sensing and discriminating otherwise visual colors under microwave illumination. Caulfield's presumption possibly paves the way for artificial color perception using microwaves.

  14. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth.

  15. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  16. A Political History of U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing, 1984-2007: Conflict, Collaboration, and the Role of Knowledge in the High-Tech World of Earth Observation Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kenneth Parker

    2007-01-01

    The political history of U.S. commercial remote sensing began in 1984 when the U.S. government first attempted to commercialize its civil earth observation satellite system â Landsat. Since then, the high technology of earth imaging satellite systems has generated intense debates and policy conflicts, primarily centered on U.S. government concerns over the national security and foreign policy implications of high-resolution commercial satellite systems. Conversely, proponents of commerc...

  17. [Phosphate sensing and parathyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Suzuki, Taihei

    2012-10-01

    In the latter 1990s, phosphate, as well as calcium, has been shown to have a direct action on parathyroid function. Since then although many researchers have tried to detect the phosphate sensor in parathyroid gland, none has found it yet. In 2000s, the importance of FGF23 was revealed in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and then investigating the role of FGF23 in mineral metabolism has spread. FGF23 target organs comprise those that express coreceptor Klotho, such as kidney and parathyroid glands. While associations of calcium sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor with parathyroid function have been mainly investigated for parathyroid dysfunction, many efforts recently have made to study the effects of FGF23 on parathyroid glands.

  18. Making Sense of Mobile Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pauleen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies have facilitated a radical shift in work and private life. In this article, we seek to better understand how individual mobile technology users have made sense of these changes and adapted to them. We have used narrative enquiry and sensemaking to collect and analyze the data. The findings show that mobile technology use blurs the boundaries between work and private life, making traditional time and place distinctions less relevant. Furthermore, work and private life can be integrated in ways that may be either competitive or complementary. We also observed an effect rarely discussed in the literature—the way personal and professional aspirations affect how work and private life are integrated. Implications include the need for researchers and organizations to understand the wider consequences that arise from the integration of work and private life roles.

  19. Walking. Sensing. Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses three meditations to contemplate walking, sensing and participation as three ways with which we can extend the notion of ‘experiential computing’ proposed by Yoo (2010). By using the form of meditations, loosely associated concepts that are part introspective and part ‘causative’, i...

  20. Testing Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means of predicting real-world performance. The authors discuss practical versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research program.…

  1. Quorum sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2006-01-01

    Many opportunistic pathogenic bacteria rely on quorum sensing (QS) circuits as central regulators of virulence expression. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, QS-regulated gene expression contributes to the formation and maintenance of biofilms and their tolerance to conventional antimicrobials and the host...

  2. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...

  3. Sensing with colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungureanu, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a new optical method based on gold nanoparticles as individual sensing platforms for the detection of low concentrations of analytes (DNA or proteins). Here we provide the proof of principle of the methodology in the detection of immunoreactions and determine its limit o

  4. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  5. A Sense of Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Black

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly want to know where their food and wine comes from and who produces it. This is part of developing a taste of place, or what the French call terroir. The academic and industry debates surrounding the concept of terroir are explored, and the efforts of Massachusetts wine producers to define their sense of place are discussed.

  6. Quorum sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2006-01-01

    Many opportunistic pathogenic bacteria rely on quorum sensing (QS) circuits as central regulators of virulence expression. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, QS-regulated gene expression contributes to the formation and maintenance of biofilms and their tolerance to conventional antimicrobials and the host...

  7. Mobile robot sense net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  8. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  9. A Sense of Place

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Black

    1986-01-01

    People increasingly want to know where their food and wine comes from and who produces it. This is part of developing a taste of place, or what the French call terroir. The academic and industry debates surrounding the concept of terroir are explored, and the efforts of Massachusetts wine producers to define their sense of place are discussed.

  10. Beamforming Using Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    dB to align the peak at 7.3o. Comparing peaks to val- leys , compressive sensing provides a greater main to interference (and noise) ratio...elements. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research. The authors would like to especially thank of Roger Gauss and Joseph

  11. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai Gu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological conditions such as inflammation, ischemia, infection and tissue injury can all evoke pain, and each is accompanied by local acidosis. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels expressed in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Increasing evidence suggests that ASICs represent essential sensors for tissue acidosis-related pain. This review provides an update on the role of ASICs in pain sensation and discusses their therapeutic potential for pain management.

  12. Smart Sensing Using Wavelets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Further refinements to the FOSS technologies are focusing on “smart” sensing techniques that adjust sensing parameters as needed in real time so that...

  13. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  14. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available and to consist of theory and practical exercises • Theory: Remote sensing process, Photogrammetry, introduction to multispectral, remote sensing systems, Thermal infra-red remote sensing, Active and passive remote sensing, LIDAR, Application of remotely... Aerosol measurements and cloud characteristics head2right Water vapour measurements in the lower troposphere region up to 8 km head2right Ozone measurements in the troposphere regions up to 18 km Slide 22 © CSIR 2008 www...

  15. q-ary compressive sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Mroueh, Youssef; Rosasco, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    We introduce q-ary compressive sensing, an extension of 1-bit compressive sensing. We propose a novel sensing mechanism and a corresponding recovery procedure. The recovery properties of the proposed approach are analyzed both theoretically and empirically. Results in 1-bit compressive sensing are recovered as a special case. Our theoretical results suggest a tradeoff between the quantization parameter q, and the number of measurements m in the control of the error of the resulting recovery a...

  16. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Remote sensing and physical data and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Imagery data from Mariner 10 and Lunar Orbiter IV form the major base of observations analyzed. But a variety of other information aids in constraining the composition and structure of the Moon and Mercury, and in particular, provides input to the problem of the nature and origin of their intercrater plains. This information for Mercury is remotely sensed from Earth or from the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Lunar data includes, of course, ground truth information from the Apollo landing sites. Since neither intercrater region was sampled, lunar and Mercurian data are similar in type and limitations. Constraints on surface and interior composition and structure are reviewed.

  17. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Remote sensing and physical data and the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Imagery data from Mariner 10 and Lunar Orbiter IV form the major base of observations analyzed. But a variety of other information aids in constraining the composition and structure of the Moon and Mercury, and in particular, provides input to the problem of the nature and origin of their intercrater plains. This information for Mercury is remotely sensed from Earth or from the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Lunar data includes, of course, ground truth information from the Apollo landing sites. Since neither intercrater region was sampled, lunar and Mercurian data are similar in type and limitations. Constraints on surface and interior composition and structure are reviewed.

  18. Hamming Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) and 1-bit CS cannot directly recover quantized signals and require time consuming recovery. In this paper, we introduce \\textit{Hamming compressed sensing} (HCS) that directly recovers a k-bit quantized signal of dimensional $n$ from its 1-bit measurements via invoking $n$ times of Kullback-Leibler divergence based nearest neighbor search. Compared with CS and 1-bit CS, HCS allows the signal to be dense, takes considerably less (linear) recovery time and requires substantially less measurements ($\\mathcal O(\\log n)$). Moreover, HCS recovery can accelerate the subsequent 1-bit CS dequantizer. We study a quantized recovery error bound of HCS for general signals and "HCS+dequantizer" recovery error bound for sparse signals. Extensive numerical simulations verify the appealing accuracy, robustness, efficiency and consistency of HCS.

  19. Quantum enhanced optical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens

    The work in this thesis is embedded in the framework of quantum metrology and explores quantum effects in solid state emitters and optical sensing. Specifically, the thesis comprises studies on silicon vacancy centres in nanodiamonds, phase measurements and cavity optomechanics utilising optical...... squeezed states, and a theoretical study on quantum amplifiers. Due to its similarity to single atoms, colour centres in diamond are ideal objects for exploring and exploiting quantum effects, because they are comparably easy to produce, probe and maintain. While nitrogen vacancy centres are the most...... identified spectral diffusion as the main hindrance in extending spin coherence times. Overcoming this issue will provide a promising candidate as an emitter for quantum information. Next, the question of how squeezed states of light can improve optical sensing was addressed. For this purpose, a squeezed...

  20. Learning Circulant Sensing Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    learned dictionaries. Examples of analytic dictionaries include the discrete cosine basis, various wavelets bases , as well as tight frames. Some of them...Compressive sensing based high resolution channel estimation for OFDM system. To appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Special...theoretical and computational properties to a (partial) circulant matrix of the same size, our discussions below are based exclusively on the circulant

  1. SIXTH SENSE TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explain the development of the technology by describing current hot concept in its field. The thesis describes the trend of development and current phase of the technology. The trend was described by explaining the concept of sixth sense technology and the effort that have been applied for this technology. As the concept is new, finding the suitable material related to the subject matter was the challenge for this project. The objective was completed by condu...

  2. Advanced laser remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  3. Splines in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abhishek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well understood that in any data acquisition system reduction in the amount of data reduces the time and energy, but the major trade-off here is the quality of outcome normally, lesser the amount of data sensed, lower the quality. Compressed Sensing (CS allows a solution, for sampling below the Nyquist rate. The challenging problem of increasing the reconstruction quality with less number of samples from an unprocessed data set is addressed here by the use of representative coordinate selected from different orders of splines. We have made a detailed comparison with 10 orthogonal and 6 biorthogonal wavelets with two sets of data from MIT Arrhythmia database and our results prove that the Spline coordinates work better than the wavelets. The generation of two new types of splines such as exponential and double exponential are also briefed here .We believe that this is one of the very first attempts made in Compressed Sensing based ECG reconstruction problems using raw data.  

  4. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Christopher N; Yu, Jing; Horswill, Alexander R; Parsek, Matthew R; Minion, F Chris

    2013-01-01

    The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N LaRock

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  6. 文本在游客地方感建构中的作用研究——基于曲阜游记的分析%Roles of Texts in the Construction of Tourists-Sense of Place:Analysis on Qufu Travel Writings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐顺英; 周尚意

    2013-01-01

    许多研究分析了游客对旅游目的地的感知水平及影响因素,但对文本在游客地方感建构中的作用研究相对较少.成功的旅游目的地营销往往借助了文艺作品、历史文献等文本,但文本在游客旅游动机产生、旅游过程和旅游后的情感积累中如何起作用,这方面尚缺乏具体的研究.该文以44篇有关曲阜的游记作为分析对象,从中找出文本在旅游三阶段中对游客地方感建构的作用.结论如下:1)旅游之前,文本是游客建立初步地方感的基础,而且著名文本能够激发游客的旅游动机;2)在旅游过程中,文本能够对游客初步地方感进行强化与修正;3)旅游后的游记类文本,能够提升游客对旅游地的情感和认同,优秀的游记类文本又可成为他人建构地方感的基础材料.因此,旅游目的地管理者应在网站上推介旅游目的地文本、增设游客观感展示区,并要加强景区解说文本的编写.%Place is a concept with subjective and objective attribute. Tourist activities in a place are the process of interaction between subject and object. Many researches analyze sense of place of tourism destinations and influence factors, but the studies are fewer on roles of texts in the tourist s sense of place construction. Successful marketing of tourist destinations often use literary and artistic works,historical documents and other texts. However, the research is ignored on how the texts play a role in generating tourism motivation, the process of tourism, emotion accumulation after traveling. This article analyzes the role of texts in the construction of tourist sense of place taking 44 Qufu travel writings as research object. We draw three conclusions: (1) Before traveling, texts are the construction foundation of tourists initial sense of place and famous texts can stimulate tourism motivation. (2) In the process of tourism,texts can consolidate and amend tourist initial sense of place. 3

  7. Quorum sensing and bacterial pathogenicity: From molecules to disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksh Deep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration (i.e. a Quorum and communicate with them. The "language" used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteria a mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying the production of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficient bacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defense mechanisms and establish infection. Quorum sensing systems are studied in a large number of gram-negative bacterial species belonging to α, β, and γ subclasses of proteobacteria. Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. Presently, Quorum sensing is considered as a potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy to control multi/all drug-resistant infections. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation.

  8. Sense-making methodology as a foundation for user studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2004-01-01

    The article presents Brenda Dervin’s sense-making methodology approach to user studies. The concepts of subject, gap, verbing, information etc. are outlined. They form a foundation for the theory’s process approach to information behavior research. The sense-making triangle, as a basic model, facilitates the conceptualisation of information or communication behaviour in individual contexts. The article also presents the theory’s view on information systems design, role of power and methodolog...

  9. Compressed sensing traction force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Singla-Buxarrais, Guillem; Uroz, Marina; Vincent, Romaric; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Adherent cells exert traction forces on their substrate, and these forces play important roles in biological functions such as mechanosensing, cell differentiation and cancer invasion. The method of choice to assess these active forces is traction force microscopy (TFM). Despite recent advances, TFM remains highly sensitive to measurement noise and exhibits limited spatial resolution. To improve the resolution and noise robustness of TFM, here we adapt techniques from compressed sensing (CS) to the reconstruction of the traction field from the substrate displacement field. CS enables the recovery of sparse signals at higher resolution from lower resolution data. Focal adhesions (FAs) of adherent cells are spatially sparse implying that traction fields are also sparse. Here we show, by simulation and by experiment, that the CS approach enables circumventing the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to faithfully reconstruct the traction field at a higher resolution than that of the displacement field. This allows reaching state-of-the-art resolution using only a medium magnification objective. We also find that CS improves reconstruction quality in the presence of noise. A great scientific advance of the past decade is the recognition that physical forces determine an increasing list of biological processes. Traction force microscopy which measures the forces that cells exert on their surroundings has seen significant recent improvements, however the technique remains sensitive to measurement noise and severely limited in spatial resolution. We exploit the fact that the force fields are sparse to boost the spatial resolution and noise robustness by applying ideas from compressed sensing. The novel method allows high resolution on a larger field of view. This may in turn allow better understanding of the cell forces at the multicellular level, which are known to be important in wound healing and cancer invasion. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier

  10. BioSense 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Kelley G.

    2013-01-01

    2.0 was launched in November of 2011 and the collaboration between the BioSense program and the public health community has yielded an application based on a user-centered design approach and built on a platform that allows for flexible data sharing across jurisdictions and with partners. The public health community has played a critical role in designing and improving the BioSense 2.0 application and through continued collaboration the system will continue to improve. Innovative features of the BioSense 2.0 application include the use of cloud technology, a novel and flexible data sharing feature, a community driven approach, enhanced algorithms, and no cost statistical analysis tools available in the cloud. Each of these features will be discussed during the presentation.

  11. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  12. Making Sense of Austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Riisbjerg Thomsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    elements are part of a sensemaking process where people are trying to understand their personal situation, changes to their households, and the national economy. We apply this logic to a study of online comments’ sections for 240 newspaper articles on austerity in Denmark and the United Kingdom. Characters...... such as ‘scroungers’ and ‘corporate criminals’ are identified, as are scenes such as the decline of the welfare state and the rise of technocracy. We link the storysets, story-lines, and plots together to understand how Brits and Danes are making sense of austerity. Their explanations and frustrations improve our...

  13. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  14. Semantics in mobile sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Zhixian

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic progress of smartphone technologies has ushered in a new era of mobile sensing, where traditional wearable on-body sensors are being rapidly superseded by various embedded sensors in our smartphones. For example, a typical smartphone today, has at the very least a GPS, WiFi, Bluetooth, triaxial accelerometer, and gyroscope. Alongside, new accessories are emerging such as proximity, magnetometer, barometer, temperature, and pressure sensors. Even the default microphone can act as an acoustic sensor to track noise exposure for example. These sensors act as a ""lens"" to understand t

  15. Democracy and Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Democracy and sense questions practically all that happens in society today. Its aim is to raise a debate on the most urgent problems of economy, democracy, sustainable conduct and the framework for industry and business. A number of untraditional solutions are suggested, but without support...... to either rightwing or leftwing politics. In fact, one of the key points is that political parties have reduced democracy to one day of voting followed by four years of oligarchy. To regain a functioning democracy we must strengthen direct democracy and make the distance between population and government...

  16. Senses of the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chouard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tell about the South. What it’s like there. What do they do there. Why do they live there. Why do they live at all. (Absalom, Absalom!, 142Exiled in the Massachusetts winter, Southerner Quentin Compson finds himself repeatedly assaulted by the uncomprehending inquisitiveness of his fellow students. As his roommate, a Canadian, collaborates with him telling fact from legend about the larger than life legendary figure of Thomas Sutpen, he tries to get a sense of the region:What is it? Somethin...

  17. Metalloproteins and metal sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Kevin J; Rutherford, Julian C; Ford, Dianne; Robinson, Nigel J

    2009-08-13

    Almost half of all enzymes must associate with a particular metal to function. An ambition is to understand why each metal-protein partnership arose and how it is maintained. Metal availability provides part of the explanation, and has changed over geological time and varies between habitats but is held within vital limits in cells. Such homeostasis needs metal sensors, and there is an ongoing search to discover the metal-sensing mechanisms. For metalloproteins to acquire the right metals, metal sensors must correctly distinguish between the inorganic elements.

  18. Beamforming using compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

    2011-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling.

  19. Fourier Domain Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkhun, Daniel (Inventor); Wagner, Kelvin H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and systems are disclosed of sensing an object. A first radiation is spatially modulated to generate a structured second radiation. The object is illuminated with the structured second radiation such that the object produces a third radiation in response. Apart from any spatially dependent delay, a time variation of the third radiation is spatially independent. With a single-element detector, a portion of the third radiation is detected from locations on the object simultaneously. At least one characteristic of a sinusoidal spatial Fourier-transform component of the object is estimated from a time-varying signal from the detected portion of the third radiation.

  20. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Foliar Nitrogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schull, Mitchell A.; Stenberg, Pauline; Moettus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Yang, Yan; Marshak, Alexander; Carmona, Pedro Latorre; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Lewis, Philip; Disney, Mathias I.; Vanderbilt, Vern; Davis, Anthony B.; Baret, Frederic; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Lyapustin, Alexei; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    A strong positive correlation between vegetation canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region and foliar mass-based nitrogen concentration (%N) has been reported in some temperate and boreal forests. This relationship, if true, would indicate an additional role for nitrogen in the climate system via its influence on surface albedo and may offer a simple approach for monitoring foliar nitrogen using satellite data. We report, however, that the previously reported correlation is an artifact - it is a consequence of variations in canopy structure, rather than of %N. The data underlying this relationship were collected at sites with varying proportions of foliar nitrogen-poor needleleaf and nitrogen-rich broadleaf species, whose canopy structure differs considerably. When the BRF data are corrected for canopy-structure effects, the residual reflectance variations are negatively related to %N at all wavelengths in the interval 423-855 nm. This suggests that the observed positive correlation between BRF and %N conveys no information about %N. We find that to infer leaf biochemical constituents, e.g., N content, from remotely sensed data, BRF spectra in the interval 710-790 nm provide critical information for correction of structural influences. Our analysis also suggests that surface characteristics of leaves impact remote sensing of its internal constituents. This further decreases the ability to remotely sense canopy foliar nitrogen. Finally, the analysis presented here is generic to the problem of remote sensing of leaf-tissue constituents and is therefore not a specific critique of articles espousing remote sensing of foliar %N.

  1. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubová, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The question of visibility and invisibility in social understanding is examined here. First, the phenomenological account of expressive phenomena and key ideas of the participatory sense-making theory are presented with regard to the issue of visibility. These accounts plead for the principal visibility of agents in interaction. Although participatory sense-making does not completely rule out the existence of opacity and invisible aspects of agents in interaction, it assumes the capacity of agents to integrate disruptions, opacity and misunderstandings in mutual modulation. Invisibility is classified as the dialectical counterpart of visibility, i.e., as a lack of sense whereby the dynamics of perpetual asking, of coping with each other and of improvements in interpretation are brought into play. By means of empirical exemplification this article aims at demonstrating aspects of invisibility in social interaction which complement the enactive interpretation. Without falling back into Cartesianism, it shows through dramaturgical analysis of a practice called "(Inter)acting with the inner partner" that social interaction includes elements of opacity and invisibility whose role is performative. This means that opacity is neither an obstacle to be overcome with more precise understanding nor a lack of meaning, but rather an excess of sense, a "hiddenness" of something real that has an "active power" (Merleau-Ponty). In this way it contributes to on-going social understanding as a hidden potentiality that naturally enriches, amplifies and in part constitutes human participation in social interactions. It is also shown here that this invisible excess of sense already functions on the level of self-relationship due to the essential self-opacity and self-alterity of each agent of social interaction. The analysis consequently raises two issues: the question of the enactive ethical stance toward the alterity of the other and the question of the autonomy of the self

  2. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  3. Discriminative sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  4. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  5. Differentially Private Distributed Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.

    2016-12-11

    The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) creates the possibility of decentralized systems of sensing and actuation, potentially on a global scale. IoT devices connected to cloud networks can offer Sensing and Actuation as a Service (SAaaS) enabling networks of sensors to grow to a global scale. But extremely large sensor networks can violate privacy, especially in the case where IoT devices are mobile and connected directly to the behaviors of people. The thesis of this paper is that by adapting differential privacy (adding statistically appropriate noise to query results) to groups of geographically distributed sensors privacy could be maintained without ever sending all values up to a central curator and without compromising the overall accuracy of the data collected. This paper outlines such a scheme and performs an analysis of differential privacy techniques adapted to edge computing in a simulated sensor network where ground truth is known. The positive and negative outcomes of employing differential privacy in distributed networks of devices are discussed and a brief research agenda is presented.

  6. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  7. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Baraniuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed.

  8. Compressive light field sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, S Derin; Ansorge, Reto; Luessi, Martin; Matarán, Pablo Ruiz; Molina, Rafael; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2012-12-01

    We propose a novel design for light field image acquisition based on compressive sensing principles. By placing a randomly coded mask at the aperture of a camera, incoherent measurements of the light passing through different parts of the lens are encoded in the captured images. Each captured image is a random linear combination of different angular views of a scene. The encoded images are then used to recover the original light field image via a novel Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. Using the principles of compressive sensing, we show that light field images with a large number of angular views can be recovered from only a few acquisitions. Moreover, the proposed acquisition and recovery method provides light field images with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio, and therefore is not affected by limitations common to existing light field camera designs. We present a prototype camera design based on the proposed framework by modifying a regular digital camera. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system using experimental results with both synthetic and real images.

  9. A Sense of Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Labeled image for A Sense of Place NASA's Mars Exploration rover Spirit continues to descend along the east side of the 'Columbia Hills,' taking panoramic views of surrounding terrain at the end of each day of driving. This helps members of the science team get a sense of place before proceeding, kind of the way a hiker pauses now and then to view the scenery. Scientists and engineers use panoramas like this to select interesting rocks and soils for further study and to plan a safe path for the rover. In this image mosaic, Spirit is pausing to take a good look around while descending due east toward a ridge nicknamed 'Haskin Ridge.' Before driving the rest of the way down, Spirit will take a panoramic image of the large, deep basin to the left of the ridge, labeled 'East Basin,' which was not visible from the summit. A longer-term destination is the prominent, round, platform-like feature labeled 'Home Plate.' This 360-degree panorama was assembled from images Spirit took with its navigation camera on the 651st martian day, or sol (Nov. 2, 2005), of its exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. The view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  11. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, Rowan, E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holland, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform.

  12. DNA-Based Nanopore Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2016-12-05

    Nanopore sensing is an attractive, label-free approach that can measure single molecules. Although initially proposed for rapid and low-cost DNA sequencing, nanopore sensors have been successfully employed in the detection of a wide variety of substrates. Early successes were mostly achieved based on two main strategies by 1) creating sensing elements inside the nanopore through protein mutation and chemical modification or 2) using molecular adapters to enhance analyte recognition. Over the past five years, DNA molecules started to be used as probes for sensing rather than substrates for sequencing. In this Minireview, we highlight the recent research efforts of nanopore sensing based on DNA-mediated characteristic current events. As nanopore sensing is becoming increasingly important in biochemical and biophysical studies, DNA-based sensing may find wider applications in investigating DNA-involving biological processes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-02

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  14. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation

  15. Quorum Sensing of Periodontal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plančak, Darije; Musić, Larisa; Puhar, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    The term 'quorum sensing' describes intercellular bacterial communication which regulates bacterial gene expression according to population cell density. Bacteria produce and secrete small molecules, named autoinducers, into the intercellular space. The concentration of these molecules increases as a function of population cell density. Once the concentration of the stimulatory threshold is reached, alteration in gene expression occurs. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria possess different types of quorum sensing systems. Canonical LuxI/R-type/acyl homoserine lactone mediated quorum sensing system is the best studied quorum sensing circuit and is described in Gram-negative bacteria which employ it for inter-species communication mostly. Gram-positive bacteria possess a peptide-mediated quorum sensing system. Bacteria can communicate within their own species (intra-species) but also between species (inter-species), for which they employ an autoinducer-2 quorum sensing system which is called the universal language of the bacteria. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria possess AI-2 quorum sensing systems. It is known that they use it for regulation of biofilm formation, iron uptake, stress response and virulence factor expression. A better understanding of bacterial communication mechanisms will allow the targeting of quorum sensing with quorum sensing inhibitors to prevent and control disease.

  16. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  17. Zingerone silences quorum sensing and attenuates virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajnish; Kumar, Manoj; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an imperative role in virulence factor, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Blocking quorum sensing pathways are viewed as viable anti-virulent therapy in association with traditional antimicrobial therapy. Anti-quorum sensing dietary phytochemicals with may prove to be a safe and viable choice as anti-virulent drug candidates. Previously, our lab proved zingerone as potent anti-biofilm agent hence; further its anti-virulent and anti-quorum activities were evaluated. Zingerone, besides decreasing swimming, swarming and twitching phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1, reduced biofilm forming capacity and production of virulence factors including rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, cell free and cell bound hemolysin (pquorum sensing signal molecules by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa but also showed significant interference with the activation of QS reporter strains. To study the mechanism of blocking quorum sensing cascade, in silico analysis was carried out. Anti-QS activity was attributed to interference with the ligand receptor interaction of zingerone with QS receptors (TraR, LasR, RhlR and PqsR). Zingerone showed a good comparative docking score to respective autoinducer molecules which was even higher than that of vanillin, a proven anti-quorum sensing phytochemical. The results of the present study revealed the anti-quorum sensing activity of zingerone targeting ligand-receptor interaction, hence proposing zingerone as a suitable anti-virulent drug candidate against P. aeruginosa infections.

  18. Satellite remote-sensing technologies used in forest fire management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-rui; Douglas J. Mcrae; SHU Li-fu; WANG Ming-yu; LI Hong

    2005-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing has become a primary data source for fire danger rating prediction, fuel and fire mapping, fire monitoring, and fire ecology research. This paper summarizes the research achievements in these research fields, and discusses the future trend in the use of satellite remote-sensing techniques in wildfire management. Fuel-type maps from remote-sensing data can now be produced at spatial and temporal scales quite adequate for operational fire management applications. US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites are being used for fire detection worldwide due to their high temporal resolution and ability to detect fires in remote regions. Results can be quickly presented on many Websites providing a valuable service readily available to fire agency. As cost-effective tools, satellite remote-sensing techniques play an important role in fire mapping. Improved remote-sensing techniques have the potential to date older fire scars and provide estimates of burn severity. Satellite remote sensing is well suited to assessing the extent of biomass burning, a prerequisite for estimating emissions at regional and global scales, which are needed for better understanding the effects of fire on climate change. The types of satellites used in fire research are also discussed in the paper. Suggestions on what remote-sensing efforts should be completed in China to modernize fire management technology in this country are given.

  19. Farnesol and Candida albicans: quorum sensing or not quorum sensing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, B.P.; Levy, N.; Meijler, M.M.; Jabra-Rizk, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) molecules function within communities of single-cell organisms to allow concerted behavior in response to changing conditions, and certain criteria have been established to determine whether a particular molecule is quorum sensing or not. Farnesol has been identified as a secrete

  20. Finding Meaning: Sense Inventories for Improved Word Sense Disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan Windisch

    2010-01-01

    The deep semantic understanding necessary for complex natural language processing tasks, such as automatic question-answering or text summarization, would benefit from highly accurate word sense disambiguation (WSD). This dissertation investigates what makes an appropriate and effective sense inventory for WSD. Drawing on theories and…

  1. Sensing Task Allocation for Heterogeneous Channels in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional centralized cooperative spectrum sensing, all secondary users sense the same channel. But, for a given channel, there exists detection performance diversity among all the users, due to the different signal-fading process. Involving the user with poor performance in cooperative sensing will not only deteriorate the detection correctness but also waste the sensing time. In the heterogeneous channels, the problem is even severe. A novel idea is to allocate the secondary users to sense different channels. We analyze the allocation problem before formulate it to be an optimization problem, which is a NP-hard problem. Then we propose the declined complexity algorithm in equal secondary user case and the two-hierarchy approach algorithm in unequal case. With the simulation, we verify the near optimality of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of the task allocation.

  2. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway.

  3. Architecture for the senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    findings from the PhD thesis 'A House for the Senses' by the author, a study of architectural requirements in housing design implied by a sensory impairment. The empirical research project is based on qualitative interviews and 1:1 testing in existing housing with participants who were either blind, deaf......Accommodating sensory disabilities in architectural design requires specific design considerations. These are different from the ones included by the existing design concept 'accessibility', which primarily accommodates physical disabilites. Hence a new design concept 'sensory accessbility......' is presented as a parallel and complementary concept to the existing one. Sensory accessiblity accommodates sensory disabilities and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to to the sensory experiences and architectural quality of a given space. The article is based on research...

  4. Sensors for the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    , engaging, and enjoyable. Conceptualizing, designing and realizing alternative digital media entertainment situations in stage performance, interactive installations and exhibitions at leading Museums for Modern Art, National and International major events, contributed to development of a sensor......-based system conceived as a platform to investigate meaning making having societal impact beyond art. The system involves arrays of selectable sensor profiles mixed and matched according to requirements. Sensing of human input can be through worn (biosignal e.g. EEG, ECG, EMG, GSR), held, and/or non......-worn sensors (volumetric, linear and planar interface profiles). Mapping of sourced human data is to a variety of digital content including art-based (music making, digital painting, lighting effects), video games, Virtual Reality and robotic devices. System adaptability promotes participant profile matching e...

  5. Sensing via optical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Bailey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological sensing are problems of tremendous contemporary technological importance in multiple regulatory and human health contexts, including environmental monitoring, water quality assurance, workplace air quality assessment, food quality control, many aspects of biodiagnostics, and, of course, homeland security. Frequently, what is needed, or at least wanted, are sensors that are simultaneously cheap, fast, reliable, selective, sensitive, robust, and easy to use. Unfortunately, these are often conflicting requirements. Over the past few years, however, a number of promising ideas based on optical interference effects have emerged. Each is based to some extent on advances in the design and fabrication of functional materials. Generally, the advances are of two kinds: chemo- and bio-selective recognition and binding, and efficient methods for micropatterning or microstructuring.

  6. "Compressed" Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The field of compressed sensing has shown that a sparse but otherwise arbitrary vector can be recovered exactly from a small number of randomly constructed linear projections (or samples). The question addressed in this paper is whether an even smaller number of samples is sufficient when there exists prior knowledge about the distribution of the unknown vector, or when only partial recovery is needed. An information-theoretic lower bound with connections to free probability theory and an upper bound corresponding to a computationally simple thresholding estimator are derived. It is shown that in certain cases (e.g. discrete valued vectors or large distortions) the number of samples can be decreased. Interestingly though, it is also shown that in many cases no reduction is possible.

  7. Making Senses of Nordvest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda

    by privileged distance and gazing at “local” places and people. In Nordvest, the figure is filled out by various practices of diversity consumption (from entertaining spectacle to transformative pedagogy) and longing for a “reality” and a “break from Copenhagen.” It is a diagnostic figure that points......This thesis emerges from an ethnographic study of Nordvest, a district in Copenhagen. I came to know Nordvest as an area undergoing multiple changes. Nordvest was known, sensed and experienced as, among other things, “diverse” and multicultural; socially disadvantaged; a “municipality garbage bin...... around managed space in the association, arising through and enforcing a Dane–foreigner binary. The second mode of space-making, the Web of Gardening, emerges inbetween people and plants, branching out to and evoking presences, memories and practices from multiple elsewheres. The article examines how...

  8. The sense of agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina

    to their sensorimotor and perceptual problems. The result showed that children with CP have a different perception of control, and that they attribute to a larger extend movements to themselves even though they were not responsible for them. Study IV looked at how an intensive motor, perceptual and cognitive training...... program can change the sense of agency in children with CP. At the same time the study explored if this alteration of feeling in control of the movements has an impact on the children’s motor abilities. The results showed that the CP children, who completed the training, displayed an improved performance...... in identifying their own movements and an optimized motor behavior. In conclusion, the thesis has revealed a neural network between sensorimotor region which is important for understanding and experiencing own movements. Furthermore, brain lesioned children were found to display an altered perception...

  9. Cantilever Based Mass Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Cantilever based mass sensors utilize that a change in vibrating mass will cause a change in the resonant frequency. This can be used for very accurate sensing of adsorption and desorption processes on the cantilever surface. The change in resonant frequency caused by a single molecule depends...... on various parameters including the vibrating mass of the cantilever and the frequency at which it vibrates. The minimum amount of molecules detectable is highly dependent on the noise of the system as well as the method of readout. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis has been twofold: To develop a readout method...... suitable for a portable device and to investigate the possibility of enhancing the functionality and sensitivity of cantilever based mass sensors. A readout method based on the hard contact between the cantilever and a biased electrode placed in close proximity to the cantilever is proposed. The viability...

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey Land Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental goals of the U.S. Geological Survey's Land Remote Sens-ing (LRS) Program are to provide the Federal Government and the public with a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications and to be a leader in defining the future of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally. Remotely sensed data provide information that enhance the understand-ing of ecosystems and the capabilities for predicting ecosystem change. The data promote an understanding of the role of the environment and wildlife in human health issues, the requirements for disaster response, the effects of climate variability, and the availability of energy and mineral resources. Also, as land satellite systems acquire global coverage, the program coordinates a network of international receiving stations and users of the data. It is the responsibility of the program to assure that data from land imaging satellites, airborne photography, radar, and other technologies are available to the national and global science communities.

  11. Pharyngeal sense organs drive robust sugar consumption in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDue, Emily E; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Jung, Aera Y; Dahanukar, Anupama; Gordon, Michael D

    2015-03-25

    The fly pharyngeal sense organs lie at the transition between external and internal nutrient-sensing mechanisms. Here we investigate the function of pharyngeal sweet gustatory receptor neurons, demonstrating that they express a subset of the nine previously identified sweet receptors and respond to stimulation with a panel of sweet compounds. We show that pox-neuro (poxn) mutants lacking taste function in the legs and labial palps have intact pharyngeal sweet taste, which is both necessary and sufficient to drive preferred consumption of sweet compounds by prolonging ingestion. Moreover, flies putatively lacking all sweet taste show little preference for nutritive or non-nutritive sugars in a short-term feeding assay. Together, our data demonstrate that pharyngeal sense organs play an important role in directing sustained consumption of sweet compounds, and suggest that post-ingestive sugar sensing does not effectively drive food choice in a simple short-term feeding paradigm.

  12. On the Performance of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing under Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Weijia; Li, Zan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qin

    2011-01-01

    In cognitive radio, the cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) plays a key role in determining the performance of secondary networks. However, there have not been feasible approaches that can analytically calculate the performance of CSS with regard to the multi-level quantization. In this paper, we not only show the cooperative false alarm probability and cooperative detection probability impacted by quantization, but also formulate them by two closed form expressions. These two expressions enable the calculation of cooperative false alarm probability and cooperative detection probability tractable efficiently, and provide a feasible approach for optimization of sensing performance. Additionally, to facilitate this calculation, we derive Normal approximation for evaluating the sensing performance conveniently. Furthermore, two optimization methods are proposed to achieve the high sensing performance under quantization.

  13. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used...... in a search for putative quorum-sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was built from compounds which showed structural similarities to previously reported quorum-sensing inhibitors, the ligand of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptor Las......R, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related...

  14. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  15. Quality as Sense-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Sense-making is a process of engaging with complex and dynamic environments that provides organisations and their leaders with a flexible and agile model of the world. The seven key properties of sense-making describe a process that is social and that respects the range of different stakeholders in an organisation. It also addresses the need to…

  16. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  17. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  18. Teaching Game Sense in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2012-01-01

    "Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

  19. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  20. A Remote-Sensing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Rose; Dickerson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored by NASA and the JASON Education Foundation, the remote Sensing Earth Science Teacher Education Program (RSESTeP) trains teachers to use state-of-the art remote-sensing technology with the idea that participants bring back what they learn and incorporate it into Earth science lessons using technology. The author's participation in the…

  1. Science & the Senses: Perceptions & Deceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Science requires the acquisition and analysis of empirical (sense-derived) data. Given the same physical objects or phenomena, the sense organs of all people do not respond equally to these stimuli, nor do their minds interpret sensory signals identically. Therefore, teachers should develop lectures on human sensory systems that include some…

  2. Rebuilding a Sense of Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Inara

    2002-01-01

    Connection to place drives people to protect the environment. One population that has demonstrated enormous dedication and reverence for the land--outdoor educators--may ironically have little sense of place because of the transient nature of their work. Individuals can build their sense of community and place by getting to know their local…

  3. The sense of independent support of sport and the subjective vitality of teenagers:the mediating role of basic psychological needs%体育自主支持感与青少年主观活力:基本心理需要的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项明强; 丁华丽

    2014-01-01

    以基本心理需要理论(BPNT)为基础,采用体育自主支持感、运动基本心理需要和主观活力3个量表对664名青少年进行调查,以检验基本心理需要在体育自主支持感与青少年主观活力之间的中介作用。结果表明,体育自主支持感可正向预测主观活力;3种基本心理需要均可正向预测主观活力,但它们地位不一,最重要的是能力需要,其次是自主需要,最后是关系需要;中介效应检验结果显示,3种基本心理需要在体育自主支持感与主观活力之间均起部分中介作用。因此可见:3种基本心理需要的地位顺序和中介作用具有情境特异性;体育教师应提供自主支持的教学环境,满足青少年基本心理需要,进而提升其主观活力和健康幸福。%The authors surveyed 664 teenagers based on the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) and by using such 3 scales as the sense of independent support of sport, basic psychological needs for sport and subjective vital-ity, so as to verify the mediating role played by basic psychological needs in between the sense of independent sup-port of sport and the subjective vitality of teenagers, and revealed the following findings:the sense of independent support of sport can positively predict subjective vitality;all the 3 basic psychological needs can positively predict subjective vitality, but their statuses are not the same, the most important one is ability need, followed by independ-ence need, and tailed by relationship need;the mediating effect verification results showed that 3 basic psychologi-cal needs played a partial mediating role in between the sense of independent support of sport and subjective vitality. Conclusions:the status order and mediating role of 3 basic psychological needs are context-specific;physical edu-cation teachers should provide an independently supported teaching environment, meet teenagers’ basic psycho-logical needs, and

  4. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  5. Food analysis using artificial senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar

    2014-02-19

    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  6. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Koelpin; Fabian Lurz; Sarah Linz; Sebastian Mann; Christoph Will; Stefan Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement princi...

  7. Quorum Sensing Peptides Selectively Penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynendaele, Evelien; Verbeke, Frederick; Stalmans, Sofie; Gevaert, Bert; Janssens, Yorick; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria communicate with each other by the use of signaling molecules, a process called 'quorum sensing'. One group of quorum sensing molecules includes the oligopeptides, which are mainly produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, these quorum sensing peptides were found to biologically influence mammalian cells, promoting i.a. metastasis of cancer cells. Moreover, it was found that bacteria can influence different central nervous system related disorders as well, e.g. anxiety, depression and autism. Research currently focuses on the role of bacterial metabolites in this bacteria-brain interaction, with the role of the quorum sensing peptides not yet known. Here, three chemically diverse quorum sensing peptides were investigated for their brain influx (multiple time regression technique) and efflux properties in an in vivo mouse model (ICR-CD-1) to determine blood-brain transfer properties: PhrCACET1 demonstrated comparatively a very high initial influx into the mouse brain (Kin = 20.87 μl/(g×min)), while brain penetrabilities of BIP-2 and PhrANTH2 were found to be low (Kin = 2.68 μl/(g×min)) and very low (Kin = 0.18 μl/(g×min)), respectively. All three quorum sensing peptides were metabolically stable in plasma (in vitro) during the experimental time frame and no significant brain efflux was observed. Initial tissue distribution data showed remarkably high liver accumulation of BIP-2 as well. Our results thus support the potential role of some quorum sensing peptides in different neurological disorders, thereby enlarging our knowledge about the microbiome-brain axis.

  8. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-04-05

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers.

  9. A Review of Wetland Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Li, Jing; Sheng, Chunlei; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are some of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They play a key role in alleviating floods and filtering polluted water and also provide habitats for many plants and animals. Wetlands also interact with climate change. Over the past 50 years, wetlands have been polluted and declined dramatically as land cover has changed in some regions. Remote sensing has been the most useful tool to acquire spatial and temporal information about wetlands. In this paper, seven types of sensors were reviewed: aerial photos coarse-resolution, medium-resolution, high-resolution, hyperspectral imagery, radar, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. This study also discusses the advantage of each sensor for wetland research. Wetland research themes reviewed in this paper include wetland classification, habitat or biodiversity, biomass estimation, plant leaf chemistry, water quality, mangrove forest, and sea level rise. This study also gives an overview of the methods used in wetland research such as supervised and unsupervised classification and decision tree and object-based classification. Finally, this paper provides some advice on future wetland remote sensing. To our knowledge, this paper is the most comprehensive and detailed review of wetland remote sensing and it will be a good reference for wetland researchers. PMID:28379174

  10. Sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus: a potential new player in glucose sensing in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke

    2017-07-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The feeding center senses the systemic energy status by detecting hormone and nutrient levels for homeostatic regulation, resulting in the control of food intake, heat production, and glucose production and uptake. The concentration of glucose is sensed by two types of glucose-sensing neurons in the feeding center: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. Previous studies have mainly focused on glucose metabolism as the mechanism underlying glucose sensing. Recent studies have indicated that receptor-mediated pathways also play a role in glucose sensing. This review describes sweet taste receptors in the hypothalamus and explores the role of sweet taste receptors in energy homeostasis.

  11. The impact of quorum sensing and swarming motility on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is nutritionally conditional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrout, J.D.; Chopp, D.L.; Just, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    The role of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation is unclear. Some researchers have shown that quorum sensing is important for biofilm development, while others have indicated it has little or no role. In this study, the contribution of quorum sensing to biofilm development...... was found to depend upon the nutritional environment. Depending upon the carbon source, quorum-sensing mutant strains (lasIrhlI and lasRrhlR) either exhibited a pronounced defect early in biofilm formation or formed biofilms identical to the wild-type strain. Quorum sensing was then shown to exert its...... nutritionally conditional control of biofilm development through regulation of swarming motility. Examination of pilA and fliM mutant strains further supported the role of swarming motility in biofilm formation. These data led to a model proposing that the prevailing nutritional conditions dictate...

  12. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  13. Compressed sensing for body MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Benkert, Thomas; Block, Kai Tobias; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Chandarana, Hersh

    2017-04-01

    The introduction of compressed sensing for increasing imaging speed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has raised significant interest among researchers and clinicians, and has initiated a large body of research across multiple clinical applications over the last decade. Compressed sensing aims to reconstruct unaliased images from fewer measurements than are traditionally required in MRI by exploiting image compressibility or sparsity. Moreover, appropriate combinations of compressed sensing with previously introduced fast imaging approaches, such as parallel imaging, have demonstrated further improved performance. The advent of compressed sensing marks the prelude to a new era of rapid MRI, where the focus of data acquisition has changed from sampling based on the nominal number of voxels and/or frames to sampling based on the desired information content. This article presents a brief overview of the application of compressed sensing techniques in body MRI, where imaging speed is crucial due to the presence of respiratory motion along with stringent constraints on spatial and temporal resolution. The first section provides an overview of the basic compressed sensing methodology, including the notion of sparsity, incoherence, and nonlinear reconstruction. The second section reviews state-of-the-art compressed sensing techniques that have been demonstrated for various clinical body MRI applications. In the final section, the article discusses current challenges and future opportunities. 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:966-987. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Analytic image concept combined to SENSE reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Yankam Njiwa, J; Baltes, C.; Rudin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Two approaches of reconstructing undersampled partial k-space data, acquired with multiple coils are compared: homodyne detection combined with SENSE (HM_SENSE) and analytic image reconstruction combined with SENSE (AI_SENSE). The latter overcomes limitations of HM_ SENSE by considering aliased images as analytic thus avoiding the need for phase correction required for HM_SENSE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo imaging experiments were carried out in male Lewis rats using both gradient echo...

  15. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  16. Measuring Meaning: Searching for and Making Sense of Spousal Loss in Late-Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Rachel A.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much recent theorizing, evidence regarding the temporal relationship of sense-making to adjustment following bereavement remains relatively sparse. This study examined the role of searching for and making sense of loss in late-life spousal bereavement, using prospective, longitudinal data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC)…

  17. Images of a Loving God and Sense of Meaning in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel; Draper, Scott; Whitehead, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Although prior studies have documented a positive association between religiosity and sense of meaning in life, the role of specific religious beliefs is currently unclear. Past research on images of God suggests that loving images of God will positively correlate with a sense of meaning and purpose. Mechanisms for this hypothesized relationship…

  18. Images of a Loving God and Sense of Meaning in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel; Draper, Scott; Whitehead, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Although prior studies have documented a positive association between religiosity and sense of meaning in life, the role of specific religious beliefs is currently unclear. Past research on images of God suggests that loving images of God will positively correlate with a sense of meaning and purpose. Mechanisms for this hypothesized relationship…

  19. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  20. Young children's spatial structuring ability and emerging number sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents research into the role of young children’s spatial structuring ability in the development of number sense, particularly in terms of insight into numerical relations. We take Battista and Clements’ (1996, p. 503) definition to define the act of spatial structuring as “the mental

  1. The emergence of self: Sensing agency through joint action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebanz, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the role of social factors in the emergence of self and other It is suggested that the experience of causing actions contributes to a basic sense of self in which awareness of mental states and the experience of a mental self are grounded. According to the proposed evolutionary

  2. "Be My Neighbor": Exploring Sense of Place through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Encouraging elementary students to become aware of place and the role it plays in shaping their lives can provide them with a clearer sense of self and a greater appreciation for diversity. To support this premise, this article explores using six National Council for the Social Studies Notable Trade Books to assist primary students in their…

  3. "Be My Neighbor": Exploring Sense of Place through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Encouraging elementary students to become aware of place and the role it plays in shaping their lives can provide them with a clearer sense of self and a greater appreciation for diversity. To support this premise, this article explores using six National Council for the Social Studies Notable Trade Books to assist primary students in their…

  4. FeltRadio: Sensing and Making Sense of Wireless Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas; Vallgårda, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Radio waves surround us but still they remain largely undetected by our senses. Unless we use specifically tuned hardware, such as FM radios, cell phones or WiFi modems, human beings cannot perceive wirelessly transmitted data. This paper presents FeltRadio, a portable and wireless technology...... that makes it possible to turn radio signals into visual and tactile stimuli as a form of sensorial augmentation. FeltRadio explores and makes us reflect upon what it would be like if we could sense, and feel, wireless traffic such as WiFi or Bluetooth. We present the technological design behind Felt......Radio and the outcome of two exploratory studies with the technology focused on people's experience of being able to suddenly sense and make sense of wireless traffic. We discuss the possible qualities of this embodied experience of FeltRadio and point to future experiments with the technology....

  5. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  6. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  7. Designing experiments through compressed sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-06-01

    In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

  8. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH

    2007-01-01

    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  9. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available (s)) is the data vector for a pixel located at s θ(s) is an unknown ground class to which pixel s belongs Objective is to classify the pixel at location s to the one of the k clusters Classification of remotely sensed images N. Dudeni, P. Debba...(s) is an unknown ground class to which pixel s belongs Objective is to classify the pixel at location s to the one of the k clusters Classification of remotely sensed images N. Dudeni, P. Debba Introduction to Remote Sensing Introduction to Image...

  10. Knitted Strain Sensors: Impact of Design Parameters on Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs.

  11. Multiple classifier system for remote sensing image classification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  12. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird, hyperspectral image (OMISII and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+.Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  13. Family sense of coherence and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Ngu, Siew-Fei

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between family sense of coherence, social support, stress, quality of life and depressive symptoms among Chinese pregnant women. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 267 Chinese pregnant women was recruited at the antenatal clinic and completed the Family Sense of Coherence Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12-Item Health Survey and General Health Questionnaire. Path analysis was employed. Family sense of coherence and social support had a direct impact on the mental health component of quality of life and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Family sense of coherence also mediated the effect of stress on quality of life and depressive symptoms. The study provides evidence that family sense of coherence and social support play a significant role in promoting quality of life and reducing depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. Culturally competent healthcare should be developed to strengthen women's family sense of coherence and foster social support to combat the stress of new motherhood, thereby promoting quality of life during that period of their lives.

  14. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  15. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  16. Aging changes in the senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004013.htm Aging changes in the senses To use the sharing ... minimum level of sensation is called the threshold. Aging raises this threshold. You need more stimulation to ...

  17. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  18. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  19. Quantum Mechanics and Common Sense

    CERN Document Server

    Gantsevich, S V

    2016-01-01

    A physical picture for Quantum Mechanics which permits to conciliate it with the usual common sense is proposed. The picture agrees with the canonical Copenhagen interpretation making more clear its statements.

  20. Studying Sensing-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2013-01-01

    Recent sensing-based systems involve a multitude of users, devices, and places. These types of systems challenge existing approaches for conducting valid system evaluations. Here, the author discusses such evaluation challenges and revisits existing system evaluation methodologies....

  1. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  2. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  3. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used...... in a search for putative quorum-sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was built from compounds which showed structural similarities to previously reported quorum-sensing inhibitors, the ligand of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptor Las...

  4. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolec...

  5. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  6. Using Geometry To Sense Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Adam N; Abebe, Nathnael S; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-12-14

    We describe a superconducting three-terminal device that uses a simple geometric effect known as current crowding to sense the flow of current and actuate a readout signal. The device consists of a "Y"-shaped current combiner, with two currents (sense and bias) entering separately through the top arms of the "Y", intersecting, and then exiting together through the bottom leg of the "Y". When current is added to or removed from one of the arms (e.g., the sense arm), the superconducting critical current in the other arm (i.e., the bias arm) is modulated. The current in the sense arm can thus be determined by measuring the critical current of the bias arm, or inversely, the sense current can be used to modulate the state of the bias arm. The dependence of the bias critical current on the sense current occurs due to the geometric current crowding effect, which causes the sense current to interact locally with the bias arm. Measurement of the critical current in the bias arm does not break the superconducting state of the sense arm or of the bottom leg, and thus, quantized currents trapped in a superconducting loop were able to be repeatedly measured without changing the state of the loop. Current crowding is a universal effect in nanoscale superconductors, and so this device has potential for applicability across a broad range of superconducting technologies and materials. More generally, any technology in which geometrically induced flow crowding exists in the presence of a strong nonlinearity might make use of this type of device.

  7. MTO: Sensing Across the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    ME MS LNA LNA MEMS B P F 1600 B P F 800 t e x t LO 820/1620 Log A mp 650-1000 Example ASP Architecture On the Horizon: Antennas Challenges • Chu...for Absolute Reference (COUGAR) Lal Fiber optic resonator gyroscope architecture for ultra-high precision rotation sensing Chip-Scale Atomic Clock...Covert sensing with bionic platforms • Underwater surveillance/SONAR Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited Recent Accomplishments

  8. Fiber Sensing of Micro -Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors are used for sensing micro-cracking in composite and metal materials in aerospace applications. The sensing mechanism is based on the detection of acoustic emission signals, which are known to emanate from micro-cracks when they grow under further loading. The sensor head consists of a fiber Bragg grating that is capable of detecting acoustic emission signals generated by pencil lead breaking, of frequencies up to 200 kHz.

  9. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  10. Making Sense of Plant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Ciencia, Inc. created a new device, known as a Portable Photosynthesis Analyzer, or Phase Fluorometer, that provides real-time data about the photochemical efficiency of phytoplankton and other plant forms. The commercial version of this technology is used for photosynthesis research and offers major benefits to the field of life science. This new instrument is the first portable instrument of its kind. Through a license agreement with Ciencia, Oriel Instruments, of Stratford, Connecticut, manufactures and markets the commercial version of the instrument under the name LifeSense.TMLifeSense is a 70 MHz single-frequency fluorometer that offers unrivaled capabilities for fluorescence lifetime sensing and analysis. LifeSense provides information about all varieties of photosynthetic systems. Photosynthesis research contributes important health assessments about the plant, be it phytoplankton or a higher form of plant life. With its unique sensing capabilities, LifeSense furnishes data regarding the yield of a plant's photochemistry, as well as its levels of photosynthetic activity. The user can then gain an extremely accurate estimate of the plant's chlorophyll biomass, primary production rates, and a general overview of the plant's physiological condition.

  11. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  12. Get a grip on sense-making and exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mabogunje, Ade; Møller Haase, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationships between complex problems, sense-making, and exploration. We argue that we increasingly face complex problems for which we do not yet have effective coping methods. We further argue that, given the nature of these problems, it is useful to explore the role...... of play and games as effective coping methods. Through play we can make sense of complex phenomena and explore features thereof. Games, and in particular online games, seem to provide interesting features for capturing and dealing with complex problems. However, we argue that the games are not yet matured...

  13. Sense-making methodology as a foundation for user studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents Brenda Dervin’s sense-making methodology approach to user studies. The concepts of subject, gap, verbing, information etc. are outlined. They form a foundation for the theory’s process approach to information behavior research. The sense-making triangle, as a basic model, facilitates the conceptualisation of information or communication behaviour in individual contexts. The article also presents the theory’s view on information systems design, role of power and methodological implications for studying information seeking and use.

  14. Acid-sensing ion channels in pain and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmie, John A; Taugher, Rebecca J; Kreple, Collin J

    2013-07-01

    Why do neurons sense extracellular acid? In large part, this question has driven increasing investigation on acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system for the past two decades. Significant progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of ASICs at the molecular level. Studies aimed at clarifying their physiological importance have suggested roles for ASICs in pain, neurological and psychiatric disease. This Review highlights recent findings linking these channels to physiology and disease. In addition, it discusses some of the implications for therapy and points out questions that remain unanswered.

  15. A quorum-sensing-induced bacteriophage defense mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Svenningsen, Sine

    2013-01-01

    of uninfected survivor cells after a potent attack by virulent phages. Notably, this mechanism may apply to a broader range of phages, as AHLs also reduce the risk of ¿ phage infection through a different receptor. IMPORTANCE To enable the successful manipulation of bacterial populations, a comprehensive...... sensing plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of E. coli to infection by bacteriophages ¿ and ¿. On the basis of our findings in the classical Escherichia coli-¿ model system, we suggest that quorum sensing may serve as a general strategy to protect bacteria specifically under...

  16. Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A.

    This thesis describes the application of compressive sensing to several challenging problems in quantum imaging with practical and fundamental implications. Compressive sensing is a measurement technique that compresses a signal during measurement such that it can be dramatically undersampled. Compressive sensing has been shown to be an extremely efficient measurement technique for imaging, particularly when detector arrays are not available. The thesis first reviews compressive sensing through the lens of quantum imaging and quantum measurement. Four important applications and their corresponding experiments are then described in detail. The first application is a compressive sensing, photon-counting lidar system. A novel depth mapping technique that uses standard, linear compressive sensing is described. Depth maps up to 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution are recovered with depth resolution less than 2.54 cm. The first three-dimensional, photon counting video is recorded at 32 x 32 pixel resolution and 14 frames-per-second. The second application is the use of compressive sensing for complementary imaging---simultaneously imaging the transverse-position and transverse-momentum distributions of optical photons. This is accomplished by taking random, partial projections of position followed by imaging the momentum distribution on a cooled CCD camera. The projections are shown to not significantly perturb the photons' momenta while allowing high resolution position images to be reconstructed using compressive sensing. A variety of objects and their diffraction patterns are imaged including the double slit, triple slit, alphanumeric characters, and the University of Rochester logo. The third application is the use of compressive sensing to characterize spatial entanglement of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion. The technique gives a theoretical speedup N2/log N for N-dimensional entanglement over the standard raster scanning technique

  17. The wind chilled the spectators, but the wine just chilled: Sense, structure, and sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Mary; Elman, Jeffrey L; Tabaczynski, Tracy; McRae, Ken

    2009-03-31

    Anticipation plays a role in language comprehension. In this article, we explore the extent to which verb sense influences expectations about upcoming structure. We focus on change of state verbs like shatter, which have different senses that are expressed in either transitive or intransitive structures, depending on the sense that is used. In two experiments we influence the interpretation of verb sense by manipulating the thematic fit of the grammatical subject as cause or affected entity for the verb, and test whether readers' expectations for a transitive or intransitive structure change as a result. This sense-biasing context influenced reading times in the post-verbal regions. Reading times for transitive sentences were faster following good-cause than good theme subjects, but the opposite pattern was found for intransitive sentences. We conclude that readers use sense-contingent subcategorization preferences during on-line comprehension.

  18. Making Sense out of Everday Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Isla, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    It used to be thought that there were only five senses: touch, vision, hearing, smell, and taste. It is now known that a person has two additional senses. They are the proprioceptive sense, which allows individuals to know where their body parts are located in space, and the vestibular sense, which allows individuals to detect motion. However, in…

  19. Quorum Sensing Inhibition, Relevance to Periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored.

  20. Quorum sensing inhibition, relevance to periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored.

  1. Evolutionary variation in neural gene expression in the developing sense organs of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Marleen; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2017-02-24

    Arthropods have numerous sense organs, which are adapted to their habitat. While some sense organs are similar in structure and function in all arthropod groups, structural differences in functionally related sense organs have been described, as well as the absence of particular sense organ subtypes in individual arthropod groups. Here we address the question of how the diverse structures of arthropod sense organs have evolved by analysing the underlying molecular developmental processes in a crustacean, an arthropod group that has been neglected so far. We have investigated the development of four types of chemo- and mechanosensory sense organs in the branchiopod Daphnia magna (Cladocera) that either cannot be found in arthropods other than crustaceans or represent adaptations to an aquatic environment. The formation of the sensory organ precursors shows greater similarity to the arthropod taxa Chelicerata and Myriapoda than to the more closely related insects. All analysed sense organ types co-express the proneural genes ASH and atonal regardless of their structure and function. In contrast, in Drosophila melanogaster, ASH and atonal expression does not overlap and the genes confer different sense organ subtype identities. We performed experimental co-expression studies in D. melanogaster and found that the combinatorial expression of ato and ASH can change the external structure of sense organs. Our results indicate a central role for ASH and Atonal family members in the emergence of structural variations in arthropod sense organs.

  2. Making Sense of Organisational Change Through Vicarious Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    The paper focuses on the role of vicarious narratives in employees’ sense‐making in relation to organisational change. The paper addresses the following research question: How do employees use vicarious narratives to makes sense of organisational change, and of their own role in the organisation......? In this familyowned company, stories about the four generations of the founding family play an important role in making sense of changes and changing values in the organisation. When employees tell stories about the founders and about other employees, and especially when these are told again and again, the telling...... as part of a larger project on multilingual workplaces in Denmark. The fieldwork took place over a period of two years in one Danish SME and consists of ethnographic interviews with employees and management, observations from four different departments and written material e.g. in the form of emails...

  3. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  4. NEON Airborne Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is the continental-scale research platform that will collect information on ecosystems across the United States to advance our understanding and ability to forecast environmental change at the continental scale. One of NEON's observing systems, the Airborne Observation Platform (AOP), will fly an instrument suite consisting of a high-fidelity visible-to-shortwave infrared imaging spectrometer, a full waveform small footprint LiDAR, and a high-resolution digital camera on a low-altitude aircraft platform. NEON AOP is focused on acquiring data on several terrestrial Essential Climate Variables including bioclimate, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, and land use products. These variables are collected throughout a network of 60 sites across the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico via ground-based and airborne measurements. Airborne remote sensing plays a critical role by providing measurements at the scale of individual shrubs and larger plants over hundreds of square kilometers. The NEON AOP plays the role of bridging the spatial scales from that of individual organisms and stands to the scale of satellite-based remote sensing. NEON is building 3 airborne systems to facilitate the routine coverage of NEON sites and provide the capacity to respond to investigator requests for specific projects. The first NEON imaging spectrometer, a next-generation VSWIR instrument, was recently delivered to NEON by JPL. This instrument has been integrated with a small-footprint waveform LiDAR on the first NEON airborne platform (AOP-1). A series of AOP-1 test flights were conducted during the first year of NEON's construction phase. The goal of these flights was to test out instrument functionality and performance, exercise remote sensing collection protocols, and provide provisional data for algorithm and data product validation. These test flights focused the following questions: What is the optimal remote

  5. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  6. A generalized sense of number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C

    2014-12-22

    Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time.

  7. Assessment of biochemical concentrations of vegetation using remote sensing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The main biochemicals (such as lignin, protein, cellulose, sugar, starch, chlorophyll and water) of vegetation are directly or indirectly involved in major ecological processes, such as the functions of terrestrial ecosystems (i.e., nutrient-cycling processes, primary production, and decomposition). Remote sensing techniques provide a very convenient way of data acquisition capable of covering a large area several times during one season, so it can play a unique and essential role provided that we can relate remote sensing measurements to the biochemical characteristics of the Earth surface in a reliable and operational way. The application of remote sensing techniques for the estimation of canopy biochemicals was reviewed. Three methods of estimating biochemical concentrations of vegetation were included in this paper: index, stepwise multiple linear regression, and stepwise multiple linear regression based on a model of the forest crown. In addition, the vitality and potential applying value are stressed.

  8. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yingchen; Chen Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Hu Huan; Liu Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Nguyen, Nam; Lockwood, Michael; Jones, Douglas L [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bleckmann, Horst, E-mail: changliu@northwestern.ed, E-mail: dl-jones@uiuc.ed [Institut fuer Zoologie, Universitaet Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Schloss, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish.

  9. Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H.-C. Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell traction forces (CTFs are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research.

  10. Remote sensing of aquatic vegetation: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thiago S F; Costa, Maycira P F; Melack, John M; Novo, Evlyn M L M

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic vegetation is an important component of wetland and coastal ecosystems, playing a key role in the ecological functions of these environments. Surveys of macrophyte communities are commonly hindered by logistic problems, and remote sensing represents a powerful alternative, allowing comprehensive assessment and monitoring. Also, many vegetation characteristics can be estimated from reflectance measurements, such as species composition, vegetation structure, biomass, and plant physiological parameters. However, proper use of these methods requires an understanding of the physical processes behind the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and vegetation, and remote sensing of aquatic plants have some particular difficulties that have to be properly addressed in order to obtain successful results. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and possible applications of remote sensing techniques to the study of aquatic vegetation.

  11. Remote sensing for land management and planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Franklin, Janet

    1983-05-01

    The primary role of remote sensing in land management and planning has been to provide information concerning the physical characteristics of the land which influence the management of individual land parcels or the allocation of lands to various uses These physical characteristics have typically been assessed through aerial photography, which is used to develop resource maps and to monitor changing environmental conditions These uses are well developed and currently well integrated into the planning infrastructure at local, state, and federal levels in the United States. Many newly emerging uses of remote sensing involve digital images which are collected, stored, and processed automatically by electromechanical scanning devices and electronic computers Some scanning devices operate from aircraft or spacecraft to scan ground scenes directly; others scan conventional aerial transparencies to yield digital images. Digital imagery offers the potential for computer-based automated map production, a process that can significantly increase the amount and timeliness of information available to land managers and planners. Future uses of remote sensing in land planning and management will involve geographic information systems, which store resource information in a geocoded format. Geographic information systems allow the automated integration of disparate types of resource data through various types of spatial models so that with accompanying sample ground data, information in the form of thematic maps and/ or aerially aggregated statistics can be produced Key issues confronting the development and integration of geographic information systems into planning pathways are restoration and rectification of digital images, automated techniques for combining both quantitative and qualitative types of data in information-extracting procedures, and the compatibility of alternative data storage modes

  12. Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Ablation With or Without Contact Force Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ayman A; Barakat, Amr F; Saliba, Walid I; Tarakji, Khaldoun G; Bassiouny, Mohamed; Baranowski, Bryan; Tchou, Patrick; Bhargava, Mandeep; Dresing, Thomas; Callahan, Thomas; Cantillon, Daniel; Kanj, Mohamed; Lindsay, Bruce D; Wazni, Oussama M

    2017-05-01

    Arrhythmia recurrences remain common after ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF). Contact force (CF)-sensing catheters have been introduced for objective assessment of contact during radiofrequency application and have been suggested to improve outcomes in ablation of paroxysmal AF, but little is known about their role in PersAF ablation. We aimed to compare the procedural profiles and outcomes of (PersAF) ablation with or without using CF-sensing catheters. All consecutive patients undergoing first time ablation for PersAF between April 2014 and January 2015 at the Cleveland Clinic were included. Substrate modification was performed in addition to isolation of the pulmonary veins. Success rates were determined off antiarrhythmics over 1 year of follow-up. The study included 174 patients (77 CF and 97 non-CF). Ablation with CF-sensing catheters resulted in shorter procedures (median 204 vs. 216 minutes, P = 0.04) and shorter fluoroscopy time (36 vs. 48 minutes, P = 0.0005), without statistical difference in radiation dose (225 vs. 270 milligrays, P = 0.1). Arrhythmia recurrences were less likely to be observed in the CF-sensing group (27.6% vs. 46.4%, P = 0.01, log-rank P = 0.004). In multivariable Cox analyses, the use of CF-sensing catheters was associated with a lower risk of arrhythmia recurrence (hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.85, P = 0.01). Compared to non-CF sensing, the use of CF-sensing catheters for PersAF ablation is associated with shorter procedures, shorter fluoroscopy time, and reduction in arrhythmia recurrences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... of the compendium, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  14. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  15. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...... in Wind Energy....

  16. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  17. Sensing Device with Whisker Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  18. Optimal census by quorum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefumier, Thibaud

    Bacteria regulate their gene expression in response to changes in local cell density in a process called quorum sensing. To synchronize their gene-expression programs, these bacteria need to glean as much information as possible about local density. Our study is the first to physically model the flow of information in a quorum-sensing microbial community, wherein the internal regulator of the individual's response tracks the external cell density via an endogenously generated shared signal. Combining information theory and Lagrangian optimization, we find that quorum-sensing systems can improve their information capabilities by tuning circuit feedbacks. At the population level, external feedback adjusts the dynamic range of the shared input to individuals' detection channels. At the individual level, internal feedback adjusts the regulator's response time to dynamically balance output noise reduction and signal tracking ability. Our analysis suggests that achieving information benefit via feedback requires dedicated systems to control gene expression noise, such as sRNA-based regulation.

  19. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  20. TACTILE SENSING FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2009-01-01

    in unstructured environments, tactile sensing can provide more than valuable to complementary vision information about mechanical properties such as recognition and characterization, force, pressure, torque, compliance, friction, and mass as well as object shape, texture, position and pose. In this paper, we......The artificial sense of touch is a research area that can be considered still in demand, compared with the human dexterity of grasping a wide variety of shapes and sizes, perform complex tasks, and switch between grasps in response to changing task requirements. For handling unknown objects...... described the working principles of a few types of tactile sensing cells, focusing on the piezoresistive materials. Starting from a set of requirements for developing a high resolution flexible array sensor we have investigated if CSA pressure sensitive conductive rubber could be a proper candidate and can...

  1. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  2. Making sense of studying physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, A; Ingerman, Ake; Booth, Shirley

    2004-01-01

    With an investigation into how students in a physics Master of science program make sense of their whole first year study experience in one of the years following a programme reform, we try to offer insights and advice to consider when involved in similar changes. We conclude and argue that by trying to support the students' in making sense of their studying in terms of physics and empowering them in their understanding of the nature of physics and their study situation, both the potential for productive, meaningful and positive learning of physics as something which is relevant in the students life, and the way in which the students analyse and make sense of things they encounter, both physically and academically, are advanced.

  3. Remote sensing for urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  4. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  5. Making Sense of Financial Crisis and Scandal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I discuss a dramatic financial collapse and scandal in Denmark in the interwar period. I analyze the asset price bubble from 1914 to 1920 and the subsequent failure in 1922 of Scandinavia’s largest bank, the Danish Landmandsbanken, as well as the downfall of its CEO Emil Glückstadt....... of sense-making in the case of Landmandsbanken can be generalized as the way in which society enforces norms and values in cases of dramatic financial crisis and scandal.......In this paper I discuss a dramatic financial collapse and scandal in Denmark in the interwar period. I analyze the asset price bubble from 1914 to 1920 and the subsequent failure in 1922 of Scandinavia’s largest bank, the Danish Landmandsbanken, as well as the downfall of its CEO Emil Glückstadt. I...... fall from the top of society of these icons and of their role in the collapse of their banks. I view the sense-making process as centered on the construction of narratives that explain the crisis and enable or constrain institutional response to the crisis. To conclude, I argue that the process...

  6. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David J. Lary; Amir H. Alavi; Amir H. Gandomi; Annette L. Walker

    2016-01-01

    Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML) is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc.) that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regres-sion or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the ef-ficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  7. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc. that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regression or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  8. Dynamic Digital Channelizer Based on Spectrum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junpeng; Zuo, Zhen; Huang, Zhiping; Dong, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The ability to efficiently channelize a received signal with dynamic sub-channel bandwidths is a key requirement of software defined radio (SDR) systems. The digital channelizer, which is used to split the received signal into a number of sub-channels, plays an important role in SDR systems. In this paper, a design of dynamic digital channelizer is presented. The proposed method is novel in that it employs a cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB) to divide the received signal into multiple frequency sub-bands and a spectrum sensing technique, which is mostly used in cognitive radio, is introduced to detect the presence of signal of each sub-band. The method of spectrum sensing is carried out based on the eigenvalues of covariance matrix of received signal. The ratio of maximum-minimum eigenvalue of each sub-band is vulnerable to noise fluctuation. This paper suggests an optimized method to calculate the ratio of maximum-minimum eigenvalue. The simulation results imply that the design of digital channelizer can effectively separate the received signal with dynamically changeable sub-channel signals.

  9. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  10. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  11. Novel Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for OFDM Cognitive Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Wu, Zhilu; Yin, Zhendong; Cheng, Qingqing

    2015-06-15

    Spectrum sensing technology plays an increasingly important role in cognitive radio networks. Consequently, several spectrum sensing algorithms have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we present a new spectrum sensing algorithm "Differential Characteristics-Based OFDM (DC-OFDM)" for detecting OFDM signal on account of differential characteristics. We put the primary value on channel gain θ around zero to detect the presence of primary user. Furthermore, utilizing the same method of differential operation, we improve two traditional OFDM sensing algorithms (cyclic prefix and pilot tones detecting algorithms), and propose a "Differential Characteristics-Based Cyclic Prefix (DC-CP)" detector and a "Differential Characteristics-Based Pilot Tones (DC-PT)" detector, respectively. DC-CP detector is based on auto-correlation vector to sense the spectrum, while the DC-PT detector takes the frequency-domain cross-correlation of PT as the test statistic to detect the primary user. Moreover, the distributions of the test statistics of the three proposed methods have been derived. Simulation results illustrate that all of the three proposed methods can achieve good performance under low signal to noise ratio (SNR) with the presence of timing delay. Specifically, the DC-OFDM detector gets the best performance among the presented detectors. Moreover, both of the DC-CP and DC-PT detector achieve significant improvements compared with their corresponding original detectors.

  12. Fundamentals of polarimetric remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, John R

    2009-01-01

    This text is for those who need an introduction to polarimetric signals to begin working in the field of polarimetric remote sensing, particularly where the contrast between manmade objects and natural backgrounds are the subjects of interest. The book takes a systems approach to the physical processes involved with formation, collection, and analysis of polarimetric remote sensing data in the visible through longwave infrared. Beginning with a brief review of the polarized nature of electromagnetic energy and radiometry, Dr. Schott then introduces ways to characterize a beam of polarized ene

  13. Making sense of project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette; Kautz, Karl; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2007-01-01

    How can a software company make sense of project management when it becomes involved in software process improvement? In software development most research has an instrumental view of knowledge management thus neglecting what is probably the most important part of knowledge management namely making...... sense of practice by developers and project managers. Through an action case, we study the knowledge management processes in a Danish software company. We analyse the case through the lens of a theoretical framework. The theoretical framework focuses in particular on sensemaking, collective construed...... substantial insight which could not have been achieved through an instrumental perspective on knowledge management....

  14. Sensing the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichisao, Marta; Stallone, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Making science visual plays a crucial role in the process of building knowledge. In this view, art can considerably facilitate the representation of the scientific content, by offering a different perspective on how a specific problem could be approached. Here we explore the possibility of presenting the earthquake process through visual dance. From a choreographer's point of view, the focus is always on the dynamic relationships between moving objects. The observed spatial patterns (coincidences, repetitions, double and rhythmic configurations) suggest how objects organize themselves in the environment and what are the principles underlying that organization. The identified set of rules is then implemented as a basis for the creation of a complex rhythmic and visual dance system. Recently, scientists have turned seismic waves into sound and animations, introducing the possibility of "feeling" the earthquakes. We try to implement these results into a choreographic model with the aim to convert earthquake sound to a visual dance system, which could return a transmedia representation of the earthquake process. In particular, we focus on a possible method to translate and transfer the metric language of seismic sound and animations into body language. The objective is to involve the audience into a multisensory exploration of the earthquake phenomenon, through the stimulation of the hearing, eyesight and perception of the movements (neuromotor system). In essence, the main goal of this work is to develop a method for a simultaneous visual and auditory representation of a seismic event by means of a structured choreographic model. This artistic representation could provide an original entryway into the physics of earthquakes.

  15. Characrterizing frozen ground with multisensor remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Ping, C.; Everett, L. R.; Kimble, J. M.; Michaelson, G.; Tremper, C.

    2006-12-01

    We have a physically based, conceptual understanding of many of the significant interactions that impact permafrost-affected soils. Our observationally based knowledge, however, is inadequate in many cases to quantify these interactions or to predict their net impact. To pursue key goals, such as understanding the response of permafrost-affected soil systems to global environmental changes and their role in the carbon balance, and to transform our conceptual understanding of these processes into quantitative knowledge, it is necessary to acquire geographically diverse sets of fundamental observations at high spatial and often temporal resolution. The main goals of the research presented here are developing methods for mapping soil and permafrost distributions in polar environment as well as characterizing glacial and perglacial geomorphology from multisensor, multiresolution remotely sensed data. The sheer amount of data and the disparate data sets (e.g., LIDAR, stereo imagery, multi- hyperspectral, and SAR imagery) make the joint interpretation (fusion) a daunting task. We combine remote sensing, pattern recognition and landscape analysis techniques for the delineation of soil landscape units and other geomorphic features, for inferring the physical properties and composition of the surface, and for generating numerical measurements of geomorphic features from remotely sensed data. Examples illustrating the concept are presented from the North Slope of Alaska and from the McMurdo Sound region in Antarctica. (1) On the North Slope, Alaska we separated different vegetative, soil and landscape units along the Haul Road. Point-source soils (pedon) data and field spectrometry data have been acquired at different units to provide ground-truth for the satellite image interpretation. (2) A vast amount of remote sensing data, such as multi- and hyperspectral (Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, HYPERION) and SAR satellite imagery (ERS, RADARSAT and JERS), high resolution topographic

  16. Analysis of Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Madsen, Melissa L.; Carruthers, Michael D.; Phillips, Gregory J.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Jeff M.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing system has been linked to diverse phenotypes and regulatory changes in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the AI-2 system in Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. In strain CO92, the AI-2 signal is produced in a luxS-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels of 2.5 μM in the late logarithmic growth phase, and both wild-type and pigmentation (pgm) mutant strains made equivalent levels of AI-2. Strain CO92 possesses a chromosomal lsr locus encoding factors involved in the binding and import of AI-2, and confirming this assignment, an lsr deletion mutant increased extracellular pools of AI-2. To assess the functional role of AI-2 sensing in Y. pestis, microarray studies were conducted by comparing Δpgm strain R88 to a Δpgm ΔluxS mutant or a quorum-sensing-null Δpgm ΔypeIR ΔyspIR ΔluxS mutant at 37°C. Our data suggest that AI-2 quorum sensing is associated with metabolic activities and oxidative stress genes that may help Y. pestis survive at the host temperature. This was confirmed by observing that the luxS mutant was more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting a potential requirement for AI-2 in evasion of oxidative damage. We also show that a large number of membrane protein genes are controlled by LuxS, suggesting a role for quorum sensing in membrane modeling. Altogether, this study provides the first global analysis of AI-2 signaling in Y. pestis and identifies potential roles for the system in controlling genes important to disease. PMID:23959719

  17. Global analysis of the Burkholderia thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Jacobs, Michael; Armour, Christopher D; Radey, Mathew; Schneider, Emily; Phattarasokul, Somsak; Bunt, Richard; Greenberg, E Peter

    2014-04-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis contains three acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing circuits and has two additional LuxR homologs. To identify B. thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled genes, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of quorum sensing mutants and their parent. The analyses were grounded in the fact that we identified genes coding for factors shown previously to be regulated by quorum sensing among a larger set of quorum-controlled genes. We also found that genes coding for contact-dependent inhibition were induced by quorum sensing and confirmed that specific quorum sensing mutants had a contact-dependent inhibition defect. Additional quorum-controlled genes included those for the production of numerous secondary metabolites, an uncharacterized exopolysaccharide, and a predicted chitin-binding protein. This study provides insights into the roles of the three quorum sensing circuits in the saprophytic lifestyle of B. thailandensis, and it provides a foundation on which to build an understanding of the roles of quorum sensing in the biology of B. thailandensis and the closely related pathogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei.

  18. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen Sensing under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the discovery of endogenous H2S production, many in depth studies show this gasotransmitter with a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Three enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST, are involved in enzymatic production of H2S. Emerging evidence has elucidated an important protective role of H2S in hypoxic conditions in many mammalian systems. However, the mechanisms by which H2S senses and responses to hypoxia are largely elusive. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs function as key regulators of oxygen sensing, activating target genes expression under hypoxia. Recent studies have shown that exogenous H2S regulates HIF action in different patterns. The activation of carotid bodies is a sensitive and prompt response to hypoxia, rapidly enhancing general O2 supply. H2S has been identified as an excitatory mediator of hypoxic sensing in the carotid bodies. This paper presents a brief review of the roles of these two pathways which contribute to hypoxic sensing of H2S.

  19. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  20. Quorum Sensing in Marine Microbial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmelo, Laura R.

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates. The most well-studied QS systems in the ocean occur in surface-attached (biofilm) communities and rely on AHL signaling. AHL-QS is highly sensitive to the chemical and biological makeup of the environment and may respond to anthropogenic change, including ocean acidification and rising sea surface temperatures.

  1. Remote sensing in soil science.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides coverage of remote sensing techniques and their application in soil science. A clear, step-by-step approach to the various aspects ensures that the reader will gain a good grasp of the subject so that he can apply the techniques to his own field of study. The book opens with an in

  2. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  3. USAF Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095102 (2012) Compact radio-frequency resonator...enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem. INTRODUCTION The use of cryogenics in space sensing

  4. Unobtrusive Sensing of Emotions (USE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Egon L.; Schut, Marleen H.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    2009-01-01

    Emotions are acknowledged as a crucial element for artificial intelligence; this is, as is illustrated, no different for Ambient Intelligence (AmI). Unobtrusive Sensing of Emotions (USE) is introduced to enrich AmI with empathic abilities. USE coins the combination of speech and the electrocardiogra

  5. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  6. Compressive sensing of sparse tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Shmuel; Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has triggered an enormous research activity since its first appearance. CS exploits the signal's sparsity or compressibility in a particular domain and integrates data compression and acquisition, thus allowing exact reconstruction through relatively few nonadaptive linear measurements. While conventional CS theory relies on data representation in the form of vectors, many data types in various applications, such as color imaging, video sequences, and multisensor networks, are intrinsically represented by higher order tensors. Application of CS to higher order data representation is typically performed by conversion of the data to very long vectors that must be measured using very large sampling matrices, thus imposing a huge computational and memory burden. In this paper, we propose generalized tensor compressive sensing (GTCS)-a unified framework for CS of higher order tensors, which preserves the intrinsic structure of tensor data with reduced computational complexity at reconstruction. GTCS offers an efficient means for representation of multidimensional data by providing simultaneous acquisition and compression from all tensor modes. In addition, we propound two reconstruction procedures, a serial method and a parallelizable method. We then compare the performance of the proposed method with Kronecker compressive sensing (KCS) and multiway compressive sensing (MWCS). We demonstrate experimentally that GTCS outperforms KCS and MWCS in terms of both reconstruction accuracy (within a range of compression ratios) and processing speed. The major disadvantage of our methods (and of MWCS as well) is that the compression ratios may be worse than that offered by KCS.

  7. Natural Resources: A Sixth Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2011-01-01

    This column helps bring the outdoors into the curriculum. The author describes how to instill a sense of wonder in students by stepping out the door and observing what is going on in one's local environment. In the complete opposite direction, exotic locales and their inhabitants are captivating, and the author suggests visiting an exotic locale…

  8. Size of quorum sensing communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of bacteria are able to coordinate their phenotypic behavior in accordance with the size, density, and growth state of the ensemble. This is achieved through production and exchange of diffusible signal molecules in a cell–cell regulatory system termed quorum sensing. In the generic...

  9. ASPIRE: Added-value Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Cetin, Kamil; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2010-01-01

    and privacy friendly RFID middleware. Advances in active RFID integration with WSNs allow for more RFID-based applications to be developed. In order to fill the gap between the active RFID system and the existing middleware, a HAL for active reader and ALE server extension to support sensing data from active...

  10. Even More Sense and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews "Sense & Sustainability: Educating for a Circular Economy," by Ken Webster and Craig Johnson. He reviews the core text that underpins the work of the education team at the Ellen MacArthur Foundation (http://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/). He shows that while it is strong on some technical aspects of…

  11. Sensing Super-Position: Human Sensing Beyond the Visual Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position by mixing natural Human sensing. The current implementation of the device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of Lie human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an image-to-sound mapping system. The

  12. Fire risk assessment: The role of hyperspectral remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for effective forest fire prevention instruments has faced operational and future Earth observation instruments with the challenge of producing updated and reliable maps of vegetation moisture. Various empirical band-ratio indexes have been proposed so far, based on multispectr

  13. Fire risk assessment: The role of hyperspectral remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for effective forest fire prevention instruments has faced operational and future Earth observation instruments with the challenge of producing updated and reliable maps of vegetation moisture. Various empirical band-ratio indexes have been proposed so far, based on multispectr

  14. The roles of zinc and copper sensing in fungal pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Elizabeth R; Wilson, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    All organisms must secure essential trace nutrients, including iron, zinc, manganese and copper for survival and proliferation. However, these very nutrients are also highly toxic if present at elevated levels. Mammalian immunity has harnessed both the essentiality and toxicity of micronutrients to defend against microbial invasion-processes known collectively as 'nutritional immunity'. Therefore, pathogenic microbes must possess highly effective micronutrient assimilation and detoxification mechanisms to survive and proliferate within the infected host. In this review we compare and contrast the micronutrient homeostatic mechanisms of Cryptococcus and Candida-yeasts which, despite ancient evolutionary divergence, account for over a million life-threatening infections per year. We focus on two emerging arenas within the host-pathogen battle for essential trace metals: adaptive responses to zinc limitation and copper availability.

  15. Potential role of remote sensing in disaster relief management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.

    1976-01-01

    Baseline or predisaster data which would be useful to decision making in the immediate postdisaster period were suggested for the six areas of public health concern along with guidelines for organizing these data. Potential sources of these data are identified. In order to fully assess the impact of a disaster on an area, information about its predisaster status must be known. Aerial photography is one way of acquiring and recording such data.

  16. Sense and sustainability: the role of chemistry, green or otherwise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterton, Neil [Leverhulme Centre for Innovative Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZD (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    If their contributions to securing sustainable development are to be effective, then chemists will need to set their work in wider scientific, technical and social contexts. Whether such chemistry should be called ''green'', ''clean'', ''cleaner'' or ''sustainable'' or simply continue to be called chemistry is less important than the fact that chemists should, consciously and continually, apply their knowledge, skill, creativity and intuition to help to anticipate and minimise humanity's impact on the environment we inhabit. In so doing, chemists (and scientists in general) should clearly distinguish between their science and any political activity associated with it. (orig.)

  17. Making Sense of the Role of Culture in School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Panayiotis; Ainscow, Mel

    2000-01-01

    By exploring the nature of school cultures and how they affect daily classroom encounters, this article illustrates how critical incidents can be analyzed to help educators understand themselves and influences shaping their practice. Critical incidents methodologies can transcend external monitoring systems to help schools develop self-review…

  18. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  19. Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Mine Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine environment problem caused by the exploitation of mineral resources has become a key factor which affects normal production of mine and safety of ecological environment for human settlement. For better protection and management of mine environment, this article has introduced the important role of remote sensing technology in pollution monitoring of mine environment, geological disaster monitoring and monitoring of mining activities.

  20. Culturelogical senses of activity in anthropic technologies of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev S.V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the educational teaching motive actions is examined in a theory and practice of higher education. The role of modern educational technologies is rotined in professional preparation of students. «Humanism conversion» of educational technologies is offered. It is rotined that authentic sense of educational activity of man is finding by him itself (achievement of authenticness with itself. On the basis of it is creative realization in professional labour.

  1. Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Edgar P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The title of our project is “Amino acid-sensing ion channels in plants”. Its goals are two-fold: to determine the molecular functions of glutamate receptor-like (GLR) proteins, and to elucidate their biological roles (physiological or developmental) in plants. Here is our final technical report. We were highly successful in two of the three aims, modestly successful in the third.

  2. Bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling system by which bacteria can regulate gene expression through the production, secretion, and subsequent detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Bacteria use quorum sensing to regulate various physiological activities, ...

  3. Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing Disorders Medical Mystery: Losing the sense of smell Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... a teenager that took away her sense of smell. Photo courtesy of Malone University Imagine, if you ...

  4. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Thenkabail

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were selected by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2009. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately.

  5. Deterministic Designs with Deterministic Guarantees: Toeplitz Compressed Sensing Matrices, Sequence Designs and System Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, Venkatesh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new family of discrete sequences having ``random like'' uniformly decaying auto-correlation properties. The new class of infinite length sequences are higher order chirps constructed using irrational numbers. Exploiting results from the theory of continued fractions and diophantine approximations, we show that the class of sequences so formed has the property that the worst-case auto-correlation coefficients for every finite length sequence decays at a polynomial rate. These sequences display doppler immunity as well. We also show that Toeplitz matrices formed from such sequences satisfy restricted-isometry-property (RIP), a concept that has played a central role recently in Compressed Sensing applications. Compressed sensing has conventionally dealt with sensing matrices with arbitrary components. Nevertheless, such arbitrary sensing matrices are not appropriate for linear system identification and one must employ Toeplitz structured sensing matrices. Linear system identification p...

  6. Ethanol-Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured ZnO: Nanorods, Nanowires, and Porous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quy, Chu Thi; Hung, Chu Manh; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Jiao, Mingzhi; Nguyen, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    The morphology and crystalline size of metal oxide-sensing materials are believed to have a strong influence on the performance of gas sensors. In this paper, we report a comparative study on the ethanol-sensing characteristics of ZnO nanorods, nanowires, and porous nanoparticles. The porous ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a simple thermal decomposition of a sheet-like hydrozincite, whereas the nanorods and nanowires were grown by hydrothermal and chemical vapor deposition methods, respectively. The morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized materials were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Ethanol gas-sensing characteristics were systematically studied at different temperatures. Our findings show that for ethanol gas-sensing applications, ZnO porous nanoparticles exhibited the best sensitivity, followed by the nanowires and nanorods. Gas-sensing properties were also examined with respect to the role of crystal growth orientation, crystal size, and porosity.

  7. Quorum-sensing regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio scophthalmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Aljaro Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that Vibrio scophthalmi, the most abundant Vibrio species among the marine aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of healthy cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, contains at least two quorum-sensing circuits involving two types of signal molecules (a 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and the universal autoinducer 2 encoded by luxS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions regulated by these quorum sensing circuits in this vibrio by constructing mutants for the genes involved in these circuits. Results The presence of a homologue to the Vibrio harveyi luxR gene encoding a main transcriptional regulator, whose expression is modulated by quorum–sensing signal molecules in other vibrios, was detected and sequenced. The V. scophthalmi LuxR protein displayed a maximum amino acid identity of 82% with SmcR, the LuxR homologue found in Vibrio vulnificus. luxR and luxS null mutants were constructed and their phenotype analysed. Both mutants displayed reduced biofilm formation in vitro as well as differences in membrane protein expression by mass-spectrometry analysis. Additionally, a recombinant strain of V. scophthalmi carrying the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus, which causes hydrolysis of acyl homoserine lactones, was included in the study. Conclusions V. scophthalmi shares two quorum sensing circuits, including the main transcriptional regulator luxR, with some pathogenic vibrios such as V. harveyi and V. anguillarum. However, contrary to these pathogenic vibrios no virulence factors (such as protease production were found to be quorum sensing regulated in this bacterium. Noteworthy, biofilm formation was altered in luxS and luxR mutants. In these mutants a different expression profile of membrane proteins were observed with respect to the wild type strain suggesting that quorum sensing could play a role in the regulation of

  8. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  9. Sense of Place in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alex; Stedman, Richard C.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Although environmental education research has embraced the idea of sense of place, it has rarely taken into account environmental psychology-based sense of place literature whose theory and empirical studies can enhance related studies in the education context. This article contributes to research on sense of place in environmental education from…

  10. The Lost Sense: A Favorite Writing Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Margot Fortunato

    1995-01-01

    Explains the guidelines for an exercise based on the poem "The Little Mute Boy" by F. Garcia Lorca. States that students are to: discuss synesthesia, the substitution of senses; explore the surreal senses; think about life without a sense; create a net of surprises; write a poem; and read the poem aloud. (PA)

  11. Sense of Place in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alex; Stedman, Richard C.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2012-01-01

    Although environmental education research has embraced the idea of sense of place, it has rarely taken into account environmental psychology-based sense of place literature whose theory and empirical studies can enhance related studies in the education context. This article contributes to research on sense of place in environmental education from…

  12. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  13. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  14. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors of autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat...

  15. From Doing to Understanding: An Assessment of Malaysian Primary Pupils' Number Sense with Respect to Multiplication and Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Munirah; Idros, Sharifah Norhaidah; McIntosh, Alistair

    2004-01-01

    Number sense, an integral part of the curriculum in primary school mathematics, has always been thought of as playing a major role in pupils' understanding and use of numbers in calculation. Research in number sense has been carried out in the West, as well as in Malaysia. That a study of such a nature be done to reflect on the abilities of…

  16. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Wireless communication is omnipresent today, but this development has led to frequency spectrum becoming a limited resource. Furthermore, wireless devices become more and more energy-limited, due to the demand for continual wireless communication of higher and higher amounts of information....... The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...

  17. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  18. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  19. Sensitivity analysis in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ustinov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a detailed presentation of general principles of sensitivity analysis as well as their applications to sample cases of remote sensing experiments. An emphasis is made on applications of adjoint problems, because they are more efficient in many practical cases, although their formulation may seem counterintuitive to a beginner. Special attention is paid to forward problems based on higher-order partial differential equations, where a novel matrix operator approach to formulation of corresponding adjoint problems is presented. Sensitivity analysis (SA) serves for quantitative models of physical objects the same purpose, as differential calculus does for functions. SA provides derivatives of model output parameters (observables) with respect to input parameters. In remote sensing SA provides computer-efficient means to compute the jacobians, matrices of partial derivatives of observables with respect to the geophysical parameters of interest. The jacobians are used to solve corresponding inver...

  20. Remote sensing of natural resources

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guangxing

    2013-01-01

    "… a comprehensive view on and real world examples of remote sensing technologies in natural resources assessment and monitoring. … state-of-the-art knowledge in this multidisciplinary field. Readers can expect to finish the book armed with the required knowledge to understand the immense literature available and apply their knowledge to the understanding of sampling design, the analysis of multi-source imagery, and the application of the techniques to specific problems relevant to natural resources."-Yuhong He, University of Toronto Mississauga, Ontario, Canada"The list of topics covered is so complete that I would recommend the book to anyone teaching a graduate course on vegetation analysis through digital image analysis. … I recommend this book then for anyone doing advanced digital image analysis and environmental GIS courses who want to cover topics related to applied remote sensing work involving vegetation analysis."-Charles Roberts, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, USA, in Economic Bota...

  1. Compressive Sensing with Optical Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontani, D.; Choi, D.; Chang, C.-Y.; Locquet, A.; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique to sample a sparse signal below the Nyquist-Shannon limit, yet still enabling its reconstruction. As such, CS permits an extremely parsimonious way to store and transmit large and important classes of signals and images that would be far more data intensive should they be sampled following the prescription of the Nyquist-Shannon theorem. CS has found applications as diverse as seismology and biomedical imaging. In this work, we use actual optical signals generated from temporal intensity chaos from external-cavity semiconductor lasers (ECSL) to construct the sensing matrix that is employed to compress a sparse signal. The chaotic time series produced having their relevant dynamics on the 100 ps timescale, our results open the way to ultrahigh-speed compression of sparse signals.

  2. Phase-domain photoacoustic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ruochong; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Ding, Ran; Kishor, Rahul; Qiu, Lei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-01-01

    As one of the fastest-growing imaging modalities in recent years, photoacoustic imaging has attracted tremendous research interest for various applications including anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging. The majority of the photoacoustic imaging systems are based on the time-domain pulsed photoacoustic method, which utilizes a pulsed laser source to induce a wideband photoacoustic signal, revealing optical absorption contrast. An alternative way is the frequency-domain photoacoustic method utilizing the chirping modulation of laser intensity to achieve lower system cost. In this paper, we report another way of the photoacoustic method, called phase-domain photoacoustic sensing, which explores the phase difference between two consequent intensity-modulated laser pulse induced photoacoustic measurements to reveal the optical properties. The basic principle is introduced, modeled, and experimentally validated in this paper, which opens another potential pathway to perform photoacoustic sensing and imaging, eliminating acoustic detection variations beyond the conventional time-domain and frequency-domain photoacoustic methods.

  3. THE SIXTH SENSE OF HUMAN?...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, B.E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals and lower animals do not have sixth Sense?... NO…NO….NO… All living organism as well as non-living organism considered also have 6th sense in gradient order. i. Which University mosquito studied to gain Techniques and cleverness to bite on the back beyond the reach of human hands?... ii. How the birds and Animals could predict the signals well in advance and move safely to other elevated places during “TSUNAMI 2004” Which human could not predict?... iii. How the pet dog could steel the chicken waste silently in the kitchen when owner under sleep?... iv. How honey bee, spider construct well defined knitted structure house?... This Scientific research article focus that not only human, all lower animals including Bacteria, Virus have “Intuition Sense” (Wisdom.

  4. Electrochemical sensing carcinogens in beverages

    CERN Document Server

    Zia, Asif Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a robust, low-cost electrochemical sensing system that is able to detect hormones and phthalates – the most ubiquitous endocrine disruptor compounds – in beverages and is sufficiently flexible to be readily coupled with any existing chemical or biochemical sensing system. A novel type of silicon substrate-based smart interdigital transducer, developed using MEMS semiconductor fabrication technology, is employed in conjunction with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to allow real-time detection and analysis. Furthermore, the presented interdigital capacitive sensor design offers a sufficient penetration depth of the fringing electric field to permit bulk sample testing. The authors address all aspects of the development of the system and fully explain its benefits. The book will be of wide interest to engineers, scientists, and researchers working in the fields of physical electrochemistry and biochemistry at the undergraduate, postgraduate, and research levels. It will also be high...

  5. Fiber optic sensing and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

  6. Sensing with THz metamaterial absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Longqing

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterial perfect absorbers from microwaves to optical part of the electromagnetic spectrum has been intensely studied for its ability to absorb electromagnetic radiation. Perfect absorption of light by metamaterials have opened up new opportunities for application oriented functionalities such as efficient sensors and emitters. We present an absorber based sensing scheme at the terahertz frequencies and discuss optimized designs to achieve high frequency and amplitude sensitivities. The major advantage of a perfect metamaterial absorber as a sensor is the sensitive shift in the absorber resonance frequency along with the sharp change in the amplitude of the resonance due to strong interaction of the analyte with the electric and the magnetic fields at resonant perfect absorption frequency. We compare the sensing performance of the perfect metamaterial absorber with its complementary structural design and planar metasurface with identical structure. The best FoM values obtained for the absorber sensor here...

  7. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  8. Microbiorobots for Manipulation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Although nano - and microfabrication techniques are rapidly advancing, it remains a challenge to fabricate separate...integrated into microscale robotics and biosensor systems. The objective of the proposed program is to develop a platform that integrates bacteria with...enhanced motility and signaling behavior (through synthetic biology) into a microscale sensing and robotic system. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  9. Information Diffusion in Social Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram; Hoiles, William

    2014-01-01

    Statistical inference using social sensors is an area that has witnessed remarkable progress in the last decade. It is relevant in a variety of applications including localizing events for targeted advertising, mar- keting, localization of natural disasters and predicting sentiment of investors in financial markets. This paper presents a tutorial description of three important aspects of sensing-based information diffusion in social networks from a communications/signal processing perspective...

  10. Cooperative Distributed Sequential Spectrum Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    S, Jithin K; Gopalarathnam, Raghav

    2010-01-01

    We consider cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios. We develop an energy efficient detector with low detection delay using sequential hypothesis testing. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is used at both the local nodes and the fusion center. We also analyse the performance of this algorithm and compare with the simulations. Modelling uncertainties in the distribution parameters are considered. Slow fading with and without perfect channel state information at the cognitive radios is taken into account.

  11. Irony in Sense and Sensibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹爱仙

    2013-01-01

    This essay is intended to examine the technique of irony in Sense and Sensibility written by Jane Austen in 1811. It is mainly devoted to three aspects of irony employed in the novel: the verbal irony, the dramatic irony, and the situational irony. It would be beneficial to our better understanding of the novel. And irony, as a technique of writing, is frequently considered as one of Jane Austen ‘s outstanding characteristics.

  12. Intelligent sensing, instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

      “Intelligent Sensing, Instrumentation and Measurements” addresses issues towards the development of sensor nodes for wireless Sensor Networks. The fundamentals of sensors, interfacing, power supplies, configuration of sensor node, and GUI development are covered. The book will be useful for engineers and researchers in the field ,especially for higher undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Wireless Sensor Networks or Smart Sensors.

  13. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  14. Nanoplasmonic Sensing using Metal Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In our modern society, we are surrounded by numerous sensors, constantly feeding us information about our physical environment. From small, wearable sensors that monitor our physiological status to large satellites orbiting around the earth, detecting global changes. Although, the performance of these sensors have been significantly improved during the last decades there is still a demand for faster and more reliable sensing systems with improved sensitivity and selectivity. The rapid progres...

  15. Making Sense of Mobile Technology

    OpenAIRE

    David Pauleen; John Campbell; Brian Harmer; Ali Intezari

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies have facilitated a radical shift in work and private life. In this article, we seek to better understand how individual mobile technology users have made sense of these changes and adapted to them. We have used narrative enquiry and sensemaking to collect and analyze the data. The findings show that mobile technology use blurs the boundaries between work and private life, making traditional time and...

  16. Remote sensing in biological oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The main attribute of remote sensing is seen as its ability to measure distributions over large areas on a synoptic basis and to repeat this coverage at required time periods. The way in which the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, by showing the distribution of chlorophyll a, can locate areas productive in both phytoplankton and fishes is described. Lidar techniques are discussed, and it is pointed out that lidar will increase the depth range for observations.

  17. Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Ping; Grasing, Kenneth A; Wang, John Q

    2014-02-01

    Acidosis that occurs under pathological conditions not only affects intracellular signaling molecules, but also directly activates a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels: acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). ASICs are widely expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems and play roles in pain sensation, learning and memory, and fear conditioning. Overactivation of ASICs contributes to neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic brain/spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Thus, targeting ASICs might be a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions. This mini-review focuses on the electrophysiology and pharmacology of ASICs and roles of ASICs in neuronal toxicity.

  18. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  19. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  20. Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J

    2015-04-15

    The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense.