WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-proportional spatial transfer

  1. Light yield non-proportionality of undoped YAP scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klamra, W [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Balcerzyk, M; Czarnacki, W; Moszynski, M; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Szczesniak, T [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kozlov, V [Lebedev Physical Institute, 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: klamra@particle.kth.se

    2009-05-15

    Scintillation properties of undoped YAP crystal were studied. The emission spectra show a very intense light component at 360 nm. Analysis of the light pulse shape resulted in five components, four of them, with time constants of 38{+-}2 ns, 92{+-}3 ns, 7.5{+-}0.5 {mu}s and 24{+-}3 {mu}s, representing high light intensity. The light yield was found to be temperature dependent, N{sub ph}= 3090{+-}130 ph/MeV at liquid nitrogen temperature and N{sub ph}= 1440{+-}60 ph/MeV at room temperature. Also the light yield non-proportionality shows temperature dependence and is more pronounced at room temperature.

  2. Phenomena and computational models of non-proportional fatigue of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Skibicki, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an overview on the fatigue of materials under non-proportional loads. It presents the rich spectrum of phenomena and treats various computational models to mathematically describe the non-proportional fatigue of materials.

  3. Spatial Characteristics of Head-Related Transfer Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiao-Li; XIE Bo-Sun

    2005-01-01

    @@ The spatial characteristics of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are studied by a spatial Fourier analysis.A law of the HRTF spatial sampling in different elevation planes is obtained, and the corresponding spatial interpolating method used to recover the continuous HRTF is proposed. The method is valid, for the average error between the measured and interpolated HRTFs in the horizontal plane is about 0.5%. These results provide guidance for the discrete spatial measurement of HRTFs.

  4. The non-proportionality of local stress paths in engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Riess

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A scalar measure, which describes the non-proportionality of local stress paths in engineering applications, is introduced. For this purpose the moment of inertia approach by Meggiolaro is modified in a way that the stress time history is evaluated in a tresca-stress-space. This modification makes the non-proportionality factor invariant with respect to the coordinate system. An optimization procedure is implemented to derive a test set-up for new component tests with 2 load channels. The aim of the planned tests is to get a high non-proportionality at the potential crack initiation site. It is not possible to obtain a high non-proportionality factor at the failure location without selective weakening of the component (housing of a rear axle steering. Therefore specific areas of the structure are cut out and the optimization procedure is repeated. As a result of the optimization a test set-up with high local non-proportionality at the potential crack initiation site is achieved for the weakened structure. Another set-up with slightly less non-proportionality but with a very localized damage is derived. This set-up is preferred, because of the robustness in the physical test.

  5. Comparing spatial and temporal transferability of hydrological model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sopan D.; Stieglitz, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Operational use of hydrological models requires the transfer of calibrated parameters either in time (for streamflow forecasting) or space (for prediction at ungauged catchments) or both. Although the effects of spatial and temporal parameter transfer on catchment streamflow predictions have been well studied individually, a direct comparison of these approaches is much less documented. Here, we compare three different schemes of parameter transfer, viz., temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal, using a spatially lumped hydrological model called EXP-HYDRO at 294 catchments across the continental United States. Results show that the temporal parameter transfer scheme performs best, with lowest decline in prediction performance (median decline of 4.2%) as measured using the Kling-Gupta efficiency metric. More interestingly, negligible difference in prediction performance is observed between the spatial and spatiotemporal parameter transfer schemes (median decline of 12.4% and 13.9% respectively). We further demonstrate that the superiority of temporal parameter transfer scheme is preserved even when: (1) spatial distance between donor and receiver catchments is reduced, or (2) temporal lag between calibration and validation periods is increased. Nonetheless, increase in the temporal lag between calibration and validation periods reduces the overall performance gap between the three parameter transfer schemes. Results suggest that spatiotemporal transfer of hydrological model parameters has the potential to be a viable option for climate change related hydrological studies, as envisioned in the "trading space for time" framework. However, further research is still needed to explore the relationship between spatial and temporal aspects of catchment hydrological variability.

  6. Spatial parameters at the basis of social transfer of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Luisa; Iani, Cristina; Milanese, Nadia; Sebanz, Natalie; Rubichi, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Recent research indicates that practicing on a joint spatial compatibility task with an incompatible stimulus-response mapping affects subsequent joint Simon task performance, eliminating the social Simon effect. It has been well established that in individual contexts, for transfer of learning to occur, participants need to practice an incompatible association between stimulus and response positions. The mechanisms underlying transfer of learning in joint task performance are, however, less well understood. The present study was aimed at assessing the relative contribution of 3 different spatial relations characterizing the joint practice context: stimulus-response, stimulus-participant, and participant-response relations. In 3 experiments, the authors manipulated the stimulus-response, stimulus-participant, and response-participant associations. We found that learning from the practice task did not transfer to the subsequent task when during practice stimulus-response associations were spatially incompatible and stimulus-participant associations were compatible (Experiment 1). However, a transfer of learning was evident when stimulus-participant associations were spatially incompatible. This occurred both when response-participant associations were incompatible (Experiment 2) and when they were compatible (Experiment 3). These results seem to support an agent corepresentation account of correspondence effects emerging in joint settings since they suggest that, in social contexts, critical to obtain transfer-of-learning effects is the spatial relation between stimulus and participant positions while the spatial relation between stimulus and response positions is irrelevant.

  7. Comparing spatial and temporal transferability of hydrological model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Operational use of hydrological models requires the transfer of calibrated parameters either in time (for streamflow forecasting) or space (for prediction at ungauged catchments) or both. Although the effects of spatial and temporal parameter transfer on catchment streamflow predictions have been well studied individually, a direct comparison of these approaches is much less documented. In our view, such comparison is especially pertinent in the context of increasing appeal and popularity of the "trading space for time" approaches that are proposed for assessing the hydrological implications of anthropogenic climate change. Here, we compare three different schemes of parameter transfer, viz., temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal, using a spatially lumped hydrological model called EXP-HYDRO at 294 catchments across the continental United States. Results show that the temporal parameter transfer scheme performs best, with lowest decline in prediction performance (median decline of 4.2%) as measured using the Kling-Gupta efficiency metric. More interestingly, negligible difference in prediction performance is observed between the spatial and spatiotemporal parameter transfer schemes (median decline of 12.4% and 13.9% respectively). We further demonstrate that the superiority of temporal parameter transfer scheme is preserved even when: (1) spatial distance between donor and receiver catchments is reduced, or (2) temporal lag between calibration and validation periods is increased. Nonetheless, increase in the temporal lag between calibration and validation periods reduces the overall performance gap between the three parameter transfer schemes. Results suggest that spatiotemporal transfer of hydrological model parameters has the potential to be a viable option for climate change related hydrological studies, as envisioned in the "trading space for time" framework. However, further research is still needed to explore the relationship between spatial and temporal

  8. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model for non-proportional loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2009-01-01

    Anisotropic damage for non-proportional loading is incorporated in an implicit finite element code under the framework of continuum damage models, using two different methodologies. Simple simulations are carried out to check the performance of the models. The advantages and drawbacks of both

  9. Can spatial statistical river temperature models be transferred between catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Faye L.; Fryer, Robert J.; Hannah, David M.; Malcolm, Iain A.

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing use of spatial statistical models to understand and predict river temperature (Tw) from landscape covariates. However, it is not financially or logistically feasible to monitor all rivers and the transferability of such models has not been explored. This paper uses Tw data from four river catchments collected in August 2015 to assess how well spatial regression models predict the maximum 7-day rolling mean of daily maximum Tw (Twmax) within and between catchments. Models were fitted for each catchment separately using (1) landscape covariates only (LS models) and (2) landscape covariates and an air temperature (Ta) metric (LS_Ta models). All the LS models included upstream catchment area and three included a river network smoother (RNS) that accounted for unexplained spatial structure. The LS models transferred reasonably to other catchments, at least when predicting relative levels of Twmax. However, the predictions were biased when mean Twmax differed between catchments. The RNS was needed to characterise and predict finer-scale spatially correlated variation. Because the RNS was unique to each catchment and thus non-transferable, predictions were better within catchments than between catchments. A single model fitted to all catchments found no interactions between the landscape covariates and catchment, suggesting that the landscape relationships were transferable. The LS_Ta models transferred less well, with particularly poor performance when the relationship with the Ta metric was physically implausible or required extrapolation outside the range of the data. A single model fitted to all catchments found catchment-specific relationships between Twmax and the Ta metric, indicating that the Ta metric was not transferable. These findings improve our understanding of the transferability of spatial statistical river temperature models and provide a foundation for developing new approaches for predicting Tw at unmonitored locations across

  10. A quasi-modal parameter based system identification procedure with non-proportional hysteretic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Hahn, Eric J.; Liu, Jike; Lu, Zhongrong

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduced a modal parameter based identification procedure to identify the equivalent system of structures under harmonic excitations. The developed identification technique assumed non-proportional hysteretic damping in the equivalent system, which would be applicable in identifying more general structures. By introducing quasi-modal parameter, modal analysis equation was decoupled under physical coordinate; hence, the modal parameters of each vibration mode are identified independently. Double iteration algorithm was developed to solve the derived non-linear identification equation with complex unknowns. The developed identification procedure was applied to identify the equivalent system of a numerical model in order to evaluate the feasibility of the technique in practice. The identification procedure was also applied to identify an experimental mass and bar rig for validation purpose. Identification results showed that the identification procedure could identify accurately and robustly the equivalent system with non-proportional hysteretic damping assumption; hence, it is likely to be applicable in the field.

  11. Energy resolution and non-proportionality of scintillation detectors - new observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, Marek, E-mail: marek@ipj.gov.p [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    According to the present knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be the fundamental limitation of energy resolution and it is related to the intrinsic properties of the crystals. However, several observations collected in the last 10 years suggest more complex processes in the scintillators. First, the study of undoped NaI and CsI crystals showed that the non-proportionality and energy resolution are very sensitive to the accidental traces of impurities. For some crystals, like CsI(Tl), ZnSe(Te), undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and finally for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 {sup o}C, an influence of slow components of the light pulses on energy resolution and non-proportionality is observed. A common conclusion of these observations is the fact that the highest energy resolution, and particularly the intrinsic resolution measured with scintillators, characterized by two components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of both components. In the limiting case, the afterglow could be considered also as a very slow component destroying the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all above observations looking for their origin.

  12. Scintillator Non-Proportionality and Gamma Quenching in CaWO4

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, R F; Bauer, M; Bavykina, I; Bento, A; Brown, A; Bucci, C; Ciemniak, C; Coppi, C; Deuter, G; Von Feilitzsch, F; Hauff, D; Henry, S; Huff, P; Imber, J; Ingleby, S; Isaila, C; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kimmerle, M; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Malek, M; McGowan, R; Mikhailik, V B; Pantic, E; Petricca, F; Pfister, S; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Seidel, W; Stodolsky, L; Tolhurst, A J B; Usherov, I; Westphal, W

    2009-01-01

    We measure and explain scintillator non-proportionality and gamma quenching of CaWO4 at low energies and low temperatures. Phonons that are created following an interaction in the scintillating crystal at temperatures of 15mK are used for a calorimetric measurement of the deposited energy, and the scintillation light is measured with a separate cryogenic light detector. Making use of radioactivity intrinsic to the scintillating crystal, the scintillator non-proportionality is mapped out to electron energies <5keV. The observed behavior is in agreement with a simple model based on Birks' law and the stopping power dE/dx for electrons. We find for Birks' constant $k_B=(18.5\\pm0.7)$nm/keV in CaWO4. Gamma lines allow a measurement of the reduced light yield of photons with respect to electrons, as expected in the presence of scintillator non-proportionality. In particular, we show that gamma-induced events in CaWO4 give only about 90 percent of the light yield of electrons, at energies between 40keV and 80keV.

  13. Approach to data exchange: the spatial data transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeissl, Hedy J.; Rugg, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Significant developments have taken place in the disciplines of cartography and geography in recent years with the advent of computer hardware and software that manipulate and process digital cartographic and geographic data more efficiently. The availability of inexpensive and powerful hardware and software systems offers the capability of displaying and analyzing spatial data to a growing number of users. As a result, developing and using existing digital cartographic databases are becoming very popular. However, the absence of uniform standards for the transfer of digital spatial data is hindering the exchange of data and increasing costs. Several agencies of the U.S. government and the academic community have been working hard over the last few years to develop a spatial data transfer standard that includes definitions of standard terminology, a spatial data transfer specification, recommendations on reporting digital cartographic data quality, and standard topographic and hydrographic entity terms and definitions. This proposed standard was published in the January 1988 issue of The American Cartographer. Efforts to test and promote this standard were coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey. A Technical Review Board was appointed with representatives from the U.S. government, the private sector, and the academic community to complete the standard for submittal to the National Institute of Standards and Technology for approval as a Federal Information Processing Standard. The proposed standard was submitted in February 1992 for final approval.

  14. On the temporal dynamics of spatial stimulus-response transfer between spatial incompatibility and Simon tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eIvanoff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Simon effect refers to the performance (response time and accuracy advantage for responses that spatially correspond to the task-irrelevant location of a stimulus. It has been attributed to a natural tendency to respond toward the source of stimulation. When location is task-relevant, however, and responses are intentionally directed away (incompatible or towards (compatible the source of the stimulation, there is also an advantage for spatially compatible responses over spatially incompatible responses. Interestingly, a number of studies have demonstrated a reversed, or reduced, Simon effect following practice with a spatial incompatibility task. One interpretation of this finding is that practicing a spatial incompatibility task disables the natural tendency to respond toward stimuli. Here, the temporal dynamics of this stimulus-response (S-R transfer were explored with speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs. All experiments used the mixed-task paradigm in which Simon and spatial compatibility/incompatibility tasks were interleaved across blocks of trials. In general, bidirectional S-R transfer was observed: while the spatial incompatibility task had an influence on the Simon effect, the task-relevant S-R mapping of the Simon task also had a small impact on congruency effects within the spatial compatibility and incompatibility tasks. These effects were generally greater when the task contexts were similar. Moreover, the SAT analysis of performance in the Simon task demonstrated that the tendency to respond to the location of the stimulus was not eliminated because of the spatial incompatibility task. Rather, S-R transfer from the spatial incompatibility task appeared to partially mask the natural tendency to respond to the source of stimulation with a conflicting inclination to respond away from it. These findings support the use of SAT methodology to quantitatively describe rapid response tendencies.

  15. Random non-proportional fatigue tests with planar tri-axial fatigue testing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Inoue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex stresses, which occur on the mechanical surfaces of transport machinery in service, bring a drastic degradation in fatigue life. However, it is hard to reproduce such complex stress states for evaluating the fatigue life with conventional multiaxial fatigue machines. We have developed a fatigue testing machine that enables reproduction of such complex stresses. The testing machine can reproduce arbitrary in-plane stress states by applying three independent loads to the test specimen using actuators which apply loads in the 0, 45, and 90 degree directions. The reproduction was tested with complex stress data obtained from the actual operation of transport machinery. As a result, it was found that the reproduced stress corresponded to the measured stress with an error range of less than 10 %. Then, we made a comparison between measured fatigue lives under random non-proportional loading conditions and predicted fatigue lives. It was found that predicted fatigue lives with cr, stress on critical plane, were over a factor of 10 against measured fatigue lives. On the other hand, predicted fatigue lives with ma, stress in consideration of a non-proportional level evaluated by using amplitude and direction of principal stress, were within a factor of 3 against measured fatigue lives

  16. A plasticity model with yield surface distortion for non proportional loading

    CERN Document Server

    François, Marc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance the modeling of metallic materials behavior in non proportional loadings, a modification of the classical elastic-plastic models including distortion of the yield surface is proposed. The new yield criterion uses the same norm as in the classical von Mises based criteria, and a "distorted stress" Sd replacing the usual stress deviator S. The obtained yield surface is then ?egg-shaped? similar to those experimentally observed and depends on only one new material parameter. The theory is built in such a way as to recover the classical one for proportional loading. An identification procedure is proposed to obtain the material parameters. Simulations and experiments are compared for a 2024 T4 aluminum alloy for both proportional and nonproportional tension-torsion loading paths.

  17. Constitutive modelling and multiaxial testing of concrete under non proportional compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaiene, A.; Massicotte, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program was conducted to calibrate and validate an analytical model, and to determine some characteristics of the behaviour of concrete under increasing lateral confinement. A three-dimensional constitutive relation based on hypoelastic theory was developed for plain concrete under both monotonic and non-proportional loading, taking into account the effect of increasing confinement on the transition of failure mechanisms from brittle to ductile degradation under cyclic loading. The stress-strain responses predicted by the model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the constitutive relationship was found to apply well for various loading conditions. Based on these results the model was considered to offer a good compromise between simplicity and accuracy for unified constitutive models for plain concrete. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  18. Reduced Interocular Transfer of Spatial Adaptation for Fast Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Baker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Threshold elevation following monocular adaptation is weaker in the unadapted eye than in the adapted eye. At least 15 studies have measured this interocular transfer (IOT phenomenon, and typically report around 60% transfer. Yet almost all of these studies used spatial frequencies above 3c/deg, very slow temporal parameters, and criterion sensitive methods (method of adjustment, yes/no. In recent work, we (Meese and Baker 2011, i-Perception 2 159–182 found markedly weaker interocular transfer at low spatial and high temporal frequencies. Here, we measure IOT in 9 observers for a broad range of spatiotemporal frequencies (0.5, 2, and 8c/deg; 1, 4, and 15Hz using a 2AFC paradigm. Targets were horizontal Gabor patches with a full-width-at-half height of 1.67 (lower frequencies or 6.68 (8c/deg grating cycles. Adaptors were larger gratings with the same spatiotemporal properties as the targets. Observers adapted for 2 min initially, and 5 s between each trial, with monocular presentation enabled by shutter goggles. We typically found weaker IOT than previously reported (<50%, particularly for our fastest stimuli (lowest spatial and highest temporal frequencies, where it was virtually absent in all cases. Binocular summation and monocular adaptation were normal in all conditions. This implies that adaptation to ‘magno’ stimuli, not investigated in previous studies, occurs at a monocular locus. We also consider possible methodological confounds in classical studies which might have inflated the levels of IOT. These include the formation of retinal afterimages from static adaptors and changes in criterion unrelated to changes in sensitivity.

  19. Spatial symmetry of head-related transfer function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiaoli; XIE Bosun

    2007-01-01

    Methods for analyzing the spatial symmetry of head-related transfer function (HRTF) are proposed. The influences of anatomical structures on the symmetry of HRTF are investigated using HRTFs measured on KEMAR mannequin and human subjects. Results show that for KEMAR mannequin, pinnae destroy the front-back symmetry of HRTF above 5 to 6 kHz, while for human subjects the frequency reduces to 2.5 kHz because of the locations of ears. Furthermore, at low and median frequencies, HRTF is approximately left-right symmetrical. While as frequencies increase, the asymmetry caused by the fine anatomical leftright differences appears. The starting frequency and the extent of the left-right asymmetry in HRTF depend on individuals. The analyses demonstrate the spatial symmetrical characteristics of HRTF and the frequency ranges in which the current binaural models are valid.

  20. Interocular transfer of spatial adaptation is weak at low spatial frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H; Meese, Tim S

    2012-06-15

    Adapting one eye to a high contrast grating reduces sensitivity to similar target gratings shown to the same eye, and also to those shown to the opposite eye. According to the textbook account, interocular transfer (IOT) of adaptation is around 60% of the within-eye effect. However, most previous studies on this were limited to using high spatial frequencies, sustained presentation, and criterion-dependent methods for assessing threshold. Here, we measure IOT across a wide range of spatiotemporal frequencies, using a criterion-free 2AFC method. We find little or no IOT at low spatial frequencies, consistent with other recent observations. At higher spatial frequencies, IOT was present, but weaker than previously reported (around 35%, on average, at 8c/deg). Across all conditions, monocular adaptation raised thresholds by around a factor of 2, and observers showed normal binocular summation, demonstrating that they were not binocularly compromised. These findings prompt a reassessment of our understanding of the binocular architecture implied by interocular adaptation. In particular, the output of monocular channels may be available to perceptual decision making at low spatial frequencies.

  1. Spatial transferability of landscape-based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gharari, Shervan; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Landscapes, mainly distinguished by land surface topography and vegetation cover, are crucial in defining runoff generation mechanisms, interception capacity and transpiration processes. Landscapes information provides modelers with a way to take into account catchment heterogeneity, while simultaneously keeping model complexity low. A landscape-based hydrological modelling framework (FLEX-Topo), with parallel model structures, was developed and tested in various catchments with diverse climate, topography and land cover conditions. Landscape classification is the basic and most crucial procedure to create a tailor-made model for a certain catchment, as it explicitly relates hydrologic similarity to landscape similarity, which is the base of this type of models. Therefore, the study catchment is classified into different landscapes units that fulfil similar hydrological function, based on classification criteria such as the height above the nearest drainage, slope, aspect and land cover. At present, to suggested model includes four distinguishable landscapes: hillslopes, terraces/plateaus, riparian areas, and glacierized areas. Different parallel model structures are then associated with the different landscape units to describe their different dominant runoff generation mechanisms. These hydrological units are parallel and only connected by groundwater reservoir. The transferability of this landscape-based model can then be compared with the transferability of a lumped model. In this study, FLEX-Topo was developed and tested in three study sites: two cold-arid catchments in China (the upper Heihe River and the Urumqi Glacier No1 catchment), and one tropical catchment in Thailand (the upper Ping River). Stringent model tests indicate that FLEX-Topo, allowing for more process heterogeneity than lumped model formulations, exhibits higher capabilities to be spatially transferred. Furthermore, the simulated water balances, including internal fluxes, hydrograph

  2. A Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Both Proportional and Non-proportional Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Surajit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    This paper has presented a life prediction model in the field of multiaxial low-cycle fatigue. The proposed model is generally applied for constant amplitude multiaxial proportional and non-proportional loading. Depending upon applied strain path the equivalent strain varies within a cycle. Equivalent average strain amplitude is considered as fatigue damage parameter in the proposed model. The model has requirement of only two material constants and no other tuning parameters. The model is examined by the proportional and non-proportional low-cycle fatigue life experimental data for eight different types of materials. The model is successfully correlated with multiaxial fatigue lives of eight different materials.

  3. The role of different linear and non-linear channels of relaxation in scintillator non-proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, G.; Moses, W.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8119 (United States); Singh, J. [Faculty of EHS, B-41, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Vasil' ev, A.N., E-mail: anvasiliev@rambler.r [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Williams, R.T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The non-proportional dependence of a scintillator's light yield on primary particle energy is believed to be influenced crucially by the interplay of non-linear kinetic terms in the radiative and non-radiative decay of excitations versus locally deposited excitation density. A calculation of energy deposition, -dE/dx, along the electron track for NaI is presented for an energy range from several electron-volt to 1 MeV. Such results can be used to specify an initial excitation distribution, if diffusion is neglected. An exactly solvable two-channel (exciton and hole(electron)) model containing 1st and 2nd order kinetic terms is constructed and used to illustrate important features seen in non-proportional light-yield curves, including a dependence on pulse shaping (detection gate width).

  4. Best Practices and Policy Transfer in Spatial Planning: Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stead, D.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous European programmes and initiatives have been instrumental in identifying a large (and increasing) number of examples of best practice (or good practice) in the field of spatial planning. In fact, there is now a profligacy of best practice, which means that many policy-makers are confronted

  5. Best Practices and Policy Transfer in Spatial Planning: Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stead, D.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous European programmes and initiatives have been instrumental in identifying a large (and increasing) number of examples of best practice (or good practice) in the field of spatial planning. In fact, there is now a profligacy of best practice, which means that many policy-makers are confronted

  6. Experimental Study on Non-proportional Multiaxial Strain Cyclic Characteristics and Ratcheting of U71Mn Rail Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on the strain cyclic characteristics and ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel subjectedto non-proportional multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled circular load path. The ratcheting was investigated for the stress-controlled multiaxial circular, ellipticaland rhombic load paths with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and their histories. The experiment showsthat U71Mn rail steel features the cyclic non-hardening/softening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend greatlyon the strain amplitude but slightly on its history. However, the ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel depends greatly notonly on the values of mean stress and stress amplitude, but also on their histories. In the meantime, the shape ofload path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting. The ratcheting changes with the different loadingpaths.

  7. Characterization of mode group transfer matrix in multimode couplers using spatial light modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, G.; Bunge, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, spatial light modulation is applied to investigate the selective mode properties of multimode fibers (MMF) and MMF couplers. Spatial light modulator is applied only on the MMF input to excite a selected linearly polarized eigenmode of the MMF. At the system output the impulse and frequency response is studied. By an additional time separation of mode groups achieved during propagation in the MMF, a mode group to mode group transfer matrix of the MMF coupler can be obtained.

  8. Spatial dependence of magnetopause energy transfer: Cluster measurements verifying global simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dandouras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial variation of magnetopause energy conversion and transfer using Cluster spacecraft observations of two magnetopause crossing events as well as using a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation GUMICS-4. These two events, (16 January 2001, and 26 January 2001 are similar in all other aspects except for the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF y-component that has earlier been found to control the spatial dependence of energy transfer. In simulations of the two events using observed solar wind parameters as input, we find that the GUMICS-4 energy transfer agrees with the Cluster observations spatially and is about 30 % lower in magnitude. According to the simulation, most of the the energy transfer takes place in the plane of the IMF (as previous modelling results have suggested, and the locations of the load and generator regions on the magnetopause are controlled by the IMF orientation. Assuming that the model results are as well in accordance with the in situ observations also on other parts of the magnetopause, we are able to pin down the total energy transfer during the two Cluster magnetopause crossings. Here, we estimate that the instantaneous total power transferring through the magnetopause during the two events is at least 1500–2000 GW, agreeing with ε scaled using the mean magnetopause area in the simulation. Hence the combination of the simulation results and the Cluster observations indicate that the ε parameter is probably underestimated by a factor of 2–3.

  9. The moment of inertia method to calculate equivalent ranges in non-proportional tension–torsion histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in multiaxial damage calculation in non-proportional (NP histories is to find the equivalent stress or strain ranges and mean components associated with each rainflow-counted cycle of the stress (or strain path. A traditional way to find such ranges is to use enclosing surface methods, which search for convex enclosures, such as balls or prisms, of the entire history path in stress or strain diagrams. These methods only work for relatively simple load histories, since the enclosing surfaces lose information of the original history. This work presents an approach to evaluate equivalent stress and strain ranges in NP histories, called the moment of inertia (MOI method. It is an integral approach that assumes the path contour in the stress diagram is a homogeneous wire with a unit mass. The center of mass of such wire gives then the mean component of the path, while the moments of inertia of the wire can be used to obtain the equivalent stress or strain ranges. Experimental results obtained from the literature for 13 different multiaxial histories prove the effectiveness of the MOI method to predict fatigue lives.

  10. Non-proportionality study of CaMoO4 and GAGG:Ce scintillation crystals using Compton coincidence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhao, J; Limkitjaroenporn, P; Chaiphaksa, W; Kim, H J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the CCT technique and nuclear instrument module (NIM) setup for the measurements of coincidence electron energy spectra of calcium molybdate (CaMoO4) and cerium doped gadolinium aluminium gallium garnet (Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce or GAGG:Ce) scintillation crystals were carried out. The (137)Cs irradiated gamma rays with an energy (Eγ) of 662keV was used as a radioactive source. The coincidence electron energy spectra were recorded at seven scattering angles of 30°-120°. It was found that seven corresponding electron energies were in the range of 100.5-435.4keV. The results show that, for all electron energies, the electron energy peaks of CaMoO4 crystal yielded higher number of counts than those of GAGG:Ce crystal. The electron energy resolution, the light yield and non-proportionality were also determined. It was found that the energy resolutions are inverse proportional to the square root of electron energy for both crystals. Furthermore, the results show that the light yield of GAGG:Ce crystal is much higher than that of CaMoO4 crystal. It was also found that both CaMoO4 and GAGG:Ce crystals demonstrated good proportional property in the electron energy range of 260-435.4keV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stochastic heat conduction analysis of a functionally graded annular disc with spatially random heat transfer coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiba, Ryoichi

    2009-01-01

    ... and lower surfaces of the discs are insulated or heat is dissipated with uniform heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) throughout the surfaces. In actual thermal environments, the HTCs of object surfaces are known to vary spatially and depend heavily on the motion of the surrounding media and the surface properties including surface asperities [7,8] . Obviousl...

  12. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  13. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

  14. Coarse-Grained Theory of Biological Charge Transfer with Spatially and Temporally Correlated Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoren; Beratan, David N; Zhang, Peng

    2016-04-21

    System-environment interactions are essential in determining charge-transfer (CT) rates and mechanisms. We developed a computationally accessible method, suitable to simulate CT in flexible molecules (i.e., DNA) with hundreds of sites, where the system-environment interactions are explicitly treated with numerical noise modeling of time-dependent site energies and couplings. The properties of the noise are tunable, providing us a flexible tool to investigate the detailed effects of correlated thermal fluctuations on CT mechanisms. The noise is parametrizable by molecular simulation and quantum calculation results of specific molecular systems, giving us better molecular resolution in simulating the system-environment interactions than sampling fluctuations from generic spectral density functions. The spatially correlated thermal fluctuations among different sites are naturally built-in in our method but are not readily incorporated using approximate spectral densities. Our method has quantitative accuracy in systems with small redox potential differences (spatial correlations depends on the nature of the systems. In a system with repeated bridge units of the same chemistry, spatially correlated fluctuations enhance the charge delocalization and charge-transfer rates; however, in a system of units with different site energies, spatial correlations slow the fluctuations to bring units into degeneracy, in turn, slowing the charge-transfer rates. The spatial and temporal correlations of condensed phase medium fluctuations provide another source to control and tune the kinetics and dynamics of charge-transfer systems.

  15. Transferability of Models for Estimating Paddy Rice Biomass from Spatial Plant Height Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that plant height is a suitable parameter for estimating crop biomass. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity of spatial plant height data, which is derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale. Beyond that, the spatial and temporal transferability of established biomass regression models were investigated to prove the robustness of the method and evaluate the suitability of linear and exponential functions. In each growing season of two years, three campaigns were carried out on a field experiment and on a farmer’s conventionally managed field. Crop surface models (CSMs were generated from the TLS-derived point clouds for calculating plant height with a very high spatial resolution of 1 cm. High coefficients of determination between CSM-derived and manually measured plant heights (R2: 0.72 to 0.91 confirm the applicability of the approach. Yearly averaged differences between the measurements were ~7% and ~9%. Biomass regression models were established from the field experiment data sets, based on strong coefficients of determination between plant height and dry biomass (R2: 0.66 to 0.86 and 0.65 to 0.84 for linear and exponential models, respectively. The spatial and temporal transferability of the models to the farmer’s conventionally managed fields is supported by strong coefficients of determination between estimated and measured values (R2: 0.60 to 0.90 and 0.56 to 0.85 for linear and exponential models, respectively. Hence, the suitability of TLS-derived spatial plant height as a non-destructive estimator for biomass of paddy rice on the field scale was verified and the transferability demonstrated.

  16. Analysis of small scale turbulent structures and the effect of spatial scales on gas transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Jana; Garbe, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The exchange of gases through the air-sea interface strongly depends on environmental conditions such as wind stress and waves which in turn generate near surface turbulence. Near surface turbulence is a main driver of surface divergence which has been shown to cause highly variable transfer rates on relatively small spatial scales. Due to the cool skin of the ocean, heat can be used as a tracer to detect areas of surface convergence and thus gather information about size and intensity of a turbulent process. We use infrared imagery to visualize near surface aqueous turbulence and determine the impact of turbulent scales on exchange rates. Through the high temporal and spatial resolution of these types of measurements spatial scales as well as surface dynamics can be captured. The surface heat pattern is formed by distinct structures on two scales - small-scale short lived structures termed fish scales and larger scale cold streaks that are consistent with the footprints of Langmuir Circulations. There are two key characteristics of the observed surface heat patterns: 1. The surface heat patterns show characteristic features of scales. 2. The structure of these patterns change with increasing wind stress and surface conditions. In [2] turbulent cell sizes have been shown to systematically decrease with increasing wind speed until a saturation at u* = 0.7 cm/s is reached. Results suggest a saturation in the tangential stress. Similar behaviour has been observed by [1] for gas transfer measurements at higher wind speeds. In this contribution a new model to estimate the heat flux is applied which is based on the measured turbulent cell size und surface velocities. This approach allows the direct comparison of the net effect on heat flux of eddies of different sizes and a comparison to gas transfer measurements. Linking transport models with thermographic measurements, transfer velocities can be computed. In this contribution, we will quantify the effect of small scale

  17. All-optical photochromic spatial light modulators based on photoinduced electron transfer in rigid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A single material (not a multi-element structure) spatial light modulator may be written to, as well as read out from, using light. The device has tailorable rise and hold times dependent on the composition and concentration of the molecular species used as the active components. The spatial resolution of this device is limited only by light diffraction as in volume holograms. The device may function as a two-dimensional mask (transmission or reflection) or as a three-dimensional volume holographic medium. This device, based on optically-induced electron transfer, is able to perform incoherent to coherent image conversion or wavelength conversion over a wide spectral range (ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared regions).

  18. Challenges of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Education and Technology Transfer in a Fast Developing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F.; Chen, L.-C.

    2014-04-01

    During the past decade, Taiwan has experienced an unusual and fast growing in the industry of mapping, remote sensing, spatial information and related markets. A successful space program and dozens of advanced airborne and ground-based remote sensing instruments as well as mobile mapping systems have been implemented and put into operation to support the vast demands of geospatial data acquisition. Moreover, in addition to the government agencies and research institutes, there are also tens of companies in the private sector providing geo-spatial data and services. However, the fast developing industry is also posing a great challenge to the education sector in Taiwan, especially the higher education for geo-spatial information. Facing this fast developing industry, the demands of skilled professionals and new technologies in order to address diversified needs are indubitably high. Consequently, while delighting in the expanding and prospering benefitted from the fast growing industry, how to fulfill these demands has become a challenge for the remote sensing and spatial information disciplines in the higher education institutes in Taiwan. This paper provides a brief insight into the status of the remote sensing and spatial information industry in Taiwan as well as the challenges of the education and technology transfer to support the increasing demands and to ensure the continuous development of the industry. In addition to the report of the current status of the remote sensing and spatial information related courses and programs in the colleges and universities, current and potential threatening issues and possible resolutions are also discussed in different points of view.

  19. Characterisation and quantification of phosphorus transfer in agricultural runoff through simultaneous monitoring at nested spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Clare; Heathwaite, Louise; Brazier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Current data available for understanding and characterising nutrient transfer are generally collected at the catchment scale, where stream measurements integrate signals from upstream flow pathways. However, predicting and managing nutrient transfer at this scale requires a detailed understanding of the smaller scale processes and pathways which influence catchment scale data. This paper presents an original dataset which characterises and quantifies phosphorus transfer through simultaneous measurements collected at nested spatial scales (c.0.01 to 30.6 ha) within a small catchment. Monitoring took place in a mixed land use agricultural catchment in the UK between 2004 and 2006. Discharge was continuously measured on a five minute timestep, at five catchment locations: a flume fed by surface runoff (1.9 ha); three drain outfalls (1.9 ha, 2.5 ha and 3.7 ha); and the stream catchment outlet (30.6 ha). Water samples collected through five storm events were analysed for total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus, and were used together with discharge data to calculate phosphorus loadings and area normalised yields for the various flow pathways and scales. Data from the smallest scale, the unbounded hillslope patch (c.0.01 ha), where flow only occurred over the field surface during storm events, was collected using timed flow measurements and grab samples. The results show that phosphorus transfer within the catchment is extremely complex both spatially and temporally. In particular, variations occurred in phosphorus concentrations, loads and yields, and in the proportion of total phosphorus transported as dissolved phosphorus, between runoff pathways and scales and between storm events. The highest phosphorus concentrations were recorded in data collected at the hillslope patch scale (max. 12 mg TP l-1), while concentrations at pathways representing larger scales were much lower; measured total P concentrations were below 5 mg TP l-1 in surface runoff at the field

  20. SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF LAND TRANSFER--Case Study of Shanghai, Nanjing and Taizhou in Changjiang River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The policy of land transfer has greatly influenced the macro economy of China with the commencement of another innovation of land use system. Therefore, it is urgent to put forward some rational and feasible suggestions for local government to manage the market of land transfer. Moreover, it is important in the field of study on agricultural land use change to analyze the spatial differentiation and structural specification of land transfer, which are caused by rural households' behavior. This paper selected 11 factors covering four aspects of rural households' family structure, family location, family income structure and the natural quality of land resources, all of which influence the behavior differentiation of rural households, to establish the index model indicating spatial differentiation of land transfer. Results show that the spatial differentiation of land transfer can be divided into four degrees and three categories through analyzing rural households' questionnaires from Shanghai, Nanjing and Taizhou in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta. Since up to 80% of rural households belong to middle degrees, it can be concluded that the rural land market develops evenly in the study areas. And it is also indicated that the natural quality of land resources and the maximum income of rural land are most important factors influencing the spatial differentiation of land transaction. Considering different factors, the countermeasures can be carried out to enhance the spatial differentiation of land transfer so as to promote economic development and social security of rural China. All in all, both microfactors and macro-factors influencing rural households' behavior of rural land transfer should be taken into account in order to make spatial differentiation and structural specification of rural land transfer notable.

  1. Vectorial electron transfer in spatially ordered arrays. Progress report, August 1994--January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    With DOE support from August 1994 to August 1997, this project sought to identify methods for controlled placement of light absorbers, relays, and multielectron catalysts at defined sites from a fixed semiconductor or metal surface and, thus, to develop methods for preparing chemically modified photoactive surfaces as artificial photosynthetic units. These designed materials have been evaluated as efficient light collection devices and as substrates for defining the key features that govern the efficiency of long distance electron transfer and energy migration. The authors have synthesized several different families of integrated chemical systems as soluble arrays, as solid thin films, and as adsorbates on solid electrodes, seeking to establish how spatial definition deriving from covalent attachment to a helical polymer backbone, from self assembly of functionalized tethers on gold or metal oxide surfaces, and from rigid or layered block polymers can lead to controlled electron and energy transfer. The authors have also conducted physical characterization of semiconductor-containing composites active in controlled interfacial electron transfer, with charge transport in these materials having been evaluated by photophysical and electrochemical methods.

  2. Virtual/Real transfer of spatial learning: impact of activity according to the retention delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallet, Grégory; Sauzéon, Hélène; Rodrigues, Jérôme; Larrue, Florian; N'kaoua, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of cognitive rehabilitation using virtual reality (VR), one of the major challenges is to study beforehand the effectiveness of the virtual-real transfer of learning and to define cognitive aids. The aim of this experiment was to verify if, after learning spatial knowledge (i.e., a route) in VR, performances can be transferred to reality, then maintained in real time, and improved with the aid of an active navigation (i.e., using a joystick). Ninety student volunteers from the University of Bordeaux 2 (45 men and 45 women) participated in the experiment. The virtual environment (VE) used for learning was a replica of an area of Bordeaux. The factors tested were retention delay (Immediate vs. 48 hours) and type of navigation (Passive virtual vs. Active virtual vs. Real), using three recall tasks: wayfinding, freehand sketch and photograph classification. Our results showed that the virtual-real transfer was not degraded by a retention delay of 48 hours and that active navigation allowed performances to be optimized.

  3. Spatial transferring of ecosystem services and property rights allocation of ecological compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wujun WEN; Geng XU; Xingjie WANG

    2011-01-01

    Ecological compensation is an important means to maintain the sustainability and stability of ecosystem services.The property rights analysis of ecosystem services is indispensable when we implement ecological compensation.In this paper,ecosystem services are evaluated via spatial transferring and property rights analysis.Take the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)as an example,we attempt to classify the spatial structure of 31 categories of ecosystem services into four dimensions,i.e.,local,regional,national and global ones,and divide the property rights structure into three types,i.e.,private property rights,common property rights and state-owned property rights.Through the case study of forestry,farming industry,drainage area,development of mineral resources,nature reserves,functional areas,agricultural land expropriation,and international cooperation on ecological compensation,the feasible ecological compensation mechanism is illustrated under the spatial structure and property rights structure of the concerned ecosystem services.For private property rights,the ecological compensation mode mainly depends on the market mechanism.If the initial common property rights are "hidden," the implementation of ecological compensation mainly relies on the quota market transactions and the state investment under the state-owned property rights,and the faimess of property rights is thereby guaranteed through central administration.

  4. Spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Fritsch

    Full Text Available Concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. In fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in animals in order to identify the role of spatially explicit factors, such as landscape as well as total and extractable metal concentrations in soils. Over a smelter-impacted area, we studied the accumulation of trace metals (TMs: Cd, Pb and Zn in invertebrates (the grove snail Cepaea sp and the glass snail Oxychilus draparnaudi and vertebrates (the bank vole Myodes glareolus and the greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula. Total and CaCl(2-extractable concentrations of TMs were measured in soils from woody patches where the animals were captured. TM concentrations in animals exhibited a high spatial heterogeneity. They increased with soil pollution and were better explained by total rather than CaCl(2-extractable TM concentrations, except in Cepaea sp. TM levels in animals and their variations along the pollution gradient were modulated by the landscape, and this influence was species and metal specific. Median soil metal concentrations (predicted by universal kriging were calculated in buffers of increasing size and were related to bioaccumulation. The spatial scale at which TM concentrations in animals and soils showed the strongest correlations varied between metals, species and landscapes. The potential underlying mechanisms of landscape influence (community functioning, behaviour, etc. are discussed. Present results highlight the need for the further development of landscape ecotoxicology and multi-scale approaches, which would enhance our

  5. Issues and prospects for the next generation of the spatial data transfer standard (SDTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctur, D.; Hair, D.; Timson, G.; Martin, E.P.; Fegeas, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) was designed to be capable of representing virtually any data model, rather than being a prescription for a single data model. It has fallen short of this ambitious goal for a number of reasons, which this paper investigates. In addition to issues that might have been anticipated in its design, a number of new issues have arisen since its initial development. These include the need to support explicit feature definitions, incremental update, value-added extensions, and change tracking within large, national databases. It is time to consider the next stage of evolution for SDTS. This paper suggests development of an Object Profile for SDTS that would integrate concepts for a dynamic schema structure, OpenGIS interface, and CORBA IDL.

  6. Flux transfer events on the magnetopause - Spatial distribution and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, J.; Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of flux transfer events (FTE) of magnetic flux tubes pulled from the earth's magnetopause is analyzed using ISEE 1 and 2 data from 1977-82. Attention is given to interplanetary conditions influencing different observed FTE polarities. FTEs were observed on nearly 25 percent of the passes near the dayside magnetopause. Direct FTEs were located mainly in the northern dawn sector and reverse FTEs appeared in the southern dusk sector. The distribution indicated an origin in the equatorial sector, and data correlate the appearance of FTEs only when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) had southward or nearly horizontal orientation. The presence of a southward component in the IMF was coincident with the appearance of an FTE 45 percent of the events. E-W components in the IMF exhibited no connections with the occurrence of an FTE.

  7. Spatial statistical point prediction guidance for heating-rate-limited aeroassisted orbital transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipto; Conway, Bruce A.

    2015-06-01

    Feedback control of constrained non-linear dynamical systems satisfying a certain optimality criterion and meeting a specified transfer objective in the state space is recognized as one of the most challenging problems in control theory. One approach to computing optimal feedback policies is the dynamic programming route of numerically solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) partial differential equation directly. In this paper an alternate and more tractable dynamic programming approach, the optimal feedback synthesis method, is utilized. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated through an explicit guidance scheme for the heating-rate-constrained maneuver of an Aeroassisted Transfer Vehicle (AOTV). In optimal feedback synthesis, a feedback chart is constructed from a family of open-loop extremals, thus ensuring optimality with respect to any initial condition in the family. This paper presents a solution to the AOTV optimal feedback synthesis problem using the Gaussian process spatial prediction method of universal kriging. A closed-form expression for a near-optimal guidance law is derived. Its performance is found to be very promising; initial atmospheric entry errors due to simulated thruster misfiring are seen to be accurately corrected while the algebraic state-inequality constraint is closely respected.

  8. Spatial Motion in Natural and Reconstructed Middle Ears and the Impact on Sound Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Albrecht; Heckeler, Christoph; Lauxmann, Michael; Maier, Hannes; Saffarini, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    During sound transmission the elements of the middle ear carry out frequency dependent motions in all three spatial directions. Particularly the stapes exhibits a piston and rocking motion and recent studies show that rocking also has an impact on hearing. Here the spatial motions of natural and reconstructed ears are considered on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations based on Multibody System (MBS) approach and Finite Element Method (FEM). In case of a passive reconstruction with a PORP the stapes carries out pronounced rocking motions as well as the piston driven by the natural incus in classical stapedotomy. In the active, electromagnetic middle ear implant Phonak Ingenia, a piston prosthesis is driven by the actuator. Due to anatomical restrictions, the axes of the actuator and the prosthesis are not in line and thus a rocking motion of the prosthesis occurs. Compared to passive reconstructions and the natural ear, this rocking is about in the same range of magnitude. In particular, the coupling between actuator and prosthesis is important for the hearing sensation. Thus, a standardized coupling configuration between the Phonak Ingenia actuator and the piston prosthesis with predefined coupling stiffness and damping offers optimal sound transfer.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of heat transfer in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Luo, Kun; Fan, Jianren

    2016-10-01

    Direct numerical simulation has been performed to investigate heat transfer in a zero-pressure-gradient spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with realistic thermal inflow boundary conditions. The temperature is considered as a passive scalar and the molecular Prandtl number is set to be 0.71. The turbulence statistics for both the velocity and temperature fields show good agreement with previous numerical and experimental data in the literature. The present study provides a valuable database for the spatially developing turbulent thermal boundary layer over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from Reθ = 1100 to 1940. The simulation results indicate that both the peak value and peak location of the streamwise velocity fluctuation grow slightly with increasing Reynolds number, same as those of the temperature fluctuation. The relationship between the streamwise velocity and temperature fluctuations has been examined and a strong correlation is observed in the vicinity of the wall. With increasing distance from the wall, however, the degree of correlation significantly decreases. In addition, the difference between the turbulent velocity and temperature fields is also analysed by investigating the mechanisms of heat and momentum transport in boundary layer flow.

  10. Action video game play and transfer of navigation and spatial cognition skills in adolescents who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Erin C; Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    For individuals who are blind, navigating independently in an unfamiliar environment represents a considerable challenge. Inspired by the rising popularity of video games, we have developed a novel approach to train navigation and spatial cognition skills in adolescents who are blind. Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is a software application that allows for the virtual exploration of an existing building set in an action video game metaphor. Using this ludic-based approach to learning, we investigated the ability and efficacy of adolescents with early onset blindness to acquire spatial information gained from the exploration of a target virtual indoor environment. Following game play, participants were assessed on their ability to transfer and mentally manipulate acquired spatial information on a set of navigation tasks carried out in the real environment. Success in transfer of navigation skill performance was markedly high suggesting that interacting with AbES leads to the generation of an accurate spatial mental representation. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between success in game play and navigation task performance. The role of virtual environments and gaming in the development of mental spatial representations is also discussed. We conclude that this game based learning approach can facilitate the transfer of spatial knowledge and further, can be used by individuals who are blind for the purposes of navigation in real-world environments.

  11. Action Video Game Play and Transfer of Navigation and Spatial Cognition Skills in Adolescents who are Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eConnors

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For individuals who are blind, navigating independently in an unfamiliar environment represents a considerable challenge. Inspired from recent developments in accessible technology and the rising popularity of video games, we have developed a novel approach to train navigation and spatial cognition skills in adolescents who are blind. Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES is a software application that allows for the virtual exploration of an existing building set in an action video game metaphor. We investigated the ability and efficacy of adolescents with early onset blindness to acquire spatial information gained from the exploration of a virtual indoor environment using this ludic approach to learning. Following game play, participants were then assessed on their ability to transfer and mentally manipulate acquired spatial information in a set of navigation tasks carried out in the real environment represented in the game. The transfer of navigation skill performance was markedly high suggesting that interacting with AbES leads to the generation of an accurate spatial mental representation. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between success in game play and navigation task performance. The role of virtual environments and gaming in the development of mental spatial representations is also discussed. We conclude that this novel software and learning by a gaming approach can facilitate the transfer of spatial knowledge and can be used by individuals who are blind for the purposes of navigation in real-world environments.

  12. Asymmetric Learning Transfer between Imagined Viewer- and Object-Rotations: Evidence of a Hierarchical Organization of Spatial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Giuseppe; Ba, Maryse Badan; Zanello, Adriano; Merlo, Marco C. G.

    2009-01-01

    Neural resources subserving spatial processing in either egocentric or allocentric reference frames are, at least partly, dissociated. However, it is unclear whether these two types of representations are independent or whether they interact. We investigated this question using a learning transfer paradigm. The experiment and material were…

  13. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    By adding a Talbot-Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot-Lau interferometer on the system MTF.

  14. Radiative heat transfer between metallic gratings using Fourier modal method with adaptive spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Riccardo; Noto, Antonio; Guizal, Brahim; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the radiative heat transfer between two identical metallic one-dimensional lamellar gratings. To this aim we present and exploit a modification to the widely used Fourier modal method, known as adaptive spatial resolution, based on a stretch of the coordinate associated with the periodicity of the grating. We first show that this technique dramatically improves the rate of convergence when calculating the heat flux, allowing us to explore smaller separations. We then present a study of heat flux as a function of the grating height, highlighting a remarkable amplification of the exchanged energy, ascribed to the appearance of spoof-plasmon modes, whose behavior is also spectrally investigated. Differently from previous works, our method allows us to explore a range of grating heights extending over several orders of magnitude. By comparing our results to recent studies we find a consistent quantitative disagreement with some previously obtained results going up to 50%. In some cases, this disagreement is explained in terms of an incorrect connection between the reflection operators of the two gratings.

  15. Population dynamics, information transfer, and spatial organization in a chemical reaction network under spatial confinement and crowding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Bales, Benjamin B.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate, via Brownian dynamics simulations, the reaction dynamics of a generic, nonlinear chemical network under spatial confinement and crowding conditions. In detail, the Willamowski-Rossler chemical reaction system has been "extended" and considered as a prototype reaction-diffusion system. Our results are potentially relevant to a number of open problems in biophysics and biochemistry, such as the synthesis of primitive cellular units (protocells) and the definition of their role in the chemical origin of life and the characterization of vesicle-mediated drug delivery processes. More generally, the computational approach presented in this work makes the case for the use of spatial stochastic simulation methods for the study of biochemical networks in vivo where the "well-mixed" approximation is invalid and both thermal and intrinsic fluctuations linked to the possible presence of molecular species in low number copies cannot be averaged out.

  16. Population dynamics, information transfer, and spatial organization in a chemical reaction network under spatial confinement and crowding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Giovanni; Bales, Benjamin B

    2016-10-01

    We investigate, via Brownian dynamics simulations, the reaction dynamics of a generic, nonlinear chemical network under spatial confinement and crowding conditions. In detail, the Willamowski-Rossler chemical reaction system has been "extended" and considered as a prototype reaction-diffusion system. Our results are potentially relevant to a number of open problems in biophysics and biochemistry, such as the synthesis of primitive cellular units (protocells) and the definition of their role in the chemical origin of life and the characterization of vesicle-mediated drug delivery processes. More generally, the computational approach presented in this work makes the case for the use of spatial stochastic simulation methods for the study of biochemical networks in vivo where the "well-mixed" approximation is invalid and both thermal and intrinsic fluctuations linked to the possible presence of molecular species in low number copies cannot be averaged out.

  17. Interbasin water transfer, riverine connectivity, and spatial controls on fish biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Lynch, Heather J.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Muthukumarasamy, Arunachalam; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Fagan, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities Methods/Principal Findings Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1) reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2) alter patterns of local species richness, (3) expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4) decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity). Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. Conclusions/Significance Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential). By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our results will aid in

  18. Interbasin water transfer, riverine connectivity, and spatial controls on fish biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Campbell Grant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale inter-basin water transfer (IBWT projects are commonly proposed as solutions to water distribution and supply problems. These problems are likely to intensify under future population growth and climate change scenarios. Scarce data on the distribution of freshwater fishes frequently limits the ability to assess the potential implications of an IBWT project on freshwater fish communities. Because connectivity in habitat networks is expected to be critical to species' biogeography, consideration of changes in the relative isolation of riverine networks may provide a strategy for controlling impacts of IBWTs on freshwater fish communities. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using empirical data on the current patterns of freshwater fish biodiversity for rivers of peninsular India, we show here how the spatial changes alone under an archetypal IBWT project will (1 reduce freshwater fish biodiversity system-wide, (2 alter patterns of local species richness, (3 expand distributions of widespread species throughout peninsular rivers, and (4 decrease community richness by increasing inter-basin similarity (a mechanism for the observed decrease in biodiversity. Given the complexity of the IBWT, many paths to partial or full completion of the project are possible. We evaluate two strategies for step-wise implementation of the 11 canals, based on economic or ecological considerations. We find that for each step in the project, the impacts on freshwater fish communities are sensitive to which canal is added to the network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Importantly, ecological impacts can be reduced by associating the sequence in which canals are added to characteristics of the links, except for the case when all 11 canals are implemented simultaneously (at which point the sequence of canal addition is inconsequential. By identifying the fundamental relationship between the geometry of riverine networks and freshwater fish biodiversity, our

  19. A spatial compression technique for head-related transfer function interpolation and complexity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hallam, John

    2015-01-01

    datasets was evaluated quantitatively by defining an HRTF spatial complexity index, which considers the rate of change in HRTF power spectrum with respect to spatial position. The results indicate that the compression realized by the LP technique is largely independent of the number of spatial samples...

  20. Efficient energy transfer in light-harvesting systems, I: optimal temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jianlan; Shen, Young; Cao, Jianshu; Silbey, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of efficient and robust energy transfer in light-harvesting systems provides new insights for the optimal design of artificial systems. In this paper, we use the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein complex and phycocyanin 645 (PC 645) to explore the general dependence on physical parameters that help maximize the efficiency and maintain its stability. With the Haken-Strobl model, the maximal energy transfer efficiency (ETE) is achieved under an intermediate optimal value of dephasing rate. Guided by the insight, we use the generalized Bloch-Redfield (GBR) equation approach to correctly describe dissipative exciton dynamics and find that maximal ETE can be achieved under various physical conditions, including temperature, reorganization energy, and spatial-temporal correlations in noise. We also identify regimes of reorganization energy where the ETE changes monotonically with temperature or spatial correlation and therefore cannot be optimized with respect to these two variables.

  1. Solid-phase laser-induced forward transfer of variable shapes using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, R.; Jansink, M.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in `t Veld, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer is a promising method for 3D printing of various materials, including metals. The ejection mechanism is complex and depends strongly on the experimental parameters, such as laser fluence and donor layer thickness. However, the process can be categorized by the physical condition of the ejected material, i.e., the donor layer is transferred in liquid phase or the material is transferred as a `pellet' in solid phase. Currently, solid-phase transfer faces several problems. Large shearing forces, occurring at the pellet perimeter during transfer, limit the similarity between the desired pellet shape and the deposited pellet shape. Furthermore, the deposited pellet may be surrounded by debris particles formed by undesired transferred donor material. This work introduces a novel approach for laser-induced forward transfer of variable shaped solid-phase pellets. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to apply grayscale intensity modulation to an incident laser beam to shape the intensity profile. Optimized beams consist of a high fluence perimeter around an interior characterized by a lower fluence level. These beams are used successfully to transfer solid-phase pellets out of a 100-nm Au donor layer using a single laser pulse. The flexibility of the SLM allows a variable desired pellet shape. The shapes of the resulting deposited pellets show a high degree of similarity to the desired shapes. Debris-free deposited pellets are achieved by pre-machining the donor layer, prior to the transfer, using a double-pulse process.

  2. Numerical modeling calculation for the spatial distribution characteristics of horizontal field transfer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Applying 3-dimension finite difference method, the distribution characteristics of horizontal field transfer func-tions for rectangular conductor have been computed, and the law of distribution for Re-part and Im-part has been given. The influences of source field period, the conductivity, the buried depth and the length of the conductor on the transfer functions were studied. The extrema of transfer functions appear at the center, the four corners and around the edges of conductor, and move with the edges. This feature demonstrates that around the edges are best places for transfer functions¢ observation.

  3. Modality dependence and intermodal transfer in the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task: Screen vs. Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röser, Andrea; Hardiess, Gregor; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2016-07-01

    Four versions of the Corsi Spatial Sequence Task (CSST) were tested in a complete within-subject design, investigating whether participants' performance depends on the modality of task presentation and reproduction that put different demands on spatial processing. Presentation of the sequence (encoding phase) and the reproduction (recall phase) were each carried out either on a computer screen or on the floor of a room, involving actual walking in the recall phase. Combinations of the two different encoding and recall procedures result in the modality conditions Screen-Screen, Screen-Floor, Floor-Screen, and Floor-Floor. Results show the expected decrease in performance with increasing sequence length, which is likely due to processing limitations of working memory. We also found differences in performance between the modality conditions indicating different involvements of spatial working memory processes. Participants performed best in the Screen-Screen modality condition. Floor-Screen and Floor-Floor modality conditions require additional working memory resources for reference frame transformation and spatial updating, respectively; the resulting impairment of the performance was about the same in these two conditions. Finally, the Screen-Floor modality condition requires both types of additional spatial demands and led to the poorest performance. Therefore, we suggest that besides the well-known spatial requirements of CSST, additional working memory resources are demanded in walking CSST supporting processes such as spatial updating, mental rotation, reference frame transformation, and the control of walking itself.

  4. Increasing efficiency of a wireless energy transfer system by spatial translational transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shichao; An, Di; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    An optical translational projector (OTP) designed by transformation optics is applied to improve the energy transfer efficiency in a wireless energy transfer (WET) system. Numerical simulation results show our OTP can greatly enhance the energy transfer efficiency (e.g. nearly 2 orders, compared to the case without our OTP) in WET systems, which is much larger than previous methods (e.g. magnetic super-lens). A 3D reduced OTP composed by layered isotropic magnetic materials is designed, whose performance has been verified by 3D numerical simulations in 10MHz. We also study the influence of loss of metamaterials on the performance of proposed OTP.

  5. Parallel algorithm and its convergence of spatial domain decomposition of discrete ordinates method for solving radiation heat transfer problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenhua

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the computational efficiency and hold calculation accuracy at the same time, we study the parallel computation for radiation heat transfer. In this paper, the discrete ordinates method (DOM and the spatial domain decomposition parallelization (DDP are combined by message passing interface (MPI language. The DDP–DOM computation of the radiation heat transfer within the rectangular furnace is described. When the result of DDP–DOM along one-dimensional direction is compared with that along multi-dimensional directions, it is found that the result of the latter one has higher precision without considering the medium scattering. Meanwhile, an in-depth study of the convergence of DDP–DOM for radiation heat transfer is made. Analyzing the cause of the weak convergence, we relate the total number of iteration steps when the convergence is obtained to the number of sub-domains. When we decompose the spatial domain along one-, two- and three-dimensional directions, different linear relationships between the number of total iteration steps and the number of sub-domains will be possessed separately, then several equations are developed to show the relationships. Using the equations, some phenomena in DDP–DOM can be made clear easily. At the same time, the correctness of the equations is verified.

  6. Encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes for image transfer in km-scale few-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long; Liu, Jun; Mo, Qi; Du, Cheng; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-25

    Space domain is regarded as the only known physical dimension left of lightwave to exploit in optical communications. Recently, lots of research efforts have been devoted to using spatial modes of fibers to increase data transmission capacity in optical fiber communications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a different approach to exploiting the space dimension, i.e. transferring image by space dimension encoding/decoding using superpositions of spatial modes in km-scale few-mode fiber. Three grayscale images are successfully transmitted through a 1.1-km few-mode fiber by employing either 4 modes, i.e. three linearly polarized (LP) modes of LP01, LP11a, LP11b and one orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of OAM-1, or 2 modes (OAM+1, OAM-1). The bit-error rate is evaluated and zero error among all received data is achieved, showing favorable fiber link communication performance using the spatial modes of fiber for encoding/decoding. Moreover, we also demonstrate the 4 modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b and OAM-1) encoding/decoding for image transfer in a 10-km few-mode fiber in the experiment.

  7. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  8. Determining the spatial coherence of excitons from the photoluminescence spectrum in charge-transfer J-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestand, Nicholas J.; Spano, Frank C.

    2016-12-01

    The importance of spatial coherence in energy and charge transfer processes in biological systems and photovoltaic devices has been hotly debated over the past several years. While larger spatial coherences are thought to benefit transport, a clear correlation has yet to be established, partly because a simple and accurate measure of the coherence length has remained elusive. Previously, it was shown that the number of coherently connected chromophores, NCoh , can be determined directly from the ratio (SR) of the 0-0 and 0-1 vibronic line strengths in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The relation NCoh = λ02SR, where λ02 is the associated monomeric Huang-Rhys parameter, was derived in the Frenkel exciton limit. Here, it is shown that SR remains a highly accurate measure of coherence for systems characterized by significant charge transfer interactions (e.g. conjugated π-stacked systems). The only requirement is that the exciton band curvature must be positive, as in a J-aggregate.

  9. Transfer of spatial knowledge from a virtual environment to reality: Impact of route complexity and subject's strategy on the exploration mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard N'Kaoua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of virtual reality as tool in the area of spatial cognition raises the question of the quality of learning transfer from a virtual to a real environment. It is first necessary to determine with healthy subjects, the cognitive aids that improve the quality of transfer and the conditions required, especially since virtual reality can be used as effective tool in cognitive rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the exploration mode of virtual environment (Passive vs.Active according to Route complexity (Simple vs.Complex on the quality of spatial knowledge transfer in three spatial tasks.Ninety subjects (45 men and 45 women participated. Spatial learning was evaluated by Wayfinding, Sketch-mapping and Picture classification tasks in the context of the Bordeaux district. In the Wayfinding task, results indicated that active learning in a Virtual Environment (VE increased the performances compared to the passive learning condition, irrespective of the route complexity factor. In the Sketch-mapping task, active learning in a VE helped the subjects to transfer their spatial knowledge from the VE to reality, but only when the route was complex. In the Picture classification task, active learning in a VE when the route was complex did not help the subjects to transfer their spatial knowledge. These results are explained in terms of knowledge levels and frame/strategy of reference.

  10. Winners and Losers in Spatial Duopoly Markets; the Relevance of a Value Transfer Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The effect of economic behaviour of different actors on the size of a market area is a classical subject of study in regional economics and over the years many studies have been published on this subject. Regional market differences are not only relevant in (location-) allocation theory, but they may also offer intriguing research opportunities for value transfer analysis. In our study a fresh look will be taken at the key forces determining the size of a market area and its implications and ...

  11. A STUDY ON THE MECHANISM AND CHARACTER OF THE INDUSTRIAL AND SPATIAL TRANSFERENCE OF FDI IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades, China has become one of the areas that have the greatest potential in industrial production, thus it has ranked second only to USA in the flow of international capital. By the end of 1998, the real value of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) in China has utilized has added up to $268. 1 billion. The big flow of FDI has not only promoted the development of social economy, but also worsened the existing regional difference by choosing spatial location. Under this circumstance, China's economy faces new restrictions and opportunities while adjusting its regional structure and industrial structure. So it is more and more important for us how to seize the opportunity, to seek the regularity of FDI in choosing location from the aspect of space, to set up relevant strategy to direct FDI at inland regions (areas deficient of capital), and to make appropriate policies, esp. The industrial and regional policies so as for FDI to exert positive influence and avoid negative influence on China and its regional economy and society. Based on the latest domestic and overseas materials and data of the FDI in China, combining with the investigation of the enterprises, this paper has systematically revealed the progress of development of the FDI in China and the developing conditions of the main enterprises directly invested by foreign capital since the reform and opening-up in China. The characters of FDI such as spatial concentration, transference as time goes on, change of the technical content and up-gradation of industrial structure and their forming mechanism have been studied. Then the basic conclusions have been made as follows. Firstly, FDI has been highly concentrated in space. But as time goes by, it has been transferring from coastal regions to inland ones, from big cities to their surrounding districts, and the degree of concentration is decreasing. Secondly, the technical content of the invested projects has gradually increased and the up

  12. Vectorial electron transfer in spatially ordered arrays. Progress report, January 1991--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to find methods for rapid, controlled placement of light absorbers, relays, and multi-electron catalysts at defined sites with respect to a semiconductor or metal surface and thus to develop methods for preparing chemically modified photoactive surfaces as artificial photosynthetic units. Progress has been made in four areas: synthesis of new materials for directional electron transfer, preparation and characterization of anisotropic composites containing organic and inorganic components, elaboration of mechanisms of electrocatalysis, and development of new methods for surface modification of metals and semiconductors.

  13. Amplified Head Rotation in Virtual Reality and the Effects on 3D Search, Training Transfer, and Spatial Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Eric D; Scerbo, Siroberto; Bacim, Felipe; Bowman, Doug A

    2017-08-01

    Many types of virtual reality (VR) systems allow users to use natural, physical head movements to view a 3D environment. In some situations, such as when using systems that lack a fully surrounding display or when opting for convenient low-effort interaction, view control can be enabled through a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, but the reduced realism could potentially interfere with the ability to maintain spatial orientation. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the entire surrounding environment with small head movements. This solution is attractive because it allows semi-natural physical view control rather than requiring complete physical rotations or a fully-surrounding display. However, the effects of amplified head rotations on spatial orientation and many practical tasks are not well understood. In this paper, we present an experiment that evaluates the influence of amplified head rotation on 3D search, spatial orientation, and cybersickness. In the study, we varied the amount of amplification and also varied the type of display used (head-mounted display or surround-screen CAVE) for the VR search task. By evaluating participants first with amplification and then without, we were also able to study training transfer effects. The findings demonstrate the feasibility of using amplified head rotation to view 360 degrees of virtual space, but noticeable problems were identified when using high amplification with a head-mounted display. In addition, participants were able to more easily maintain a sense of spatial orientation when using the CAVE version of the application, which suggests that visibility of the user's body and awareness of the CAVE's physical environment may have contributed to the ability to use the amplification technique while keeping track of orientation.

  14. Computational approaches to spatial orientation: from transfer functions to dynamic Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeilage, Paul R; Ganesan, Narayan; Angelaki, Dora E

    2008-12-01

    Spatial orientation is the sense of body orientation and self-motion relative to the stationary environment, fundamental to normal waking behavior and control of everyday motor actions including eye movements, postural control, and locomotion. The brain achieves spatial orientation by integrating visual, vestibular, and somatosensory signals. Over the past years, considerable progress has been made toward understanding how these signals are processed by the brain using multiple computational approaches that include frequency domain analysis, the concept of internal models, observer theory, Bayesian theory, and Kalman filtering. Here we put these approaches in context by examining the specific questions that can be addressed by each technique and some of the scientific insights that have resulted. We conclude with a recent application of particle filtering, a probabilistic simulation technique that aims to generate the most likely state estimates by incorporating internal models of sensor dynamics and physical laws and noise associated with sensory processing as well as prior knowledge or experience. In this framework, priors for low angular velocity and linear acceleration can explain the phenomena of velocity storage and frequency segregation, both of which have been modeled previously using arbitrary low-pass filtering. How Kalman and particle filters may be implemented by the brain is an emerging field. Unlike past neurophysiological research that has aimed to characterize mean responses of single neurons, investigations of dynamic Bayesian inference should attempt to characterize population activities that constitute probabilistic representations of sensory and prior information.

  15. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P. 0. Box 43844 ... harvester (X) [L 2] in a manner consistent with the following Forster equation for long range energy transfer [3-7]. .... sensitive foods, chemical reactors and essences. Recently we ...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Signatures of Flux Transfer Events in Global Simulations of Magnetopause Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Sibeck, David Gary; Hesse, Michael; Berrios, David; Rastaetter, Lutz; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    2011-01-01

    Flux transfer events (FTEs) were originally identified by transient bipolar variations of the magnetic field component normal to the nominal magnetopause centered on enhancements in the total magnetic field strength. Recent Cluster and THEMIS multi-point measurements provided a wide range of signatures that are interpreted as evidence for FTE passage (e.g., crater FTE's, traveling magnetic erosion regions). We use the global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code BATS-R-US developed at the University of Michigan to model the global three-dimensional structure and temporal evolution of FTEs during multi-spacecraft magnetopause crossing events. Comparison of observed and simulated signatures and sensitivity analysis of the results to the probe location will be presented. We will demonstrate a variety of observable signatures in magnetic field profile that depend on space probe location with respect to the FTE passage. The global structure of FTEs will be illustrated using advanced visualization tools developed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

  17. Effects of spatial dispersion in near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel metallic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Henkel, Carsten; Joulain, Karl; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    We study the heat transfer between two parallel metallic semi-infinite media with a gap in the nanometer-scale range. We show that the near-field radiative heat flux saturates at distances smaller than the metal skin depth when using a local dielectric constant and investigate the origin of this effect. The effect of non-local corrections is analysed using the Lindhard-Mermin and Boltzmann-Mermin models. We find that local and non-local models yield the same heat fluxes for gaps larger than 2 nm. Finally, we explain the saturation observed in a recent experiment as a manifestation of the skin depth and show that heat is mainly dissipated by eddy currents in metallic bodies.

  18. Convective heat transfer by oscillating flow in an enclosure with non-uniform spatial bottom wall temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheimpour Angeneh, Saeid; Aktas, Murat Kadri

    2016-11-01

    Effects of the acoustic streaming motion on convective heat transfer in a rectangular shallow enclosure with sinusoidal spatial bottom wall temperature distribution are investigated numerically. Acoustic excitation is generated by the periodic vibration of left wall. The top wall of the enclosure is isothermal while the side walls are adiabatic. A FORTRAN code is developed to predict the oscillatory and mean flow fields by considering the compressible form of the Navier -Stokes equation and solved by flux-corrected transport algorithm. In order to validate the results of the simulations, a case with an unheated bottom wall is considered and compared with the existing literature. Applying the sinusoidal temperature profile to the bottom wall provides axial and transverse temperature gradients. In return these gradients strongly affect the flow pattern in the enclosure. Heat transfer depends on the flow structure considerably. This is the first time that the effect of nonzero mean vibrational flow on thermal convection from a surface with sinusoidal temperature profile investigated. Results of this study may lead up to design of new heat removal applications.

  19. High-spatial resolution numerical simulations of in-water radiative transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, D.; Kajiyama, T.; Zibordi, G.

    2012-04-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of radiative processes allow for addressing optical radiometric problems strictly linked to complex geometries. Within such a context, MC simulations have been used to investigate uncertainties affecting in-water radiometric measurements performed with free-fall optical profilers commonly utilized for the vicarious calibration of space sensors or the validation of satellite ocean color primary products (e.g, the normalized water leaving radiance). Specifically, a MC code (henceforth called MOX) has been developed to simulate in-water and above-water radiometric fields with high spatial-resolution (up to 1 cm) over a 2-dimensional (2D) domain of tens of meters. This has been achieved by exploiting high performance computing (HPC) solutions (e.g., parallel programs and job-scheduling based on novel performance prediction and optimization schemes) to trace up to 10^12 photons. A dedicated study, focused on the simulation of in-water radiometric fields, has led to the generation of virtual optical profiles accounting for perturbations due to light focusing effect by sea-surface gravity and capillary waves at a spatial resolution comparable to that of actual measurements. Different from field experiments, which are often constrained by environmental factors like illumination conditions and sea-water optical properties, numerical simulations permits analyzing realistic cases whereas allowing for a free input parameter selection. MOX simulations have shown that uncertainties induced by focusing effects upon radiometric data products can be reduced by slowing the deployment speed of free-fall optical profilers, rather than increasing the sampling frequency (i.e., while keeping the same number of samples per depth unit). This result has confirmed the appropriateness of profiling techniques (i.e., multicasting) so far solely supported by a limited number of field measurements and has additionally suggested the possibility of investigating further

  20. Spatial distribution of transferred charges across the heterointerface between perovskite transition metal oxides LaNiO{sub 3} and LaMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Miho [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Horiba, Koji; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakai, Enju; Minohara, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Taichi; Kumigashira, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi.kumigashira@kek.jp [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Fujimori, Atsushi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagai, Takuro [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Fujioka, Hiroshi [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-03-14

    To investigate the interfacial charge-transfer phenomena between perovskite transition metal oxides LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO) and LaMnO{sub 3} (LMO), we have performed in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on LNO/LMO multilayers. The Ni-L{sub 2,3} and Mn-L{sub 2,3} XAS spectra clearly show the occurrence of electron transfer from Mn to Ni ions in the interface region. Detailed analysis of the thickness dependence of these XAS spectra has revealed that the spatial distribution of the transferred charges across the interface is significantly different between the two constituent layers. The observed spatial distribution is presumably described by the charge spreading model that treats the transfer integral between neighboring transition metal ions and the Coulomb interaction, rather than the Thomas–Fermi screening model.

  1. Monte Carlo calculation of the spatial response (Modulated Transfer Function) of a scintillation flat panel and comparison with experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, Belén; Miró, Rafael; Monasor, Paula; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2015-11-01

    Phosphor screens are commonly used in many X-ray imaging applications. The design and optimization of these detectors can be achieved using Monte Carlo codes to simulate radiation transport in scintillation materials and to improve the spatial response. This work presents an exhaustive procedure to measure the spatial resolution of a scintillation flat panel image and to evaluate the agreement with data obtained by simulation. To evaluate the spatial response we have used the Modulated Transfer Function (MTF) parameter. According to this, we have obtained the Line Spread Function (LSF) of the system since the Fourier Transform (FT) of the LSF gives the MTF. The experimental images were carried out using a medical X-ray tube (Toshiba E7299X) and a flat panel (Hammamatsu C9312SK). Measurements were based on the slit methodology experimental implementation, which measures the response of the system to a line. LSF measurements have been performed using a 0.2 mm wide lead slit superimposed over the flat panel. The detector screen was modelled with MCNP (version 6) Monte Carlo simulation code in order to analyze the effect of the acquisition setup configuration and to compare the response of scintillator screens with the experimental results. MCNP6 offers the possibility of studying the optical physics parameters (optical scattering and absorption coefficients) that occur in the phosphor screen. The study has been tested for different X-ray tube voltages, from 100 to 140 kV. An acceptable convergence between the MTF results obtained with MCNP6 and the experimental measurements have been obtained.

  2. Spatialized N budgets in a large agricultural Mediterranean watershed: high loading and low transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, L.; Romero, E.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; García-Gómez, H.; Rovira, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the particular management practices and climate characteristics of the Mediterranean regions, the literature dealing with N budgets in large catchments subjected to Mediterranean conditions is scarce. The present study aims to deepen our knowledge on the N cycle within the Ebro River Basin (NE Spain) by means of two different approaches: (1) calculating a global N budget in the Ebro River Basin and (2) calculating a series of detailed regional budgets at higher geographical resolution. N inputs and outputs were spatialized by creating a map based on the most detailed information available. Fluvial and atmospheric N export was estimated together with N retention. The Ebro River Basin annually receives a relatively high amount of new N (5118 kg N km-2 yr-1), mostly in the form of synthetic fertilizers (50%). Although it is a highly productive catchment, the net N input as food and feed import is also high (33%). Only 8% of this N is finally exported to the delta zone. Several territorial units characterized by different predominant uses (rainfed agriculture, irrigated agriculture and pastures) have differentiated N dynamics. However, due to the high density of irrigation channels and reservoirs that characterize Mediterranean catchments, N retention is very high in all of them (median value, 91%). These results indicate that problems of eutrophication due to N delivery in the coastal area may not be too severe but that high N retention values may instead lead to problems within the catchment, such as pollution of aquifers and rivers, as well as high atmospheric emissions. The most promising management measures are those devoted to reducing agricultural surpluses through a better balanced N fertilization.

  3. RESEARCH ON SHORT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATE UNDER NON-PROPORTIONAL MULTIAXIAL LOADING%多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展速率的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于强

    2013-01-01

    为了揭示出多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展的规律,利用搜寻临界面的方法确定短裂纹的萌生与扩展的方向,在临界面上分析多轴非比例加载与单轴加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展律的相似性,应用载荷的等效原理,类比单轴加载的研究过程,并将力学参数加以修改,导出多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展速率的计算公式.%As the laws of short fatigue cracks growth under non-proportional multiaxial loading are supposed to be revealed, what is expected to be achieved is mainly about the direction of initiation and propagation for short fatigue crack is determined by the method of searching for critical plane. The similarity of short fatigue crack growth rate by non-proportional multiaxial loading and multiaxial loading respectively is analyzed on the critical plane. Moreover, the equivalence of loading is applied. The process of multiaxial loading is analogized. The mechanical parameter is modified. Therefore, the formula of short fatigue crack growth rate by non-proportional multi-axial loading could be carried out.

  4. Estimation of spatially varying heat transfer coefficient from a flat plate with flush mounted heat sources using Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper employs the Bayesian based Metropolis Hasting - Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to solve inverse heat transfer problem of determining the spatially varying heat transfer coefficient from a flat plate with flush mounted discrete heat sources with measured temperatures at the bottom of the plate. The Nusselt number is assumed to be of the form Nu = aReb(x/l)c . To input reasonable values of ’a’ and ‘b’ into the inverse problem, first limited two dimensional conjugate convection simulations were done with Comsol. Based on the guidance from this different values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are input to a computationally less complex problem of conjugate conduction in the flat plate (15mm thickness) and temperature distributions at the bottom of the plate which is a more convenient location for measuring the temperatures without disturbing the flow were obtained. Since the goal of this work is to demonstrate the eficiacy of the Bayesian approach to accurately retrieve ‘a’ and ‘b’, numerically generated temperatures with known values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are treated as ‘surrogate’ experimental data. The inverse problem is then solved by repeatedly using the forward solutions together with the MH-MCMC aprroach. To speed up the estimation, the forward model is replaced by an artificial neural network. The mean, maximum-a-posteriori and standard deviation of the estimated parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ are reported. The robustness of the proposed method is examined, by synthetically adding noise to the temperatures.

  5. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Óptica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  6. 一种新的多轴非比例低周疲劳寿命预测临界面模型%A NEW PROPOSAL FOR MULTIAXIAL LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION UNDER NON-PROPORTIONAL LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵而年; 瞿伟廉

    2016-01-01

    工程结构在服役过程中往往承受着复杂的多轴非比例循环荷载,在长期动力载荷作用下结构构件的失效主要为多轴非比例疲劳破坏。文中基于圆管薄壁试件在拉-扭复合加载情况下的多轴疲劳试验结果,对比了广泛讨论的Kandil-Brown-Miller (KBM)模型和Fatemi-Socie (FS)模型对多轴非比例疲劳寿命的预测能力,分析了非比例加载条件引起多轴疲劳附加损伤的原因;针对FS模型对不存在非比例附加强化的材料多轴疲劳寿命预测的不足,提出了一个能考虑非比例加载路径变化和材料附加强化效应双重作用的非比例影响因子,参照FS准则提出了一种新的多轴非比例低周疲劳寿命预测临界面模型。利用5种材料的多轴非比例疲劳试验数据对该模型进行了试验验证,结果表明:采用文中提出的临界面模型预测的多轴非比例疲劳寿命与试验结果符合较好,预测精度优于FS模型;同时,该模型对不存在非比例附加强化的材料的多轴疲劳寿命预测表现出更好的适用性,且能有效的提高不同类型材料的多轴非比例疲劳寿命预测精度。%Engineering components are always in multiaxial and non-proportional stress states under complex service loading, and multiaxial fatigue is the primary failure mode during the long term vibration. In the present paper, the accuracy of multiaxial fatigue life estimation by the widely discussed Kandil-Brown-Miller (KBM) and FS model is in-vestigated while the shortcoming of Fatemi-Socie (FS) parameter on fatigue life prediction of materials without additional cycle hardening is pointed out. Considering the dual influence of the additional cycle hardening and the rotation of prin-cipal stress/strain axes caused by non-proportional loading on multiaxial fatigue, which results in more fatigue damage, a new non-proportional influence factor is proposed, which is adopted for a modification to

  7. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  8. Spatial frequency training modulates neural face processing : learning transfers from low- to high-level visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether t

  9. Spatial Frequency Training Modulates Neural Face Processing : Learning Transfers from Low- to High-Level Visual Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether t

  10. Solid-phase laser-induced forward transfer of variable shapes using a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, R.; Jansink, M.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer is a promising method for 3D printing of various materials, including metals. The ejection mechanism is complex and depends strongly on the experimental parameters, such as laser fluence and donor layer thickness. However, the process can be categorized by the physical

  11. Spatial Frequency Training Modulates Neural Face Processing : Learning Transfers from Low- to High-Level Visual Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether

  12. Spatial frequency training modulates neural face processing : Learning transfers from low- to high-level visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Judith C.; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Kemner, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Perception of visual stimuli improves with training, but improvements are specific for trained stimuli rendering the development of generic training programs challenging. It remains unknown to which extent training of low-level visual features transfers to high-level visual perception, and whether

  13. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.

  14. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading; Plasticite cyclique d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique sous chargement biaxial non-proportionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, V

    2001-11-15

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10{sup -5}) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  15. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in turbulent channel flow using the spectral-element method: effect of spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhenkov, V.; Ivashchenko, V.; Vinuesa, R.; Mullyadzhanov, R.

    2016-10-01

    We use the open-source code nek5000 to assess the accuracy of high-order spectral element large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent channel flow depending on the spatial resolution compared to the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Reynolds number Re = 6800 is considered based on the bulk velocity and half-width of the channel. The filtered governing equations are closed with the dynamic Smagorinsky model for subgrid stresses and heat flux. The results show very good agreement between LES and DNS for time-averaged velocity and temperature profiles and their fluctuations. Even the coarse LES grid which contains around 30 times less points than the DNS one provided predictions of the friction velocity within 2.0% accuracy interval.

  16. Non-destructive techniques for biomonitoring of spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and maternal transfer in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brittney C; Hepner, Mark J; Hopkins, William A

    2013-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally ubiquitous pollutant that has received much attention due to its toxicity to humans and wildlife. The development of non-destructive sampling techniques is a critical step for sustainable monitoring of Hg accumulation. We evaluated the efficacy of non-destructive sampling techniques and assessed spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that influence Hg bioaccumulation in turtles. We collected muscle, blood, nail, and eggs from snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) inhabiting an Hg contaminated river. As predicted, all Hg tissue concentrations strongly and positively correlated with each other. Additionally, we validated our mathematical models against two additional Hg contaminated locations and found that tissue relationships developed from the validation sites did not significantly differ from those generated from the original sampling site. The models provided herein will be useful for a wide array of systems where biomonitoring of Hg in turtles needs to be accomplished in a conservation-minded fashion.

  17. The effect of resist on the transfer of line-edge roughness spatial metrics from mask to wafer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Gallatin, Gregg

    2009-05-01

    Mask contributors to line-edge roughness (LER) have recently been shown to be an issue of concern for both the accuracy of current resist evaluation tests as well the ultimate LER requirements for the 22-nm production node. More recently, it has been shown that the power spectral density of the mask-induced roughness, is markedly different than that of intrinsic resist roughness and thus potentially serves as a mechanism for distinguishing mask effects from resist effects in experimental results. Further considering stochastic resist effects, however, demonstrates that such a test would only be viable in cases where the resist effects are completely negligible in terms of their contribution to the total LER compared to the mask effects. The results presented here lead us to the surprising conclusion that it is indeed possible for mask contributors to be the dominant source of LER while the spatial characteristics of the LER remain indistinguishable from the fractal characteristics of resist-induced LER.

  18. Validation of Vehicle Panel/Equipment Response from Diffuse Acoustic Field Excitation Using Spatially Correlated Transfer Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Fulcher, Clay; Hunt, Ron

    2012-01-01

    An approach for predicting the vibration, strain, and force responses of a flight-like vehicle panel assembly to acoustic pressures is presented. Important validation for the approach is provided by comparison to ground test measurements in a reverberant chamber. The test article and the corresponding analytical model were assembled in several configurations to demonstrate the suitability of the approach for response predictions when the vehicle panel is integrated with equipment. Critical choices in the analysis necessary for convergence of the predicted and measured responses are illustrated through sensitivity studies. The methodology includes representation of spatial correlation of the pressure field over the panel surface. Therefore, it is possible to demonstrate the effects of hydrodynamic coincidence in the response. The sensitivity to pressure patch density clearly illustrates the onset of coincidence effects on the panel response predictions.

  19. The contribution of multidimensional spatial analysis to a waste management policy: implementation of the ELECTRE method for characterizing transfer centers in the region of Oran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, A.; Trache, M. A.; Khelfi, M. F.

    2016-08-01

    The social and economic activity steadily growing in our cities creates a significant waste production in constantly evolving. The management of this waste is problematic because it is the center of many issues and interests. Indeed, any action or decision to the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of waste should be considered in the economic, social, political and especially environmental aspect. A global Geomatic solution requires implementing a GIS with powerful multidimensional spatial analysis tools that support really waste management problem. Algeria has adopted a solution of waste landfill for all urban cities. In the Oran region, it exists three Centers Controlled landfill (CET) which the most important is that of Hassi-Bounif. This center currently meeting the needs of the region is unsustainable solution at the long-term because of its rapid saturation and its geographic location, which is still far from city centers (20-30 km) implying a negative impact on the vehicle park collecting such frequent breakdowns, the rapid degradation, slow delivery time and especially the high cost of the maintenance operation. This phenomenon is aggravated by the absence of real and actual initiatives targeting the recycling and recovery of waste, which makes the CET an endpoint for all types of waste. We present in this study, the use of the ELECTRE method (Multicriteria Analysis) integrated into a GIS to characterize the impact of the implementation of transfers centers at Oran region. The results of this study will accentuate the advantages of the activation of waste warehouse closer to the city, and relieving considerably the volume of transfer towards CET. The objective of our presentation is to show the leading role of the new Geomatics tools and the multidimensional spatial analysis in the apprehension of an environmental problem such the waste management and more generally in the urban management.

  20. Energy transfer among distant quantum systems in spatially shaped laser fields: Two H atoms with the internuclear separation of 5.29 nm (100 a.u.)

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, Guennaddi K; Bandrauk, Andre D

    2010-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of two distant H atoms excited by ultrashort and spatially shaped laser pulses is studied by the numerical solution of the non-Born-Oppenheimer time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation within a three-dimensional (3D) model, including the internuclear distance R and the two z coordinates of the electrons, z1 and z2. The two 1D hydrogen atoms, A and B, are assumed to be initially in their ground states with a large (but otherwise arbitrary) internuclear separation of R = 100 a.u. (5.29 nm). Two types of a spatial envelope of a laser field linearly po- larized along the z-axis are considered: (i) a broad Gaussian envelope, such that atom A is excited by the laser field predominantly, and (ii) a narrow envelope, such that practically only atom A is excited by the laser field. With the laser carrier frequency {\\omega} = 1.0 a.u. and the pulse duration tp = 5 fs, in both cases an efficient energy transfer from atom A to atom B has been found. The ionization of atom B achieved mostly after the end ...

  1. Information gathering, management and transferring for geospatial intelligence - A conceptual approach to create a spatial data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Correia, Anacleto; Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2017-06-01

    Since long ago, information is a key factor for military organizations. In military context the success of joint and combined operations depends on the accurate information and knowledge flow concerning the operational theatre: provision of resources, environment evolution, targets' location, where and when an event will occur. Modern military operations cannot be conceive without maps and geospatial information. Staffs and forces on the field request large volume of information during the planning and execution process, horizontal and vertical geospatial information integration is critical for decision cycle. Information and knowledge management are fundamental to clarify an environment full of uncertainty. Geospatial information (GI) management rises as a branch of information and knowledge management, responsible for the conversion process from raw data collect by human or electronic sensors to knowledge. Geospatial information and intelligence systems allow us to integrate all other forms of intelligence and act as a main platform to process and display geospatial-time referenced events. Combining explicit knowledge with person know-how to generate a continuous learning cycle that supports real time decisions, mitigates the influences of fog of war and provides the knowledge supremacy. This paper presents the analysis done after applying a questionnaire and interviews about the GI and intelligence management in a military organization. The study intended to identify the stakeholder's requirements for a military spatial data infrastructure as well as the requirements for a future software system development.

  2. 浅析跨文化交际中的空间观文化负迁移现象%Analysis on Negative Cultural Transfer of Spatial Perception in the Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Different cultures shape the different spatial perceptions, hence people's different views of space have naturally turned out to be one of essential causes of negative cultural transfer, and even cause mis-understandings or communication breakdown. The thesis discusses the spatial differences and negative cultural transfer of cross-cultural communication from spatial distances, spatial arrangements and territoriality. The deep reasons of negative cultural transfer are also explored. In the hope of helping people reduce negative cultural transfer on spatial differences, and further improve the effectiveness of cross-cultural communication.%  不同文化背景的人们具有不同的空间观念,这往往会产生文化负迁移,继而造成误解或交际失败。文章从空间距离、领地观念、空间安排等几方面阐述了跨文化空间观差异及在交际中出现的文化负迁移现象,并探析了引起文化负迁移现象的深层原因。以期帮助人们减少空间观方面的文化负迁移,从而促进跨文化交际的顺利进行。

  3. On-chip multiplexed solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay using spatial profiles of immobilized quantum dots and fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Tavares, Anthony J.; Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Solid-phase multiplexed QD-FRET nucleic acid assay in electrokinetic fluidic chip. •Concurrent detection of two oligonucleotides based on channel length coverage. •Selection of “turn-on” and “turn-off” signals from two acceptor dyes and two colors of immobilized QDs, respectively. •No loss in assay sensitivity when implementing multiplexed assay format. -- Abstract: A microfluidic based solid-phase assay for the multiplexed detection of nucleic acid hybridization using quantum dot (QD) mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is described herein. The glass surface of hybrid glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels was chemically modified to assemble the biorecognition interface. Multiplexing was demonstrated using a detection system that was comprised of two colors of immobilized semi-conductor QDs and two different oligonucleotide probe sequences. Green-emitting and red-emitting QDs were paired with Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) labeled oligonucleotides, respectively. The QDs served as energy donors for the transduction of dye labeled oligonucleotide targets. The in-channel assembly of the biorecognition interface and the subsequent introduction of oligonucleotide targets was accomplished within minutes using a combination of electroosmotic flow and electrophoretic force. The concurrent quantification of femtomole quantities of two target sequences was possible by measuring the spatial coverage of FRET sensitized emission along the length of the channel. In previous reports, multiplexed QD-FRET hybridization assays that employed a ratiometric method for quantification had challenges associated with lower analytical sensitivity arising from both donor and acceptor dilution that resulted in reduced energy transfer pathways as compared to single-color hybridization assays. Herein, a spatial method for quantification that is based on in-channel QD-FRET profiles provided higher analytical

  4. Spatial Transfer and Transformation of Chinese Aesthetic Methodology%空间转向与中国美学方法论转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴萱

    2014-01-01

    20世纪以来的空间转向对当代的学术思想产生重要影响,并主要呈现出两个维度的理论取向。一方面,空间转向延展了不同学科和领域的研究内容;另一方面,空间转向呼应了现象学、存在主义等人本主义思潮,以体验的方式实现对主体心灵“第三空间”的追寻。同时,因为空间理论的主体性、自由性、体验性和学科互涉性,空间理论与美学理论出现了交叉渗透的景象,在二者的互动阐释中生发出崭新的空间美学。空间转向和空间美学直接促使中国现代美学研究范式的转换和方法论原则的调整,经由“体验”为核心的基本原则到“同情”的主体间性价值,再以“反思”实现美学的升华,构建出“体验-同情-反思”的美学方法论。%The spatial transfer of the 20th century has the important influence on the contemporary academic thinking ,presenting two theoretical orientations of dimensions .On the one hand ,the space turn has extended different disciplines and research patterns .On the other ,it has echoed humanism ideology of phenomenology , existentialism ,etc ,in the form of experience for the main body of the soul “third space”.Meanwhile ,because of the subjectivity ,freedom ,mutual sexual experience and disciplines of space theory ,there is cross penetra-tion between space theory and aesthetic theory ,and in the interactive interpretation a novel space aesthetics has been created .Spatial transfer and space aesthetics directly contribute to the transformation of research para-digm of the Chinese modern aesthetics and the adjustment of methodological principles ,through the basic prin-ciples of “experience” as the core to the intersubjectivity value of “sympathy”,to achieve the sublimation of aesthetics “reflection” ,building the aesthetic methodology of “experience-sympathy-reflections” .

  5. Modelling long term survival with non-proportional hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perperoglou, Aristidis

    2006-01-01

    In this work I consider models for survival data when the assumption of proportionality does not hold. The thesis consists of an Introduction, five papers, a Discussion and an Appendix. The Introduction presents technical information about the Cox model and introduces the ideas behind the extensions

  6. Numerical Analysis of Spatial Unsteady Regimes of Conjugate Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer in a Closed Volume with an Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, S. G.; Miroshnichenko, I. V.; Sheremet, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Unsteady regimes of convective-radiative heat transfer in a cubic enclosure with finitely thick heat-conducting walls in the presence of a constant-temperature energy source have been modeled mathematically under the conditions of convective heat exchange with the environment. A mathematical model has been formulated in dimensionless variables "vector potential-vorticity vector-temperature;" the model was realized numerically by the finite-difference method. An analysis of radiative heat transfer has been made on the basis of the surface-radiation approximation with the balance method in Polyak's version. Three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields and dependences for the average Nusselt number have been obtained; they reflect the influence of the reduced emissivity factor of interior surfaces of enclosing walls, of the relative thermal conductivity, and of the unsteadiness factor on the flow regimes and heat transfer.

  7. Logo Mastery and Spatial Problem-Solving by Young Children: Effects of Logo Language Training, Route-Strategy Training, and Learning Styles on Immediate Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. Allen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that examined preschoolers' abilities to learn problem solving with LOGO, learn new strategies to use during problem solving, and transfer computer learning to other settings. Differences in the effectiveness of LOGO learning for field-dependent versus field-independent learning styles are discussed. (65 references) (LRW)

  8. Carrier recombination spatial transfer by reduced potential barrier causes blue/red switchable luminescence in C8 carbon quantum dots/organic hybrid light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifang Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The underlying mechanism behind the blue/red color-switchable luminescence in the C8 carbon quantum dots (CQDs/organic hybrid light-emitting devices (LEDs is investigated. The study shows that the increasing bias alters the energy-level spatial distribution and reduces the carrier potential barrier at the CQDs/organic layer interface, resulting in transition of the carrier transport mechanism from quantum tunneling to direct injection. This causes spatial shift of carrier recombination from the organic layer to the CQDs layer with resultant transition of electroluminescence from blue to red. By contrast, the pure CQDs-based LED exhibits green–red electroluminescence stemming from recombination of injected carriers in the CQDs.

  9. Electron transfer and ionic displacements at the origin of the 2D electron gas at the LAO/STO interface: direct measurements with atomic-column spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Claudia; Gazquez, Jaume; Miletto Granozio, Fabio; Oxley, Mark P; Varela, Maria; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Aruta, Carmela; di Uccio, Umberto Scotti; Perna, Paolo; Maccariello, Davide

    2012-08-02

    Using state-of-the-art, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy with atomic-scale spatial resolution, experimental evidence for an intrinsic electronic reconstruction at the LAO/STO interface is shown. Simultaneous measurements of interfacial electron density and system polarization are crucial for establishing the highly debated origin of the 2D electron gas. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. d→f Energy Transfer in Ir(III)/Eu(III) Dyads: Use of a Naphthyl Spacer as a Spatial and Energetic “Stepping Stone”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A series of luminescent complexes based on {Ir(phpy)2} (phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-phenylpyridine) or {Ir(F2phpy)2} [F2phpy = cyclometallating anion of 2-(2′,4′-difluorophenyl)pyridine] units, with an additional 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole (pypz) ligand, have been prepared; fluorination of the phenylpyridine ligands results in a blue-shift of the usual 3MLCT/3LC luminescence of the Ir unit from 477 to 455 nm. These complexes have pendant from the coordinated pyrazolyl ring an additional chelating 3-(2-pyridyl)-pyrazole unit, separated via a flexible chain containing a naphthalene-1,4-diyl or naphthalene-1,5-diyl spacer. Crystal structures show that the flexibility of the pendant chain allows the naphthyl group to lie close to the Ir core and participate in a π-stacking interaction with a coordinated phpy or F2phpy ligand. Luminescence spectra show that, whereas the {Ir(phpy)2(pypz)} complexes show typical Ir-based emission—albeit with lengthened lifetimes because of interaction with the stacked naphthyl group—the {Ir(F2phpy)2(pypz)} complexes are nearly quenched. This is because the higher energy of the Ir-based 3MLCT/3LC excited state can now be quenched by the adjacent naphthyl group to form a long-lived naphthyl-centered triplet (3nap) state which is detectable by transient absorption. Coordination of an {Eu(hfac)3} unit (hfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate) to the pendant pypz binding site affords Ir–naphthyl–Eu triads. For the triads containing a {Ir(phpy)2} core, the unavailability of the 3nap state (not populated by the Ir-based excited state which is too low in energy) means that direct Ir→Eu energy-transfer occurs in the same way as in other flexible Ir/Eu complexes. However for the triads based on the{Ir(F2phpy)2} core, the initial Ir→3nap energy-transfer step is followed by a second, slower, 3nap→Eu energy-transfer step: transient absorption measurements clearly show the 3nap state being sensitized by the Ir center

  11. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  12. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  13. Calibrating cosmological radiative transfer simulations with Lyman alpha forest data: Evidence for large spatial UV background fluctuations at z ~ 5.6 - 5.8 due to rare bright sources

    CERN Document Server

    Chardin, Jonathan; Aubert, Dominique; Puchwein, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    We calibrate here cosmological radiative transfer simulation with ATON/RAMSES with a range of measurements of the Lyman alpha opacity from QSO absorption spectra. We find the Lyman alpha opacity to be very sensitive to the exact timing of hydrogen reionisation. Models reproducing the measured evolution of the mean photoionisation rate and average mean free path reach overlap at z ~ 7 and predict an accelerated evolution of the Lyman alpha opacity at z > 6 consistent with the rapidly evolving luminosity function of Lyman alpha emitters in this redshift range. Similar to "optically thin" simulations our full radiative transfer simulations fail, however, to reproduce the high-opacity tail of the Lyman alpha opacity PDF at z > 5. We argue that this is due to spatial UV fluctuations in the post-overlap phase of reionisation on substantially larger scales than predicted by our source model, where the ionising emissivity is dominated by large numbers of sub-L* galaxies. We further argue that this suggests a signific...

  14. Spatial analysis of private tanker water markets in Jordan: Using a hydroeconomic multi-agent model to simulate non-observed water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim; Gawel, Erik; Sigel, Katja; Klauer, Bernd; Talozi, Samer; Lachaut, Thibaut; Selby, Philip; Knox, Stephen; Gorelick, Steven; Tilmant, Amaury; Harou, Julien; Mustafa, Daanish; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Avisse, Nicolas; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The country of Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity and deficient public water supply networks. To address these issues, Jordan's water sector authorities have adopted a water rationing scheme implemented by interrupting piped water supply for several days per week. As in many arid countries around the world, this has led to the emergence of private markets of small-scale providers, delivering water via tanker trucks. On the one hand, these markets play a crucial role in meeting residential and commercial water demands by balancing the shortcomings of the public supply system. On the other hand, providers partially rely on illegal abstractions from rural ground and surface water sources, thereby circumventing regulatory efforts to conserve these resources. Private tanker water markets, therefore, provide a substantial contribution to consumer welfare while jeopardizing freshwater resource sustainability. Thus, a better understanding of these markets is of great importance for the formulation of policy interventions pursuing freshwater sustainability in a socially acceptable manner. Direct assessments of the size of these markets or their responses to policy interventions are, however, impeded by their partially illegal nature and the resulting lack of available information. To overcome this data collection challenge, we use a hydroeconomic multi-agent model developed in the Jordan Water Project to indirectly simulate country-wide tanker water market activities on the basis of demand and supply estimates. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. Finally, a spatial market algorithm

  15. Training generalized spatial skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rebecca; Thompson, William L; Ganis, Giorgio; Newcombe, Nora S; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Spatial transformation skills are an essential aspect of cognitive ability. These skills can be improved by practice, but such improvement has usually been specific to tasks and stimuli. The present study investigated whether intensive long-term practice leads to change that transcends stimulus and task parameters. Thirty-one participants (14 male, 17 female) were tested on three cognitive tasks: a computerized version of the Shepard-Metzler (1971) mental rotation task (MRT), a mental paper-folding task (MPFT), and a verbal analogies task (VAT). Each individual then participated in daily practice sessions with the MRT or the MPFT over 21 days. Postpractice comparisons revealed transfer of practice gains to novel stimuli for the practiced task, as well as transfer to the other, nonpracticed spatial task. Thus, practice effects were process based, not instance based. Improvement in the nonpracticed spatial task was greater than that in the VAT; thus, improvement was not merely due to greater ease with computerized testing.

  16. SPATIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Mossay

    2004-01-01

    We consider a continuous spatial economy consisting of pure exchange local economies. Agents are allowed to change their location over time as a response to spatial utility differentials. These spatial adjustments toward higher utility neighborhoods lead the spatial economy to converge to a spatially uniform allocation of resources, provided that the matrix of price effects is quasi-negative definite. Furthermore our model provides a real time interpretation of the tâtonnement story. Also, sp...

  17. The Transfer of Acquired Spatial Associations Relies on Verbal Working Memory%习得性空间联结的迁移依赖于语义工作记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈安涛

    2012-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to the fact that responses are faster when the stimulus location corresponds to the location of the assigned response than when it does not, which is a robust phenomenon. However, practicing with an incompatible mapping from location to responses can eliminate or even reverse a subsequent Simon effect. But, it is still unclear about how the acquired incompatible association was represented in the working memory (WM). In the present study, we conducted two experiments to investigate this question through using practice-transfer design combined with dual-task paradigm. Subjects first received sufficient practice with an incompatible mapping from location to response, i.e., pressing right key to left stimulus or left key to right stimuli, then were randomly transferred to the single task (only Simon task) or one of two dual-tasks (concurrent spatial WM load + Simon tasks; concurrent verbal WM load + Simon tasks) 5 minutes later. In Experiment 1, the dual-tasks were traditional configuration: the stimuli of the verbal WM load task were true Chinese characters, and the stimuli of the spatial WM load task were pseudo-characters. In the two dual-tasks. Subjects were asked to memorize the four locations or the seven characters, and they expected to have a recognition test after having completed the Simon tasks. If the probe was in the same location as one of the pseudo-characters or identical to one of the seven characters presented in the memory display, subjects were to press the "1" key with the left middle finger. Otherwise, they were to press the "0" key with the right middle finger, and the proportions of the two responses were 50% and 50%, respectively. The results showed a reversal Simon effect in the single task, which is consistent with previous findings. Importantly, the results showed that the verbal WM load eliminated the reversal Simon effect, but the spatial WM load had no influence on the reversal Simon effect. However, the

  18. Spatial Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    for a city . Spatial attributes are used to define the spatial location and extent of spatial objects [35]. The spatial attributes of a spatial object...regarding both geometry and thematic differentiation. It can be used to model 2.5D data (e.g., digital terrain model), as well as 3D data ( walkable ...within a city , if the coverage area of a wireless antenna is considered to be the visible area, then the union of coverage areas of all the antennas in

  19. Spatial cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Kister; Remington, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Spatial cognition is the ability to reason about geometric relationships in the real (or a metaphorical) world based on one or more internal representations of those relationships. The study of spatial cognition is concerned with the representation of spatial knowledge, and our ability to manipulate these representations to solve spatial problems. Spatial cognition is utilized most critically when direct perceptual cues are absent or impoverished. Examples are provided of how human spatial cognitive abilities impact on three areas of space station operator performance: orientation, path planning, and data base management. A videotape provides demonstrations of relevant phenomena (e.g., the importance of orientation for recognition of complex, configural forms). The presentation is represented by abstract and overhead visuals only.

  20. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  1. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  2. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  3. Experimental Approaches to Studying Biological Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview on biological electron-transfer reactions, summarizing what is known about how distance, spatial organization, medium, and other factors affect electron transfer. Experimental approaches, including studies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions (electrostatic effects and precursor complexes), are considered. (JN)

  4. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  5. Pragmatic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Attempting to clarify the concept of pragmatic transfer, this article proposes as a basic distinction Leech/Thomas' dichotomy of sociopragmatics versus pragmalinguistics, presenting evidence for transfer at both levels. Issues discussed include pragmatic universals in speech act realization, conditions for pragmatic transfer, communicative…

  6. Elements of spatial data quality

    CERN Document Server

    Guptill, SC

    1995-01-01

    Elements of Spatial Data Quality outlines the need and suggests potential categories for the content of a comprehensive statement of data quality that must be imbedded in the metadata that accompanies the transfer of a digital spatial data file or is available in a separate metadata catalog. Members of the International Cartographic Association's Commission on Spatial Data Quality have identified seven elements of data quality: positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, lineage, semantic accuracy and temporal information. In the book the authors describe: compo

  7. Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda, R

    2003-01-01

    A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function.

  8. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    – 2006. The essays published here allow us to subdivide the field of spatial culture into five major domains, summarized in the titles of chapters in the book: ”Perception and Strategies: Architecture”, ”Politics and Poetics: Urban Spaces”, ”Movements and Cityscape: Textuality”, ”Crisis and Construction......Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...

  9. Laser forward transfer using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-01-12

    A digital micromirror device (DMD) is used to spatially structure a 532 nm laser beam to print features spatially congruent to the laser spot in a laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) process known as laser decal transfer (LDT). The DMD is a binary (on/off) spatial light modulator and its resolution, half-toning and beam shaping properties are studied using LDT of silver nanopaste layers. Edge-enhanced "checkerboard" beam profiles led to a ~30% decrease in the laser transfer fluence threshold (compared to a reference "checkerboard" profile) for a 20-pixel bitmap pattern and its resulting 10-μm square feature.

  10. Spatial Interpolation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are presented.Sampling s

  11. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  12. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns......, depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly...

  13. "Transfer Shock" or "Transfer Ecstasy?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, John M.

    The alleged characteristic drop in grade point average (GPA) of transfer students and the subsequent rise in GPA was investigated in this study. No statistically significant difference was found in first term junior year GPA between junior college transfers and native Florida State University students after the variance accounted for by the…

  14. The effect of spherical and other aberrations upon the modulation transfer of the defocussed human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    1998-01-01

    Relative modulation transfer is defined as contrast sensitivity under blur normalised to contrast sensitivity at optimum focus. Measured relative modulation transfer exceeds relative modulation transfer as calculated for aberration free optics at higher spatial frequencies (>2 cpd). The contribution

  15. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...... spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...... consensus, it plays an equal important role in supporting current neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....

  16. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  17. Blastocyst Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Method: Blastocyst transfer is usually performed 24 hours after aggregation when the morulae have become expanded blastocysts and on the same day as injection. A little time is given between injection and transfer to allow blastocysts to re-expand. **The Recipient** Careful selection of the recipient is most important as the pups are the end result of a lot of hard work. Two strains of mice are used:RB Swiss and (CBA*C57BL6/J)f1. RB Swiss are quiet and make excellent mothers ...

  18. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  19. Accounting for substitution and spatial heterogeneity in a labelled choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizin, S; Brouwer, R; Liekens, I; Broeckx, S

    2016-10-01

    Many environmental valuation studies using stated preferences techniques are single-site studies that ignore essential spatial aspects, including possible substitution effects. In this paper substitution effects are captured explicitly in the design of a labelled choice experiment and the inclusion of different distance variables in the choice model specification. We test the effect of spatial heterogeneity on welfare estimates and transfer errors for minor and major river restoration works, and the transferability of river specific utility functions, accounting for key variables such as site visitation, spatial clustering and income. River specific utility functions appear to be transferable, resulting in low transfer errors. However, ignoring spatial heterogeneity increases transfer errors.

  20. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim present Simulation Presentation Interactive Media Element This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options. CS3502 Computer Communications and Networks

  1. Sophisticated transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Iraq war, fears were expressed in different circles that under the cover of war, Israel may attempt a transfer of Palestinians in the “seam line” area of the northern West Bank (Kalkilya, Tulkarem). Last week, the army produced a scene from this scenario. On April 2 at 3 AM, a larg

  2. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  3. Transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taback, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vulnerability of electronic equipment to carbon fibers is studied. The effectiveness of interfaces, such as filters, doors, window screens, and cabinets, which affect the concentration, exposure, or deposition of carbon fibers on both (internal and external) sides of the interface is examined. The transfer function of multilayer aluminum mesh, wet and dry, polyurethane foam, and window screen are determined as a function of air velocity. FIlters installed in typical traffic control boxes and air conditioners are also considered.

  4. Research on spatial association rules mining in two-direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li-xia; WANG Zuo-cheng

    2007-01-01

    In data mining from transaction DB, the relationships between the attributes have been focused, but the relationships between the tuples have not been taken into account. In spatial database, there are relationships between the attributes and the tuples, and most of the associations occur between the tuples, such as adjacent, intersection, overlap and other topological relationships. So the tasks of spatial data association rules mining include mining the relationships between attributes of spatial objects, which are called as vertical direction DM, and the relationships between the tuples, which are called as horizontal direction DM. This paper analyzes the storage models of spatial data, uses for reference the technologies of data mining in transaction DB, defines the spatial data association rule, including vertical direction association rule, horizontal direction association rule and two-direction association rule, discusses the measurement of spatial association rule interestingness, and puts forward the work flows of spatial association rule data mining. During two-direction spatial association rules mining, an algorithm is proposed to get non-spatial itemsets. By virtue of spatial analysis, the spatial relations were transferred into non-spatial associations and the non-spatial itemsets were gotten. Based on the non-spatial itemsets, the Apriori algorithm or other algorithms could be used to get the frequent itemsets and then the spatial association rules come into being. Using spatial DB, the spatial association rules were gotten to validate the algorithm, and the test results show that this algorithm is efficient and can mine the interesting spatial rules.

  5. Simple model relating recombination rates and non-proportional light yield in scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Bizarri, Gregory; Singh, Jai; Vasil' ev, Andrey N.; Williams, Richard T.

    2008-09-24

    We present a phenomenological approach to derive an approximate expression for the local light yield along a track as a function of the rate constants of different kinetic orders of radiative and quenching processes for excitons and electron-hole pairs excited by an incident {gamma}-ray in a scintillating crystal. For excitons, the radiative and quenching processes considered are linear and binary, and for electron-hole pairs a ternary (Auger type) quenching process is also taken into account. The local light yield (Y{sub L}) in photons per MeV is plotted as a function of the deposited energy, -dE/dx (keV/cm) at any point x along the track length. This model formulation achieves a certain simplicity by using two coupled rate equations. We discuss the approximations that are involved. There are a sufficient number of parameters in this model to fit local light yield profiles needed for qualitative comparison with experiment.

  6. FInal Report: First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Fei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This final report presents work carried out on the project “First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality” at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 2013-2015. The scope of the work was to further the physical understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind scintillator nonproportionality that effectively limits the achievable detector resolution. Thereby, crucial quantitative data for these processes as input to large-scale simulation codes has been provided. In particular, this project was divided into three tasks: (i) Quantum mechanical rates of non-radiative quenching, (ii) The thermodynamics of point defects and dopants, and (iii) Formation and migration of self-trapped polarons. The progress and results of each of these subtasks are detailed.

  7. Measurement and simulation of crack growth rate and direction under non-proportional loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of fatigue experiments on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion, the experimental results – crack path and crack growth life – are measured and compared. It is observed that the cracks follow a curvature from a tensile to a shear dominated growth with increasing crack length. The results are enforced by the high amplitudes applied to the specimens causing large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates in the order of 10-3 mm/cycle. The non-linear nature of the cyclic deformation has been taken into account by applying a cyclic plasticity model, and plasticity-induced crack closure is captured by a contact formulation. Already for the uniaxial reference case the current limitations in modelling plasticity induced crack closure – a prerequisite for achieving realistic simulation results – have become obvious. Measurements have shown that friction and roughness induced closure processes come up, especially for non-planar crack surfaces, challenge to be met in the future.

  8. Growth of long fatigue cracks under non-proportional loadings – experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign was carried out on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion. The results from experiments are measured and compared. It is observed that cracks follow a shear-dominated growth pattern with increasing crack length, instead of a tension-dominated one. The experiments are performed with high amplitudes applied to the specimens, resulting in large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates up to 10-3 mm/cycle. Stress intensity factors were calculated for the proportional loading case.

  9. On penalized likelihood estimation for a non-proportional hazards regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Ebrahimi, Nader

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a semi-parametric generalization of the Cox model that permits crossing hazard curves is described. A theoretical framework for estimation in this model is developed based on penalized likelihood methods. It is shown that the optimal solution to the baseline hazard, baseline cumulative hazard and their ratio are hyperbolic splines with knots at the distinct failure times.

  10. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  11. moisture transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Kulasiri

    2005-01-01

    model drying porous materials. Coupled partial differential equations governing the moisture and heat transfer can be solved using numerical techniques, and in this paper we solve them analytically in a setting suitable for industrial drying situations. We discuss the nature of the solutions using the physical properties of Pinus radiata. It is shown that the temperature gradients play a significant role in deciding the moisture profiles within the material when thickness is large and that models based only on moisture potential gradients may not be sufficient to explain the drying phenomena in moist porous materials.

  12. Handbook of Spatial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Changes of Industrial Carbon Emissions under Regional Industrial Transfer: The Case of Pan-Yangtze River Delta%产业转移背景下区域工业碳排放时空格局演变——以泛长三角为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平星; 曹有挥

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of energy consumption and carbon emissions under the background of industrial transfer became one of the research focus by researchers from various fields recently.Taking Pan-Yangtze River Delta area that at the stage of industrial transfer as the case area,the author analyzed the spatial pattern and its changes of carbon emissions caused by industry energy consumption with data at the years of 1990,1995,2000,2005,and 2010.The absolute amount,percentage of carbon emissions and its gravity were used to indicate the changes of carbon emission patterns.The relationship between carbon emission patterns and regional industrial transfer was analyzed accordingly.Results indicated that the core areas of Yangtze River Delta were of higher carbon emissions than the peripheral areas since the year of 1990.However,the spatial pattern of carbon emissions also changed since 1990,and the hotspots moved from the core areas of Yangtze River Delta to the peripheral areas gradually.The proportion of carbon emissions of cores areas declined at the year of 2005.The carbon emissions gravity moved to the southeast before 2000 at the speeds of about 20km per five tears,and turned to the northwest after 2005 at the speed of 21km per five years.Its locations of the years of 2000 and 2005 were almost the same.The industry gravity and carbon emission gravity were spatially separated,but of similar moving path at different stages since 1990.Regional industrial transfer was of great significance for the changes of regional carbon emission pattern and the movement of carbon emission gravity by causing the differentiation of regional industry output.The economic development of core areas of Yangtze River Delta was significantly faster than that of peripheral areas of Pan-Yangtze River Delta,and the industry gravity and carbon emission gravity moved to the southeast accordingly.With the implementation and promotion of industry transfer to the peripheral areas

  14. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  15. The transfer matrix in four-dimensional CDT

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjorn, Jan; Görlich, Andrzej; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The Causal Dynamical Triangulation model of quantum gravity (CDT) has a transfer matrix, relating spatial geometries at adjacent (discrete lattice) times. The transfer matrix uniquely determines the theory. We show that the measurements of the scale factor of the (CDT) universe are well described by an effective transfer matrix where the matrix elements are labeled only by the scale factor. Using computer simulations we determine the effective transfer matrix elements and show how they relate to an effective minisuperspace action at all scales.

  16. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    as the implosion of the euro‐ and later on Western‐centric world has increased the pluralistic structural setup of contemporary world society. The contemporary world is at the same a community of common destiny and a world which consists of many worlds insofar as the globe is characterised by a multiplicity...... of contextual societal orders (societies, communities, regimes etc.) with some of them being state‐based and some of the falling outside the category of statehood. This development, acting as the central structural driving force for the emergence of regulatory governance frameworks, can be traced back...... to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...

  17. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  18. Spatial Relation Resolution and Spatial Relation Abstraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tinghua; LIU Yaolin

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts toregard spatial relation transformationas an important process in map gener-alization. The spatial relation generali-zation can be divided into the compo-nents of abstraction: topology, dis-tance and orientation. The concept‘ spatial relation resolution' is intro-duced to describe the constraints ofrelative spatial relation. On the basisof nine intersection models, the cardi-nal direction models and the iso-dis-tance-relation models, this paper givesthree sorts of relation resolution repre-sentations for topological, distance andorientation relation, respectively. Twomapping implementations in map gen-eralization is discussed.

  19. Music Exposure and the Development of Spatial Intelligence in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents research on the effects of music instruction on spatial-temporal reasoning in children. Summarizes past studies that tested whether music training transfers to spatial-temporal task performance. A work-in-progress focuses on whether music training can improve economically-disadvantaged preschoolers' abstract reasoning and why…

  20. Genetic Drift Suppresses Bacterial Conjugation in Spatially Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Peter D.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Jiménez, José I.; Chen, Irene A.

    2014-02-01

    Conjugation is the primary mechanism of horizontal gene transfer that spreads antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Although conjugation normally occurs in surface-associated growth (e.g., biofilms), it has been traditionally studied in well-mixed liquid cultures lacking spatial structure, which is known to affect many evolutionary and ecological processes. Here we visualize spatial patterns of gene transfer mediated by F plasmid conjugation in a colony of Escherichia coli growing on solid agar, and we develop a quantitative understanding by spatial extension of traditional mass-action models. We found that spatial structure suppresses conjugation in surface-associated growth because strong genetic drift leads to spatial isolation of donor and recipient cells, restricting conjugation to rare boundaries between donor and recipient strains. These results suggest that ecological strategies, such as enforcement of spatial structure and enhancement of genetic drift, could complement molecular strategies in slowing the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  1. Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.

  2. 110x110 optical mode transfer matrix inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joel; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Schröder, Jochen

    2014-01-13

    The largest complete mode transfer matrix of a fiber is measured consisting of 110 spatial and polarization modes. This matrix is then inverted and the pattern required to produce a desired output at the receiver are launched at the transmitter.

  3. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  4. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  5. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  6. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  7. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  8. Transfer induced compressive strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget; Mackenzie, David; Caridad, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We have used spatially resolved micro Raman spectroscopy to map the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the graphene G-band and the 2D and G peak positions, for as-grown graphene on copper catalyst layers, for transferred CVD graphene and for micromechanically exfoliated graphene, in order...... to characterize the effects of a transfer process on graphene properties. Here we use the FWHM(G) as an indicator of the doping level of graphene, and the ratio of the shifts in the 2D and G bands as an indicator of strain. We find that the transfer process introduces an isotropic, spatially uniform, compressive...... strain in graphene, and increases the carrier concentration....

  9. Image editing with spatiograms transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Nicolas; Bugeau, Aurélie; Caselles, Vicent

    2012-05-01

    Histogram equalization is a well-known method for image contrast enhancement. Nevertheless, as histograms do not include any information on the spatial repartition of colors, their application to local image editing problems remains limited. To cope with this lack of spatial information, spatiograms have been recently proposed for tracking purposes. A spatiogram is an image descriptor that combines a histogram with the mean and the variance of the position of each color. In this paper, we address the problem of local retouching of images by proposing a variational method for spatiogram transfer. More precisely, a reference spatiogram is used to modify the color value of a given region of interest of the processed image. Experiments on shadow removal and inpainting demonstrate the strength of the proposed approach.

  10. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  11. Spatial Information Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Markelov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the spatial information storage, shows the features of spatial information and of such storage systems formation. Requirements for information storage technologies and for the data management in storage systems are determined. Cartographic information storage and updating features are shown. The article proves that intelligent solutions are the most efficient means of working with large amounts of spatial data.

  12. Memoz - Spatial Weblogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem, Jon

    The article argues that spatial webpublishing has influence on weblogging, and calls for a revision of the current weblog definition. The weblog genre should be able to incorporate spatial representation, not only the sequential ordering of articles. The article show examples of different spatial forms, including material produced in Memoz (MEMory OrganiZer).

  13. ABUJA SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL HOUSING DESIGN: A SPATIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bons

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... the destitutes/homeless people in the city. The informal .... solving them, this research recommends retention and sustainable spatial integration of the ... Crisis, Planning, and the Quality of life: Managing the New Historical.

  14. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  15. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  16. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...

  17. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN

    2006-02-21

    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  18. DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, M; Serra, P; Fernández-Pradas, J M; Sevilla, L; Morenza, J L

    2005-02-15

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a laser direct write technique that appears to be specially adequate for the production of biosensors, since it permits to deposit patterns of biomolecules with high spatial resolution. In the LIFT technique, a laser pulse is focused on a thin film of the material to be transferred through a transparent support, and under the action of the laser pulse, a small fraction of the film is transferred to a receptor substrate that is placed parallel to the film-support system. In the case of biomolecules transfer, the thin film consists in a liquid solution containing the biomolecules. In this work, microarrays of two different cDNAs have been both spotted by LIFT and pin microspotting onto a poly-L-lysine treated glass slide. Once transferred, all the microarrays have been submitted to hybridization with the complementary strands of the spotted cDNAs, each one tagged with a different fluorochrome. Comparative fluorescence scanner analyses have revealed that the microarrays transferred through LIFT are equivalent to those transferred through pin microspotting in terms of signal intensity and gene discrimination capacity, and that the action of the laser pulse does not result in significant damage of the transferred DNA.

  19. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  20. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  1. Using Geo-Spatial Technologies for Field Applications in Higher Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, Akif

    2012-01-01

    Today's important geo-spatial technologies, GIS (Geographic Information Systems), GPS (Global Positioning Systems) and Google Earth have been widely used in geography education. Transferring spatially oriented data taken by GPS to the GIS and Google Earth has provided great benefits in terms of showing the usage of spatial technologies for field…

  2. Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).

  3. Robustness of Spatial Micronetworks

    CERN Document Server

    McAndrew, Thomas C; Bagrow, James P

    2015-01-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that, when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting...

  4. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.

    2011-11-01

    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.

  5. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...... text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...

  6. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  7. Pattern transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Rogers, John A [Champaign, IL; Menard, Etienne [Urbana, IL; Lee, Keon Jae [Tokyo, JP; Khang, Dahl-Young [Urbana, IL; Sun, Yugang [Champaign, IL; Meitl, Matthew [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Zhengtao [Urbana, IL

    2011-05-17

    The present invention provides methods, systems and system components for transferring, assembling and integrating features and arrays of features having selected nanosized and/or microsized physical dimensions, shapes and spatial orientations. Methods of the present invention utilize principles of `soft adhesion` to guide the transfer, assembly and/or integration of features, such as printable semiconductor elements or other components of electronic devices. Methods of the present invention are useful for transferring features from a donor substrate to the transfer surface of an elastomeric transfer device and, optionally, from the transfer surface of an elastomeric transfer device to the receiving surface of a receiving substrate. The present methods and systems provide highly efficient, registered transfer of features and arrays of features, such as printable semiconductor element, in a concerted manner that maintains the relative spatial orientations of transferred features.

  8. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  9. Representation of spatial and temporal variability in large-domain hydrological models: case study for a mesoscale pre-Alpine basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of parameter sets over different temporal and spatial resolutions is common practice in many large-domain hydrological modelling studies. The degree to which parameters are transferable across temporal and spatial resolutions is an indicator of how well spatial and temporal variability

  10. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  11. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  12. Science Transfer to Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gasimov, Zaur

    2016-01-01

    Transfers between Europe's margins Surely one of the most significant contributions of transfer studies has been its challenge to critically re-think the intra-imperial and inter-imperial relations of Eurasian history...

  13. Spatial Keyword Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Chen, Lisi; Cong, Gao;

    2012-01-01

    The web is increasingly being used by mobile users. In addition, it is increasingly becoming possible to accurately geo-position mobile users and web content. This development gives prominence to spatial web data management. Specifically, a spatial keyword query takes a user location and user-sup...... different kinds of functionality as well as the ideas underlying their definition....

  14. Computing with spatial trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Covers the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art research inspired by the spatial trajectory data Readers are provided with tutorial-style chapters, case studies and references to other relevant research work This is the first book that presents the foundation dealing with spatial trajectories and state-of-the-art research and practices enabled by trajectories

  15. Spatial Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    With increasing accessibility to geographic information systems (GIS) software, statisticians and data analysts routinely encounter scientific data sets with geocoded locations. This has generated considerable interest in statistical modeling for location-referenced spatial data. In public health, spatial data routinely arise as aggregates over regions, such as counts or rates over counties, census tracts, or some other administrative delineation. Such data are often referred to as areal data. This review article provides a brief overview of statistical models that account for spatial dependence in areal data. It does so in the context of two applications: disease mapping and spatial survival analysis. Disease maps are used to highlight geographic areas with high and low prevalence, incidence, or mortality rates of a specific disease and the variability of such rates over a spatial domain. They can also be used to detect hot spots or spatial clusters that may arise owing to common environmental, demographic, or cultural effects shared by neighboring regions. Spatial survival analysis refers to the modeling and analysis for geographically referenced time-to-event data, where a subject is followed up to an event (e.g., death or onset of a disease) or is censored, whichever comes first. Spatial survival analysis is used to analyze clustered survival data when the clustering arises from geographical regions or strata. Illustrations are provided in these application domains.

  16. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  17. On strategic spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explain the origin and development of strategic spatial planning, to show complex features and highlight the differences and/or advantages over traditional, physical spatial planning. Strategic spatial planning is seen as one of approaches in legally defined planning documents, and throughout the display of properties of sectoral national strategies, as well as issues of strategic planning at the local level in Serbia. The strategic approach is clearly recognized at the national and sub-national level of spatial planning in European countries and in our country. It has been confirmed by the goals outlined in documents of the European Union and Serbia that promote the grounds of territorial cohesion and strategic integrated planning, emphasizing cooperation and the principles of sustainable spatial development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  18. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    to identify the specific tissue region under study. In order to use the spatial rotator in practice, however, it is necessary to be able to identify intersection points between cell boundaries and test rays in a series of parallel focal planes, also at the peripheral parts of the cell boundaries. In cases......This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...... the spatial rotator fast to use. Since a 3D probe is involved, it is expected that the spatial rotator will be more efficient than the the nucleator and the planar rotator, which are based on measurements in a single plane. An extensive simulation study shows that the spatial rotator may be more efficient...

  19. Determination of spatial resolution of plastic scintillation fiber array with a simple method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spatial resolution of a position sensitive gamma-ray detector configuration based on plastic scintillation fiber array was measured using a Monte Carlo simulation method. Both point spread function and modulation transfer function (MTF) were presented. The factors that influence the spatial resolution were also discussed. The results of the simulation showed that the intrinsic spatial resolution was consistent with the size of the physical pixels and a few centimeters spatial resolution could be obtained under certain circumstances.

  20. Transfer of gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific comp

  1. 区域间技术转移的网络结构及空间分布特征研究——基于我国2006-2010省际技术市场成交合同的分析%Study on the network structure and spatial distribution of inter-regional technology transfer:analysis based on inter-provincial technical market transaction of China in 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤朝; 马荣康

    2013-01-01

    Taking advantage of 2006 -2010 bilateral data of technical market transaction between regions in China. This paper investigates the network structure and spatial feature of inter - regional technology transfer through the social network analysis and GIS spatial analysis. Results show that, firstly, the inter - provincial technology transfer activities become increasingly frequent since 2006. With the changes of regional technology capacity and technology gap among regions, the "core - periphery" structure of inter - regional technology transfer network with Beijing as the central is getting weaken. Secondly, the bulk technology transfer is spreading to other regions with Beijing as the central, which is barely constrained by geographical distance. The whole technology transfer shows several regional blocks with various forms of spatial aggregation or dispersion, and the geographical distance plays different roles in the evolution of each regional block. Finally, with the changes of technology capacity in each region and its adjacent regions, the regional blocks e-volve from ' weak - weak' subgroup to ' strong - weak' subgroup or ' weak - strong' subgroup, and then move to ' strong - strong' subgroup with good interaction.%利用我国31个省区2006-2010年技术市场成交合同数据,运用社会网络分析和GIS空间分析方法,研究了区域间技术转移的网络结构及空间分布特征.结果表明:(1)2006年以来,我国省际技术转移活动越来越密切和频繁,随着各区域技术实力及区域间技术差距的变化,技术转移网络以北京为中心的“核心—边缘”结构有逐步削弱的趋势.(2)大宗技术转移以北京为核心向其他区域扩散,受地理距离的约束较小;整体技术转移表现为空间聚集(分散)形态各异的几个区域板块,地理距离在各区域板块演变中的作用存在一定差异.(3)随着各区域及其邻近区域技术实力的变化,区域间技术转移的实现路径

  2. Spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ping; Sheng, Yehua; Lv, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    In many interpolation methods, with its simple interpolation principle, Inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation is one of the most common interpolation method. There are anisotropic spatial structures with actual geographical spatial phenomenon. When the IDW interpolation is used, anisotropic spatial structures should be considered. Geostatistical theory has a characteristics of exploring anisotropic spatial structures. In this paper, spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures is proposed. The DEM data is tested in this paper to prove reliability of the IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures. Experimental results show that IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures can improve interpolation precision when sampling data has anisotropic spatial structures feature.

  3. THE GEOMETRY OF THE SPATIAL FOUR-BAR MECHANISM AND OF ITS PARTICULAR FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available starting from the rssr spatial four-bar mechanism, this paper analyses the most significant particular cases for which the specific transfer functions are written in comparison to the respective function deduced in the general case. From among the particular cases of the spatial mechanisms, the authors mention the oscillating washer mechanism and the cardan mechanism, demonstrating that spherical mechanisms can be obtained as the simplified variants in which the spherical joints may be replaced by simple rotation joints. For the spherical mechanism, the respective transfer functions have been determined as the simplest particular forms of the transfer function achieved by the rssr spatial four-bar mechanism

  4. THE GEOMETRY OF THE SPATIAL FOUR-BAR MECHANISM AND OF ITS PARTICULAR FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the rssr spatial four-bar mechanism, this paper analyses the most significant particular cases for which the specific transfer functions are written in comparison to the respective function deduced in the general case. From among the particular cases of the spatial mechanisms, the authors mention the oscillating washer mechanism and the cardan mechanism, demonstrating that spherical mechanisms can be obtained as the simplified variants in which the spherical joints may be replaced by simple rotation joints. For the spherical mechanism, the respective transfer functions have been determined as the simplest particular forms of the transfer function achieved by the rssr spatial four-bar mechanism.

  5. Uses of virtual reality in clinical training: developing the spatial skills of children with mobility impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, D; Foreman, N; Wilson, P N

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter we review some of the ways in which the skills learned in virtual environments (VEs) transfer to real situations, and in particular how information about the spatial layouts of virtual buildings acquired from the exploration of three-dimensional computer-simulations transfers to their real equivalents. Four experiments are briefly described which examined VR use by disabled children. We conclude that spatial information of the kind required for navigation transfers effectively from virtual to real situations. Spatial skills in disabled children showed progressive improvement with repeated exploration of virtual environments. The results are discussed in relation to the potential future benefits of VR in special needs education and training.

  6. Phase space representation of spatially partially coherent imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Roman

    2008-08-01

    The phase space representation of imaging with optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is developed by using spatial coherence wavelets. It leads to new functions for describing the optical transfer and response of imaging systems when the field is represented by Wigner distribution functions. Specific imaging cases are analyzed in this context, and special attention is devoted to the imaging of two point sources.

  7. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  8. 中、美、俄投掷运动员竞技能力形成时空特征研究%Study the Spatial and Temporal Characteristic of Youth Throwing Athletes (China, American, and Russian) of Competitive Ability Appearance to Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭广

    2013-01-01

    This paper use of literature , questionnaire , retroactive law , field investigation , combing statistics and research methods , the United States to China , Russia and other throwing athlete ability spatial and temporal characteristics of dynamic analysis , the researchers think :throwing athletes space - time state transfer of athletic ability , is to find and determine the conditions and environment of physical development and training stimulus load external conditions , in the flow of time to cross the the best fusion point , the United States , Russia Throwers start training age , Specialization and age as well as to achieve a level of age , the corresponding later than the Chinese athletes , our athletes are showing is “younger” trend , our men and women throwing class athletes rapid growth period between 14-18 years of age , a period in which the growth rate drops age 18-19 years of age , this development features is very different , if premature hair load special adult training juvenile athletes , athletic performance in juvenile stages of development of the peak may be different levels weaken or damage could have obtained higher achievement , which may affect the development of athletic performance in athletes adult .%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、追溯法、实地调查法、梳理统计法等研究方法,对中国和美国、俄罗斯等部分投掷运动员竞技能力状态的时空特征进行动态分析。研究表明:投掷项目运动员竞技能力时空状态转移,是寻找和确定身体发育条件与环境和训练刺激负荷等外在的条件,在时间流上交叉的最佳融合点,美、俄投掷运动员所达到始训年龄,专项化年龄以及达到一级水平的年龄,相应比中国运动员晚,我国运动员普遍呈现“年轻化”趋势;过早对少年运动员进行超发负荷的专项成人化训练,可能会影响运动员成年后的运动成绩的发展。

  9. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  11. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I. J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    2011-01-01

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  12. Radiative transfer model for Solar System ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu, F.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2015-10-01

    We developed a radiative transfer model [1] that simulates the bidirectional reflectance of a contaminated slab layer of ice overlaying a granular medium, under geometrical optics conditions. Designed for planetary studies, this model has a fast computer implementation and thus is suitable for planetary high spatial/spectral resolution hyperspectral data analysis. We will present here its principles, its numerical and experimental validations and its possible applications.

  13. Spatial aggregations for spatial based decision making in spatial data warehouses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByeongSeob You; DongWook Lee; SangHun Eo; SookKyung Cho; HaeYoung Bae

    2007-01-01

    For spatial based decision making such as choice of best place to construct a new department store, spatial data warehousing system is required more and more previous spatial data warehousing systems; however, provided decision making of non-spatial data on a map and so those cannot support enough spatial based decision making. The spatial aggregations are proposed for spatial based decision making in spatial data warehouses. The meaning of aggregation operators for applying spatial data was modified and new spatial aggregations were defined. These aggregations can support hierarchical concept of spatial measure. Using these aggregations, the spatial analysis classified by non-spatial data is provided. In case study, how to use these aggregations and how to support spatial based decision making are shown.

  14. Collective spatial keyword querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.;

    2011-01-01

    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However......, the queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query...

  15. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  16. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  17. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  18. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  19. Spatial recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, D B; Lopes, S R; Viana, R L; Kurths, J

    2006-05-01

    We propose an extension of the recurrence plot concept to perform quantitative analyzes of roughness and disorder of spatial patterns at a fixed time. We introduce spatial recurrence plots (SRPs) as a graphical representation of the pointwise correlation matrix, in terms of a two-dimensional spatial return plot. This technique is applied to the study of complex patterns generated by coupled map lattices, which are characterized by measures of complexity based on SRPs. We show that the complexity measures we propose for SRPs provide a systematic way of investigating the distribution of spatially coherent structures, such as synchronization domains, in lattice profiles. This approach has potential for many more applications, e.g., in surface roughness analyzes.

  20. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable .... involve the creation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope Settlement and ... Feature). Spatial. Analyst Tool. (Slope). Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool.

  1. 76 FR 44761 - Remittance Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), as an example of money transfer instruments Federal credit unions (FCUs... receiving international and domestic electronic fund transfers'' after the words ``money orders'' from... checks, money orders, and other similar transfer instruments, including international and...

  2. Stability of Spatial Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, Takatoshi; Dao-Zhi, Zeng

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on externalities between economic agents. We consider spatial dis- tribution of economic activities in a multiregional dynamical system, where regions may be interpreted as clubs, social subgroups, species, or strategies. Our dynamics includes gravity models and replicator dynamics as special cases. Assuming that other variables, such as prices are solved as a function of the population distribution, we analyze both interior and corner equilibria of spatial distribution in ...

  3. Software for Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edzer Pebesma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth, point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  4. Software for Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Edzer Pebesma; Roger Bivand; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth), point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.

  5. Spatial Learning in Dragonflies

    OpenAIRE

    Eason, Perri K.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial learning is evident in dragonflies on a variety of spatial scales. Mature dragonflies must be able to locate a variety of features in the habitat that are critical to survival and reproduction, including sites for breeding, foraging, roosting, and thermoregulating. In many species, these sites do not coincide in space. Because individuals may repeatedly use particular sites for different activities, they must learn both the locations of these sites and routes among them. Further evide...

  6. Information transfer in auditoria and room-acoustical quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Jason E

    2013-04-01

    It is hypothesized that room-acoustical quality correlates with the information-transfer rate. Auditoria are considered as multiple-input multiple-output communication channels and a theory of information-transfer is outlined that accounts for time-variant multipath, spatial hearing, and distributed directional sources. Source diversity and spatial hearing are shown to be the mechanisms through which multipath increases the information-transfer rate by overcoming finite spatial resolution. In addition to predictions that are confirmed by recent and historical findings, the theory provides explanations for the influence of factors such as musical repertoire and ensemble size on subjective preference and the influence of multisource, multichannel auralization on perceived realism.

  7. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  8. Teaching Spatial Awareness to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    An important component in the early stages of skill development is spatial awareness. This article discusses how good spatial awareness in children results from concepts that are reinforced throughout the school's curriculum. Activities for developing spatial awareness are also provided.

  9. Calculating proper transfer prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkey, F.C. (Meliora Research Associates, Rochester, NY (United States)); Jarrell, G.A. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with developing a proper transfer pricing method. Decentralization is as American as baseball. While managers laud the widespread benefits of both decentralization and baseball, they often greet the term transfer price policy with a yawn. Since transfer prices are as critical to the success of decentralized firms as good pitchers are to baseball teams, this is quite a mistake on the part of our managers. A transfer price is the price charged to one division for a product or service that another division produced or provided. In many, perhaps most, decentralized organizations, the transfer pricing policies actually used are grossly inefficient and sacrifice the potential advantages of decentralization. Experience shows that far too many companies have transfer pricing policies that cost them significantly in foregone growth and profits.

  10. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  11. Strategic Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Alles; Srikant Datar

    1998-01-01

    Most research into cost systems has focused on their motivational implications. This paper takes a different approach, by developing a model where two oligopolistic firms strategically select their cost-based transfer prices. Duopoly models frequently assume that firms game on their choice of prices. Product prices, however, are ultimately based on the firms' transfer prices that communicate manufacturing costs to marketing departments. It is for this reason that transfer prices will have a s...

  12. Effective Bayesian Transfer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    insufficient (most models) and models where clusters containing more than a few variables are too costly (e.g., stereopsis ). 10 Models where...detections 2D hypoth 3D hypoth 32 Stanford Traffic Vision: Year 1 Summary PI: Thrun •! Developed transfer machine learning technique. •! Transfer at...Detection, classification, and prediction of vehicular traffic . •! Is an application of Transfer Learning to the Visual Domain •! Impact: May make

  13. Wireless power transfer system

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of recent wireless power transfer systems. The issue of wireless power transfer is to achieve a highly efficient system with small positioning errors of the facilities setting. Several theories have been presented to obtain precise system design. This paper presents a summary of design theory for short range power transfer systems and detailed formulations based on a circuit model and an array of infinitesimal dipoles. In addition to these theories, this paper in...

  14. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wachinger, C.; Toews, M.; Langs, G.; Wells, W.; Golland, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for th...

  15. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  16. Spatially resolved modelling of inhomogeneous materials with a first order magnetic phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K. K.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Smith, A.; Bjørk, R.

    2017-10-01

    We present a numerical model that can simulate a magnetocaloric sample on the grain size level, including magnetostatics, heat transfer, local hysteresis and spatial variation of stoichiometry expressed as a variation in Curie temperature, \

  17. Diffusion on spatial network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zi; Tang, Xiaoyue; Li, Wei; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we study the problem of diffusing a product (idea, opinion, disease etc.) among agents on spatial network. The network is constructed by random addition of nodes on the planar. The probability for a previous node to be connected to the new one is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of α. The diffusion rate between two connected nodes is inversely proportional to their spatial distance to the power of β as well. Inspired from the Fick's first law, we introduce the diffusion coefficient to measure the diffusion ability of the spatial network. Using both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, we get the fact that the diffusion coefficient always decreases with the increasing of parameter α and β, and the diffusion sub-coefficient follows the power-law of the spatial distance with exponent equals to -α-β+2. Since both short-range diffusion and long-range diffusion exist, we use anomalous diffusion method in diffusion process. We get the fact that the slope index δ in anomalous diffusion is always smaller that 1. The diffusion process in our model is sub-diffusion.

  18. The transfer matrix in four-dimensional Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Görlich, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Causal Dynamical Triangulations is a background independent approach to quantum gravity. In this paper we introduce a phenomenological transfer matrix model, where at each time step a reduced set of quantum states is used. The states are solely characterized by the discretized spatial volume. Using Monte Carlo simulations we determine the effective transfer matrix elements and extract the effective action for the scale factor. In this framework no degrees of freedom are frozen, however, the obtained action agrees with the minisuperspace model.

  19. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  20. Spatially modulated laser pulses for printing electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) in laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is reviewed. Combining this technique with high-viscosity donor ink (silver nanopaste) results in laser-printed features that are highly congruent in shape and size to the incident laser beam spatial profile. The DMD empowers LIFT to become a highly parallel, rapidly reconfigurable direct-write technology. By adapting half-toning techniques to the DMD bitmap image, the laser transfer threshold fluence for 10 μm features can be reduced using an edge-enhanced beam profile. The integration of LIFT with this beam-shaping technique allows the printing of complex large-area patterns with a single laser pulse.

  1. Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Flagg, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    A standard and comprehensive model is needed to evaluate and compare technology transfer systems and the stakeholders within these systems. The principle systems considered include federal laboratories, U.S. universities, the rehabilitation engineering research centers (RERCs), and large small business innovation research programs. An earlier…

  2. Spatial evolution equation of wind wave growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 孙孚; 戴德君

    2003-01-01

    Based on the dynamic essence of air-sea interactions, a feedback type of spatial evolution equation is suggested to match reasonably the growing process of wind waves. This simple equation involving the dominant factors of wind wave growth is able to explain the transfer of energy from high to low frequencies without introducing the concept of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and the results agree well with observations. The rate of wave height growth derived in this dissertation is applicable to both laboratory and open sea, which solidifies the physical basis of using laboratory experiments to investigate the generation of wind waves. Thus the proposed spatial evolution equation provides a new approach for the research on dynamic mechanism of air-sea interactions and wind wave prediction.

  3. Differentially Private Spatial Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cormode, Graham; Shen, Entong; Srivastava, Divesh; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Differential privacy has recently emerged as the de facto standard for private data release. This makes it possible to provide strong theoretical guarantees on the privacy and utility of released data. While it is well-known how to release data based on counts and simple functions under this guarantee, it remains to provide general purpose techniques to release different kinds of data. In this paper, we focus on spatial data such as locations and more generally any data that can be indexed by a tree structure. Directly applying existing differential privacy methods to this type of data simply generates noise. Instead, we introduce a new class of "private spatial decompositions": these adapt standard spatial indexing methods such as quadtrees and kd-trees to provide a private description of the data distribution. Equipping such structures with differential privacy requires several steps to ensure that they provide meaningful privacy guarantees. Various primitives, such as choosing splitting points and describi...

  4. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    , examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from......Digital society challenges the traditional perception of legal sources. The use of maps as a basis for public administration dates far back, but e-Government’s use of digital maps that include legal information creates new legal obstacles. In the coming decades, the inspire directive of 2007...... will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand...

  5. A spatial entropy reflecting distribution of spatial objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youn-Kyung Jang; Byeong-Seob You; Ho-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Bae Kim; Hae-Young Bae

    2007-01-01

    Decision trees are mainly used to classify data and predict data classes. A spatial decision tree has been designed using Euclidean distance between objects for reflecting spatial data characteristic. Even though this method explains the distance of objects in spatial dimension, it fails to represent distributions of spatial data and their relationships. But distributions of spatial data and relationships with their neighborhoods are very important in real world. This paper proposes decision tree based on spatial entropy that represents distributions of spatial data with dispersion and dissimilarity. The rate of dispersion by dissimilarity presents how related distribution of spatial data and non-spatial attributes. The experiment evaluates the accuracy and building time of decision tree as compared to previous methods and it shows that the proposed method makes efficient and scalable classification for spatial decision support.

  6. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  7. Technology transfer and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that international technology transfer has been widely studied its management still encounters many difficulties. To fully understand the issues that are relevant to the process of transferring production technology, it is necessary to determine the important factors that influence

  8. Transfer-function parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer program fits linear-factored form transfer function to given frequency-response data. Program is based on conjugate-gradient search procedure that minimizes error between given frequency-response data and frequency response of transfer function that is supplied by user.

  9. Spatially Embedded Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach: – The (re)production of inequality is explored by linking research on organizational space with HRM diversity management. Data from an ethnographic study undertaken in a Danish municipal center illustrates how a substructure of inequality is spatially upheld alongside a formal diversity policy. Archer...... the more subtle, spatially embedded forms of inequality. Originality/value: – Theoretical and empirical connections between research on organizational space and HRM diversity management have thus far not been systematically studied. This combination might advance knowledge on the persistence of micro...

  10. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  11. Spatial fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Redig, Frank; Giardinà, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    For non-equilibrium systems of interacting particles and for interacting diffusions in d-dimensions, a novel fluctuation relation is derived. The theorem establishes a quantitative relation between the probabilities of observing two current values in different spatial directions. The result is a consequence of spatial symmetries of the microscopic dynamics, generalizing in this way the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the time-reversal symmetry. This new perspective opens up the possibility of direct experimental measurements of fluctuation relations of vectorial observables.

  12. Radiative heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Modest, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of Radiative Heat Transfer describes the basic physics of radiation heat transfer. The book provides models, methodologies, and calculations essential in solving research problems in a variety of industries, including solar and nuclear energy, nanotechnology, biomedical, and environmental. Every chapter of Radiative Heat Transfer offers uncluttered nomenclature, numerous worked examples, and a large number of problems-many based on real world situations-making it ideal for classroom use as well as for self-study. The book's 24 chapters cover the four major areas in the field: surface properties; surface transport; properties of participating media; and transfer through participating media. Within each chapter, all analytical methods are developed in substantial detail, and a number of examples show how the developed relations may be applied to practical problems. It is an extensive solution manual for adopting instructors. Features: most complete text in the field of radiative heat transfer;...

  13. Electron transfer across a thermal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Galen T; Nitzan, Abraham

    2016-08-23

    Charge transfer is a fundamental process that underlies a multitude of phenomena in chemistry and biology. Recent advances in observing and manipulating charge and heat transport at the nanoscale, and recently developed techniques for monitoring temperature at high temporal and spatial resolution, imply the need for considering electron transfer across thermal gradients. Here, a theory is developed for the rate of electron transfer and the associated heat transport between donor-acceptor pairs located at sites of different temperatures. To this end, through application of a generalized multidimensional transition state theory, the traditional Arrhenius picture of activation energy as a single point on a free energy surface is replaced with a bithermal property that is derived from statistical weighting over all configurations where the reactant and product states are equienergetic. The flow of energy associated with the electron transfer process is also examined, leading to relations between the rate of heat exchange among the donor and acceptor sites as functions of the temperature difference and the electronic driving bias. In particular, we find that an open electron transfer channel contributes to enhanced heat transport between sites even when they are in electronic equilibrium. The presented results provide a unified theory for charge transport and the associated heat conduction between sites at different temperatures.

  14. Rewards modulate saccade latency but not exogenous spatial attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eDunne

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The eye movement system is sensitive to reward. However, whilst the eye movement system is extremely flexible, the extent to which changes to oculomotor behaviour induced by reward paradigms persist beyond the training period or transfer to other oculomotor tasks is unclear. To address these issues we examined the effects of presenting feedback that represented small monetary rewards to spatial locations on the latency of saccadic eye movements, the time-course of learning and extinction of the effects of rewarding saccades on exogenous spatial attention and oculomotor IOR. Reward feedback produced a relative facilitation of saccadic latency in a stimulus driven saccade task which persisted for 3 blocks of extinction trials. However this hemifield-specific effect failed to transfer to peripheral cueing tasks. We conclude that rewarding specific spatial locations is unlikely to induce long-term, systemic changes to the human oculomotor or attention systems.

  15. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  16. 强烈人为作用下城镇周围汞的空间变异及其积累迁移规律%SPATIAL VARIABILITY, ACCUMULATION AND TRANSFER OF Hg IN SOILS AROUND TOWNS UNDER INTENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITIES IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA REGION, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 黄标; 孙维侠; 赵永存

    2011-01-01

    研究土壤中汞(Hg)元素积累的空间变异和迁移转化规律对土壤利用、环境评价和污染修复具有重要参考价值.本研究选择经济发展迅速的苏南某地为研究区域,对土壤、水稻和大气降尘中的Hg进行了详细分析.结果表明,该区域土壤全汞平均含量达1345μg kg-1,有效汞(HCl-Hg)平均含量51 μg kg-1,水稻Hg平均含量20 μg kg-1,大气Hg沉降量为5.13 g km-230 d-1.土壤和水稻高含量Hg主要积聚于城镇周边,随着与城镇距离的增加其含量逐渐减少.大气Hg沉降量在空间上变化不大.进入土壤中的Hg主要在土壤表层0~20 cm范围内富集,但直至60 cm深处依然存在积累现象,整个剖面土壤活性态汞和半活性态汞含量占全汞的比例变化不大.研究区土壤出现了明显Hg积累,导致水稻Hg吸收明显增加,不少样点超过了国家土壤环境质量二级标准(300μg kg-1)和国家食品污染物限量标准(20 μg kg-1),可能对环境和人体健康产生危害.较低的大气Hg沉降量和土壤积累的Hg已与土壤条件达到平衡的事实表明,目前Hg的积累已明显减少.今后应采取措施修复污染土壤或者通过改变作物种类来减少土壤Hg含量或抑制作物对Hg的吸收,达到环境治理的目的.%The research on spatial variability, accumulation and transfer of soil mercury (Hg) has great reference values to soil utilization, environmental assessment and polluted soil remediation. Mercury in the soil, rice and atmospheric deposition in an area with fast developing economy in the South Jiangsu was analyzed. It was found that on average, the soil total Hg was 1345 μg kg-1, available (HCl-extractable or HCl-Hg) 51 μg kg-1, Hg in rice 20 μg kg-1 and Hg in atmospheric deposition 5.13 g km-2 30 d-1. Spatially, high Hg concentrations in soil and rice were found mainly in places closely around the town, and the concentration decreased exponentially with the distance of the sampling site from

  17. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  18. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer. METHODS: Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed. RESULTS: Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics

  19. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  20. Spatial Keyword Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lisi; Jensen, Christian S.; Wu, Dingming

    2013-01-01

    an all-around survey of 12 state- of-the-art geo-textual indices. We propose a benchmark that en- ables the comparison of the spatial keyword query performance. We also report on the findings obtained when applying the bench- mark to the indices, thus uncovering new insights that may guide index...

  1. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  2. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  3. Handbook of Spatial Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…

  4. Assessing spatial data infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grus, L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades many countries and regions throughout the world have taken steps to establish Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs). Developing SDIs requires a considerable amount of time, energy and financial resources. Therefore it is increasingly important to assess SDI outcomes in order

  5. Creating spatial organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial

  6. The Spatial Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggett, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Discusses basic economic factors including resources, labor, and capital and discusses the flows that link them together in a recognizable geographical pattern. Suggests that geographers can contribute to better understanding of the spatial economy by undertaking research with scholars from other disciplines. (Author/DB)

  7. Cartography: LACIE's spatial processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, M. L.; Vela, R. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial processing needs of LACIE include the location of agricultural test sites, and the registration of ground truth to LANDSAT imagery. The technological aspects of LACIE cartographic support, the need for cartography in satellite crop surveys, and proposed improvements which would enhance support of future programs are discussed.

  8. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    2002-01-01

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a d

  9. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2...

  10. Time dependence of biomarkers: Non-proportional effects of immunohistochemical panels predicting relapse risk in early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stephen; G. Murray; D.A. Cameron (David); J. Thomas; I. Kunkler (Ian); W. Jack (W.); G.R. Kerr; M.D. Piper; C.L. Brookes (Cassandra); D.W. Rea; C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); A. Hasenburg (Annette); C. Markopoulos; L.Y. Dirix (Luc); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.M.S. Bartlett (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground:We investigated the impact of follow-up duration to determine whether two immunohistochemical prognostic panels, IHC4 and Mammostrat, provide information on the risk of early or late distant recurrence using the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series and the Tamoxifen vs Exemest

  11. Application of selected multi-axial fatigue criteria on the results of non-proportional fatigue experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the experimental results obtained from the combined loading of the specimens in the field of high-cycle fatigue. Those specimens were manufactured from common construction steel 11523.1, melt T31052.The following experiments were performed: The first set of the specimen was loaded by the alternating bending amplitude. The second set was loaded by the amplitude of the bending in combination with constant inner overpressure. The results were evaluated by the conjugated strength criterion and another generally used multiaxial fatigue criteria. The stress-strain analysis of the specimens by FEM was performed to determine parameters (constants of particular strength criteria.

  12. Astigmatism transfer phenomena in the optical parametric amplification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkai; Chen, Yun; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun; Leng, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigate the astigmatism transfer phenomena in femtosecond optical parametric amplification (OPA). We model the OPA process based on the coupled second-order three-wave nonlinear propagation equations. The numerical and experimental results support that the input pump pulse astigmatism can be transferred into the idler pulse but not the signal pulse, and the idler pulse astigmatism originating from spatial walk-off is less than the idler pulse astigmatism received from the pump. Thus, we can provide a clear understanding of astigmatism transfer mechanisms in the OPA process, and make better use of broadband tunable OPA sources.

  13. Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J E; Moran, E C; Zmek, W P

    1988-04-15

    By using Fourier techniques and linear systems theory we have derived an analytic expression for a generalized transfer function for grazing incidence optical systems operating at ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths that includes the effects of optical fabrication errors over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies. The Fourier transform of this transfer function yields the image distribution (or point spread function) from which encircled energy characteristics or other image quality criteria can be obtained. This transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems allows parametric trade studies and sensitivity analyses to be performed as well as the derivation of fabrication tolerances necessary to satisfy a given image quality requirement.

  14. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between...... Danish and Vietnamese firms. The paper suggests that learning in IJVs, even in the context of one-way knowledge transfer from the foreign parent, should be managed in a mutual perspective and with thoughtful coordination of individual learning....

  15. Knowledge transfer isn’t simply transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li; Napier, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    and outcome of knowledge transfer from joint venture parents and learning in IJVs are dependent on how individual managers (including both expatriate and local) learn, perceive their learning roles, and enact a learning agenda. Empirical evidence is drawn from two cases of international joint ventures between......This paper examines micro dynamic aspects of knowledge sharing and learning in international joint venture settings. Learning of expatriate and local managers appears far more complex and mutually dependent than conventionally speculated in existing literature. The paper proposes that the effect...... Danish and Vietnamese firms. The paper suggests that learning in IJVs, even in the context of one-way knowledge transfer from the foreign parent, should be managed in a mutual perspective and with thoughtful coordination of individual learning....

  16. A Spatial Distribution Pattern-driven Spatial Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Mingguang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Packing spatial data into blocks and processing of global impact of local operations are two important tasks for spatial index to support bulk operations. In this paper, we present a new spatial index called Pattern-tree for bulk operations with spatial distribution pattern analysis. For packing objects into blocks, a new spatial data partitioning method based on the detection of the spatial distribution pattern was presented. This paper introduces a novel spatial index construction algorithm that combines of top-down and bottom-up methods; For processing of local update operations and its global impact, this paper introduces a new algorithm based on change analysis of the spatial distribution pattern. Empirical results demonstrate that performance improvements are achieved in practice in the case of spatial index construction and windows query compared with STLT, GBI and SCB.

  17. Hyperspecificity in Visual Implicit Learning: Learning of Spatial Layout Is Contingent on Item Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Humans conduct visual search faster when the same display is presented for a 2nd time, showing implicit learning of repeated displays. This study examines whether learning of a spatial layout transfers to other layouts that are occupied by items of new shapes or colors. The authors show that spatial context learning is sometimes contingent on item…

  18. Technology transfer 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document, Technology Transfer 94, is intended to communicate that there are many opportunities available to US industry and academic institutions to work with DOE and its laboratories and facilities in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. It has seven major sections: Introduction, Technology Transfer Activities, Access to Laboratories and Facilities, Laboratories and Facilities, DOE Office, Technologies, and an Index. Technology Transfer Activities highlights DOE`s recent developments in technology transfer and describes plans for the future. Access to Laboratories and Facilities describes the many avenues for cooperative interaction between DOE laboratories or facilities and industry, academia, and other government agencies. Laboratories and Facilities profiles the DOE laboratories and facilities involved in technology transfer and presents information on their missions, programs, expertise, facilities, and equipment, along with data on whom to contact for additional information on technology transfer. DOE Offices summarizes the major research and development programs within DOE. It also contains information on how to access DOE scientific and technical information. Technologies provides descriptions of some of the new technologies developed at DOE laboratories and facilities.

  19. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  20. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rops, C.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: cor.rops@tno.nl; Lindken, R. [Laboratory for Aero and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands); Velthuis, J.F.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Westerweel, J. [Laboratory for Aero and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found that a reduction of the pool diameter leads to an enhancement of the nucleate boiling heat flux for most of the boiling curve. Our experimental results indicate that this enhancement is not affected by the depth of the boiling pot, the material of the bounding wall, or the diameter of the inlet water supply. High-speed camera imaging shows that the heat transfer enhancement for the spatially confined pool boiling occurs in conjunction with a stable circulating flow, which is in contrast to the chaotic and mainly upward motion for boiling in larger pool diameters. An explanation for the enhancement of the heat transfer and the associated change in flow pattern is found in the singularisation of the nucleate boiling process.

  1. Radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer B.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiative transfer in clouds is a challenging task, due to their high spatial and temporal variability which is unrivaled by any other atmospheric species. Clouds are among the main modulators of radiation along its path through the Earth’s atmosphere. The cloud feedback is the largest source of uncertainty in current climate model predictions. Cloud observation from satellites, on a global scale, with appropriate temporal and spatial sampling is therefore one of the top aims of current Earth observation missions. In this chapter three-dimensional methods for radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres are described, which allow to study cloud-radiation interaction at the level needed to better understand the fundamental details driving climate and to better exploit remote sensing algorithms. The Monte Carlo technique is introduced which allows to handle nearly arbitrarily complex atmospheric conditions. The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparison between different models and with observations. Finally, we show some examples and discuss under which conditions three-dimensional methods are actually needed and when commonly-used one-dimensional approximations are applicable. This chapter builds upon the excellent overview of one-dimensional radiative transfer in ERCA Volume 3 [B. Pinty and M.M. Verstraete, ERCA 3, 67 (1998].

  2. Heat transfer equipment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. K.; Subbarao, Eleswarapu Chinna; Mashelkar, R. A.

    A comprehensive presentation is made of state-of-the-art configurations and design methodologies for heat transfer devices applicable to industrial processes, automotive systems, air conditioning/refrigeration, cryogenics, and petrochemicals refining. Attention is given to topics in heat exchanger mechanical design, single-phase convection processes, thermal design, two-phase exchanger thermal design, heat-transfer augmentation, and rheological effects. Computerized analysis and design methodologies are presented for the range of heat transfer systems, as well as advanced methods for optimization and performance projection.

  3. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  4. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  5. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  6. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  7. Digitized Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Kamran; Young, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    This presentation presents theoretical and numerical results describing digitized heat transfer (DHT), an active thermal management technique for high-power electronics and integrated micro systems. In digitized heat transfer discrete droplets are employed. The internal flow inside a discrete droplet is dominated by internal circulation imposed by the boundaries. This internal circulation imposes a new timescale for recirculating cold liquid from the middle of the droplet to the boundary. This internal circulation produces periodic oscillation in the overall convective heat transfer rate. Numerical simulations are presented for heat transfer in the droplet for both constant temperature and flux boundary conditions. The effectiveness of DHT for managing both localized temperature spikes and steady state cooling is demonstrated, identifying key parameters for optimization of the DHT method.

  8. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  9. Condensation heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. W.

    The paper gives a brief description of some of the better understood aspects of condensation heat transfer and includes discussion of the liquid-vapour interface, natural and forced convection laminar film condensation and dropwise condensation.

  10. Analytical heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin

    2012-01-01

    … it will complete my library … [and] complement the existing literature on heat transfer. It will be of value for both graduate students and faculty members.-Bengt Sunden, Lund University, Sweden

  11. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  12. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  13. Transfer-Function Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer function simulator constructed from analog or both analog and digital components substitute for device that has faults that confound analysis of feedback control loop. Simulator is substitute for laser and spectrophone.

  14. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  15. Mississippi Technology Transfer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Mississippi Technology Transfer Center at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., was officially dedicated in 1987. The center is home to several state agencies as well as the Center For Higher Learning.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement using tip and junction vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Mark Cecil

    1998-10-01

    Single-phase convective heat transfer can be enhanced by modifying the heat transfer surface to passively generate streamwise vortices. The swirling flow of the vortices modifies the temperature field, thinning the thermal boundary layer and increasing surface convection. Tip vortices generated by delta wings and junction vortices generated by hemispherical protuberances were studied in laminar flat-plate and developing channel flows. Local and average convective measurements were obtained, and the structure of the vortices was studied using quantitative flow visualization and vortex strength measurements. The pressure drop penalty associated with the heat transfer enhancement was also investigated. Tip vortices generated by delta wings enhanced local convection by as much as 300% over a flat-plate boundary layer flow. Vortex strength increased with Reynolds number based on chord length, wing aspect ratio, and wing angle of attack. As the vortices were advected downstream, they decayed because of viscous interactions. In the developing channel flow, tip vortices produced a significant local heat transfer enhancement on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 55%; it was accompanied by a 100% increase in the pressure drop relative to the same channel flow with no delta-wing vortex generator. Junction vortices created by hemispherical surface protuberances provided local heat transfer enhancements as large as 250%. Vortex strength increased with an increasing ratio of hemisphere radius to local boundary layer thickness on a flat plate. In the developing channel flows, heat transfer enhancements were observed on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 50%; it was accompanied by a 90% pressure drop penalty relative to the same channel flow with no hemispherical vortex generator. This research is important in compact heat exchanger design. Enhancing heat transfer can lead to

  17. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  18. Advances in heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnett, James P; Cho, Young I; Greene, George A

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer is the exchange of heat energy between a system and its surrounding environment, which results from a temperature difference and takes place by means of a process of thermal conduction, mechanical convection, or electromagnetic radiation. Advances in Heat Transfer is designed to fill the information gap between regularly scheduled journals and university-level textbooks by providing in-depth review articles over a broader scope than is allowable in either journals or texts.

  19. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively.

  20. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  1. Shielded cells transfer automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J J

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures.

  2. Audibility of spectral differences in head-related transfer functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.F.; Møller, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The spatial resolution at which head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are available is an important aspect in the implementation of three-dimensional sound. Specifically, synthesis of moving sound requires that HRTFs are sufficiently close so the simulated sound is perceived as moving smoothly....

  3. Contextual determinants of the social-transfer-of-learning effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanese, N.; Iani, C.; Sebanz, N.; Rubichi, S.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study (Milanese et al. in Cogn 116(1):15-22, 2010) showed that performing a spatial compatibility task with incompatible S-R links (i.e., the practice task) alongside a co-actor eliminates the Simon effect in a subsequent joint Simon task (i.e., the transfer task). In the present study, we

  4. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  5. Particle detector spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

  6. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and cultural environments of the modern and contemporary metropolis. The contributions focus on urban and suburban cultures of Copenhagen, New York, Hong Kong, Berlin and anderswo, demonstrating how the precise analysis of cultural and artistic phenomena informs a multilayered understanding......RUMLIG KULTUR / SPATIAL CULTURE præsenterer et humanvidenskabeligt livtag med storbyens erfaringsverden. Emnerne for 21 kapitler spænder fra billedhuggeren Bjørn Nørgaard og boligbyggeriet Bispebjerg Bakke til stedsopfattelsen i moderne guidebøger. Undervjs inddrages bykulturens tænkere såsom Steen...... artikler et forskningsfelt for rumlig kultur, hvori alskens sanse- og refleksionsformer finder sammen. Based in humanistic urban studies as practiced in the Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, SPATIAL CULTURE outlines a novel framework for understanding the social...

  7. SDPG: Spatial Data Processing Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Nong(肖侬); FUV Wei(付伟)

    2003-01-01

    Spatial applications will gain high complexity as the volume of spatial data increases rapidly. A suitable data processing and computing infrastructure for spatial applications needs to be established. Over the past decade, grid has become a powerful computing environment for data intensive and computing intensive applications. Integrating grid computing with spatial data processing technology, the authors designed a spatial data processing grid (called SDPG) to address the related problems. Requirements of spatial applications are examined and the architecture of SDPG is described in this paper. Key technologies for implementing SDPG are discussed with emphasis.

  8. A Voronoi-based spatial algebra for spatial relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spatial relation between spatial objects is a very important topic for spatial reasoning, query and analysis in geographical information systems (GIS). The most popular models in current use have fundamental deficiencies in theory. In this paper, a generic algebra for spatial relations is presented, in which (i) appropriate operators from set operators (i.e. union, intersection, difference, difference by, symmetric difference, etc.) are utilized to distinguish the spatial relations between neighboring spatial objects; (ii) three types of values are used for the computational results of set operations-content, dimension and number of connected components; and (iii) a spatial object is treated as a whole but the Voronoi region of an object is employed to enhance its interaction with its neighbours. This algebra overcomes the shortcomings of the existing models and it can effectively describe the relations of spatial objects.

  9. Benefit Transfer: A Review of Methodologies and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V. Westra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For policy makers, regulators and natural resource managers, the resources necessary for original empirical resource valuations are often unavailable. A common alternative to original valuation studies is the practice of benefit transfer—the use of an empirical value estimate or estimates from a previous study or studies for application in a similar context. In order to reduce the error inherent in applying values from one parcel of land to another, researchers commonly use meta-analysis, or the “study of studies”, to provide a more thorough and statistically valid value estimate for use in a benefit transfer. In the practice of benefit transfer, much emphasis has been placed on improving the validity of values for transfer, but fewer studies have focused on the appropriate application of the established estimates. In this article, several often disregarded concerns that should be addressed when practicing benefit transfer are identified. A special focus is placed on spatial considerations and the recent progress that has been made to incorporate spatial trends. Geographic information systems (GIS are advocated as a useful tool for incorporating the spatial aspects of benefit transfer. Consensuses and trends in the literature are acknowledged, and areas of potential improvement are highlighted.

  10. Interlingual Transfer in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娜

    2016-01-01

    Interlingual transfer refers to transfer rules from the first language. There are many differences between English and Chinese, which will unavoidably interfere with the English learning. When the interference of mother tongue fosters target language learning, it is called mother tongue’s positive transfer. Conversely, the mother tongue’s negative transfer will emerge. With mother tongue mode of thinking automatically, Chinese students always make errors when they compose a sentence or write a passage. Interlingual transfer includes three aspects: lexical transfer, grammatical transfer and cultural transfer.

  11. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  12. Nonlocal bacterial electron transfer to hematite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Smith, Steven C.

    2003-03-01

    Mechanisms by which dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria utilize iron and manganese oxide minerals as terminal electron acceptors for respiration are poorly understood. In the absence of exogenous electron shuttle compounds, extracellular electron transfer is generally thought to occur through the interfacial contact area between mineral surfaces and attached cells. Possible alternative reduction pathways have been proposed based on the discovery of a link between an excreted quinone and dissimilatory reduction. In this study, we utilize a novel experimental approach to demonstrate that Shewanella putrefaciens reduces the surface of crystalline iron oxides at spatial locations that are distinct from points of attachment.

  13. Laser induced forward transfer of soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Luculescu, C.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Nagel, M.; Lippert, T.; Dinescu, M.

    2010-12-01

    A strong research effort is presently aimed at patterning methodologies for obtaining controlled defined micrometric polymeric structures for a wide range of applications, including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, medicine etc. Lasers have been identified as appropriate tools for processing of different materials, such as ceramics and metals, but also for soft, easily damageable materials (biological compounds and polymers). In this work we study the dynamics of laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) with a gap between the donor and the receiver substrates, which is the basis for possible applications that require multilayer depositions with high spatial resolution.

  14. Spatial organization and individual mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, J. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with the following topics: the notion of spatial organization or spatial development, present options, considerations concerning the main stream of opinions, and the contribution of science. (author) 13 refs.

  15. Integrated Spatial Filter Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Science Division need for spatial filter arrays for amplitude and wavefront control, Luminit proposes to develop a novel Integrated Spatial...

  16. Enhancement of heat transfer in condensation of refrigerant vapor on horizontal finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Khizhnyakov, S.V. (Northwestern Polytechnic Inst. (SU))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the technique for predicting the heat transfer coefficients in film condensation of Freons on horizontal tubes with different fin geometries that has been improved. The suggested technique allows for the spatial orientation of the different parts of the heat transfer area, the capillary contraction of condensate, and its holdup on the bottom zone of the horizontal tube.

  17. Professional analysis in spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis contributes to accomplishment of the three basic aims of spatial planning: it is basic element for setting spatial policies, concepts and strategies, gives basic information to inhabitants, land owners, investors, planners and helps in performing spatial policies, strategies, plans, programmes and projects. Analysis in planning are generally devoted to: understand current circumstances and emerging conditions within planning decisions; determine priorities of open questions and their solutions; formulate general principles for further development.

  18. University Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cox

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences and general observations of the author at Heriot-Watt University and concerns the transfer of university technology for the purposes of commercialisation. Full commercial exploitation of a university invention generally requires transferring that technology into the industrial arena, usually either by formation of a new company or licensing into an existing company. Commercialisation activities need to be carried out in unison with the prime activities of the university of research and teaching. Responsibility for commercialising university inventions generally rests with a specific group within the university, typically referred to as the technology transfer group. Each technology transfer should be considered individually and appropriate arrangements made for that particular invention. In general, this transfer process involves four stages: identification, evaluation, protection and exploitation. Considerations under these general headings are outlined from a university viewpoint. A phased approach is generally preferred where possible for the evaluation, protection and exploitation of an invention to balance risk with potential reward. Evaluation of the potential opportunity for a university invention involves essentially the same considerations as for an industrial invention. However, there are a range of commercial exploitation routes and potential deals so that only general guidelines can be given. Naturally, the final deal achieved is that which can be negotiated. The potential rewards for the university and inventor are both financial (via licensing income and equity realisation and non-financial.

  19. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  20. Spatial Premise Integration in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Spatial reasoning or locating objects in a spatial space has long been an important area of research in cognitive science because analyzing space categorically and finding objects is a fundamental act of mental perception and cognition. Premise integration in tasks of spatial reasoning has recently received considerable research attention. This is…

  1. Task-specific transfer of perceptual learning across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, David P; Astle, Andrew T; Clavin, Sarah L; Newell, Fiona N

    2016-01-11

    It is now widely accepted that primary cortical areas of the brain that were once thought to be sensory-specific undergo significant functional reorganisation following sensory deprivation. For instance, loss of vision or audition leads to the brain areas normally associated with these senses being recruited by the remaining sensory modalities [1]. Despite this, little is known about the rules governing crossmodal plasticity in people who experience typical sensory development, or the potential behavioural consequences. Here, we used a novel perceptual learning paradigm to assess whether the benefits associated with training on a task in one sense transfer to another sense. Participants were randomly assigned to a spatial or temporal task that could be performed visually or aurally, which they practiced for five days; before and after training, we measured discrimination thresholds on all four conditions and calculated the extent of transfer between them. Our results show a clear transfer of learning between sensory modalities; however, generalisation was limited to particular conditions. Specifically, learned improvements on the spatial task transferred from the visual domain to the auditory domain, but not vice versa. Conversely, benefits derived from training on the temporal task transferred from the auditory domain to visual domain, but not vice versa. These results suggest a unidirectional transfer of perceptual learning from dominant to non-dominant sensory modalities and place important constraints on models of multisensory processing and plasticity.

  2. Telework adoption and formalization in organizations from a knowlegde transfer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, P.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a knowledge transfer perspective, focusing both on 'disruptive' and 'commiting' consequences of teleworking affecting organisational knowledge transfer, to understand variations in the adoption and formalisation of teleworking practices in organisations. It hypothesises the influence of a set of conditions related to the so-called 'knowledge transfer risk': constituent characteristics (i.e., the percentage of knowledge workers; the presence of time and spatial flexible work ar...

  3. Marine Spatial Data Infrastruktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsen, Tino Kastbjerg; Weber, Michael; Hvingel, Line Træholt

    2011-01-01

    En bæredygtig fremtid har stået højt på den politiske dagsorden siden Brundtlandsrapporten udkom i 1987. Geodata spiller en væsentlig rolle i opfyldelse af dette mål. Med udgangspunkt i geodata kan der skabes en datainfrastruktur, der kan være med til at understøtte den planlægning, administratio...... Enabled Society, såvel som i teorier om digital forvaltning (eGovernment). Alle diskurser anerkender vigtigheden af Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), og dermed af geodata, som et redskab og katalysator for processen....

  4. Spatially localized magnetoconvection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Jacono, D; Bergeon, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Knobloch, E, E-mail: lojacono@imft.fr, E-mail: bergeon@imft.fr, E-mail: knobloch@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Numerical continuation is used to compute branches of time-independent, spatially localized convectons in an imposed vertical magnetic field focusing on values of the Chandrasekhar number Q in the range 10 < Q < 10{sup 3}. The calculations reveal that convectons initially grow by nucleating additional cells on either side, but with the build-up of field outside owing to flux expulsion, the convectons are able to transport more heat only by expanding the constituent cells. Thus, at large Q and large Rayleigh numbers, convectons consist of a small number of broad cells. (paper)

  5. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  6. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  7. Modeling of Spatially Correlated Energetic Disorder in Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordt, Pascal; Andrienko, Denis

    2016-01-12

    Mesoscale modeling of organic semiconductors relies on solving an appropriately parametrized master equation. Essential ingredients of the parametrization are site energies (driving forces), which enter the charge transfer rate between pairs of neighboring molecules. Site energies are often Gaussian-distributed and are spatially correlated. Here, we propose an algorithm that generates these energies with a given Gaussian distribution and spatial correlation function. The method is tested on an amorphous organic semiconductor, DPBIC, illustrating that the accurate description of correlations is essential for the quantitative modeling of charge transport in amorphous mesophases.

  8. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  9. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  10. Nuclear transfer in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Linda J; Wilmut, Ian; Mullins, John J

    2004-01-01

    Cloning is the asexual reproduction of an individual, such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Nuclear transfer and cloning have been achieved in a number of species, namely sheep, cows, goats, rabbits, cats and mice, but have been largely unsuccessful, so far, in dogs, primates and rats. Clearly, contributory factors which affect the outcome of successful cloning experiments are not universally applicable to all species. One theme common to all cloning experiments, however, is the overall inefficiency of the process, typically 0-4%. A number of factors contribute to nuclear transfer inefficiency, and we will review mouse cloning experiments, which address these problems, highlighting the importance of donor nucleus choice (somatic or ES cell, fetal or adult, quiescent or actively dividing). Finally, we will summarize the emerging principles which appear to govern nuclear reprogramming and production of clones, and will consider the application of nuclear transfer to the rat.

  11. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  12. Tech transfer outreach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebetrau, S. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides an informal summary of the conference workshop sessions. Tech Transfer Outreach '' was originally designed as an opportunity for national laboratory communications and technology transfer staff to become better acquainted and to discuss matters of mutual interest. When DOE field office personnel asked if they could attend, and then when one of our keynote speakers became a participant in the discussions, the actual event grew in importance. The conference participants--the laboratories and DOE representatives from across the nation--worked to brainstorm ideas. Their objective: identify ways to cooperate for effective (and cost-effective) technology transfer outreach. Thus, this proceedings is truly a product of ten national laboratories and DOE, working together. It candidly presents the discussion of issues and the ideas generated by each working group. The issues and recommendations are a consensus of their views.

  13. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  14. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  15. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  16. The Problem of English Spatial, Non-spatial and Idiomatic Adpositions in Iranian EFL Environment: A Prototypical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of L2 learners’ interlanguage have addressed the complexity of the English adpositional system due to several reasons like L1 transfer, lack of knowledge in L2 and the strong collocational relations of prepositions with other elements of the English language. The major purpose of the present study is to evaluate the performance of Iranian students in dealing with three broad categories of spatial, non-spatial and idiomatic adpositions in English. To achieve the inclinations of the research project, 60 students majoring in TEFL at Roudehen University were selected. A paper-based TOEFL test of English Proficiency was administered to obtain some information about the participants’ general language proficiency. Three completion tasks with the division of spatial, non-spatial (nominal, adjectival and verbal and idiomatic adpositions were administered. The obtained results represented the fact that the Iranian participants were considerably inclined to transfer their L1 adpositional patterns to their L2 production. The correlational analyses indicated that whereas the scores related to adposition task in general, non-spatial as well as the idiomatic subtests were strongly correlated with the scores obtained from the TOEFL test, there was a moderate correlation between the spatial subtest and the TOEFL one. The independent sample t-test results between the freshmen and sophomores dealing with spatial, nominal and adjectival subtests were considered to be significant.  However, in reference to the verbal subtest, the difference between the two groups was not significant. The results obtained from the independent sample t-test indicated no significant differences between the freshmen and sophomores in their performance on idiomatic adpositions. Finally, the result of the correlation coefficients showed high correlation coefficients between the whole adposition test and the three subtests of spatial, non-spatial and idiomatic ones

  17. The Spatial Curvature Endgame

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, C Danielle; Allison, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Current constraints on spatial curvature show that it is dynamically negligible: $|\\Omega_{\\rm K}| \\lesssim 5 \\times 10^{-3}$ (95% CL). Neglecting it as a cosmological parameter would be premature however, as more stringent constraints on $\\Omega_{\\rm K}$ at around the $10^{-4}$ level would offer valuable tests of eternal inflation models and probe novel large-scale structure phenomena. This precision also represents the "curvature floor", beyond which constraints cannot be meaningfully improved due to the cosmic variance of horizon-scale perturbations. In this paper, we discuss what future experiments will need to do in order to measure spatial curvature to this maximum accuracy. Our conservative forecasts show that the curvature floor is unreachable - by an order of magnitude - even with Stage IV experiments, unless strong assumptions are made about dark energy evolution and the optical depth to the CMB. We also discuss some of the novel problems that arise when attempting to constrain a global cosmological...

  18. Transferences of Purkinje systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transferences of heterocentric astigmatic Purkinje systems are special: submatrices B and C, that is, the disjugacy and the divergence of the system, are symmetric and submatrix D (the divarication is the transpose of submatrix A (the dilation.  It is the primary purpose of this paper to provide a proof.  The paper also derives other relationships among the fundamental properties and compact expressions for the transference and optical axis locator of a Purkinje system. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 57-60

  19. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  20. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  1. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P

    1976-01-01

    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  2. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  3. Asynchronous transfer of individually addressable optical channels through a multimode fiber using phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Czarske, Jueurgen W; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Buettner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Multimode fibers are attractive for a variety of applications such as internet data transfer, data center hubs, micromanipulation, optogenetics and other biomedical applications. A major hurdle for imaging through multimode fibers is the occurring scrambling, resulting in a randomization of light. Recently, clear imaging has been successfully accomplished using wavefront shaping, but the spatial information was transferred synchronously only. We demonstrate asynchronous information transmission using individual phase conjugations by employing only one spatial light modulator with multiple windows. Our findings pave the way towards individual signal transfer inside strongly scattering media.

  4. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......, and present four key areas of spatial and spatio-temporal analytics: Spatial Outlier Detection, Spatial Clustering, Spatial Predictive Models, Spatial Pattern and Rule Mining. All key areas are well-established outside the context of games and hold the potential to reshape the research roadmap in game...

  5. ECoS, a framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John R W; Gorley, Ray N

    2003-10-01

    A general framework for modelling hierarchical spatial systems has been developed and implemented as the ECoS3 software package. The structure of this framework is described, and illustrated with representative examples. It allows the set-up and integration of sets of advection-diffusion equations representing multiple constituents interacting in a spatial context. Multiple spaces can be defined, with zero, one or two-dimensions and can be nested, and linked through constituent transfers. Model structure is generally object-oriented and hierarchical, reflecting the natural relations within its real-world analogue. Velocities, dispersions and inter-constituent transfers, together with additional functions, are defined as properties of constituents to which they apply. The resulting modular structure of ECoS models facilitates cut and paste model development, and template model components have been developed for the assembly of a range of estuarine water quality models. Published examples of applications to the geochemical dynamics of estuaries are listed.

  6. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  7. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  8. Tendon Transfer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... include: Repair or transfer of nerves Repair of muscle or tendon Splinting or fusion of joints Find a hand surgeon in your area to discuss the best ...

  9. Transfer metrics analytics project

    CERN Document Server

    Matonis, Zygimantas

    2016-01-01

    This report represents work done towards predicting transfer rates/latencies on Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites using Machine Learning techniques. Topic covered are technologies used for the project, data preparation for ML suitable format and attribute selection as well as a comparison of different ML algorithms.

  10. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  11. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  12. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...

  13. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, National Nuclear Regulator, P O Box 7106, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  14. Diazo transfer at polydopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Mrówczyńsk, R.; Magerusan, L.; Turcu, R.; Liebscher, J

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of introducing azido functions onto polydopamine by diazo transfer making use of existing aminoethyl moieties was verified at polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The resulting azidofunctionalized Fe3O4@polydopamine nanoparticles serve as a magnetic nano-platform for the introduction of interesting applicatory functions by click-chemistry (CuAAC) as exemplified by linking biotin, tetraacetylglucose, dansyl and proline.

  15. Keypoint Transfer Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, C; Toews, M; Langs, G; Wells, W; Golland, P

    2015-01-01

    We present an image segmentation method that transfers label maps of entire organs from the training images to the novel image to be segmented. The transfer is based on sparse correspondences between keypoints that represent automatically identified distinctive image locations. Our segmentation algorithm consists of three steps: (i) keypoint matching, (ii) voting-based keypoint labeling, and (iii) keypoint-based probabilistic transfer of organ label maps. We introduce generative models for the inference of keypoint labels and for image segmentation, where keypoint matches are treated as a latent random variable and are marginalized out as part of the algorithm. We report segmentation results for abdominal organs in whole-body CT and in contrast-enhanced CT images. The accuracy of our method compares favorably to common multi-atlas segmentation while offering a speed-up of about three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, keypoint transfer requires no training phase or registration to an atlas. The algorithm's robustness enables the segmentation of scans with highly variable field-of-view.

  16. Transfer function matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  17. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  18. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  19. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  20. Supervised Transfer Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2014-07-27

    A combination of the sparse coding and transfer learn- ing techniques was shown to be accurate and robust in classification tasks where training and testing objects have a shared feature space but are sampled from differ- ent underlying distributions, i.e., belong to different do- mains. The key assumption in such case is that in spite of the domain disparity, samples from different domains share some common hidden factors. Previous methods often assumed that all the objects in the target domain are unlabeled, and thus the training set solely comprised objects from the source domain. However, in real world applications, the target domain often has some labeled objects, or one can always manually label a small num- ber of them. In this paper, we explore such possibil- ity and show how a small number of labeled data in the target domain can significantly leverage classifica- tion accuracy of the state-of-the-art transfer sparse cod- ing methods. We further propose a unified framework named supervised transfer sparse coding (STSC) which simultaneously optimizes sparse representation, domain transfer and classification. Experimental results on three applications demonstrate that a little manual labeling and then learning the model in a supervised fashion can significantly improve classification accuracy.

  1. An improved transfer-matrix model for optical superlenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ciaran P; Blaikie, Richard J; Arnold, Matthew D

    2009-08-01

    The use of transfer-matrix analyses for characterizing planar optical superlensing systems is studied here, and the simple model of the planar superlens as an isolated imaging element is shown to be defective in certain situations. These defects arise due to neglected interactions between the superlens and the spatially varying shadow masks that are normally used as scattering objects for imaging, and which are held in near-field proximity to the superlenses. An extended model is proposed that improves the accuracy of the transfer-matrix analysis, without adding significant complexity, by approximating the reflections from the shadow mask by those from a uniform metal layer. Results obtained using both forms of the transfer matrix model are compared to finite element models and two example superlenses, one with a silver monolayer and the other with three silver sublayers, are characterized. The modified transfer matrix model gives much better agreement in both cases.

  2. 3D Continuum Radiative Transfer. An adaptive grid construction algorithm based on the Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolini, G.; Alcolea, J.

    Solving the radiative transfer problem is a common problematic to may fields in astrophysics. With the increasing angular resolution of spatial or ground-based telescopes (VLTI, HST) but also with the next decade instruments (NGST, ALMA, ...), astrophysical objects reveal and will certainly reveal complex spatial structures. Consequently, it is necessary to develop numerical tools being able to solve the radiative transfer equation in three dimensions in order to model and interpret these observations. I present a 3D radiative transfer program, using a new method for the construction of an adaptive spatial grid, based on the Monte Claro method. With the help of this tools, one can solve the continuum radiative transfer problem (e.g. a dusty medium), computes the temperature structure of the considered medium and obtain the flux of the object (SED and images).

  3. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region...

  4. Spatial Standard Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  5. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes......, the results are compatible with the data and, at the same time, favor sharp transitions. The focusing strategy can also be used to constrain the 1D solutions laterally, guaranteeing that lateral sharp transitions are retrieved without losing resolution. By means of real and synthetic datasets, sharp...

  6. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    . In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  7. Themis observations of the LLBL spatial profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Oksana; Dusik, Stefan; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2010-05-01

    A study of spatial and temporal profiles of the Low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is important for our understanding of processes involved in formation of this layer as well as in plasma transfer processes at the boundary between the magnetosheath and plasma sheet. In situ observations by five Themis spacecraft during their "string-of-pearls" configuration provide us with the comprehensive data set for a detail analysis of the LLBL structure. Preliminary results revealed smooth and monotonous changes of the ion density and temperature over a whole thickness of the LLBL that is near 1 Re under steady upstream conditions and the positive Bz component of the interplanetary/magnetosheath magnetic field. We present a case study under both quiet conditions and sudden changes of the magnetic field orientation leading to reformation of the LLBL profile from smooth to non-monotonous. We found distortions of the magnetopause surface as the main reason of apparent non-monotonous LLBL structure.

  8. Spatial perception of sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays with varying spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Amir; Ahrens, Jens; Geier, Matthias; Spors, Sascha; Wierstorf, Hagen; Rafaely, Boaz

    2013-05-01

    The area of sound field synthesis has significantly advanced in the past decade, facilitated by the development of high-quality sound-field capturing and re-synthesis systems. Spherical microphone arrays are among the most recently developed systems for sound field capturing, enabling processing and analysis of three-dimensional sound fields in the spherical harmonics domain. In spite of these developments, a clear relation between sound fields recorded by spherical microphone arrays and their perception with a re-synthesis system has not yet been established, although some relation to scalar measures of spatial perception was recently presented. This paper presents an experimental study of spatial sound perception with the use of a spherical microphone array for sound recording and headphone-based binaural sound synthesis. Sound field analysis and processing is performed in the spherical harmonics domain with the use of head-related transfer functions and simulated enclosed sound fields. The effect of several factors, such as spherical harmonics order, frequency bandwidth, and spatial sampling, are investigated by applying the repertory grid technique to the results of the experiment, forming a clearer relation between sound-field capture with a spherical microphone array and its perception using binaural synthesis regarding space, frequency, and additional artifacts. The experimental study clearly shows that a source will be perceived more spatially sharp and more externalized when represented by a binaural stimuli reconstructed with a higher spherical harmonics order. This effect is apparent from low spherical harmonics orders. Spatial aliasing, as a result of sound field capturing with a finite number of microphones, introduces unpleasant artifacts which increased with the degree of aliasing error.

  9. Spatially enabling the health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article we offer the view that greater utilisation of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike.In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high and low-resource settings.

  10. Deriving Extensional Spatial Composition Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Geresy, Baher; Abdelmoty, Alia I.; Ware, Andrew J.

    Spatial composition tables are fundamental tools for the realisation of qualitative spatial reasoning techniques. Studying the properties of these tables in relation to the spatial calculi they are based on is essential for understanding the applicability of these calculi and how they can be extended and generalised. An extensional interpretation of a spatial composition table is an important property that has been studied in the literature and is used to determine the validity of the table for the models it is proposed for. It provides means for consistency checking of ground sets of relations and for addressing spatial constraint satisfaction problems. Furthermore, two general conditions that can be used to test for extensionality of spatial composition tables are proposed and applied to the RCC8 composition table to verify the allowable models in this calculus.

  11. The spectral signature of cloud spatial structure in shortwave irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; King, Michael D.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Walther, Andi; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Wind, Gala; Coddington, Odele M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we used cloud imagery from a NASA field experiment in conjunction with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to show that cloud spatial structure manifests itself as a spectral signature in shortwave irradiance fields – specifically in transmittance and net horizontal photon transport in the visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength range. We found a robust correlation between the magnitude of net horizontal photon transport (H) and its spectral dependence (slope), which is scale-invariant and holds for the entire pixel population of a domain. This was surprising at first given the large degree of spatial inhomogeneity. We prove that the underlying physical mechanism for this phenomenon is molecular scattering in conjunction with cloud spatial structure. On this basis, we developed a simple parameterization through a single parameter ε, which quantifies the characteristic spectral signature of spatial inhomogeneities. In the case we studied, neglecting net horizontal photon transport leads to a local transmittance bias of ±12–19 %, even at the relatively coarse spatial resolution of 20 km. Since three-dimensional effects depend on the spatial context of a given pixel in a nontrivial way, the spectral dimension of this problem may emerge as the starting point for future bias corrections. PMID:28824698

  12. Multimedia, spatial visualization, and the Earth and Space Science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavich, Carrie

    It is important that Earth and Space science educators understand how their students develop the ability to visualize three-dimensional (3D) concepts. The purpose of this study is to provide Earth and Space Science instructors with information on what spatial skills that are needed in the classroom can be integrated from outside sources. Two specific questions guided the research: (1) Do spatial skills developed in one academic subject transfer to another academic subject? (2) Do spatial skills developed outside of the classroom via 3D multimedia have a significant impact on performance on academic tasks? Fifty-three students at the University of Texas at Dallas were tested on three types of spatial tasks: spatial rotation ability, geo-spatial penetrative ability, and geometry of the Earth-Moon-Sun system. Demographic data collected included academic major, previous coursework in geology and astronomy, and computer usage habits. The computer usage data was divided into three- dimensional multimedia use, and other types of computer use such as word processing and Internet browsing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Enhanced condensation heat transfer with wettability patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ghosh, Aritra; Ganguly, Ranjan; Megaridis, Constantine

    2015-11-01

    Condensation of water vapor on metal surfaces is useful for many engineering applications. A facile and scalable method is proposed for removing condensate from a vertical plate during dropwise condensation (DWC) in the presence of non-condensable gases (NCG). We use wettability-patterned superhydrophilic tracks (filmwise condensing domains) on a mirror-finish (hydrophilic) aluminum surface that promotes DWC. Tapered, horizontal ``collection'' tracks are laid to create a Laplace pressure driven flow, which collects condensate from the mirror-finish domains and sends it to vertical ``drainage tracks'' for gravity-induced shedding. An optimal design is achieved by changing the fractional area of superhydrophilic tracks with respect to the overall plate surface, and augmenting capillary-driven condensate-drainage by adjusting the track spatial layout. The design facilitates pump-less condensate drainage and enhances DWC heat transfer on the mirror-finish regions. The study highlights the relative influences of the promoting and retarding effects of dropwise and filmwise condensation zones on the overall heat transfer improvement on the substrate. The study demonstrated ~ 34% heat transfer improvement on Aluminum surface for the optimized design.

  14. Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.

  15. Estimating the workpiece-backingplate heat transfer coefficient in friction stirwelding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders; Stolpe, Mathias; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate in a friction stir welding process using inverse modelling. Design/methodology/approach - The magnitude and distribution of the heat...... yields optimal values for the magnitude and distribution of the heat transfer coefficient. Findings - It is found that the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate is non-uniform and takes its maximum value in a region below the welding tool. Four different parameterisations...... of the spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient are analysed and a simple, two parameter distribution is found to give good results. Originality/value - The heat transfer from workpiece to backingplate is important for the temperature field in the workpiece, and in turn the mechanical properties...

  16. Federated Spatial Databases and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a period of information explosion. Especially for spatialinfo rmation science, information can be acquired through many ways, such as man-mad e planet, aeroplane, laser, digital photogrammetry and so on. Spatial data source s are usually distributed and heterogeneous. Federated database is the best reso lution for the share and interoperation of spatial database. In this paper, the concepts of federated database and interoperability are introduced. Three hetero geneous kinds of spatial data, vector, image and DEM are used to create integrat ed database. A data model of federated spatial databases is given

  17. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  18. On the Spatial Ambiguity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Yuryev, Arthur N

    2014-01-01

    The ambiguity function of a spatial signal in the "signal spatial frequency displacement vs antenna linear displacement" coordinates is considered in this paper; in case of a monochromatic signal with known carrier frequency, spatial signal vector angular displacement is considered as the second coordinate. The analysis is made taking into account an external (reradiated or thermal) background which contributes considerable peculiarities in the properties of the spatial ambiguity function. Accuracy of measuring the signal linear or angular displacement and resolution are determined. Examples for the Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones are given.

  19. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  20. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  1. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  2. Wireless power transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  3. Nickel transfer by fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnardo, D; Vidal, J; Panyella, D; Vilaplana, J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated fingers as a potential source of nickel transfer to the face in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and a history of facial dermatitis. Samples were collected from the fingers and cheeks of volunteers using the stripping method with standard adhesive tape, and nickel levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. Fingers and cheeks of individuals who had handled coins were both positive for nickel, with levels ranging from 14.67 to 58.64 ppm and 1.28 to 8.52 ppm, respectively. The levels in a control group were considerably and significantly lower. Transfer of nickel from a person's fingers to their face after handling a nickel-containing object could explain the presence of facial dermatitis in patients with nickel hypersensitivity.

  4. Invisible Transfer: An Unexpected Finding in the Pursuit of Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Danica L.

    2016-01-01

    Much research shows that students do not transfer learning well from one class to the next. This study was designed to investigate if students were transferring rhetorical strategies from their disciplinary courses to advanced writing courses. The findings suggest that business majors not only transferred rhetorical knowledge from their other…

  5. Diazo transfer at polydopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Mrówczyńsk, R.; Magerusan, L.; Turcu, R.; Liebscher, J

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of introducing azido functions onto polydopamine by diazo transfer making use of existing aminoethyl moieties was verified at polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The resulting azidofunctionalized Fe3O4@polydopamine nanoparticles serve as a magnetic nano-platform for the introduction of interesting applicatory functions by click-chemistry (CuAAC) as exemplified by linking biotin, tetraacetylglucose, dansyl and proline. Peer Reviewed

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  7. The argument from transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian

    1996-01-01

    Utilitarian arguments on bioethical issues regarding human reproduction typically start with the view that it is wrong, other things being equal, not to procreate when this would have resulted in an additional being with a life worth living. The paper takes this view for granted and examines the common utilitarian claim that overpopulation and destitution in the world mean that, in practice, this obligation to procreate, other things being equal, often turns into a (categorical) obligation not to procreate. A version of this argument is defended -- a version called the argument from transfer -- according to which, rather than having additional children and care for them in order to make them happy, many people in the West ought to abstain from procreation and take care of destitute children already existing. The reasoning leading up to this conclusion raises some philosophical questions, seldom discussed in connection with bioethics, which indicate that the argument from transfer, although supporting the claim above, cannot neutralise the obligation to create more happy people as easily as assumed by utilitarians. It is argued that the argument from transfer may place many people facing the choice of procreation in a peculiar moral dilemma.

  8. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  9. Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ylia P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Gregersen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective pointof (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near......-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization....... of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe...

  10. Continuum radiative transfer Modeling of Sagittarius B2

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedeke, A.; Schilke, P.; Möller, Th.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Csengeri, T.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Qin, S.L.; Rolffs, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from radiative transfer modeling of the continuum emission towards Sagittarius B2 (hereafter Sgr B2). We have developed a radiative transfer framework – Pandora – that employs RADMC-3D (Dullemond 2012) for a self-consistent determination of the dust temperature. With this pipeline, we have set-up a single model that consistently reproduces the thermal dust and free-free continuum emission of Sgr B2 spanning four orders of magnitude in spatial scales (0.02–45 pc) and two ord...

  11. [Spatial orientation under microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    On Earth, humans are constantly exposed to the gravity. During head and body tilts, the otolith organs sense changes in head orientation with respect to the gravitational vertical. These graviceptors also transduce transient linear acceleration generated by translational head motion and centripetal acceleration during rotation about a distant axis. When individuals are rotated at a constant velocity in a centrifuge, they sense the direction of the summed gravitational and centripetal acceleration as the vertical in the steady state. Consequently they experience a roll-tilt of the body when upright and oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out. This perception of tilt has been called the somatogravic illusion. Under the microgravity, the graviceptors no longer respond during static tilt of the head or head and body, but they are still activated by linear acceleration. Adaptation to weightlessness early in space flight has been proposed to entail a reinterpretation of the signals from the graviceptors (primarily the otolith organs), so that on return to Earth pitch or roll of the head with respect to the vertical is sensed as fore-aft or left-right translation. In this article, formulation of the spatial orientation on the earth and under microgravity was described.

  12. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  13. What Is Technology Transfer? | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) facilitates partnerships between NIH research laboratories and external partners. With a team of technology transfer specialists, NCI TTC guides interactions from discovery to patenting, as well as from collaboration and invention development to licensing.

  14. Spatial Language and Children’s Spatial Landmark Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber A. Ankowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined how spatial language affected search behavior in a landmark spatial search task. In Experiment 1, two- to six-year-old children were trained to find a toy in the center of a square array of four identical landmarks. Children heard one of three spatial language cues once during the initial training trial (“here,” “in the middle,” “next to this one”. After search performance reached criterion, children received a probe test trial in which the landmark array was expanded. In Experiment 2, two- to four-year-old children participated in the search task and also completed a language comprehension task. Results revealed that children’s spatial language comprehension scores and spatial language cues heard during training trials were related to children’s performance in the search task.

  15. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  16. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  17. Student Transfer Matrix, Fall 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    The Student Transfer Matrix provides data on the numbers of students transferring from Oklahoma public and private institutions of higher education to other Oklahoma institutions, using data from receiving institutions. Among the highlights are: the number of students who transferred to four-year and two-year institutions remained steady at 57.8…

  18. 76 FR 73993 - Remittance Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... resolution, and provides a detailed analysis of the services offered by remittance transfer providers. 99 FR... money transfer instruments in paragraph (a). The Board also amended paragraph (b) to remove the language... funds transfers was simply to remove redundant language and has no substantive effect. III. Final...

  19. Teaching Mathematics Understandings for Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting student understanding for transfer is an illusive hallmark of effective mathematics instruction. While much research has shown the necessity of promoting understanding for transfer, less attention has been paid to actual pedagogical strategies that can be used to promote transfer of mathematical ideas. Using Fogarty et al. (1992, "How to…

  20. Teaching for Transfer in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    A basic goal of ELT is that students will apply outside the classroom what they have learned in the classroom. This goal is related to transfer of learning. Research on transfer of learning suggests that this phenomenon is not automatic and can be difficult to stimulate. However, instruction can be designed to try to promote transfer of learning.…

  1. Spatial heterogeneity can resolve the nitrogen paradox of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; Levin, Simon A

    2017-01-10

    Many tropical forests are characterized by large losses of plant-available forms of nitrogen (N), indicating that they are N-rich, and by an abundance of plants capable of symbiotic N fixation. These N-fixing plants can fix enough N to drive N-richness. However, biological N fixation (BNF) is more expensive than using plant-available N, so sustained BNF in N-rich soils appears to be a paradox. Here, we use spatially explicit ecosystem models to analyze the conditions under which spatial heterogeneity can induce simultaneous BNF and loss of plant-available N (hereafter, we call this combination "N-rich BNF"). Spatial movement of litter to neighboring plants' rooting zones can maintain N-rich BNF under a variety of conditions. For example, when N-fixers have higher N demand than non-fixers, N-fixers export N-rich litter to non-fixers, inducing large losses of plant-available N from the ecosystem, and receive N-poor litter from non-fixers, inducing BNF. BNF and N loss fluxes increase in proportion to the ratio of N-fixer litter N:P to non-fixer litter N:P, and also in proportion to the fraction of litter transferred out of a tree's rooting zone. Stoichiometric variability augments N-rich BNF, as does increasing the fraction of the landscape occupied by N-fixers, at least when they are rare. On the contrary, greater root overlap between neighbors and clumping of N-fixers diminish N-rich BNF. Finally, we examined how spatial litter transfer interacts with another mechanism that can sustain N-rich BNF, incomplete down-regulation of BNF. Spatial transfer and incomplete down-regulation can both sustain N-rich BNF, but they are compensatory rather than additive. These mechanisms can be distinguished by examining where N losses occur. Incomplete down-regulation of BNF leads to greater N loss under N-fixing trees, whereas spatial litter transfer leads to greater N loss under non-fixing trees. Along with time lags in regulating BNF, these results comprise a series of

  2. Axially Symmetric, Spatially Homothetic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M; Wagh, Sanjay M.; Govinder, Keshlan S.

    2002-01-01

    We show that the existence of appropriate spatial homothetic Killing vectors is directly related to the separability of the metric functions for axially symmetric spacetimes. The density profile for such spacetimes is (spatially) arbitrary and admits any equation of state for the matter in the spacetime. When used for studying axisymmetric gravitational collapse, such solutions do not result in a locally naked singularity.

  3. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  4. Urban Screen and Spatial Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litta Primasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is discussing about the urban screen phenomena and its influence to spatial dimension in urban space. The visual characteristics which are forming a spatial dimension will be an emphasis to be presented. Urban screen as a visual intervention has an impact to spatial configuration in urban space. The space dimension was not dominated with materiality limitation, but also images. We have to consider that people senses can measure a spatial dimension, knowing as a perception. That is a human visual and mind relation. The spatial dimension has no longer tangible boundary, but also has intangible ones. Spatial dimension in urban screens phenomena is not merely mathematics, nor spatial dimension in physics which are based on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Movement can be expressed in other terms, by how far we can move depends on our eyes to catch that space limitation, and how fast we can move is depends on our mind to perceive some visual phenomenon, that is a spatial dimension. So, the dimension will depend on a visual quality that we perceived. The movement of the body and people’s thought will be an important term to generate the space dimension in urban screen phenomenon. The activity of body’s movement and thought will influence the depth of space dimension.

  5. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...

  6. Building dynamic spatial environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    An environmental model is a representation or imitation of complex natural phenomena that can be discerned by human cognitive processes. This thesis deals with the type of environmental models referred to as dynamic spatial environmental models. The word ‘spatial’ refers to the geographic domain whi

  7. Spatial planning of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

  8. Elements of a Spatial Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    and are relevant to a text argument. An important element in enabling such queries is to be able to rank spatial web objects. Another is to be able to determine the relevance of an object to a query. Yet another is to enable the efficient processing of such queries. The talk covers recent results on spatial web...

  9. Auditory Spatial Perception without Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Valuable insights into the role played by visual experience in shaping spatial representations can be gained by studying the effects of visual deprivation on the remaining sensory modalities. For instance, it has long been debated how spatial hearing evolves in the absence of visual input. While several anecdotal accounts tend to associate complete blindness with exceptional hearing abilities, experimental evidence supporting such claims is, however, matched by nearly equal amounts of evidence documenting spatial hearing deficits. The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which support either enhancements or deficits in spatial hearing observed following visual loss and to provide a conceptual framework that isolates the specific conditions under which they occur. Available evidence will be examined in terms of spatial dimensions (horizontal, vertical, and depth perception) and in terms of frames of reference (egocentric and allocentric). Evidence suggests that while early blind individuals show superior spatial hearing in the horizontal plane, they also show significant deficits in the vertical plane. Potential explanations underlying these contrasting findings will be discussed. Early blind individuals also show spatial hearing impairments when performing tasks that require the use of an allocentric frame of reference. Results obtained with late-onset blind individuals suggest that early visual experience plays a key role in the development of both spatial hearing enhancements and deficits. PMID:28066286

  10. Modeling for spatial multilevel structural data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Suqin; He, Xiaoqun

    2013-03-01

    The traditional multilevel model assumed independence between groups. However, the datasets grouped by geographical units often has spatial dependence. The individual is influenced not only by its region but also by the adjacent regions, and level-2 residual distribution assumption of traditional multilevel model is violated. In order to deal with such spatial multilevel data, we introduce spatial statistics and spatial econometric models into multilevel model, and apply spatial parameters and adjacency matrix in traditional level-2 model to reflect the spatial autocorrelation. Spatial lag model express spatial effects. We build spatial multilevel model which consider both multilevel thinking and spatial correlation.

  11. Spatial experiences and interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Peter

    2006-01-01

    IT is rapidly spreading to non-desktop environments, and is increasingly being used for post-functional purposes. Recent contributions within the field of interaction design have indicated a tight coupling between physico-spatial and experiential issues, both on a technological and on a theoretical...... level. However, interaction design and HCI yet has little to offer designers working with physico-spatial and experiential issues in practical design cases. In this paper, I argue that experiments that explore spatial and experiential aspects are crucial in developing the practice of interaction design....... These  aspects may be brought to the forefront by engaging in, reflecting upon, and reporting from physico-spatial design experiments, and by making spatial and experience-oriented design representations part of the design process. These experiments may be supported by design representations inspired...

  12. Perspectives on spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This book takes both a retrospective and prospective view of the field of spatial analysis by combining selected reprints of classic articles by Arthur Getis with current observations by leading experts in the field. Four main aspects are highlighted, dealing with spatial analysis, pattern analysis, local statistics as well as illustrative empirical applications. Researchers and students will gain an appreciation of Getis' methodological contributions to spatial analysis and the broad impact of the methods he has helped pioneer on an impressively broad array of disciplines including spatial epidemiology, demography, economics, and ecology. The volume is a compilation of high impact original contributions, as evidenced by citations, and the latest thinking on the field by leading scholars. This makes the book ideal for advanced seminars and courses in spatial analysis as well as a key resource for researchers seeking a comprehensive overview of recent advances and future directions in the field.

  13. Spatial-temporal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrajac, Dragoljub Milos

    Spatial-temporal data mining techniques have become increasingly important in emerging fields such as remote sensing, precision agriculture, geoscience and brain imaging. In this Thesis, novel spatial-temporal data mining methods and algorithms are presented. After the introductory remarks, modeling spatial-temporal attributes with short observation history using spatial-temporal autoregressive models on uniform grid is explored. Model specifications (including covariance structure and stationarity) are discussed as well as issues in model identification, estimation and forecasting on three different sampling schedules. The proposed technique is experimentally evaluated on simulated spatial-temporal processes that confirm to model assumptions as well as on real-life agricultural data. Subsequently, we proceed with spatial-temporal prediction of a response variable with a partial observability of influential attributes. After mathematical definition of the proposed model, evaluation of the estimation technique on synthetic data that conform to the modeling assumptions is performed and a model is assessed on simulated realistic spatial-temporal data, obtained using the proposed data generator. The following part of the Thesis is dedicated to spatial-temporal profit optimization using neural network modeling. Profit optimization is proposed using a two-phase process that consists of estimation of response/attribute dependence and profit optimization for a particular tuple of attribute values. The proposed method is evaluated on simulated precision agriculture data. Next, we introduce a spatial-temporal data simulator, which is an important tool for evaluation of knowledge discovery methods for spatial-temporal domains. Various aspects of the proposed data generator are discussed, including generation of features and simulation of response variable as well as a practical implementation of the proposed method and its application on experiments with simulated data. The

  14. Six Myths About Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Stieff, Mike

    2012-04-01

    Visualizations are an increasingly important part of scientific education and discovery. However, users often do not gain knowledge from them in a complete or efficient way. This article aims to direct research on visualizations in science education in productive directions by reviewing the evidence for widespread assumptions that learning styles, sex differences, developmental stages, and spatial language determine the impact of visualizations on science learning. First, we examine the assumption that people differ in their verbal versus visual learning style. Due to the lack of rigorous evaluation, there is no current support for this distinction. Future research should distinguish between two different kinds of visual learning style. Second, we consider the belief that there are large and intractable sex differences in spatial ability resultant from immutable biological reasons. Although there are some spatial sex differences (in some types of spatial tests although not all), there is actually only very mixed support for biological causation. Most important, there is conclusive evidence that spatial skills can be improved through training and education. Third, we explore educators' use of Piaget's ideas about spatial development to draw conclusions about 'developmental appropriateness'. However, recent research on spatial development has focused on identifying sequences that begin with early starting points of skill, and spatial education is possible in some form at all ages. Fourth, although spatial language does not determine spatial thought, it does frame attention in a way that can have impact on learning and understanding. We examine the empirical support for each assumption and its relevance to future research on visualizations in science education.

  15. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  16. Transferring superfluid helium in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic model of a transfer system for resupplying liquid helium in space is presented, with application to NASA projects including the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Large Deployable Reflector, and the Hubble Space Telescope. The relations between different thermodynamic regimes that can be expected in the transfer line are used to study the relative efficiencies of various possible transfer techniques. Low heat leak into the transfer line, particularly at point sources such as the coupling, is necesssary for efficient transfer of liquid helium, and proper selection of supply tank temperature is important during helium resupply.

  17. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  18. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  19. Emergence of Strange Spatial Pattern in a Spatial Epidemic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Gui-Quan; JIN Zhen; LIU Quan-Xing; LI Li

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate kI2 S/ (1 + αI2) is investigated. Our results show that strange spatial dynamics, i.e., filament-like pattern, can be obtained by both mathematical analysis and numerical simulation, which are different from the previous results in the spatial epidemic model such as stripe-like or spotted or coexistence of both pattern and so on. The obtained results well extend the finding of pattern formation in the epidemic model and may well explain the distribution of the infected of some epidemic.

  20. Investigating wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Stuart A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding Physics is a great end in itself, but is also crucial to keep pace with developments in modern technology. Wireless power transfer, known to many only as a means to charge electric toothbrushes, will soon be commonplace in charging phones, electric cars and implanted medical devices. This article outlines how to produce and use a simple set of equipment to both demonstrate and investigate this phenomenon. It presents some initial findings and aims to encourage Physics educators and their students to conduct further research, pushing the bounds of their understanding.

  1. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  2. Emergency department transfers and transfer relationships in United States hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Dana R; Mutter, Ryan L; Houchens, Robert L; Barrett, Marguerite L; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to describe transfers out of hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and to identify different characteristics of sending and receiving hospitals, travel distance during transfer, disposition on arrival to the second hospital, and median number of transfer partners among sending hospitals. Emergency department records were linked at transferring hospitals to ED and inpatient records at receiving hospitals in nine U.S. states using the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases, the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, and the Trauma Information Exchange Program. Using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS) to categorize conditions, the 50 disease categories with the highest transfer rates were studied, and these were then placed into nine clinical groups. Records were included where both sending and receiving records were available; these data were tabulated to describe ED transfer patterns, hospital-to-hospital distances, final patient disposition, and number of transfer partners. A total of 97,021 ED transfer encounters were included in the analysis from the 50 highest transfer rate disease categories. Among these, transfer rates ranged from 1% to 13%. Circulatory conditions made up about half of all transfers. Receiving hospitals were more likely to be nonprofit, teaching, trauma, and urban and have more beds with greater specialty coverage and more advanced diagnostic and therapeutic resources. The median transfer distance was 23 miles, with 25% traveling more than 40 to 50 miles. About 8% of transferred encounters were discharged from the second ED, but that varied from 0.6% to 53% across the 50 conditions. Sending hospitals had a median of seven transfer partners across all conditions and between one and four per clinical group. Among high-transfer conditions in U.S. EDs, patients are often transferred great distances, more

  3. Detecting the Land-Cover Changes Induced by Large-Physical Disturbances Using Landscape Metrics, Spatial Sampling, Simulation and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hone-Jay Chu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study are to integrate the conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS, sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS and spatial analysis in remotely sensed images, to monitor the effects of large chronological disturbances on spatial characteristics of landscape changes including spatial heterogeneity and variability. The multiple NDVI images demonstrate that spatial patterns of disturbed landscapes were successfully delineated by spatial analysis such as variogram, Moran’I and landscape metrics in the study area. The hybrid method delineates the spatial patterns and spatial variability of landscapes caused by these large disturbances. The cLHS approach is applied to select samples from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images from SPOT HRV images in the Chenyulan watershed of Taiwan, and then SGS with sufficient samples is used to generate maps of NDVI images. In final, the NDVI simulated maps are verified using indexes such as the correlation coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE. Therefore, the statistics and spatial structures of multiple NDVI images present a very robust behavior, which advocates the use of the index for the quantification of the landscape spatial patterns and land cover change. In addition, the results transferred by Open Geospatial techniques can be accessed from web-based and end-user applications of the watershed management.

  4. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of spatial disease variables by Spatial Fuzzy Logic for Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, M.; Rapp, J.; Groessler, M.; Niehaus, E.; Babu, A.; Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) provides support for decision makers and should not be viewed as replacing human intelligence with machines. Therefore it is reasonable that decision makers are able to use a feature to analyze the provided spatial decision support in detail to crosscheck the digital support of the SDSS with their own expertise. Spatial decision support is based on risk and resource maps in a Geographic Information System (GIS) with relevant layers e.g. environmental, health and socio-economic data. Spatial fuzzy logic allows the representation of spatial properties with a value of truth in the range between 0 and 1. Decision makers can refer to the visualization of the spatial truth of single risk variables of a disease. Spatial fuzzy logic rules that support the allocation of limited resources according to risk can be evaluated with measure theory on topological spaces, which allows to visualize the applicability of this rules as well in a map. Our paper is based on the concept of a spatial fuzzy logic on topological spaces that contributes to the development of an adaptive Early Warning And Response System (EWARS) providing decision support for the current or future spatial distribution of a disease. It supports the decision maker in testing interventions based on available resources and apply risk mitigation strategies and provide guidance tailored to the geo-location of the user via mobile devices. The software component of the system would be based on open source software and the software developed during this project will also be in the open source domain, so that an open community can build on the results and tailor further work to regional or international requirements and constraints. A freely available EWARS Spatial Fuzzy Logic Demo was developed wich enables a user to visualize risk and resource maps based on individual data in several data formats.

  6. Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Yudelson, Michael V; Pavlik, Philip I

    2016-07-01

    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models provide a common explanation for the variance in task difficulty and transfer. Weak versions decouple difficulty and transfer explanations by describing task difficulty with parameters for each unique task. We evaluate these models in terms of both their prediction accuracy on held-out data and their power in explaining task difficulty and learning transfer. In comparisons across eight datasets, we find that the component models provide both better predictions and better explanations than the faculty models. Weak model variations tend to improve generalization across students, but hurt generalization across items and make a sacrifice to explanatory power. More generally, the approach could be used to identify malleable components of cognitive functions, such as spatial reasoning or executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  8. Adjacency-preserving spatial treemaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Buchin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular layouts, subdivisions of an outer rectangle into smaller rectangles, have many applications in visualizing spatial information, for instance in rectangular cartograms in which the rectangles represent geographic or political regions. A spatial treemap is a rectangular layout with a hierarchical structure: the outer rectangle is subdivided into rectangles that are in turn subdivided into smaller rectangles. We describe algorithms for transforming a rectangular layout that does not have this hierarchical structure, together with a clustering of the rectangles of the layout, into a spatial treemap that respects the clustering and also respects to the extent possible the adjacencies of the input layout.

  9. Local models for spatial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on solutions, this second edition provides guidance to a wide variety of real-world problems. The text presents a complete introduction to key concepts and a clear mapping of the methods discussed. It also explores connections between methods. New chapters address spatial patterning in single variables and spatial relations. In addition, every chapter now includes links to key related studies. The author clearly distinguishes between local and global methods and provides more detailed coverage of geographical weighting, image texture measures, local spatial autocorrelation, and multic

  10. GIS-facilitated spatial narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.

    2008-01-01

    -based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...... on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home...

  11. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  12. Perceptual spatial differentiation of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Krevs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical studies of human perception of places at local scale are usually aimed at bet-ter understanding of human spatial perception and knowledge about the places, and of using this knowledge in spatial decision-making or spatial behaviour. Our focus on the first part of these general research aims is presented based on a case study, revealing how residents of the Municipality of Ljubljana perceive and value neighbourhoods of “their” municipality at the beginning of the century1.

  13. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John W. [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  14. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  15. Dynamics of Lipid Transfer by Phosphatidylinositol Transfer Proteins in Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shadan, S.; Holic, R; Carvou, N.; Ee, P.; Li, M.; Murray-Rust, J.; Cockcroft, S

    2008-01-01

    Of many lipid transfer proteins identified, all have been implicated in essential cellular processes, but the activity of none has been demonstrated in intact cells. Among these, phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are of particular interest as they can bind to and transfer phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) - the precursor of important signalling molecules, phosphoinositides - and because they have essential functions in neuronal development (PITP alpha) and cytokinesis (PITP beta). Str...

  16. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  17. Implementing an SIG based platform of application and service for city spatial information in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bailang; Wu, Jianping

    2006-10-01

    Spatial Information Grid (SIG) is an infrastructure that has the ability to provide the services for spatial information according to users' needs by means of collecting, sharing, organizing and processing the massive distributed spatial information resources. This paper presents the architecture, technologies and implementation of the Shanghai City Spatial Information Application and Service System, a SIG based platform, which is an integrated platform that serves for administration, planning, construction and development of the city. In the System, there are ten categories of spatial information resources, including city planning, land-use, real estate, river system, transportation, municipal facility construction, environment protection, sanitation, urban afforestation and basic geographic information data. In addition, spatial information processing services are offered as a means of GIS Web Services. The resources and services are all distributed in different web-based nodes. A single database is created to store the metadata of all the spatial information. A portal site is published as the main user interface of the System. There are three main functions in the portal site. First, users can search the metadata and consequently acquire the distributed data by using the searching results. Second, some spatial processing web applications that developed with GIS Web Services, such as file format conversion, spatial coordinate transfer, cartographic generalization and spatial analysis etc, are offered to use. Third, GIS Web Services currently available in the System can be searched and new ones can be registered. The System has been working efficiently in Shanghai Government Network since 2005.

  18. Geometrical effects on energy transfer in disordered open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohseni, M; Lloyd, S; Omar, Y; Rabitz, H

    2013-01-01

    We explore various design principles for efficient excitation energy transport in complex quantum systems. We investigate energy transfer efficiency in randomly disordered geometries consisting of up to 20 chromophores to explore spatial and spectral properties of small natural/artificial Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC). We find significant statistical correlations among highly efficient random structures with respect to ground state properties, excitonic energy gaps, multichromophoric spatial connectivity, and path strengths. These correlations can even exist beyond the optimal regime of environment-assisted quantum transport. For random configurations embedded in spatial dimensions of 30 A and 50 A, we observe that the transport efficiency saturates to its maximum value if the systems contain 7 and 14 chromophores respectively. Remarkably, these optimum values coincide with the number of chlorophylls in (Fenna-Matthews-Olson) FMO protein complex and LHC II monomers, respectively, suggesting a potential nat...

  19. Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light-matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems.

  20. Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

    1998-03-01

    We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  1. Power Consumption in Spatial Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Odeh, Maha; Verikoukis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) adds a new dimension to be exploited in Cognitive Radio (CR) by simultaneously serving several users. The spatial domain that is added through MIMO is another system resource that has to be optimized, and shared when possible. In this paper, we present a spatial sharing that is carried out through Zero Forcing beamforming (ZFB). Power consumption in such a scenario is discussed and compared to single user case, to evaluate the feasibility of employing spatial cognition from the power perspective. Closed form expressions are derived for the consumed power and data rate at different transmission schemes. Finally, a joint power rate metric is deduced to provide a comprehensive measure of the expediency of spatial cognitive scenario.

  2. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation......, techniques for spatial analysis had their share in these developments. However, the methods for analyzing and visualizing spatial and spatio-temporal patterns in player behavior being used by the game industry are not as diverse as the range of techniques utilized in game research, leaving room...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field...

  3. articles: Describing migration spatial structure

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Rogers; Frans Willekens; James Raymer; Jani Little

    2002-01-01

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a definition in this article, one that draws on the log-linear specification of the geographer's spatial interaction model. We illustrate our definition with observed migration data, we discuss extens...

  4. Knowledge Transfer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  5. Elements of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2012-01-01

    1 Basic Concepts and Definitions1.1 Introduction1.1.1 Driving Potential1.2 Dimensions and Units1.2.1 Dimensional Homogeneity1.3 Closed and Open Systems1.3.1 Closed System (ControlMass)1.3.2 Isolated System1.3.3 Open System (ControlVolume)1.4 Forms of Energy1.4.1 Internal Energy1.5 Properties of a System1.5.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties1.6 State and Equilibrium1.7 Thermal and Calorical Properties1.7.1 Specific Heat of an Incompressible Substance1.7.2 Thermally Perfect Gas 1.8 The Perfect Gas1.9 Summary1.10 Exercise ProblemsConduction Heat Transfer2.1 Introduction2.2 Conduction Heat Trans

  6. Heat transfer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviany, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook describes atomic-level kinetics (mechanisms and rates) of thermal energy storage, transport (conduction, convection, and radiation), and transformation (various energy conversions) by principal energy carriers. The approach combines the fundamentals of molecular orbitals-potentials, statistical thermodynamics, computational molecular dynamics, quantum energy states, transport theories, solid-state and fluid-state physics, and quantum optics. The textbook presents a unified theory, over fine-structure/molecular-dynamics/Boltzmann/macroscopic length and time scales, of heat transfer kinetics in terms of transition rates and relaxation times, and its modern applications, including nano- and microscale size effects. Numerous examples, illustrations, and homework problems with answers that enhance learning are included. This new edition includes applications in energy conversion (including chemical bond, nuclear, and solar), expanded examples of size effects, inclusion of junction quantum tr...

  7. Managerial technology transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Organisations need to think globally, but act locally - with a full appreciation of the diversity of local cultures. Major global companies must recognise that policies need to be managed with the broad context of business strategy and integrated into the work culture with the support of all elements of human resources management. Most currently, companies are accommodating national cultural differences while preserving work culture principals that encourage people to effectively execute the company's strategic objectives. Even to the casual observer, it is apparent that culture- a society's programming of the mind- has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national business environment. Global managers must recognise the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. This book examines current research in the study of managerial technology transfer.

  8. Technology transfer 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Technology Transfer 1995 is intended to inform the US industrial and academic sectors about the many opportunities they have to form partnerships with the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the mutual advantage of the individual institutions, DOE, and the nation as a whole. It also describes some of the growing number of remarkable achievements resulting from such partnerships. These partnership success stories offer ample evidence that Americans are learning how to work together to secure major benefits for the nation--by combining the technological, scientific, and human resources resident in national laboratories with those in industry and academia. The benefits include more and better jobs for Americans, improved productivity and global competitiveness for technology-based industries, and a more efficient government laboratory system.

  9. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  10. Prospects for Money Transfer Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y; Xi, N; Wang, Yougui; Ding, Ning; Xi, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Recently, in order to explore the mechanism behind wealth or income distribution, several models have been proposed by applying principles of statistical mechanics. These models share some characteristics, such as consisting of a group of individual agents, a pile of money and a specific trading rule. Whatever the trading rule is, the most noteworthy fact is that money is always transferred from one agent to another in the transferring process. So we call them money transfer models. Besides explaining income and wealth distributions, money transfer models can also be applied to other disciplines. In this paper we summarize these areas as statistical distribution, economic mobility, transfer rate and money creation. First, money distribution (or income distribution) can be exhibited by recording the money stock (flow). Second, the economic mobility can be shown by tracing the change in wealth or income over time for each agent. Third, the transfer rate of money and its determinants can be analyzed by tracing t...

  11. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  12. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  13. Spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces for the acquisition of motor skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2008-01-01

    in facilitating skill acquisition by complementing, or substituting, other sensory modalities. An overview of related research areas on audiovisual and audiotactile interaction is given in connection to the potential benefits of spatial sound as a means to improve the perceptual quality of the interfaces as well......This paper discusses the potential effectiveness of spatial sound in the use of multimodal interfaces and virtual environment technologies for the acquisition of motor skills. Because skills are generally of multimodal nature, spatial sound is discussed in terms of the role that it may play...... as to convey information considered critical for the transfer of motor skills....

  14. SEMANTIC TRANSFERS: CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskvin, V.P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is represented the general classification of semantic transfers. As the research has shown, transfers can be systematized based on four parameters: 1 the type of associations lying on their basis: similarity, contiguity and contrast, the associations by similarity and contrast being regarded as the basis for taxonomic transfers (from genus to species, from species to genus, from species to species, etc.; 2 the functional parameter: functionally relevant and irrelevant; 3 the sphere of action: transfer applies both to lexical and grammatical semantics; 4 the degree of ex-pressiveness: thus, the metonymic associations are more predictable than the metaphoric ones.

  15. Transfer of bloody serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne; Sluimer, Ralf; Korteling, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. , Sluimer, R. R., & Korteling, J. E. (2010, September). Transfer of bloody serious gaming. Presented at the European Association of Aviation Psychologists (EAAP) conference, Budapest.

  16. Progress in spatial analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Páez, Antonio; Buliung, Ron N; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together developments in spatial analysis techniques, including spatial statistics, econometrics, and spatial visualization, and applications to fields such as regional studies, transportation and land use, population and health.

  17. Enhanced heat transfer of forced convective fin flow with transverse ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shyy Woei; Chiou, Shyr Fuu [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Institute of Marine Technology, No. 142, Hai-Chuan Road, Nan-Tzu District, Post code 811, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Su, Lo May [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tung Fang Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2004-02-01

    This experimental study investigates the heat transfers in three side-opened and bottom-sealed rectangular channels with two opposite walls roughened by 90 staggered ribs, which simulate the enhanced cooling passages in the fin-type heat sinks of electronic chip-sets. The various degrees of interactive effects due to the surface ribs, side-profile leakage flows and stream-wise weakened coolant flow are functionally related with Reynolds number (Re) and channel length-to-gap ratio (L/B), which unravel the considerable impacts on local and spatially averaged heat transfers over the rib-roughened fin surfaces. A selection of detailed heat transfer measurements over the rib-roughened fin surfaces illustrates the manner by which the isolated and interactive influences of Re and L/B-ratio affect the local and spatially averaged heat transfers. Relative to the heat transfer results acquired from the smooth-walled test channels, the augmentations of spatially averaged heat transfers generated by the present surface ribs are in the range of 140-200% of the flat fin reference levels. In conformity with the experimentally revealed heat transfer physics, a regression-type analysis is performed to develop the correlation of spatially-averaged Nusselt number over rib-roughened fin surface, which permits the individual and interactive effect of Re and L/B on heat transfer to be evaluated. A criterion for selecting the optimal length-to-gap ratio of a fin channel, which provides the maximum convective heat flux from the rib-roughened fin surface, is formulated as an engineering tool to assist the design activity for the cooling device of electronic chip-sets. (authors)

  18. Pakal: A Three-dimensional Model to Solve the Radiative Transfer Equation

    OpenAIRE

    De la Luz, Victor; Lara, Alejandro; Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Selhorst, Caius L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new numerical model called "Pakal" intended to solve the radiative transfer equation in a three-dimensional (3D) geometry, using the approximation for a locally plane-parallel atmosphere. Pakal uses pre-calculated radial profiles of density and temperature (based on hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, or MHD models) to compute the emission from 3D source structures with high spatial resolution. Then, Pakal solves the radiative transfer equation in a set of (3D) ray paths, going from the s...

  19. Hamiltonian Dynamics at Spatial Infinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew

    We employ a projective construction of spatial infinity in four-dimensional spacetimes which are asymptotically flat. In this construction, points of the spatial boundary of the spacetime manifold are identified with congruences of asymptotically parallel spacelike curves that are asymptotically geodesic. It is shown that for this type of construction spatial infinity is represented by a three-dimensional timelike hyperboloid, and that this follows as a consequence of the vacuum Einstein equations. We then construct tensor fields which are defined at spatial infinity, and which embody the information carried by the gravitational field regarding the total mass, linear, and angular momentum of the spacetime. It is shown that these tensor fields must satisfy a set of second order partial differential field equations at spatial infinity. The asymptotic symmetry group implied by the projective construction is examined, and is identified with the Spi group. The field equations satisfied by the tensor fields at spatial infinity can be derived from an action principle, however this action does not appear to be related in any obvious way to the Hilbert-Einstein action of general relativity. Under mappings generated by the Spi group our Lagrangian is left form -invariant, and the corresponding Noether-conserved quantities are examined. It is found that for spacetimes which are stationary or axisymmetric, these conserved quantities are not the limits of the conserved quantities associated with the infinitesimal four-dimensional coordinate transformations. It is shown that using the tensor fields at spatial infinity one can define a set of canonical variables. Further, we show that the "time" derivatives of the configuration variables can be expressed in terms of some of the momentum densities; the remaining momentum densities are constrained. Finally, we construct the Hamiltonian, and examine the transformations generated by it.

  20. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  1. Azimuthally dependent radiative transfer in a non-homogeneous cylindrical medium

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C; Ou, N R

    1998-01-01

    This work applies the discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to study azimuthally dependent radiative transfer in a two-dimensional cylindrical medium with spatially varying properties. Product angular quadratures are selected to generate discrete-ordinate approximations. The validity of the present DOM scheme is examined by comparing the present results with the results available in the literature. The effects of the optical thickness and the spatially varying extinction coefficient, scattering albedo and coefficients of the phase function are investigated.

  2. Micro-vibrating spatial filters-induced beam positioning stability in large laser system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Jianqiang Zhu; Jia Xu; Quanyuan Shan; Kun Xiao; Xuejie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic beam propagation model of micro-vibrating spatial filters in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities is built based on the additional beam in SG-Ⅱ facility.The transfer matrix is then deduced,and the sensitivities of the beam positioning to the pellet in the target area to the vibrations of every spatial filter are analyzed,which indicates that the vibrations of spatial filters in the pre-amplify zone has less effects on beam positioning stability at the target.In addition,the vibrations of spatial filters in the main amplify zone dominates the beam positioning stability of the target,especially the vibration of the spatial filter SF7.

  3. Utrecht Radiative Transfer Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Utrecht course ``The Generation and Transport of Radiation'' teaches basic radiative transfer to second-year students. It is a much-expanded version of the first chapter of Rybicki & Lightman's ``Radiative Processes in Astrophysics''. After this course, students understand why intensity is measured per steradian, have an Eddington-Barbier feel for optically thick line formation, and know that scattering upsets LTE. The text is a computer-aided translation by Ruth Peterson of my 1992 Dutch-language course. My aim is to rewrite this course in non-computer English and make it web-available at some time. In the meantime, copies of the Peterson translation are made yearly at Uppsala -- ask them, not me. Eventually it should become a textbook. The Utrecht course ``Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres'' is a 30-hour course for third-year students. It treats NLTE line formation in plane-parallel stellar atmospheres at a level intermediate between the books by Novotny and Boehm-Vitense, and Mihalas' ``Stellar Atmospheres''. After this course, students appreciate that epsilon is small, that radiation can heat or cool, and that computers have changed the field. This course is web-available since 1995 and is regularly improved -- but remains incomplete. Eventually it should become a textbook. The three Utrecht exercise sets ``Stellar Spectra A: Basic Line Formation'', ``Stellar Spectra B: LTE Line Formation'', and ``Stellar Spectra C: NLTE Line Formation'' are IDL-based computer exercises for first-year, second-year, and third-year students, respectively. They treat spectral classification, Saha-Boltzmann population statistics, the curve of growth, the FAL-C solar atmosphere model, the role of H-minus in the solar continuum, LTE formation of Fraunhofer lines, inversion tactics, the Feautrier method, classical lambda iteration, and ALI computation. The first two sets are web-available since 1998; the third will follow. Acknowledgement. Both courses owe much to previous

  4. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Eason, Tarsha; Nelson, R. John; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Gunderson, Lance; Knutson, Melinda; Nash, Kirsty L.; Spanbauer, Trisha; Stow, Craig A.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory-based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (U.S. Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps and multivariate analyses such as nMDS and cluster analysis. We successfully detected spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change.

  5. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  6. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  7. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  8. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  9. Spatialization of time in mian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedden, Sebastian; Boroditsky, Lera

    2012-01-01

    We examine representations of time among the Mianmin of Papua New Guinea. We begin by describing the patterns of spatial and temporal reference in Mian. Mian uses a system of spatial terms that derive from the orientation and direction of the Hak and Sek rivers and the surrounding landscape. We then report results from a temporal arrangement task administered to a group of Mian speakers. The results reveal evidence for a variety of temporal representations. Some participants arranged time with respect to their bodies (left to right or toward the body). Others arranged time as laid out on the landscape, roughly along the east/west axis (either east to west or west to east). This absolute pattern is consistent both with the axis of the motion of the sun and the orientation of the two rivers, which provides the basis for spatial reference in the Mian language. The results also suggest an increase in left to right temporal representations with increasing years of formal education (and the reverse pattern for absolute spatial representations for time). These results extend previous work on spatial representations for time to a new geographical region, physical environment, and linguistic and cultural system.

  10. Spatialization of time in Mian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eFedden

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine representations of time among the Mianmin of Papua New Guinea. We begin by describing the patterns of spatial and temporal reference in Mian. Mian uses a system of spatial terms that derive from the orientation and direction of the Hak and Sek rivers and the surrounding landscape. We then report results from a temporal arrangement task administered to a group of Mian speakers. The results reveal evidence for a variety of temporal representations. Some participants arranged time with respect to their bodies (left to right or toward the body. Others arranged time as laid out on the landscape, roughly along the east/west axis (either east to west or west to east. This absolute pattern is consistent both with the axis of the motion of the sun and the orientation of the two rivers, which provides the basis for spatial reference in the Mian language. The results also suggest an increase in left-to-right temporal representations with increasing years of formal education (and the reverse pattern for absolute spatial representations for time. These results extend previous work on spatial representations for time to a new geographical region, physical environment, and linguistic and cultural system.

  11. Is Disturbed Transfer of Learning in Callosal Agenesis due to a Disconnection Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Imamura

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed intermanual transfer of tactile learning in callosal agenesis has been interpreted as a sign of disconnection syndrome. We observed this sign in one of four acallosal patients with a conventional form-board task, and tried to elucidate the nature of the deficit. The form-board performance of the patient with disturbed transfer of learning totally depended on motor skill, while the other acallosals and normal controls executed the task based on spatial and somesthetic information. All acallosals and normals, however, failed to show transfer of learning with another tactile task which needed motor skill but not spatial-somesthetic information. These findings suggest that the task-performing strategies in form-board learning change the state of interhemispheric transfer. Unimanual learning effect is transferred if spatial-somesthetic information is acquired in the process of learning, but is not transferred if motor skill is the exclusive content of learning. We conclude that disturbed “transfer” of learning in some acallosals is not a true disconnection sign. It should be attributed to a lack of appropriate strategy, as a result of ineffective problem solving in tactile tasks.

  12. An active wound dressing for controlled convective mass transfer with the wound bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabodi, Mario; Cross, Valerie L; Qu, Zheng; Havenstrite, Karen L; Schwartz, Suzanne; Stroock, Abraham D

    2007-07-01

    Conventional wound dressings-gauze, plastic films, foams, and gels-do not allow for spatial and temporal control of the soluble chemistry within the wound bed, and are thus limited to a passive role in wound healing. Here, we present an active wound dressing (AWD) designed to control convective mass transfer with the wound bed; this mass transfer provides a means to tailor and monitor the chemical state of a wound and, potentially, to aid the healing process. We form this AWD as a bilayer of porous poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and silicone; the pHEMA acts as the interface with the wound bed, and a layer of silicone provides a vapor barrier and a support for connecting to external reservoirs and pumps. We measure the convective permeability of the pHEMA sponge, and use this value to design a device with a spatially uniform flow profile. We quantify the global coefficient of mass transfer of the AWD on a dissolvable synthetic surface, and compare it to existing theories of mass transfer in porous media. We also operate the AWD on model wound beds made of calcium alginate gel to demonstrate extraction and delivery of low molecular weight solutes and a model protein. Using this system, we demonstrate both uniform mass transfer over the entire wound bed and patterned mass transfer in three spatially distinct regions. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges for the clinical application of this design of an AWD.

  13. Nitrogen, ecosystem services and environmental justice: How can a spatial valuation approach inform responsible nutrient management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatially-explicit ecosystem service valuation (ESV) allows for the identification of the location and magnitude of services provided by natural ecosystems along with an economic measure of their value based upon benefit transfer. While this provides an important function in term...

  14. Soil salinity and acidity: Spatial variability and effects on rice production in West Africa's mangrove zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the mangrove environment of West Africa, high spatial and temporal variability of soil constraints (salinity and acidity) to rice production is a problem for the transfer and adoption of new agronomic techniques, for land use planning, and for soil and water management. Recently, several National

  15. Medicaid and Family Wealth Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Kim, Hyungsoo; Tanenbaum, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines whether the relationship between making familial wealth transfers and becoming a Medicaid recipient sheds light on the current debate about Medicaid estate planning, whereby some elders transfer their assets to their families to qualify for Medicaid. Design and Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, we tracked…

  16. Intermanual transfer in prosthetic training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske

    2016-01-01

    The concept of intermanual transfer might be used to start prosthesis training faster after the amputation. Intermanual transfer means that after training motor skills on one side, the other side will also improve. For prosthesis training this means that, directly after the amputation, one starts to

  17. Language Transfer and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏矫

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction In English language teaching,language transfer has been a controversial topic and more linguistic researchers have a better and more comprehensive understanding of it.Transfer means the influence resulting from the similarities and differences between the English language and mother tongue which has been previously acquired.

  18. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  19. Technology Transfer: A Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    34 Caveman Club-Without Nail." More serious scholars indicate that understand- ing how to start and maintain fires was the first tech- nology transfer of...others. From caveman clubs to hyper- velocity missiles, technology transfer has played a significant military role; it also has assisted imperialis- tic

  20. TASQC Quantum Key Transfer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-04

    Securely transferring timing information in the electrical grid is a critical component of securing the nation's infrastructure from cyber attacks. One solution to this problem is to use quantum information to securely transfer the timing information across sites. This software provides such an infrastructure using a standard Java webserver that pulls the quantum information from associated hardware.

  1. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Transfer Parametric System Identification 6. AUTHOR(S Parker, Gregory K. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...distribution is unlimited. Heat Transfer Parametric System Identification by Gregory K. Parker Lieutenant, United States Navy BS., DeVry Institute of...Modeling Concept ........ ........... 3 2. Lumped Parameter Approach ...... ......... 4 3. Parametric System Identification ....... 4 B. BASIC MODELING

  2. Electron Transfer Pathways in Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron salvation process data indicates that the electron transfer between the electron donor and acceptor is hindered by the electron salvation process. It is proposed that the electron transfer in the cell environment must be assisted by intermediate messenger called the “transport protein”.

  3. Connectors: The Way beyond Transferring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Spek, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands, travellers transfer from one mode of transport to another millions of times a day. In all, billions of minutes are lost during these transfers. Most of this time is taken in actually moving from one mode of transport to another, waiting time at a stop or station, and time lost wh

  4. Transfers, Contracts and Strategic Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.; Borm, P.E.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of transfer payments and strategic con- tracting within two-person strategic form games with monetary pay- offs. First, it introduces the notion of transfer equilibrium as a strat- egy combination for which individual stability can be supported by allowing the possibilit

  5. HYDROGEN TRANSFER IN CATALYTIC CRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  6. Intermanual transfer in prosthetic training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske

    2016-01-01

    The concept of intermanual transfer might be used to start prosthesis training faster after the amputation. Intermanual transfer means that after training motor skills on one side, the other side will also improve. For prosthesis training this means that, directly after the amputation, one starts to

  7. Strammere retningslinjer om transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    Transfer pricing vedrører prisfastsættelsen på transaktioner, der foregår mellem koncernforbundne selskaber og er fortsat et tema, der nyder stort fokus hos både multinationale koncerner og skattemyndigheder. For den multinationale koncern er transfer pricing i høj grad en aktivitet, der består i...

  8. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  9. A note on endogenous transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn a competitive and Walrasian stable world with two goods transfer paradoxes are very robust to endogenization (relating the size of the transfer to either the donor's or the recipient's GNP). Donor enrichment and/or recipient impoverishment occur in very general formulations of

  10. Transfer mellem uddannelse og arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Rapporten sammenfatter eksisterende forskning om faktorer, der bidrager til transfer, altså faktorer som bidrager til, at det, vi lærer i undervisningen, efterfølgende anvendes i en arbejdssituation. Forskningsoversigten præsenterer emririsk funderede resultater om, hvad vi ved om transfer. Den t...

  11. Geothermal Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmajian, V.V.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a heat transfer apparatus which consists of: heat exchanging means for orientation in the earth below ground substantially vertically, having a hollow conduit of length from top to bottom much greater than the span across the hollow conduit orthogonal to its length with a top, bottom and an intermediate portion contiguous and communicating with the top and bottom portions for allowing thermally conductive fluid to flow freely between the top, intermediate and bottom portions for immersion in thermally conductive fluid in the region around the heat exchanging means for increasing the heat flow between the latter and earth when inserted into a substantially vertical borehole in the earth with the top portion above the bottom portion. The heat exchanger consists of heat exchanging conduit means in the intermediate portion for carrying refrigerant. The heat exchanging conduit consisting of tubes of thermally conductive material for carrying the refrigerant and extending along the length of the hollow conduit for a tube length that is less than the length of the hollow conduit. The hollow conduit is formed with port means between the top and the plurality of tubes for allowing the thermally conductive fluid to pass in a flow path embracing the tubes, the bottom portion, an outer channel around the hollow conduit and the port means.

  12. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanSant, J.H.

    1983-08-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. The introduction presents a synopsis on the theory, differential equations, and boundary conditions for conduction heat transfer. Some discussion is given on the use and interpretation of solutions. Supplementary data such as mathematical functions, convection correlations, and thermal properties are included for aiding the user in computing numerical values from the solutions. 155 figs., 92 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012

    2013-01-01

    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  14. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  15. Distal realignment (tibial tuberosity transfer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Julian Ashley

    2012-09-01

    Although tibial tuberosity (TT) transfer has for many years been the basis of many protocols for the management of patellar instability, the role of pure medial transfer in particular appears to be declining. In contrast, the greater recognition of the importance of patella alta as a predisposing factor to recurrent patellar dislocation has resulted in a resurgence in the popularity of distal TT transfer. When TT transfer is performed, the direction and amount of transfer is based on the patellar height and the lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove. Patellar height is best assessed on a lateral radiograph with the knee in flexion using a ratio that uses the articular surface of the patella in relation to the height above the tibia. Assessment of lateralization of the TT relative to the trochlear groove can be made using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  16. Discontinuous finite element method for vector radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cun-Hai; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) is applied to solve the vector radiative transfer in participating media. The derivation in a discrete form of the vector radiation governing equations is presented, in which the angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach with a local refined modification, and the spatial domain is discretized into finite non-overlapped discontinuous elements. The elements in the whole solution domain are connected by modelling the boundary numerical flux between adjacent elements, which makes the DFEM numerically stable for solving radiative transfer equations. Several various problems of vector radiative transfer are tested to verify the performance of the developed DFEM, including vector radiative transfer in a one-dimensional parallel slab containing a Mie/Rayleigh/strong forward scattering medium and a two-dimensional square medium. The fact that DFEM results agree very well with the benchmark solutions in published references shows that the developed DFEM in this paper is accurate and effective for solving vector radiative transfer problems.

  17. Spectral kinetic energy transfer in turbulent premixed reacting flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, C A Z; Poludnenko, A Y; Urzay, J; O'Brien, J; Ihme, M; Hamlington, P E

    2016-05-01

    Spectral kinetic energy transfer by advective processes in turbulent premixed reacting flows is examined using data from a direct numerical simulation of a statistically planar turbulent premixed flame. Two-dimensional turbulence kinetic-energy spectra conditioned on the planar-averaged reactant mass fraction are computed through the flame brush and variations in the spectra are connected to terms in the spectral kinetic energy transport equation. Conditional kinetic energy spectra show that turbulent small-scale motions are suppressed in the burnt combustion products, while the energy content of the mean flow increases. An analysis of spectral kinetic energy transfer further indicates that, contrary to the net down-scale transfer of energy found in the unburnt reactants, advective processes transfer energy from small to large scales in the flame brush close to the products. Triadic interactions calculated through the flame brush show that this net up-scale transfer of energy occurs primarily at spatial scales near the laminar flame thermal width. The present results thus indicate that advective processes in premixed reacting flows contribute to energy backscatter near the scale of the flame.

  18. The feasibility of coherent energy transfer in microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis John Adrian; Friesen, Douglas; Mane, Jonathan; Hameroff, Stuart; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2014-11-06

    It was once purported that biological systems were far too 'warm and wet' to support quantum phenomena mainly owing to thermal effects disrupting quantum coherence. However, recent experimental results and theoretical analyses have shown that thermal energy may assist, rather than disrupt, quantum coherent transport, especially in the 'dry' hydrophobic interiors of biomolecules. Specifically, evidence has been accumulating for the necessary involvement of quantum coherent energy transfer between uniquely arranged chromophores in light harvesting photosynthetic complexes. The 'tubulin' subunit proteins, which comprise microtubules, also possess a distinct architecture of chromophores, namely aromatic amino acids, including tryptophan. The geometry and dipolar properties of these aromatics are similar to those found in photosynthetic units indicating that tubulin may support coherent energy transfer. Tubulin aggregated into microtubule geometric lattices may support such energy transfer, which could be important for biological signalling and communication essential to living processes. Here, we perform a computational investigation of energy transfer between chromophoric amino acids in tubulin via dipole excitations coupled to the surrounding thermal environment. We present the spatial structure and energetic properties of the tryptophan residues in the microtubule constituent protein tubulin. Plausibility arguments for the conditions favouring a quantum mechanism of signal propagation along a microtubule are provided. Overall, we find that coherent energy transfer in tubulin and microtubules is biologically feasible.

  19. A Spatial-Epistemic Logic for Reasoning about Security Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Toninho, Bernardo; 10.4204/EPTCS.51.1

    2011-01-01

    Reasoning about security properties involves reasoning about where the information of a system is located, and how it evolves over time. While most security analysis techniques need to cope with some notions of information locality and knowledge propagation, usually they do not provide a general language for expressing arbitrary properties involving local knowledge and knowledge transfer. Building on this observation, we introduce a framework for security protocol analysis based on dynamic spatial logic specifications. Our computational model is a variant of existing pi-calculi, while specifications are expressed in a dynamic spatial logic extended with an epistemic operator. We present the syntax and semantics of the model and logic, and discuss the expressiveness of the approach, showing it complete for passive attackers. We also prove that generic Dolev-Yao attackers may be mechanically determined for any deterministic finite protocol, and discuss how this result may be used to reason about security proper...

  20. A review of {sup 137}Cs transfer to fungi and consequences for modelling environmental transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, A.G. E-mail: andy.gillett@nottingham.ac.uk; Crout, N.M.J

    2000-03-01

    A review of the published literature describing {sup 137}Cs transfer to fungi was carried out, summarising the collated data to determine factors controlling transfer and identify an appropriate modelling approach to predict future contamination. {sup 137}Cs transfer ratios (TR) are derived for fungi species collected within Europe and the CIS. Considerable variability in TRs is demonstrated, with TRs varying between <0.001 and >10 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} across all species and over three orders of magnitude for individual species (e.g. Boletus badius). Generally, meta-information (such as habitat and soil attributes) is poorly reported in the literature so that classification of the TR is limited to the effect of nutritional type (P<0.025) in the order mycorrhizal>saprophytic{approx}parasitic. Analysis of the literature data set (a heterogeneous source) suggests that there is no statistical evidence to indicate a decrease in TRs for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Spatial analysis of a data set for Belgium indicates variability in {sup 137}Cs transfer within a sampling location, such that fruitbodies collected over a scale of approximately 5 km would show activities as variable as those collected over a much larger scale ({approx} or>50 km). Therefore, it is proposed that the collated data sets for individual species can be used to derive 'best estimates' for the parameters describing the distribution of TRs. These can then be used to estimate an 'effective' TR, which, when combined with local soil deposition level and frequency and effect of culinary practices, can give an estimate of the activity of fungi consumed by the general population.