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Sample records for non-proportional loading histories

  1. Fatigue life assessment of thin-walled welded joints under non-proportional load-time histories by the shear stress rate integral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolchoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life tests under constant and variable amplitude loadings were performed on the tube-tube thin-walled welded specimens made of magnesium (AZ31 and AZ61 alloys. The tests included pure axial, pure torsional and combined in-phase and out-of-phase loadings with the load ratio  RR " ", " " 1  . For the tests with variable amplitude loads a Gaußdistributed loading spectrum with S L 4 5 10  cycles was used. Since magnesium welds show a fatigue life reduction under out-of-phase loads, a stress-based method, which takes this behavior into account, is proposed. The out-of-phase loading results in rotating shear stress vectors in the section planes, which are not orthogonal to the surface. This fact is used in order to provide an out-of-phase measure of the load. This measure is computed as an area covered by the shear stress vectors in all planes over a certain time interval, its computation involves the shear stress and the shear stress rate vectors in the individual planes. Fatigue life evaluation for the variable amplitudes loadings is performed using the Palmgren-Miner linear damage accumulation, whereas the total damage of every cycle is split up into two components: the amplitude component and the out-of-phase component. In order to compute the two components a modification of the rainflow counting method, which keeps track of the time intervals, where the cycles occur, must be used. The proposed method also takes into account different slopes of the pure axial and the pure torsional Wöhler-line by means of a Wöhler-line interpolation for combined loadings

  2. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model for non-proportional loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2009-01-01

    Anisotropic damage for non-proportional loading is incorporated in an implicit finite element code under the framework of continuum damage models, using two different methodologies. Simple simulations are carried out to check the performance of the models. The advantages and drawbacks of both

  3. A plasticity model with yield surface distortion for non proportional loading

    CERN Document Server

    François, Marc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance the modeling of metallic materials behavior in non proportional loadings, a modification of the classical elastic-plastic models including distortion of the yield surface is proposed. The new yield criterion uses the same norm as in the classical von Mises based criteria, and a "distorted stress" Sd replacing the usual stress deviator S. The obtained yield surface is then ?egg-shaped? similar to those experimentally observed and depends on only one new material parameter. The theory is built in such a way as to recover the classical one for proportional loading. An identification procedure is proposed to obtain the material parameters. Simulations and experiments are compared for a 2024 T4 aluminum alloy for both proportional and nonproportional tension-torsion loading paths.

  4. Constitutive modelling and multiaxial testing of concrete under non proportional compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaiene, A.; Massicotte, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program was conducted to calibrate and validate an analytical model, and to determine some characteristics of the behaviour of concrete under increasing lateral confinement. A three-dimensional constitutive relation based on hypoelastic theory was developed for plain concrete under both monotonic and non-proportional loading, taking into account the effect of increasing confinement on the transition of failure mechanisms from brittle to ductile degradation under cyclic loading. The stress-strain responses predicted by the model were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, and the constitutive relationship was found to apply well for various loading conditions. Based on these results the model was considered to offer a good compromise between simplicity and accuracy for unified constitutive models for plain concrete. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. The moment of inertia method to calculate equivalent ranges in non-proportional tension–torsion histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in multiaxial damage calculation in non-proportional (NP histories is to find the equivalent stress or strain ranges and mean components associated with each rainflow-counted cycle of the stress (or strain path. A traditional way to find such ranges is to use enclosing surface methods, which search for convex enclosures, such as balls or prisms, of the entire history path in stress or strain diagrams. These methods only work for relatively simple load histories, since the enclosing surfaces lose information of the original history. This work presents an approach to evaluate equivalent stress and strain ranges in NP histories, called the moment of inertia (MOI method. It is an integral approach that assumes the path contour in the stress diagram is a homogeneous wire with a unit mass. The center of mass of such wire gives then the mean component of the path, while the moments of inertia of the wire can be used to obtain the equivalent stress or strain ranges. Experimental results obtained from the literature for 13 different multiaxial histories prove the effectiveness of the MOI method to predict fatigue lives.

  6. A Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Both Proportional and Non-proportional Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Surajit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    This paper has presented a life prediction model in the field of multiaxial low-cycle fatigue. The proposed model is generally applied for constant amplitude multiaxial proportional and non-proportional loading. Depending upon applied strain path the equivalent strain varies within a cycle. Equivalent average strain amplitude is considered as fatigue damage parameter in the proposed model. The model has requirement of only two material constants and no other tuning parameters. The model is examined by the proportional and non-proportional low-cycle fatigue life experimental data for eight different types of materials. The model is successfully correlated with multiaxial fatigue lives of eight different materials.

  7. Growth of long fatigue cracks under non-proportional loadings – experiment and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign was carried out on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion. The results from experiments are measured and compared. It is observed that cracks follow a shear-dominated growth pattern with increasing crack length, instead of a tension-dominated one. The experiments are performed with high amplitudes applied to the specimens, resulting in large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates up to 10-3 mm/cycle. Stress intensity factors were calculated for the proportional loading case.

  8. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading; Plasticite cyclique d'un acier inoxydable austeno-ferritique sous chargement biaxial non-proportionnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, V

    2001-11-15

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10{sup -5}) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  9. RESEARCH ON SHORT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATE UNDER NON-PROPORTIONAL MULTIAXIAL LOADING%多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展速率的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于强

    2013-01-01

    为了揭示出多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展的规律,利用搜寻临界面的方法确定短裂纹的萌生与扩展的方向,在临界面上分析多轴非比例加载与单轴加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展律的相似性,应用载荷的等效原理,类比单轴加载的研究过程,并将力学参数加以修改,导出多轴非比例加载下疲劳短裂纹扩展速率的计算公式.%As the laws of short fatigue cracks growth under non-proportional multiaxial loading are supposed to be revealed, what is expected to be achieved is mainly about the direction of initiation and propagation for short fatigue crack is determined by the method of searching for critical plane. The similarity of short fatigue crack growth rate by non-proportional multiaxial loading and multiaxial loading respectively is analyzed on the critical plane. Moreover, the equivalence of loading is applied. The process of multiaxial loading is analogized. The mechanical parameter is modified. Therefore, the formula of short fatigue crack growth rate by non-proportional multi-axial loading could be carried out.

  10. A rate dependent tension-torsion constitutive model for superelastic nitinol under non-proportional loading; a departure from von Mises equivalency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri Andani, Masood; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a modified 3D model is presented to capture the multi-axial behavior of superelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) under quasi-static isothermal or dynamic loading conditions. General experimental based equivalent stress and strain terms are introduced and improved flow rule and transformation surfaces are presented. The 3D constitutive equations are found for both isothermal and dynamic loading states. An extended experimental study is conducted on NiTi thin walled tubes to investigate the performance of the model. The proposed approach is shown to be able to capture the SMA response better than the original model in tension-torsion loading conditions.

  11. The non-proportionality of local stress paths in engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Riess

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A scalar measure, which describes the non-proportionality of local stress paths in engineering applications, is introduced. For this purpose the moment of inertia approach by Meggiolaro is modified in a way that the stress time history is evaluated in a tresca-stress-space. This modification makes the non-proportionality factor invariant with respect to the coordinate system. An optimization procedure is implemented to derive a test set-up for new component tests with 2 load channels. The aim of the planned tests is to get a high non-proportionality at the potential crack initiation site. It is not possible to obtain a high non-proportionality factor at the failure location without selective weakening of the component (housing of a rear axle steering. Therefore specific areas of the structure are cut out and the optimization procedure is repeated. As a result of the optimization a test set-up with high local non-proportionality at the potential crack initiation site is achieved for the weakened structure. Another set-up with slightly less non-proportionality but with a very localized damage is derived. This set-up is preferred, because of the robustness in the physical test.

  12. 一种新的多轴非比例低周疲劳寿命预测临界面模型%A NEW PROPOSAL FOR MULTIAXIAL LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION UNDER NON-PROPORTIONAL LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵而年; 瞿伟廉

    2016-01-01

    工程结构在服役过程中往往承受着复杂的多轴非比例循环荷载,在长期动力载荷作用下结构构件的失效主要为多轴非比例疲劳破坏。文中基于圆管薄壁试件在拉-扭复合加载情况下的多轴疲劳试验结果,对比了广泛讨论的Kandil-Brown-Miller (KBM)模型和Fatemi-Socie (FS)模型对多轴非比例疲劳寿命的预测能力,分析了非比例加载条件引起多轴疲劳附加损伤的原因;针对FS模型对不存在非比例附加强化的材料多轴疲劳寿命预测的不足,提出了一个能考虑非比例加载路径变化和材料附加强化效应双重作用的非比例影响因子,参照FS准则提出了一种新的多轴非比例低周疲劳寿命预测临界面模型。利用5种材料的多轴非比例疲劳试验数据对该模型进行了试验验证,结果表明:采用文中提出的临界面模型预测的多轴非比例疲劳寿命与试验结果符合较好,预测精度优于FS模型;同时,该模型对不存在非比例附加强化的材料的多轴疲劳寿命预测表现出更好的适用性,且能有效的提高不同类型材料的多轴非比例疲劳寿命预测精度。%Engineering components are always in multiaxial and non-proportional stress states under complex service loading, and multiaxial fatigue is the primary failure mode during the long term vibration. In the present paper, the accuracy of multiaxial fatigue life estimation by the widely discussed Kandil-Brown-Miller (KBM) and FS model is in-vestigated while the shortcoming of Fatemi-Socie (FS) parameter on fatigue life prediction of materials without additional cycle hardening is pointed out. Considering the dual influence of the additional cycle hardening and the rotation of prin-cipal stress/strain axes caused by non-proportional loading on multiaxial fatigue, which results in more fatigue damage, a new non-proportional influence factor is proposed, which is adopted for a modification to

  13. Phenomena and computational models of non-proportional fatigue of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Skibicki, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an overview on the fatigue of materials under non-proportional loads. It presents the rich spectrum of phenomena and treats various computational models to mathematically describe the non-proportional fatigue of materials.

  14. Experimental Study on Non-proportional Multiaxial Strain Cyclic Characteristics and Ratcheting of U71Mn Rail Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out on the strain cyclic characteristics and ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel subjectedto non-proportional multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled circular load path. The ratcheting was investigated for the stress-controlled multiaxial circular, ellipticaland rhombic load paths with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and their histories. The experiment showsthat U71Mn rail steel features the cyclic non-hardening/softening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend greatlyon the strain amplitude but slightly on its history. However, the ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel depends greatly notonly on the values of mean stress and stress amplitude, but also on their histories. In the meantime, the shape ofload path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting. The ratcheting changes with the different loadingpaths.

  15. Light yield non-proportionality of undoped YAP scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klamra, W [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Balcerzyk, M; Czarnacki, W; Moszynski, M; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Szczesniak, T [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kozlov, V [Lebedev Physical Institute, 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: klamra@particle.kth.se

    2009-05-15

    Scintillation properties of undoped YAP crystal were studied. The emission spectra show a very intense light component at 360 nm. Analysis of the light pulse shape resulted in five components, four of them, with time constants of 38{+-}2 ns, 92{+-}3 ns, 7.5{+-}0.5 {mu}s and 24{+-}3 {mu}s, representing high light intensity. The light yield was found to be temperature dependent, N{sub ph}= 3090{+-}130 ph/MeV at liquid nitrogen temperature and N{sub ph}= 1440{+-}60 ph/MeV at room temperature. Also the light yield non-proportionality shows temperature dependence and is more pronounced at room temperature.

  16. Random non-proportional fatigue tests with planar tri-axial fatigue testing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Inoue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex stresses, which occur on the mechanical surfaces of transport machinery in service, bring a drastic degradation in fatigue life. However, it is hard to reproduce such complex stress states for evaluating the fatigue life with conventional multiaxial fatigue machines. We have developed a fatigue testing machine that enables reproduction of such complex stresses. The testing machine can reproduce arbitrary in-plane stress states by applying three independent loads to the test specimen using actuators which apply loads in the 0, 45, and 90 degree directions. The reproduction was tested with complex stress data obtained from the actual operation of transport machinery. As a result, it was found that the reproduced stress corresponded to the measured stress with an error range of less than 10 %. Then, we made a comparison between measured fatigue lives under random non-proportional loading conditions and predicted fatigue lives. It was found that predicted fatigue lives with cr, stress on critical plane, were over a factor of 10 against measured fatigue lives. On the other hand, predicted fatigue lives with ma, stress in consideration of a non-proportional level evaluated by using amplitude and direction of principal stress, were within a factor of 3 against measured fatigue lives

  17. Study on fatigue analysis for operational load histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2013-07-01

    Some laboratories performed fatigue tests in dissolved oxygen water at elevated temperature to better understand the influence of a long hold-time within cyclic loading. Also, the combined effect of complex waveform and surface finish was examined. The data show a less severe influence compared to the prediction model from Argonne National Laboratory; an increase in fatigue life was noticed and attributed to different effects. To evaluate an operational load history with this experimental data an algorithm is developed, which finds hold-times and the examined complex waveform in a stress-time series. All those cycles, which are either geometrically comparable to the complex loading signal or containing a hold period, are evaluated with the test results and not with the formula from Argonne National Laboratory. The reduction of the cumulative usage factor is calculated. Based on this discussion a realistic test condition is derived for further research activities.

  18. Measurement and simulation of crack growth rate and direction under non-proportional loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of fatigue experiments on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion, the experimental results – crack path and crack growth life – are measured and compared. It is observed that the cracks follow a curvature from a tensile to a shear dominated growth with increasing crack length. The results are enforced by the high amplitudes applied to the specimens causing large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates in the order of 10-3 mm/cycle. The non-linear nature of the cyclic deformation has been taken into account by applying a cyclic plasticity model, and plasticity-induced crack closure is captured by a contact formulation. Already for the uniaxial reference case the current limitations in modelling plasticity induced crack closure – a prerequisite for achieving realistic simulation results – have become obvious. Measurements have shown that friction and roughness induced closure processes come up, especially for non-planar crack surfaces, challenge to be met in the future.

  19. Solid sediment load history of the Zambezi Delta [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, H. L.; White, N. J.; Sydow, J. C.

    2005-09-01

    We calculate the solid sediment load history of the Zambezi River for the last 120 Ma (i.e. Middle Cretaceous-Recent times). Our starting point is a detailed grid of two-dimensional seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by well-log information. After conversion from two-way travel time to depth, we made simple assumptions about the compaction history in order to construct isochore maps of solid sediment load and yield as a function of geological time. Our results show that solid sediment load has varied by ˜1 order of magnitude over the last 120 Ma. There have been three periods of elevated flux. The first period occurred in Late Cretaceous times (90-65 Ma) and was synchronous with the rapid denudation of southern Africa recognised by, for example, apatite fission track modelling. The second period occurred in Oligocene times (34-24 Ma) during proposed rapid regional uplift of Southern Africa. The youngest phase of elevated flux started in Late Miocene times (10 Ma) and has continued to increase rapidly through to the present day. A large proportion of this increase can be attributed to a doubling of the size of the Zambezi catchment during the Pliocene. At other times, we suggest that load variations can be used to bound the uplift history of the region, which encompasses the catchment. Finally, changes in the shape of the Zambezi Delta through time suggest that the Mozambique current, which sweeps through the Mozambique Channel from northeast to southwest, initiated at the start of the Miocene.

  20. A quasi-modal parameter based system identification procedure with non-proportional hysteretic damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Hahn, Eric J.; Liu, Jike; Lu, Zhongrong

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduced a modal parameter based identification procedure to identify the equivalent system of structures under harmonic excitations. The developed identification technique assumed non-proportional hysteretic damping in the equivalent system, which would be applicable in identifying more general structures. By introducing quasi-modal parameter, modal analysis equation was decoupled under physical coordinate; hence, the modal parameters of each vibration mode are identified independently. Double iteration algorithm was developed to solve the derived non-linear identification equation with complex unknowns. The developed identification procedure was applied to identify the equivalent system of a numerical model in order to evaluate the feasibility of the technique in practice. The identification procedure was also applied to identify an experimental mass and bar rig for validation purpose. Identification results showed that the identification procedure could identify accurately and robustly the equivalent system with non-proportional hysteretic damping assumption; hence, it is likely to be applicable in the field.

  1. Energy resolution and non-proportionality of scintillation detectors - new observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszynski, Marek, E-mail: marek@ipj.gov.p [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    According to the present knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be the fundamental limitation of energy resolution and it is related to the intrinsic properties of the crystals. However, several observations collected in the last 10 years suggest more complex processes in the scintillators. First, the study of undoped NaI and CsI crystals showed that the non-proportionality and energy resolution are very sensitive to the accidental traces of impurities. For some crystals, like CsI(Tl), ZnSe(Te), undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and finally for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 {sup o}C, an influence of slow components of the light pulses on energy resolution and non-proportionality is observed. A common conclusion of these observations is the fact that the highest energy resolution, and particularly the intrinsic resolution measured with scintillators, characterized by two components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of both components. In the limiting case, the afterglow could be considered also as a very slow component destroying the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all above observations looking for their origin.

  2. Scintillator Non-Proportionality and Gamma Quenching in CaWO4

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, R F; Bauer, M; Bavykina, I; Bento, A; Brown, A; Bucci, C; Ciemniak, C; Coppi, C; Deuter, G; Von Feilitzsch, F; Hauff, D; Henry, S; Huff, P; Imber, J; Ingleby, S; Isaila, C; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kimmerle, M; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Malek, M; McGowan, R; Mikhailik, V B; Pantic, E; Petricca, F; Pfister, S; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Seidel, W; Stodolsky, L; Tolhurst, A J B; Usherov, I; Westphal, W

    2009-01-01

    We measure and explain scintillator non-proportionality and gamma quenching of CaWO4 at low energies and low temperatures. Phonons that are created following an interaction in the scintillating crystal at temperatures of 15mK are used for a calorimetric measurement of the deposited energy, and the scintillation light is measured with a separate cryogenic light detector. Making use of radioactivity intrinsic to the scintillating crystal, the scintillator non-proportionality is mapped out to electron energies <5keV. The observed behavior is in agreement with a simple model based on Birks' law and the stopping power dE/dx for electrons. We find for Birks' constant $k_B=(18.5\\pm0.7)$nm/keV in CaWO4. Gamma lines allow a measurement of the reduced light yield of photons with respect to electrons, as expected in the presence of scintillator non-proportionality. In particular, we show that gamma-induced events in CaWO4 give only about 90 percent of the light yield of electrons, at energies between 40keV and 80keV.

  3. Load history-based model for prestressed concrete beam damage evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jianli; Wang Yi; Qian Zhonghui

    2007-01-01

    The residual capability of a damaged structure to resist further load is essential in optimal seismic design and post-earthquake strengthening.An experimental study on the hysteretic characteristics of prestressed concrete frame beams under different loading histories was performed to explore the influence of load history on energy dissipation and failure characteristics of the member.Based on the test results,the failure of the beam is defined,and the relationship between the failure moment under cyclic load and from the skeleton curve is formulated.Finally,based on displacement and energy dissipation,a model for prestressed concrete beam damage-failure evaluation is developed.In this model,the effect of deformation level,cumulative dissipated energy,and loading history on prestressed concrete beam damage-failure is incorporated,thus it is applicable to stochastic earthquake forces.

  4. The role of different linear and non-linear channels of relaxation in scintillator non-proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, G.; Moses, W.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8119 (United States); Singh, J. [Faculty of EHS, B-41, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Vasil' ev, A.N., E-mail: anvasiliev@rambler.r [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Williams, R.T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The non-proportional dependence of a scintillator's light yield on primary particle energy is believed to be influenced crucially by the interplay of non-linear kinetic terms in the radiative and non-radiative decay of excitations versus locally deposited excitation density. A calculation of energy deposition, -dE/dx, along the electron track for NaI is presented for an energy range from several electron-volt to 1 MeV. Such results can be used to specify an initial excitation distribution, if diffusion is neglected. An exactly solvable two-channel (exciton and hole(electron)) model containing 1st and 2nd order kinetic terms is constructed and used to illustrate important features seen in non-proportional light-yield curves, including a dependence on pulse shaping (detection gate width).

  5. The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stress rupture is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress rupture failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress rupture failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress rupture. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress rupture, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, current proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress rupture may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.

  6. Slow Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Prediction of Ceramic Components Subjected to Variable Load History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaan, Osama

    2001-01-01

    Present capabilities of the NASA CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code include probabilistic life prediction of ceramic components subjected to fast fracture, slow crack growth (stress corrosion), and cyclic fatigue failure modes. Currently, this code has the capability to compute the time-dependent reliability of ceramic structures subjected to simple time-dependent loading. For example, in slow crack growth (SCG) type failure conditions CARES/Life can handle the cases of sustained and linearly increasing time-dependent loads, while for cyclic fatigue applications various types of repetitive constant amplitude loads can be accounted for. In real applications applied loads are rarely that simple, but rather vary with time in more complex ways such as, for example, engine start up, shut down, and dynamic and vibrational loads. In addition, when a given component is subjected to transient environmental and or thermal conditions, the material properties also vary with time. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a methodology capable of predicting the time-dependent reliability of components subjected to transient thermomechanical loads that takes into account the change in material response with time. In this paper, the dominant delayed failure mechanism is assumed to be SCG. This capability has been added to the NASA CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code, which has also been modified to have the ability of interfacing with commercially available FEA codes executed for transient load histories. An example involving a ceramic exhaust valve subjected to combustion cycle loads is presented to demonstrate the viability of this methodology and the CARES/Life program.

  7. Dynamic Loading Assessment at the Fifth Metatarsal in Elite Athletes with a history of Jones Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth; Goeb, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fractures of the proximal metaphysis of the fifth metatarsal (i.e., Jones fractures) are common in the athletic population and frequently require surgical fixation to optimize healing rates and return to sport. Subtle hindfoot varus alignment, which likely results in greater forces at the fifth metatarsal, has been associated with increased risk of Jones fractures due to presumed increase in forces on the lateral foot. The goal of the present study was to dynamically assess plantar pressure loads at the fifth metatarsal in elite athletes with a history of Jones fracture. We hypothesize that athletes who have suffered Jones fractures will apply significantly higher loads at the fifth metatarsal base during athletic activities compared to matched uninjured athletes. Methods: Sixteen elite, competitive athletes were recruited to participate. Eight athletes had a history of Jones fracture and eight age, gender and position-matched athletes without a history of foot injury were recruited as controls. While wearing calibrated, wireless pressure mapping insoles, all athletes performed a standardized series of athletic movements including walking, running and cutting. Tests were repeated with the patient’s standard corrective insole. Peak pressure, mean pressure, maximum force, and force-time integral (i.e., impulse) were recorded for each activity. Comparison between groups was performed using a paired Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. Results: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture showed a significantly increased peak pressure (183 ±23 kPA vs. 138±7 kPA), mean pressure (124±14 kPA vs. 95±4 kPA), and maximum force (15±1.2%BW vs. 12±1.2%BW) at the fifth metatarsal base during walking and running compared to uninjured matched controls (all Pinsole did not significantly reduce peak or mean pressure, maximum force, or impulse at the fifth metatarsal base during running or cutting. Conclusion: Athletes with a history of Jones fracture exert significantly

  8. Recovery of Myocardial Kinematic Function without the Time History of External Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Heye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-domain filtering algorithm is proposed to recover myocardial kinematic function using output-only measurements without the time history of external loads. The main contribution of this work is that the overall effect of all the external loads on the myocardium is treated as a random variable disturbed by the Gaussian white noise because the external loads of the myocardium are usually unknown in practical exercises. The kernel of our proposed algorithm is an iterative, multiframe, and sequential filtering procedure consisting of a Kalman filter and a least-squares filter. In our proposed implementation, the initial guess of myocardial kinematic function and residual innovation of all the state variables are first computed using a Kalman filter via state space equations only driven by the Gaussian white noise, and then the residual innovation is fed into a least-squares filter to estimate the total external loads of the myocardium. In the end, the initial guess of myocardial kinematic function is corrected using external loads provided by the least-squares filter. After the introduction of the whole structure of our algorithm, we demonstrate the ability of the framework on synthetic data and MR image sequences.

  9. Analysis of osteon morphotype scoring schemes for interpreting load history: evaluation in the chimpanzee femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Kiser, Casey J; Keenan, Kendra E; Thomas, Samuel C

    2011-05-01

    Osteon morphotype scores (MTSs) allow for quantification of mechanically important collagen/lamellar variations between secondary osteons when viewed in circularly polarized ight (CPL). We recently modified the 6-point MTS method of Martin et al. (Martin RB, Gibson VA, Stover SM, Gibeling JC, Griffin LV (1996a) Osteonal structure in the equine third metacarpus. Bone 19, 165-71) and reported superiority of this modified method in correlating with 'tension' and 'compression' cortices of both chimpanzee proximal femoral diaphyses and diaphyses of other non-anthropoid bones that are loaded in habitual bending (Skedros et al. 2009, 2011). In these studies, the 'tension' and 'compression' cortices differed significantly in predominant collagen fiber orientation (CFO) based on weighted-mean gray levels (CFO/WMGLs) in CPL images. In chimpanzee femora, however, some osteons were difficult to score with the 6-point method; namely, 'hybrids' with peripherally bright 'hoops' and variability in alternating rings within the osteon wall. We hypothesized that some of these hybrids would be more prevalent in regions subject to torsion than bending. In this perspective the present study was aimed at expanding our 6-point scoring method (S-6-MTS) into two 12-point methods with six additional morphotypes that considered these hybrids. Three- and 4-point methods were also evaluated. We hypothesized that at least one of these other methods would out-perform the S-6-MTS in terms of accuracy, reliability, and interpreting torsion vs. bending load histories. Osteon morphotypes were quantified in CPL images from transverse sections of eight adult chimpanzee femora (neck, proximal diaphysis, mid-diaphysis), where the mid-diaphysis and base- and mid-neck locations have relatively more complex loading (e.g. torsion + bending) than the proximal diaphysis, where bending predominates. Correlation coefficients between CFO/WMGL and MTSs showed that the S-6-MTS method was either stronger or

  10. Rearing history and allostatic load in adult western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in human care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Wolfe, Barbara A; Crews, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014. AL estimates were calculated using biomarkers obtained during previous anesthetic events. Biomarkers in the high-risk quartile were counted toward a gorilla's AL. Rearing history was categorized as mother-reared, nursery-reared, and wild-caught. Using ANCOVA, rearing history and AL are significantly associated when age and sex are entered as covariates. Wild-caught gorillas have significantly higher AL than mother-reared gorillas. Neither wild-caught nor mother-reared gorillas are significantly different from nursery-reared gorillas. When examined by sex, males of all rearing histories have significantly lower AL than females. We suggest males face few stressors in human care and ill effects of rearing history do not follow. Wild-caught females have significantly higher AL than mother-reared females, but neither is significantly different from nursery-reared females. Combined with our previous work on AL in this group, wherein females had twofold higher AL than males, we suggest females in human care face more stressors than males. Disrupted rearing history may exacerbate effects of these stressors. Providing opportunities for females to choose their distance from males may help reduce their AL.

  11. Non-proportionality study of CaMoO4 and GAGG:Ce scintillation crystals using Compton coincidence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhao, J; Limkitjaroenporn, P; Chaiphaksa, W; Kim, H J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the CCT technique and nuclear instrument module (NIM) setup for the measurements of coincidence electron energy spectra of calcium molybdate (CaMoO4) and cerium doped gadolinium aluminium gallium garnet (Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce or GAGG:Ce) scintillation crystals were carried out. The (137)Cs irradiated gamma rays with an energy (Eγ) of 662keV was used as a radioactive source. The coincidence electron energy spectra were recorded at seven scattering angles of 30°-120°. It was found that seven corresponding electron energies were in the range of 100.5-435.4keV. The results show that, for all electron energies, the electron energy peaks of CaMoO4 crystal yielded higher number of counts than those of GAGG:Ce crystal. The electron energy resolution, the light yield and non-proportionality were also determined. It was found that the energy resolutions are inverse proportional to the square root of electron energy for both crystals. Furthermore, the results show that the light yield of GAGG:Ce crystal is much higher than that of CaMoO4 crystal. It was also found that both CaMoO4 and GAGG:Ce crystals demonstrated good proportional property in the electron energy range of 260-435.4keV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of selected multi-axial fatigue criteria on the results of non-proportional fatigue experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution describes the experimental results obtained from the combined loading of the specimens in the field of high-cycle fatigue. Those specimens were manufactured from common construction steel 11523.1, melt T31052.The following experiments were performed: The first set of the specimen was loaded by the alternating bending amplitude. The second set was loaded by the amplitude of the bending in combination with constant inner overpressure. The results were evaluated by the conjugated strength criterion and another generally used multiaxial fatigue criteria. The stress-strain analysis of the specimens by FEM was performed to determine parameters (constants of particular strength criteria.

  13. MM 99.58 Physical modelling of Hammerhead forging, Vertical and Lateral load history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    1999-01-01

    The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions......The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions...

  14. Generation and application of a standardized load-time history to tubular T-joints in offshore platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-shan; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2015-10-01

    Marine structures are mostly made of metals and always experience complex random loading during their service periods. The fatigue crack growth behaviors of metal materials have been proved from laboratory tests to be sensitive to the loading sequence encountered. In order to take account of the loading sequence effect, fatigue life prediction should be based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory rather than the currently used cumulative fatigue damage (CFD) theory. A unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method for marine structures has been proposed by the authors' group. In order to apply the UFLP method for newly designed structures, authorities such as the classification societies should provide a standardized load-time history (SLH) such as the TWIST and FALSTAFF sequences for transport and fighter aircraft. This paper mainly aims at proposing a procedure to generate the SLHs for marine structures based on a short-term loading sample and to provide an illustration on how to use the presented SLH to a typical tubular T-joint in an offshore platform based on the UFLP method.

  15. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  16. Elastodynamic Stress Intensity Factor History for a Semi-infinite Crack Under Three-dimensional Transient Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李湘平; 柳春图

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic stress intensity factor history for a semi-infinite crack in an otherwise unbounded elastic body is analyzed. The crack is subjected to a pair of suddenly-applied point loadings on its faces at a distance L away from the crack tip. The exact expression for the mode I stress intensity factor as a function of time is obtained. The method of solution is based on the direct application of integral transforms, the Wiener-Hopf technique and the Cagniard-de Hoop method. Due to the existence of the characteristic length in loading, this problem was long believed a knotty problem. Some features of the solutions are discussed and graphical result for numerical computation is presented.

  17. Comparison between SSF and Critical-Plane models to predict fatigue lives under multiaxial proportional load histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Freitas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials can be classified as shear or tensile sensitive, depending on the main fatigue microcrack initiation process under multiaxial loadings. The nature of the initiating microcrack can be evaluated from a stress scale factor (SSF, which usually multiplies the hydrostatic or the normal stress term from the adopted multiaxial fatigue damage parameter. Low SSF values are associated with a shear-sensitive material, while a large SSF indicates that a tensile-based multiaxial fatigue damage model should be used instead. For tension-torsion histories, a recent published approach combines the shear and normal stress amplitudes using a SSF polynomial function that depends on the stress amplitude ratio (SAR between the shear and the normal components. Alternatively, critical-plane models calculate damage on the plane where damage is maximized, adopting a SSF value that is assumed constant for a given material, sometimes varying with the fatigue life (in cycles, but not with the SAR, the stress amplitude level, or the loading path shape. In this work, in-phase proportional tension-torsion tests in 42CrMo4 steel specimens for several values of the SAR are presented. The SSF approach is then compared with critical-plane models, based on their predicted fatigue lives and the observed values for these tension-torsion histories

  18. A criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue limit prediction in biaxial loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ukasz Pejkowski; Dariusz Skibicki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue strength estimation under periodic proportional and non-proportional cyclic loading. The cri-terion is based on the mean and maximum values of the second invariant of the stress deviator. Important elements of the criterion are: function of the non-proportionality of fatigue loading and the materials parameter that expresses the materials sensitivity to non-proportional loading. The methods for the materials parameters determination uses three S–N curves: tension–compression, torsion, and any non-proportional loading proposed. The criterion has been verified using experimental data, and the results are included in the paper. These results should be considered as promis-ing. The paper also includes a proposal for multiaxial fatigue models classification due to the approach for the non-proportionality of loading.

  19. The behaviour of reinforced concrete structure due to earthquake load using Time History analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifuddin, M.; Panjaitan, M. A. R.; Ayuna, D.

    2017-02-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous, destructive and unpredictable natural hazards, which can leave everything up to a few hundred kilometres in complete destruction in seconds. Indonesia has a unique position as an earthquake prone country. It is the place of the interaction for three tectonic plates, namely the Indo-Australian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. Banda Aceh is one of the cities that located in earthquake-prone areas. Due to the vulnerable conditions of Banda Aceh some efforts have been exerted to reduce these unfavourable conditions. Many aspects have been addressed, starting from community awareness up to engineering solutions. One of them is all buildings that build in the city should be designed as an earthquake resistant building. The objectives of this research are to observe the response of a reinforced concrete structure due to several types of earthquake load, and to see the performance of the structure after earthquake loads applied. After Tsunami in 2004 many building has been build, one of them is a hotel building located at simpang lima. The hotel is made of reinforced concrete with a height of 34.95 meters with a total area of 8872.5 m2 building. So far this building was the tallest building in Banda Aceh.

  20. Dynamics of CD4 Lymphocytes and Viral Load at the Natural History of Perinatal HIV-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Daminov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of indicators of CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load in the natural history (in the absence of ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. It was revealed that perinatal way of transmission is characterized by a higher rate of immunodeficiency progression. It may be associated with intrauterine infection, as well as an early defeat HIV immature immune system of the child. The concentration of virus in perinatally infected children since the beginning of the observation and in 30 months after infection is more than in parenterally infected children in 5 and 2 times, respectively, which determines a infavourable version of the disease in perinatally infected children.

  1. A rapid food screener ranks potential renal acid load of renal stone formers similarly to a diet history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Dietary acid load was reported to be inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The calcium renal stone formers (RSFs) should be recommended to lower their dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) to reduce stone recurrence. Reduction of dietary PRAL also showed a promising role for the prevention of other metabolic diseases. However, clinicians often fail to provide nutritional screening and counseling due to lack of simple tools to obtain a reliable dietary history. A one-page food screener (LAKE score) was recently designed to obtain a reliable measure of dietary PRAL in short time. We report the testing of such an instrument in the evaluation of PRAL: in a population of 135 healthy subjects (60 males, 75 females; age range 18-73), living in the area of Milan, Italy. Each participant received both the one-page LAKE food screener and an extensive 24-h dietary questionnaire. We examined agreement between the LAKE food screener scores, and estimates of PRAL and other nutrients produced by the computerized processing of thorough 24-h dietary histories. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r > 0.50) showed that LAKE score ranked subjects quite well with respect to dietary PRAL. LAKE positive subscore ranked patients with respect to dietary intake of total protein (r = 0.642) and phosphate (r = 0.648). We also obtained an excellent correlation of LAKE negative subscore with potassium intake (r = -0.531) and vitamin C (r = -0.554) as estimated by 24 h recalls. The LAKE score ranked patients similar to the estimates of 24-h dietary recalls, used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of dietary PRAL. This rapid, simple and inexpensive food screener for the evaluation of dietary PRAL could provide a "snapshot" of the diet of the RSFs to allow an immediate feedback to the patient during office consultation.

  2. Spall measurements in shock-loaded hemispherical shells from free-surface velocity histories. [Dynamic fracture of hemishells of copper and tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Warnes, R.H.; Johnson, N.L.; Fujita, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Copper and tantalum hemishells are externally loaded by a hemishell of PBX 9501 detonated at its pole. Free-surface velocity histories of the metal hemishells are measured at the pole and at 50 from the pole with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. These histories are used to determine spall strengths and depths by simple wave-interaction analyses and are compared with hydro-code (CAVEAT) predictions using simple and void-growth spall models. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A geometrical approach to determine reorientation start and continuation conditions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys considering the effects of loading history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, M.; Kadkhodaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) and magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) are metallic alloys that can undergo inelastic responses when exposed to magnetic fields. Several constitutive models have been proposed so far to model the behaviors of FSMAs. In this work, the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions are considered, and it is shown that reorientation start conditions are not fixed values; rather, they change with respect to the amount of loading history. To consider the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions, an available phase diagram in stress-field space is generalized to reorientation surfaces in stress-field-loading history space. Correspondingly, kinetic laws are derived in a continuum framework to be used with the reorientation surfaces to determine the amount of the martensitic variant 2 volume fraction. Based on the geometry of the reorientation surfaces, conditions that must be satisfied to ensure the continuation of reorientations are obtained. Available experimental findings validate the proposed model and the reorientation surfaces.

  4. A Combined Isotropic, Kinematic and Cross Hardening Model for Magnesium AZ31B-H24 under Non-linear Strain Loading Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yueqian; Bai, Yuanli

    2016-08-01

    A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions. Three sets of state variables were defined and applied to consider the effects of, a) loading history, b) twinning and de-twinning and c) different pre-strain. Experiments under two types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted along different orientations, 1) uniaxial compression-tension reversal loading with different amounts of compressive strains, and 2) two-step uniaxial tension, known as cross-loading conditions, with different pre-strains. No apparent cross-hardening effect was observed for this material. The calibrated new hardening model, with an anisotropic CPB06ex2 yield criterion and an eMMC anisotropic fracture model, has been implemented into Abaqus/ Explicit as a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Good correlation was observed between experimental and simulation results.

  5. Dependence of the cyclic stress-strain curve on loading history and its interaction with fatigue of 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belattar, Adel, E-mail: adel.belattar@insa-rouen.fr [INSA Rouen/GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 08, Avenue de l' Universite, 76800 St. Etienne du Rouvray (France); Taleb, Lakhdar; Hauet, Annie [INSA Rouen/GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 08, Avenue de l' Universite, 76800 St. Etienne du Rouvray (France); Taheri, Said [LaMSID UMR EDF-CNRS 2832, Department AMA, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart Cedex (France)

    2012-02-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrary to low deformation, cyclic curve is not unique at high strain amplitude. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, as the loading was continued cyclic hardening tends to stabilize. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic hardening is mainly kinematic type, isotropic component remains quasi-linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing in pre-hardening strain amplitude has almost no effect on fatigue damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fatigue life decreasing is associated with formation of walls, cells and defect bands. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of loading history on the cyclic stress-strain curve and fatigue behavior of 304L stainless steel at room temperature. Tension-compression tests were performed on the same specimen under controlled strain, using several loading sequences of increasing or decreasing amplitude. The results show that the cyclic curve is not unique, as it depends on the loading sequence. The same predeformed specimens were subjected to fatigue tests. The results showed that fatigue life is significantly reduced by the previous loading history. A previously developed method for determining the effect of prehardening was evaluated. Microstructural analyses were also performed; the microstructures after preloading and their evolution during the fatigue cycles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of these analyses improve our understanding of the macroscopic properties of 304L stainless steel and can help us identify the causes of failure and lifetime reduction.

  6. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Tim B; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Gejman, Pablo V; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; St Clair, David; Corvin, Aiden; Kirov, George; McQuillin, Andrew; Gurling, Hugh; Rujescu, Dan; Andreassen, Ole A; Werge, Thomas; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Malhotra, Anil K; O'Donovan, Michael C; Kendler, Kenneth S; Fanous, Ayman H

    2016-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have yielded more than 100 common susceptibility variants, and strongly support a substantial polygenic contribution of a large number of small allelic effects. It has been hypothesized that familial schizophrenia is largely a consequence of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N = 978), cases reporting no such family history (N = 4,503), and unscreened controls (N = 8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup. We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family history subgroup. Comparison of genome-wide polygenic risk scores based on GWAS summary statistics indicated a significant enrichment for SNP effects among family history positive compared to family history negative cases (Nagelkerke's R(2 ) = 0.0021; P = 0.00331; P-value threshold history positive compared to family history negative cases (0.32 and 0.22, respectively; P = 0.031). We found suggestive evidence of allelic effects detectable in large GWAS of schizophrenia that might be specific to particular family history subgroups. However, consideration of a polygenic risk score indicated a significant enrichment among family history positive cases for common allelic effects. Familial illness might, therefore, represent a more heritable form of

  7. Genome-wide association study reveals greater polygenic loading for schizophrenia in cases with a family history of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigdeli, Tim B.; Ripke, Stephan; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin

    2016-01-01

    of inherited rather than environmental factors. We investigated the extent to which familiality of schizophrenia is associated with enrichment for common risk variants detectable in a large GWAS. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for cases reporting a family history of psychotic illness (N......=978), cases reporting no such family history (N=4,503), and unscreened controls (N=8,285) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC1) study of schizophrenia. We used a multinomial logistic regression approach with model-fitting to detect allelic effects specific to either family history subgroup....... We also considered a polygenic model, in which we tested whether family history positive subjects carried more schizophrenia risk alleles than family history negative subjects, on average. Several individual SNPs attained suggestive but not genome-wide significant association with either family...

  8. Fasting Insulin is Better Partitioned according to Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus than Post Glucose Load Insulin of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Saritha; Chandran, Sindhu Padinjareveedu; Nesheera, K K; Jacob, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is contributed by insulin resistance, hepatic insulin uptake, insulin secretion and rate of insulin degradation. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported to cause hyperinsulinemia. Correlation of fasting insulin with post glucose load Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) insulin in young adults and their partitioning according to family history of type 2 diabetes. In this observational cross-sectional study, clinical evaluation and biochemical assays of insulin and diabetes related parameters, and secondary clinical influences on type 2 diabetes in volunteers were done for inclusion as participants (n=90) or their exclusion. Cut off levels of quantitative biochemical variables were fixed such that they included the effects of insulin resistance, but excluded other secondary clinical influences. Distribution was analysed by Shapiro-Wilk test; equality of variances by Levene's test; Log10 transformations for conversion of groups to Gaussian distribution and for equality of variances in the groups compared. When the groups compared had Gaussian distribution and there was equality of variance, parametric methods were used. Otherwise, non parametric methods were used. Fasting insulin was correlating significantly with 30, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin showing that hyperinsulinemia in the fasting state was related to hyperinsulinemia in the post glucose load states. When fasting and post glucose load OGTT insulin were partitioned into those without and with family history of type 2 diabetes, maximum difference was seen in fasting insulin (pinsulin. The 30 minute insulin could not be partitioned (p=0.574). Fasting, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin can be partitioned according to family history of type 2 diabetes, demonstrating stratification and heterogeneity in the insulin sample. Of these, fasting insulin was better partitioned and could be used for baseline reference interval calculations.

  9. Viral load and short-term natural history of type-specific oncogenic human papillomavirus infections in a high-risk cohort of midadult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Rachel L; Xi, Long Fu; Shen, Zhenping; Stern, Joshua E; Newman, Laura; Feng, Qinghua; Hughes, James P; Koutsky, Laura A

    2014-04-15

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load may inform the origin of newly detected infections and characterize oncogenic HPV natural history in midadult women. From 2007 to 2011, we enrolled 521 25-65-year-old-female online daters and followed them triannually with mailed health and sexual behavior questionnaires and kits for self-sampling for PCR-based HPV DNA testing. Samples from oncogenic HPV positive women were selected for type-specific DNA load testing by real-time PCR with adjustment for cellularity. Linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between viral levels, health and sexual behavior, and longitudinal oncogenic HPV detection. Type-specific viral levels were borderline significantly higher in oncogenic HPV infections that were prevalent versus newly detected (p = 0.092), but levels in newly detected infections were higher than in infections redetected after intercurrent negativity (p infections detected intermittently, the likelihood of persistent (OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 2.20-8.45) or single-time (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71) detection increased per 1-unit increase in baseline log10 viral load. Viral load differences between redetected and newly detected infections suggest a portion of new detections were due to new acquisition, although report of recent new sex partners (a potential marker of new infection) was not predictive of viral load; oncogenic HPV infections in midadult women with new partners likely represent a mix of new acquisition and reactivation or intermittent detection of previous infection. Intermittent detection was characterized by low viral levels, suggesting that intermittent detection of persisting oncogenic HPV infection may be of limited clinical significance. © 2013 UICC.

  10. Influence of the mechanical loading history on the stress assisted two way memory effect in a Ti-Ni-Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José de Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several tests of thermal cycling under constant load are carried out on Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Cu (at% shape memory wires. The properties related to the Stress Assisted Two Way Memory Effect (SATWME of the material are investigated as a function of the mechanical loading history for the same temperature range during cooling and heating. For this reason, two thermomechanical tests have been employed: tests I, where one sample is used for just one constant stress level test and tests II, where only one sample is employed for several constant stress level tests in sequence. The results obtained show that for loads applied below 150 MPa, the transformation temperatures and the thermal hysteresis associated with the transformation of the material are the same during the two tests. However, above 150 MPa in tests II transformation temperatures and thermal hysteresis are respectively higher and smaller than the ones obtained in tests I. On the other hand, transformation temperatures obtained from both tests are in good agreement with the ones measured by DSC and electrical resistance measurements. It is also observed that the SATWME obtained by tests II is smaller than the one measured during tests I. It is shown that these different behaviors are induced by accumulation of plastic strain in the sample during tests II.

  11. Adhesives: Test Method, Group Assignment, and Categorization Guide for High-Loading Rate Applications - History and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-20

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-WMM-C Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-SR-0371 ARL-ADHES-QA-001.02 Rev 1.0 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...provides the development history and rationale for the standard process description ARL-ADHES-QA-001.00 Rev 1.0, Adhesives: Test Method, Group

  12. Austenite steel transformations under the influence of fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Skibicki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of materials and structures in fatigue non-proportional loading conditions, characterized by the principal axes rotation during fatigue cycles, is an important issue because of its impact on fatigue properties. The article presents results of an analysis ofmicrostructural steel X5CrNi18-10, subjected to proportional fatigue loadings: torsion and push-pull, as well as non-proportional ones.Variability of the principal axes positions of non-proportional loadings was obtained by using a loading program with alternately realized torsion and tension-compression blocks. The work includes an analysis of one-phase microstructure and microhardness tests of fatigue samples were carried out. The cyclic loading value accepted for the tests caused an martensite transformation induced by plastic strain and occurrence of slip bands in the grains of austenite. A comparative analysis revealed differences in the transformation intensity, depending on the type of applied loading and on the degree of its non-proportionality.

  13. Full load testing in the platform module prior to tow-out: A case history of subsynchronous instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An electric motor driven centrifugal compressor to supply gas for further compression and reinjection on a petroleum production platform in the North Sea was examined. The compressor design, raised concerns about susceptibility to subsynchronous instability. Log decrement, aerodynamic features, and the experience of other compressors with similar ratios of operating to critical speed ratio versus gas density led to the decision to full load test. Mixed hydrocarbon gas was chosen for the test to meet discharge temperature restrictions. The module was used as the test site. Subsynchronous vibrations made the compressor inoperable above approximately one-half the rated discharge pressure of 14500 kPa. Modifications, which includes shortening the bearing span, change of leakage inlet flow direction on the back to back labyrinth, and removal of the vaned diffusers on all stages were made simultaneously. The compressor is operating with satisfactory vibration levels.

  14. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Compressive Behaviors of CA Mortar Due to Cyclic Loading History%循环荷载历史下 CA 砂浆的动态受压试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 王彪; 徐浩

    2015-01-01

    研究目的:为研究历经不同循环荷载历史和不同应变速率对铁路轨道系统 CRTSⅠ型板式无砟轨道水泥乳化沥青砂浆(CA 砂浆)的抗压强度、弹性模量和峰值应变的影响规律,进行 CA 砂浆圆柱体试件历经循环加载历史后,在应变速率为1×10-5~1×10-2 s -1时的单轴受压特性试验。  研究结论:(1)应变速率和循环荷载历史对 CA 砂浆的力学性能影响显著;(2)CA 砂浆的抗压强度、弹性模量和峰值应变均随应变速率的增大而提高;(3)在相同的应变速率下,CA 砂浆的抗压强度随循环荷载次数和循环荷载幅值的增加而降低,最大降低幅度为8.34%;(4)当循环荷载幅值较小时,CA 砂浆的弹性模量随循环荷载次数的增加而增大,最大增加幅度为59.17%;(5)在相同的应变速率下,CA 砂浆的峰值应变随循环荷载次数及循环荷载幅值的增大呈降低趋势,且应变速率对峰值应变的影响小于循环荷载历史的影响;(6)该研究成果为进一步了解历经循环加载历史后板式无砟轨道的力学性能提供必要的试验依据,进而应用于指导 CA 砂浆材料优化设计中。%Research purposes:In order to analyze the influence on the change rule of compressive strength,elastic modulus and peak strain of China railway track system(CRTS)Ⅰslab track cement asphalt mortar(CA mortar)by different cyclic loading histories and strain rates.The uniaxial compression characteristic test of CA mortar cylinder specimens due to cyclic loading histories with the strain rates ranging from 1 ×10 -5 s -1 to 1 ×10 -2 s -1 was carried out. Research conclusions:(1)The mechanical property of CA mortar is affected obviously by strain rates and cyclic loading histories.(2)The compressive strength,elastic modulus and peak strain of CA mortar are increase with the strain rate. (3)The compressive strength of CA mortar

  15. Effects of load and thermal histories on mechanical behavior of materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, Denver, CO, Feb. 25, 26, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, P.K.; Nicholas, T.

    1987-01-01

    This volume includes topics on fatigue crack propagation; isothermal and thermal-mechanical fatigue; and microstructure, fracture, and damage. Papers are presented on transients in fatigue crack growth, elevated-temperature fatigue crack propagation, the role of crack closure in crack retardation in P/M and I/M aluminum alloys, the acoustic interrogation of fatigue overload effects, and the effects of frequency and environment on crack growth in Inconel 718. Special attention is given to isothermal fatigue failure mechanisms in low-tin lead-based solder, the stress and strain controlled low-cycle fatigue of Pb-Sn solder for electronic packaging applications, load sequence effects on the deformation of isolated microplastic grains, and thermal fatigue of stainless steel. Other papers are on the influence of thermal aging on the creep crack growth behavior of a Cr-Mo steel, the effect of cyclic loading on the fracture toughness of a modified 4340 steel, and the effects of hot rolling condition and boron microalloying on phase transformation and microstructure in niobium-bearing interstitial free steel.

  16. On the assessment of multiaxial fatigue damage under variable amplitude loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of the SSF criterion is evaluated under variable amplitude loading conditions. The main objective was to inspect the validity of the hypothesis in which the SSF damage map remains valid for any high strength steel. In order to achieve that, fatigue life correlation of the 1050QT steel and 304L stainless steel was analyzed under multiaxial loading conditions. The loading block considered in the study comprises 360 proportional loading cycles with different stress amplitude ratios and stress levels. Despite being made of proportional branches, this loading block is a non-proportional loading due to its principal directions variation. This feature allows the evaluation of combined loading effects under variable amplitude loading conditions, which makes this loading block suitable to mimic the loading effects usually found in the field. Results show very good agreements, which reinforces the aforementioned hypothesis.

  17. Effects of loading history on small-strain shear modulus of saturated clays%循环应力历史对饱和软黏土小应变剪切模量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷川; 蔡袁强; 王军; 杨芳; 胡秀青

    2012-01-01

    饱和软黏土的小应变剪切模量Gmax是其基本力学参数。在进行饱和软黏土的有效应力动力分析时,往往认为小应变剪切模量Gmax只随着有效应力的降低而衰减,而不受动荷载应力历史的影响,因此基本采用静力状态下得到的小应变剪切模量代替相同有效应力时动力状态下的小应变剪切模量。但是,对于饱和软黏土,目前并没有足够多的试验数据证明这一假设。基于这一考虑,通过GDS动三轴及弯曲元测试系统,研究了循环应力历史对饱和软黏土小应变剪切模量的影响,试验结果表明循环应力历史对Gmax的影响较大,采用静力状态下得到的Gmax代替动力状态下的Gmax并不可取。同时,发现可以使用小应变剪切模量的突变来表征饱和软黏土的结构破坏。%The small-strain shear modulus is the main physical index of saturated clays. In the methods for the effective stress analysis, the mall-strain shear modulus obtained from static tests is often used in the dynamic analysis without regard to the influence of loading history. However, for saturated clays, this assumption has not been proved by enough test data. Based on this consideration, a few cyclic triaxial and bender element tests were conducted to study the influence of loading history on the small-strain shear modulus of saturated clays. The test results indicate that the influence is great and the above assumption is not correct. Meanwhile, it is also found that the small-strain shear modulus can be used to determine the failure criterion of saturated clays under cyclic loading.

  18. Time History Analysis of Slope Stability under the Blasting Loading%爆破动力荷载下边坡稳定性的时程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏辉; 楼晓明; 周文海

    2015-01-01

    For the significant impact of blasting on slope stability during open-pit mining process,the dynamic finite ele-ment method is used to analyze the variation of slope stability with the time in blasting. Firstly,the finite element model of mine slope is established,then the finite element strength reduction method is adopted to get the most dangerous sliding surface and safety coefficient of the slope. After that,based on the most dangerous sliding surface obtained,a three-dimensional entity model of slope and explosives was created,the blasting parameters are arranged and the initiation time for each hole is set up. Next, this model is calculated after the initiation. The dynamic response process after slope explosive for 30 s is solved by LS-DYNA large dynamic finite element program. Combining with the limit equilibrium method and dynamic finite element method, the safety factors of slope at every moment under unified detonation are calculated. Slope stability should be comprehensively evalu-ated by the time-history safety coefficient and whether the elements of the sliding surface are destroyed at the same time. The simulation results can dynamically display the security status of slope blasting process,and the result is very close to that by the limit equilibrium method. This research could make a reference for the blasting design.%针对露天矿开采过程中,爆破开挖作业对最终边坡稳定的影响问题,采用动力有限元法分析爆破过程中边坡的稳定性随时间变化情况。首先建立矿山边坡的二维有限元模型,利用有限元强度折减法求解,得到边坡的最危险滑动面及折减安全系数;再根据得到的最危险滑动面,重新建立边坡和炸药的三维实体模型,布置爆破孔网参数并设置各个炮孔的起爆时间,通过LS-DYNA大型动力有限元程序,求解边坡在炸药爆炸后30 s时间内的动力响应过程。结合极限平衡法和动力有限元法计算结果

  19. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  20. Modelling long term survival with non-proportional hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perperoglou, Aristidis

    2006-01-01

    In this work I consider models for survival data when the assumption of proportionality does not hold. The thesis consists of an Introduction, five papers, a Discussion and an Appendix. The Introduction presents technical information about the Cox model and introduces the ideas behind the extensions

  1. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  2. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  3. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  4. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  5. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  8. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  9. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  10. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  11. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  12. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  13. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  14. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  15. Figuring Out Art History

    CERN Document Server

    Schich, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    World population and the number of cultural artifacts are growing exponentially or faster, while cultural interaction approaches the fidelity of a global nervous system. Every day hundreds of millions of images are loaded into social networks by users all over the world. As this myriad of new artifacts veils the view into the past, like city lights covering the night sky, it is easy to forget that there is more than one Starry Night, the painting by Van Gogh. Like in ecology, where saving rare species may help us in treating disease, art and architectural history can reveal insights into the past, which may hold keys to our own future. With humanism under threat, facing the challenge of understanding the structure and dynamics of art and culture, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is more crucial now than it ever was. The purpose of this article is to provide perspective in the aim of figuring out the process of art history - not art history as a discipline, but the actual history of all made things, in t...

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  18. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  19. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  20. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  1. A comparison of methods for calculating notch tip strains and stresses under multiaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lutovinov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected methods for calculating notch tip strains and stresses in elastic–plastic isotropic bodies subjected to multiaxial monotonic loading were compared. The methods use sets of equations where hypothetical notch tip elastic strains and stresses obtained from FEM calculations serve as an input. The comparison was performed within two separate groups of methods: the first group consists of the methods intended for cases of multiaxial proportional loading and the second group deals with multiaxial non-proportional loading. Originally, the precision of the methods was validated by comparison with results obtained from elastic–plastic FEM analyses. Since computer performance at the time was lower than nowadays, verification of the proposed methods on FEM models with a finer mesh was needed. Such verification was carried out and is presented in this paper. The effect of various formulations of material stress–strain curve was also evaluated

  2. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  3. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  4. Bulletproof History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  5. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  6. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  7. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  8. Concrete Model Considering Load History and Transient Strain in Fire%火灾中考虑应力历史和瞬态热应变的混凝土模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅海

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种在火灾和荷载共同作用下考虑应力历史和瞬态热应变的混凝土模型.该模型为基于欧洲混凝土抗火规范EC2混凝土模型的修正, 并相应中国国内常用的混凝土材料对模型的参数进行了校正.运用Fortran语言对该模型编译,嵌入结构抗火专用软件SAFIR中.分别采用提出的模型和EC2混凝土模型,对一混凝土柱受火时的截面应力分布进行了分析和比较,发现提出的混凝土模型更接近于真实情况.%A concrete model that considers load stress and transient strain under fire and loading simultaneously is presented, which is an improvement of the concrete model in EC2. The parameters of the concrete model are tuned so that they are suitable for the concrete materials that are commonly found in China. The concrete model is implemented in the FE software SAFIR, which is developed in the University of Liege by Prof. J. M. Franssen for calculation of structures in fire. is the model continueds to compare to the EC2 concrete model about the stress distribution of a concrete column. It concludes that although the fire resistance of a concrete column can be calculated appropriately with the EC2 concrete model, the stress distribution may be quite different from reality.

  9. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  10. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    favourite ways for com- mon people to spend their holidays, and with the introduction of holiday pay in the 1930s almost everybody could take a couple of weeks off work in the sum- mer. With the introduction of charter tourism many people went off to Southern Europe to spend their holidays on the same...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  11. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  12. A two-year history of high bone loading physical activity attenuates ethnic differences in bone strength and geometry in pre-/early pubertal children from a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, Rebecca M; Avidon, Ingrid; Norris, Shane A; McVeigh, Joanne A

    2013-12-01

    We examined the interplay between ethnicity and weight-bearing physical activity on the content and volumetric properties of bone in a pre- to early pubertal South African Black and White population. Sixty six children [Black boys, 10.4 (1.4)yrs, n=15; Black girls, 10.1 (1.2)yrs, n=27; White boys, 10.1 (1.1)yrs, n=7; White girls, 9.6 (1.3)yrs, n=17] reported on all their physical activities over the past two years in an interviewer administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). All participants underwent a whole body and site-specific DXA scan and we also assessed bone structure and estimated bone strength with pQCT. Children were classified as being either high or low bone loaders based on the cohort's median peak bone strain score estimated from the PAQ. In the low bone loading group, Black children had greater femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (2.9 (0.08)g) than White children (2.4 (0.11)g; p=0.05). There were no ethnic differences in the high bone loaders for femoral neck BMC. At the cortical site, the Black low bone loaders had a greater radius area (97.3 (1.3) vs 88.8 (2.6)mm(2); p=0.05) and a greater tibia total area (475.5 (8.7) vs. 397.3 (14.0)mm(2); p=0.001) and strength (1633.7 (60.1) vs. 1271.8 (98.6)mm(3); p=0.04) compared to the White low bone loaders. These measures were not different between the Black low and high bone loaders or between the Black and White high bone loaders. In conclusion, the present study shows that there may be ethnic and physical activity associations in the bone health of Black and White pre-pubertal children and further prospective studies are required to determine the possible ethnic specific response to mechanical loading.

  13. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1981-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design planetary spacecraft to be launched on the shuttle orbiter are summarized. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  14. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  15. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  16. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...... Andersen fairy tale....

  17. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  18. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  19. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  20. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behaviour of the near-{gamma}-titanium aluminide alloy TNB-V5 under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Stephen Peter

    2009-12-19

    With increasing environmental awareness and the general need to economise on the use of fossil fuels, there is growing pressure for industry to produce lighter, more efficient, gas turbine engines. One such material that will help to achieve these improvements is the intermetallic gamma titanium aluminide ({gamma}-TiAl) alloy. At only half the density of current nickel-based superalloys its weight saving capability is highly desirable, however, its mechanical properties have not yet been fully explored especially, when it is to be considered for structural components in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Critical components in these engines typically experience large variations in temperatures and multiaxial states of stress under non-isothermal conditions. These stress states are known as tri-axial thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). The work presented here investigates the effects these multi-axial stresses, have on a {gamma}-TiAl, (Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C) alloy under TMF conditions. The uniaxial, torsional and axialtorsional TMF behaviour of this {gamma}-TiAl alloy have been examined at 400 - 800 C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.15% to 0.7%. The tests were conducted at both thermomechanical in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP). Selected tests additionally contained a 180 seconds hold period. Fatigue lifetimes are strongly influenced by the strain amplitude, a small increase in amplitude reduces the lifetime considerably. The uniaxial IP tests showed significantly longer fatigue lifetimes than of all the tests performed. Torsional loading although have shorter fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial IP loading they have longer fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial OP loading. The non-proportional axial-torsional 90 degree OP test is most damaging which resulted in a shorter lifetime than the uniaxial OP test with the same Mises equivalent mechanical strain amplitude. A hold period at maximum temperatures reduced the lifetime for all tests regardless of the temperature

  1. Safety assessment of reactor components under complex multiaxial cyclic loading. Final report; Sicherheitsbewertung kerntechnischer Komponenten bei komplexer, mehrachsiger Schwingbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesich, Thomas M.; Herter, Karl-Heinz; Schuler, Xaver

    2012-12-15

    Objective of the project was the experimental assurance of investigations on the theoretical basis of multiaxial fatigue loading. The review of the applicability of existing hypotheses, as well as the extension of the corresponding data base was carried out by experimental studies in fatigue tests under complex multiaxial loading for a ferritic and austenitic material. To investigate the influence of complex multiaxial stress conditions on the fatigue behavior, in this project notched cylindrical specimens were examined under alternating tensile/pressure loading and alternating torsional loading. Through the notch in the notched section inhomogeneous, multiaxial stress states are generated. By uniaxial alternating tests on unnotched specimens and a further series of tests on unnotched specimens under alternating torsional loading an evaluation of the impact and influence of the notch of stress on fatigue behavior was possible. A series of experiments with superimposition of alternating torsional and alternating tensile/pressure loading permits verification of the effect of phase-shifted stress and rotating principal coordinate system. All experiments were performed at room temperature. As part of the research project, the experimental results with the ferritic and austenitic materials were evaluated in terms of material behavior (hardening or softening) under cyclic loading. These were to uniaxial alternating tensile/pressure tests, alternating torsional tests (unnotched cylindrical specimens), alternating tensile/pressure tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating torsional tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating tensiontorsion tests with complex proportional stresses on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components), as well as alternating tension-torsion tests with complex non-proportional strain on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components with 90 phase

  2. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  3. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  4. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  5. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  6. Sagittal rotational stiffness and damping increase in a porcine lumbar spine with increased or prolonged loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan, Robert L; Popovich, John M; Radcliffe, Clark J; Pathak, Pramod K; Reeves, N Peter

    2016-02-29

    While the impact of load magnitude on spine dynamic parameters (stiffness and damping) has been reported, it is unclear how load history (exposure to prolonged loading) affects spine dynamic parameters in sagittal rotation. Furthermore, it is unknown if both spine stiffness and damping are equally affected to prolonged loading. Using a pendulum testing apparatus, the effect of load magnitude and load history on spine sagittal rotational stiffness and damping was assessed. Nine porcine lumbar functional spine units (FSUs) were tested in an increasing compressive load phase (ICP: 44.85, 68.55, 91.75, 114.6kg) and then a decreasing compressive load phase (DCP: 91.75, 68.55, and 44.85kg). Each trial consisted of flexing the FSU 5° and allowing it to oscillate unconstrained. During the ICP, both stiffness and damping linearly increased with load. However, in the DCP, stiffness and damping values were significantly higher than the identical load collected during the ICP, suggesting load history affects sagittal rotational dynamic parameters. In addition, spine damping was more affected by load history than spine stiffness. These results highlight the importance of controlling load magnitude and history when assessing spine dynamic parameters.

  7. Lightening the Load

    OpenAIRE

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enh...

  8. Taking a Load Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the snow -load capacity of school roofs and how understanding this data aids in planning preventive measures and easing fear of roof collapse. Describes how to determine snow-load capacity, and explains the load-bearing behavior of flat versus sloped roofs. Collapse prevention measures are highlighted. (GR)

  9. Experimental Study of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP Sheets Under Sustaining Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wenwei; LI Guo

    2006-01-01

    Seven reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in flexure using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets subjected to different sustaining loads were tested. The effects of initial load and load history on the ultimate strength of strengthened RC beams were examined by externally bonded CFRP sheets. The main experimental parameters included different levels of sustaining load at the time of strengthening, and load history. Experimental results show that sustaining load levels at the time of strengthening have important influences on the ultimate strength of strengthened RC beams. If the initial load is the same, the ultimate strength of RC beams strengthened with CFRP sheets is almost the same regardless of load history at the time of strengthening.

  10. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  11. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A significant...... mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50 years of loading...... and of the short-term and long-term strengths. For permanent and imposed library loads, reliability-based estimation of the load duration factor gave almost the same results as direct, deterministic calibration. Keywords: Creep, damage models, duration of load, equal rank assumption, load duration factor, matched...

  12. Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials under Multi-Axial Nonproportional Loading: An Overview%金属材料多轴非比例低周疲劳寿命预测概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 仲政

    2016-01-01

    工程中的大多数构件承受着比例或非比例多轴疲劳荷载作用,而非比例强化效应会大大影响其多轴疲劳寿命.精确预测金属材料在多轴非比例荷载下的低周疲劳寿命需要同时考虑等向强化、随动强化及非比例强化效应下的材料本构关系,并在临界面上计算出相应应力应变值,根据不同疲劳失效形式选取不同类型的失效模型来确定疲劳寿命.本文针对这一过程中重要知识点进行阐述,并介绍了相关模型与理论.%Many engineering components are subjected to multiaxial fatigue loading which can be proportional or non-proportional.The non-proportional hardening effect has a significant influence on multiaxial fatigue life.Accurate prediction of the low cycle fatigue life of metallic materials under multiaxial non-proportional loading should employ constitutive relations considering isotropic hardening,kinematic hardening and non-proportional hardening effects simultaneously.By calculating the corresponding stress and strain components on the critical plane,the fatigue life could be estimated with the help of different fatigue failure models.This paper gives an overview of the concepts concerning the fatigue life predictions,as well as the related models and theories.

  13. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  14. Multivariate Modelling of Extreme Load Combinations for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a model for estimating the joint probability distribution of two load components acting on a wind turbine blade cross section. The model addresses the problem of modelling the probability distribution of load time histories with large periodic components by dividing the signal...... into a periodic part and a perturbation term, where each part has a known probability distribution. The proposed model shows good agreement with simulated data under stationary conditions, and a design load envelope based on this model is comparable to the load envelope estimated using the standard procedure...... for determining contemporaneous loads. By defining a joint probability distribution and full return-period contours for multiple load components, the suggested procedure gives the possibility for determining the most critical loading direction in a blade cross section, or for carrying out reliability analysis...

  15. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  16. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  17. Load induced blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, J. S. P.; Lavie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied oil indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005. for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect oil the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the pe...

  18. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  19. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  20. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  1. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  3. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  4. What Is Literary "History"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  5. Simple model relating recombination rates and non-proportional light yield in scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Bizarri, Gregory; Singh, Jai; Vasil' ev, Andrey N.; Williams, Richard T.

    2008-09-24

    We present a phenomenological approach to derive an approximate expression for the local light yield along a track as a function of the rate constants of different kinetic orders of radiative and quenching processes for excitons and electron-hole pairs excited by an incident {gamma}-ray in a scintillating crystal. For excitons, the radiative and quenching processes considered are linear and binary, and for electron-hole pairs a ternary (Auger type) quenching process is also taken into account. The local light yield (Y{sub L}) in photons per MeV is plotted as a function of the deposited energy, -dE/dx (keV/cm) at any point x along the track length. This model formulation achieves a certain simplicity by using two coupled rate equations. We discuss the approximations that are involved. There are a sufficient number of parameters in this model to fit local light yield profiles needed for qualitative comparison with experiment.

  6. FInal Report: First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Fei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This final report presents work carried out on the project “First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality” at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 2013-2015. The scope of the work was to further the physical understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind scintillator nonproportionality that effectively limits the achievable detector resolution. Thereby, crucial quantitative data for these processes as input to large-scale simulation codes has been provided. In particular, this project was divided into three tasks: (i) Quantum mechanical rates of non-radiative quenching, (ii) The thermodynamics of point defects and dopants, and (iii) Formation and migration of self-trapped polarons. The progress and results of each of these subtasks are detailed.

  7. On penalized likelihood estimation for a non-proportional hazards regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Karthik; Ebrahimi, Nader

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a semi-parametric generalization of the Cox model that permits crossing hazard curves is described. A theoretical framework for estimation in this model is developed based on penalized likelihood methods. It is shown that the optimal solution to the baseline hazard, baseline cumulative hazard and their ratio are hyperbolic splines with knots at the distinct failure times.

  8. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  9. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  10. Indentation load relaxation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  11. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  12. Lateral load pattern in pushover analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The seismic capacity curves of three types of buildings including frame, frame-shear wall and shear wall obtained by pushover analysis under different lateral load patterns are compared with those from nonlinear time history analysis. Based on the numerical results obtained a two-phase load pattern: an inverted triangle(first mode)load pattern until the base shear force reaches β times its maximum value,Vmax, followed by a(x/H)α form, here β and α being some coefficients depending on the type of the structures considered, is proposed in the paper, which can provide excellent approximation of the seismic capacity curve for low-to-mid-rise shear type buildings. Furthermore, it is shown both the two-phase load pattern proposed and the invariant uniform pattern can be used for low-to-mid-rise shear-bending type and low-rise bending type of buildings. No suitable load patterns have been found for high-rise buildings.

  13. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  14. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  15. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  17. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  18. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  19. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... of carb-loading for sports performance. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. http://www.eatright.org/resource/fitness/ ...

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  1. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  2. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  3. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  4. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  5. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  6. Repeated loading of fine grained soils for pavement design

    OpenAIRE

    Loach, Simon C.

    1987-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to investigate the behaviour of a clay subjected to a loading regime similar to that experienced by a road subgrade under traffic loading in Great Britain. The material used was Keuper Marl. The samples were anisotropically consolidated in a triaxial apparatus from a slurry which allowed careful control over the stress history and produced uniform samples. The samples were fully instrumented and the apparatus was capable of applying repeated axial and radi...

  7. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less e

  8. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  9. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  10. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  13. History of mathematics and history of science

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  14. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...

  15. The Effect of External Loads and Cyclic Loading on Normal Patellofemoral Joint Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Ladly

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Pain over the anterior portion of the knee joint is a common clinical complaint. A condition known as 'chondromalacia patella' (softening of the cartilage under the patella, which frequently causes anterior knee pain is difficult to diagnose and monitor. Vibrations detected by a contact transducer over the patellofemoral joint may be useful in the assessment of chondromalacia patella. This paper utilised this technique known as vibroarthrography (VAG, to study two potential sources of variability of the normal patellofemoral joint signal. The effect of increased muscular force on the VAG signal was measured by externally loading the joint. The effect of load history (cyclic loading on the VAG signal was determined by comparing signals before, during, and after application of weights under similar cyclic loading conditions. Results indicated that external loading of the patellofemoral joint caused only minor signal variation. Cyclical loading of the joint, on the other hand, was determined to be a major source of variability of the normal patellofemoral joint signal, which must be controlled in future VAG tests.

  16. TE(01) High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2005-01-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching* is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, filters and attenuators. The load consists of a disk loaded coaxial guide, operating in the T01

  17. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  18. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology.

  19. Short-Term Load Forecasting: The Similar Shape Functional Time Series Predictor

    CERN Document Server

    Paparoditis, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel functional time series methodology for short-term load forecasting. The prediction is performed by means of a weighted average of past daily load segments, the shape of which is similar to the expected shape of the load segment to be predicted. The past load segments are identified from the available history of the observed load segments by means of their closeness to a so-called reference load segment, the later being selected in a manner that captures the expected qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the load segment to be predicted. Weak consistency of the suggested functional similar shape predictor is established. As an illustration, we apply the suggested functional time series forecasting methodology to historical daily load data in Cyprus and compare its performance to that of a recently proposed alternative functional time series methodology for short-term load forecasting.

  20. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  2. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  3. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  4. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  5. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  6. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  7. Family Health History and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diabetes Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an ... health problems. Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family ...

  8. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  9. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue...

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  12. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  13. Public and popular history

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat

  14. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  15. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  16. A history of the histories of econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Dupont-Kieffer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories writte

  17. Extreme Loading of Aircraft Fan Blade

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar

    2013-01-01

    The response of an aircraft fan blade manufactured by composites under the action of static and impact load has been studied in this report. The modeling and analysis of the geometry has been done using CASTEM 2007 version. For the quasi static analysis, the pressure has been incrementally applied until it satisfies the failure criteria. The deformed configuration, strain, Von-Mises stress, and the deflection of the blade have been studied. The response of the system e.g. deformation time history due to the impact of the projectile has been studied where the Newmark method for the dynamic problem has been implemented.

  18. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  19. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  20. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  1. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  2. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  3. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  4. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  5. daily nigerian nigerian nigerian peak load forec peak load forec ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is generally needed for control and scheduling power system and also as inputs to load flo analysis .... Figure 1 Seasonal indices computing neural network ... Feedback paths are sometimes used. In applying a neural network to electric load ...

  6. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the limitations of the ... of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. ..... Programming Based Load Flow Algorithm For Systems Containing Unified ...

  7. Field Load Acquisition and variable amplitude fatigue testing on maxi-scooter motorcycles

    OpenAIRE

    Petrone, N.; M. Saraceni

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present work was the instrumentation of a maxi scooter for the field collection of service loads acting on the scooter main components such as frame, fork, handlebar, rear frame and suspension. Service loads were collected on an instrumented Yamaha Tmax scooter equipped with 22 channels during a set of field tests that were representing a predefined road mix, covering a mileage of 270 km. Field load histories were used to develop an accelerated test procedure for the ac...

  8. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics. For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind's relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture , in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs.: Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume; Cover

  9. Science A history

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  10. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  11. The International Mass Loading Service

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  12. Experimental characterization of materials subjected to combined loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    In real life experience, machine and structure elements are subjected to complex loading history. Combined loading testes facilitate the understanding of materials behavior subjected to multiaxial stress state. In this paper are presented experimental investigations used to evaluate the influence of an initial type of loading on material properties which will be subsequently tested through another load type. Initial tests are tension tests, by different elongations, and subsequent tests are torsion tests, until break. Circular cross section specimens will be used in these tests. Tension tests have been performed on a universal testing machine. Subsequently torsion tests have been conducted through an attachable device. It was found that the energy associated with plastic deformation obtained by subsequent torsional tests has the dominant influence on the material total plastic energy, although initial test was tension.

  13. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  14. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  15. History and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  16. Brief history of dreams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosselli, D

    2000-01-01

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions...

  17. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  18. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  19. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...

  20. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  1. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  2. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  3. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video ... Note: Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health ...

  4. Natural history of glaucoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Ying; Varma, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fields as well as the risk factors for progression...

  5. Teaching American Environmental History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  6. Personal history, beyond narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...

  7. Knowledge management and history

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; Pauget, Bertrand; Beretti, Annie; Tortorici, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Capitalisation of the history of a technology, a technique or a concept within an industrial company is relevant to historians. However it largely exceeds the historical problems from a Knowledge Management point of view. In this context, it can be the subject of specific approaches especially Knowledge Engineering. However, it faces two types of difficulties: - The techniques in History have few modelling tools, and are even rather reticent with the use of such tools....

  8. History Vs. Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1989-01-01

    In models with external economies, there are often two or more long run equilibria. Which equilibrium is chosen? Much of the literature presumes that "history" sets initial conditions which determine the outcome, but an alternative view stresses the role of "expectations", i.e. of self-fulfilling prophecy. This paper uses a simple trade model with both external economies and adjustment costs to show how the parameters of the economy determine the relative importance of history and expectation...

  9. A tale of histories

    OpenAIRE

    Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is an elegant, high-level programming language based on multi-headed, forward chaining rules. A distinguishing feature of CHR are propagation rules. To avoid trivial non-termination, CHR implementations ensure a CHR rule is applied at most once with the same combination of constraints by maintaining a so-called propagation history. The performance impact of this history is often significant. We introduce two optimizations to reduce or even eliminate this overhe...

  10. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  11. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  12. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  13. A method for calculation of finite fatigue life under multiaxial loading in high-cycle domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malnati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for fatigue life assessment in high-cycle domain under multiaxial loading is presented in this paper. This approach allows fatigue assessment under any kind of load history, without limitations. The methodology lies on the construction - at a macroscopic level - of an “indicator” in the form of a set of cycles, representing plasticity that can arise at mesoscopic level throughout fatigue process. During the advancement of the loading history new cycles are created and a continuous evaluation of the damage is made.

  14. Writing of Patient Case History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Junying

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the language features, structure and contents of case history. Good patient case history contributes to correct diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan, therefore, it is important for physicians to learn how to write case history.

  15. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  16. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  17. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  18. Probabilistic model for multi-axial load combinations for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    for determining contemporaneous loads. Using examples with simulated loads on a 10 MW wind turbine,the behavior of the bending moments acting on a blade section is illustrated under different conditions.The loading direction most critical for material failure is determined using a finite-element model......The article presents a model describing the joint probability distribution of multiple load components acting on a wind turbine blade cross section. The problem of modelling the probability distribution of load time histories with large periodic components is addressed by dividing the signal...... of the blade cross section on which load combinations with different directions but with equal probability are applied. By defining a joint probability distribution and return-period contours for multiple load components,the suggested procedure is applicable to different aspects of the design of wind turbine...

  19. Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagode, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress-strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history.

  20. To betray art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Donald Preziosi represents one of the most sustained and often brilliant attempts to betray the modern discipline of art history by exposing its skillful shell game: precisely how and why it substitutes artifice, poetry, and representational schemes for putative facticity and objectivity (that desirous and yet ever elusive Kunstwissenschaft that art historians prattle on about. This attempt is inseparable from a sinuous, witty, involutive writing style that meanders between steely insight and coy suggestions of how art history could be performed otherwise. Preziosi’s writes art history. In doing so he betrays its disciplinary desires. It is this event of betrayal that has made his work so exciting to some, so troubling to others.

  1. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  2. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  3. Tranquebar - Whose History?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well-preserved townsc......This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well...

  4. Time, money, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, David

    2012-06-01

    This essay argues that taking the economy seriously in histories of science could not only extend the range of activities studied but also change--often quite radically--our understanding of well-known cases and instances in twentieth-century science. It shows how scientific intellectuals and historians of science have followed the money as a means of critique of particular forms of science and of particular conceptions of science. It suggests the need to go further, to a much broader implicit definition of what constitutes science--one that implies a criticism of much history of twentieth-century science for defining it implicitly and inappropriately in very restrictive ways.

  5. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  7. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  8. Air Pollution Critical Loads in the U.S.: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blett, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    "Critical loads" describe the amount of air pollution initiating harmful changes in sensitive ecosystems. Critical loads generally have both a "science" component, describing the amount of deposition needed to alter chemical indicators (such as surface water acid neutralizing capacity) or biological endpoints (such as lichen biodiversity) and a "policy" component where critical loads are evaluated and utilized to help make land management or regulatory decisions. Critical loads science and policy have both made substantial headway in the U.S. over the past decade. For example, a recent review of critical loads of nitrogen cited over 300 published papers relevant to critical loads development in the U.S. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program's Critical Loads Science Subcommittee (CLAD) has recently synthesized most available U.S. critical loads data into a national-scale database and used it to develop maps for modeled surface water acidification, modeled soil acidification, and empirically derived excess nitrogen effects. Air quality regulators and land managers are increasingly using critical loads, in conjunction with policy objectives, to establish goals (target loads) for deposition reductions needed to improve sensitive resource conditions in impacted areas. These goals help focus air pollution emissions reduction efforts where they will be most effective. We will discuss critical loads history in the U.S., provide an overview of some of the most recent national-scale critical loads products, and outline future needs.

  9. The hidden holes in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegelman, R K

    1981-09-01

    History taking can be viewed as a diagnostic test. Identification of the purpose, accuracy, reproducibility, and diagnostic discrimination of the history assists in reliable history taking. An appreciation of the strengths and limitations of history taking helps physicians effectively utilize this important diagnostic tool.

  10. Shear loading of costal cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  11. Metamaterial Loadings for Waveguide Miniaturization

    CERN Document Server

    Odabasi, H

    2013-01-01

    We show that a rectangular metallic waveguide loaded with metamaterial elements consisting of electric-field coupled (ELC) resonators placed at the side walls can operate well below the cutoff frequency of the respective unloaded waveguide. The dispersion diagrams indicate that propagating modes in ELC-loaded waveguides are of forward-type for both TE and TM modes. We also study the dispersion diagram and transmission characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides simultaneously loaded with ELCs and split ring resonators (SRRs). Such doubly-loaded waveguides can support both forward wave and backward waves, and provide independent control of the propagation characteristics for the respective modes.

  12. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  13. Load carriage by infantry soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available At constant speed of marching, oxygen consumption has been found to increase linearly with the amount of load carried, indicating that there is no optimum load. However, an optimum speed of marching has been found, depending on the terrain condition. A different line of approach, involving a study of the relationship between stride-length, frequency of stepping and speed in normal walking and the effect of muscular fatigue on this relationship has also yielded similar results. Desirability of further studies on the effect of load on optimum speed of marching, effective reduction of weight of equipment and optimum distribution of load on the body has been stressed.

  14. A History of Multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Larry Kenneth

    The history of multimedia and descriptions of various multimedia events from 1900 to 1972 are presented. The development of multimedia events is described for four eras and four main classifications of events: multiscreen presentations, electronic media and performers, environmental theater, and environments. Five appendixes include a discussion…

  15. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar

  16. Freud and cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with three questions: Can historians make use of Freud's ideas? Have they done so in the past? Should they do so in the future? It begins with a personal encounter with Freud's ideas and then raises some general questions about the relation between psychoanalysis and history.

  17. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  18. My English History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's history as an English teacher. Suggests that English teaching is not hermetic but profoundly influenced by educational trends outside the subject itself. Explains that the author's commitment to English combines a sense of engagement with a sense of liberation. (PM)

  19. Epistemology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  20. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content...

  1. [Brief history of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, D

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions. This paper reviews some of the dreams that have been a part of the world's literature and historical tradition.

  2. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  3. CERN's Early History Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    As a member of the group of historians charged to write the history of the founding of CERN, John Krige particularly underlines the important role I.I. Rabi played. The first author, former Director General of CERN add a few comments. S.A. Khan gives precisions about the role played by E. Amaldi and P. Auger; then J. Krige replies

  4. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  5. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of un

  6. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  7. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  8. Diving Into History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three divers have made history at the 13th FINA World Championships held in Rome on July 17-August 2. Guo Jingjing, the Chinese diving queen who clinched the gold in the women’s 3-meter springboard on July 21, became the first

  9. History, Theory, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  10. Taarnborg: Becoming History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Dai, Zheng; Omarsson, Olafur

    Focus of this project is an inquiry in the materialisation of the historical heritage of Taarnborg (Ribe, Denmark) once a place related to local religious authorities, now a private home and museum, where visitors attend to musical events and lectures about history and theology. Following...

  11. Didactics of History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    The book consits of five chapters about  formation and education in Denmark over the last two centuries. The developement of history teaching is especially stressed. The guiding concept for the upper secondary education has since 1850 been 'general character formation'. The book is an edited...

  12. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar Bj

  13. Runaways in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Mark R.

    1977-01-01

    Although running away is a glorified part of American folk tradition, today's runaway runs afoul of a host of laws, including those which make the act itself illegal. This article examines the history of the social and legal status of youth and why they run away. (Author)

  14. Teaching Local History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond…

  15. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  16. Narrative History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  17. Didactics of History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    The book consits of five chapters about  formation and education in Denmark over the last two centuries. The developement of history teaching is especially stressed. The guiding concept for the upper secondary education has since 1850 been 'general character formation'. The book is an edited...

  18. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  19. Walking Out of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARMARDORJE; CUIFENG

    2002-01-01

    EDITOR’S NOTE: Barkor Street around Jokhang Monastery has a history of 1,300 years. The age-old street, however, has found the fountain of youth and takes on a new outlook today. And the fountain of youth is none other than the ongoing reform and opening program.

  20. In a Word, History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  1. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  2. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  3. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  4. Testing History As Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Hart, James

    1973-01-01

    Some obvious difficulties of teaching and testing history as inquiry are reviewed. Examples of test items that require students to utilize thought processes developed through inquiry teaching are presented together with a rationale for their use. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is proposed as a useful tool in test construction. (SM)

  5. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    capacities and regulation rates of aggregators. Based on the evaluation results, the dispatch center optimizes the real time load following trajectories for the generating units and the flexible load agents via look-ahead optimization by considering the injection of renewable power. Furthermore, we mainly...

  6. STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious

  7. BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Noltingk, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...

  8. TE_01 High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2005-06-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, attenuators and filters. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  9. Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Nagode

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of th...

  10. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  11. Optimal load shedding and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding

    Load shedding is an emergency control action in power systems that can save systems from a wide-area blackout. Underfrequency load shedding, steady state load shedding, and voltage load shedding are widely used in power systems. These methods utilize either the steady state model or a simplified dynamic model to represent a power systems. In this dissertation, a general optimal load shedding method that considers both the dynamic process and load distribution is proposed. The unfavorable load shedding is then formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function of cost minimization. This objective function is subjected to system, security, and operation constraints. The entire problem becomes a question of optimization with differential and nonlinear equations as constraints. To solve this problem, discretization is used to change the differential equations into algebraic equations. The original problem is thus reformulated as an optimization problem and can be solved by a standard mathematical program. The general idea is then applied to traditional power systems, deregulated power systems, power systems with distributed generation, and load restoration. In the traditional power system, the method shows that governor action, generation dynamic, disturbance location, and economic factors can be taken into consideration. In the deregulated power system, two power market models are developed and incorporated into the load shedding scheme. In power systems with multiple distributed generations, the different cases of disturbances are analyzed and models of different distributed generation developed. The general idea is then applied. Finally, the load restoration problem is studied, and it is proposed that an optimization method be applied to it. This dissertation provides a comprehensive solution for load shedding problem in power systems. The models developed in this research can also be used to study other power system problems.

  12. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  13. Application of Monte Carlo Technique for Determining Maneuvering Loads from Statistical Information on Airplane Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Harold A.; Mayer, John P.; Huston, Wilber B.

    1961-01-01

    Results of a statistical analysis of horizontal-tail loads on a fighter airplane are presented. The data were obtained from a number of operational training missions with flight at altitudes up to about 50,000 feet and at Mach numbers up to 1.22. The analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of calculating horizontal-tail load from data on the flight conditions and airplane motions. In the analysis the calculated loads are compared with the measured loads for the different types of missions performed. The loads were calculated by two methods: a direct approach and a Monte Carlo technique. The procedures used and some of the problems associated with the data analysis are discussed. frequencies of occurrence of tail loads of given magnitudes are derived from statistical information on the flight quantities. In the direct method, a time history of tail load is calculated from time-history measurements of the flight quantities. The Monte Carlo method could be useful for extending loads information for design of prospective airplanes . For the Monte Carlo method, the The results indicate that the accuracy of loads, regardless of the method used for calculation, is largely dependent on the knowledge of the pertinent airplane aerodynamic characteristics and center-of-gravity location. In addition, reliable Monte Carlo results require an adequate sample of statistical data and a knowledge of the more important statistical dependencies between the various flight conditions and airplane motions.

  14. Load identification during object handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortier, H.G.; Veltink, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new concept to identify environ- mental loads during the interaction with the human body by sensing interface forces and movement is proposed. Mass and spring loads were moved by hand over a fixed height difference. Kinematic and kinetic quantities were measured between the hand and

  15. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  16. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  17. LOAD MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Sarkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an on demand service in which shared resources, information, software and other devices are provided to the end user as per their requirement at a specific time. A cloud consists of several elements such as clients, datacenters and distributed servers. There are n number of clients and end users involved in cloud environment. These clients may make requests to the cloud system simultaneously, making it difficult for the cloud to manage the entire load at a time. The load can be CPU load, memory load, delay or network load. This might cause inconvenience to the clients as there may be delay in the response time or it might affect the performance and efficiency of the cloud environment. So, the concept of load balancing is very important in cloud computing to improve the efficiency of the cloud. Good load balancing makes cloud computing more efficient and improves user satisfaction. This paper gives an approach to balance the incoming load in cloud environment by making partitions of the public cloud

  18. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results that are unconservative. The validity. of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history...

  19. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...... histories, which correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark. Both the results that have been obtained in the test series carried through and the results of fracture mechanics analysis...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative....

  20. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  1. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  2. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  3. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  4. Tranquebar - Whose History?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    in which the townscape of Tranquebar has become subject to promotion as amaterial embodiment of transnational history, and thereby to explore the negotiations of historicity that come into play amongst the many stakeholders in this process, including residents, heritage and tourism developers, public......This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well......-preserved townscape from the Indo-Danish colonial period in 1620-1845, the town has for decades been subject to both Danish and Indian attempts at preserving and promoting it as a destination of heritage tourism. In this process claims are made on the town as an expression of cross-cultural heritage; but whose...

  5. What history tells us

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michel Morange

    2005-06-01

    The history of science was long considered to be something peripheral to science itself. By supplying interesting stories and gossip, it seemed, at best, to provide material for enlivening lectures. In general, it was deemed a suitable activity for retired scientists. This view has been revised considerably in the past years and indeed, today seems hopelessly out of date. History and philosophy of science are increasingly held to be an essential component of the education of scientists. By becoming acquainted with these areas, practicing scientists – and in particular biologists – can better appreciate the significance of the models and theories that underpin their research, especially with the accelerating succession of one idea by the next. The present series, of which the article that follows is the first, aims to give historical glimpses that bear on contemporary biology. The hope is that these glimpses will be both a source of inspiration and of help in resisting useless fashions.

  6. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  7. [Arthritis and clinical history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

    2011-01-01

    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  8. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  10. History of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste C. Quianzon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of diabetes treatment has gone from crude extracts of insulin and accidental discovery of sulfa-like drugs in antibiotics to the development of drugs based on improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. This article will review the history of the discovery and development of insulin. A companion focusing on non-insulin diabetes agents will follow in the next issue of JCHIMP.

  11. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  12. History of hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-05-01

    Hadrontherapy is today an established modality in cancer radiation therapy. Based on the superior ballistic and radiobiological properties of accelerated ions, this discipline experienced a remarkable growth in the last 20 years. This paper reviews the history of hadrontherapy, from the early days to the most recent developments. In particular, the evolution of proton and carbon ion therapy is presented together with a glance at future solutions such as single-room facilities.

  13. The Trouble with History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    regards, the post-structuralist theories of Michel Foucault, the deconstruc- tionist notions of Jacques Derrida , and Dominick LaCapra’s techniques of...is closer to fiction than nonfiction. Indeed, they have a point. Compare: Frank Ankersmit, “Historiography and Postmodernism ,” History and Theory, 28...Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1997) and Evans

  14. A quantum of history

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    With reference to primary sources it is shown that key claims made regarding the history of the pilot wave theory in Quantum Theory at the Crossroads are not supported by the historical record. It is also argued that the association of de Broglie with just a first-order law of particle motion, and Bohm with a second-order one, has no historical basis.

  15. Troubling Histories and Theories: Gender and the History of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender influences and ways that history and theory have interacted in influencing women's contribution and recognition in educational history. Focuses on several historians' views and how some have eventually written women back into the historical picture of education. (KDR)

  16. History magazines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  17. Cultural History and its Neighbours

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a kind of map of intellectual fields that are more or less close to cultural history. It is difficult to separate cultural history from intellectual, social and political history, from archaeology and from the histories of such activities as art, literature, language and religion, whether these histories are studied in departments of history or under the umbrella of “visual studies”, “religious studies” or “cultural studies”. All these neighbours form an “inner circle”, di...

  18. Method for Investigation of Frictional Properties at Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, K. G.; Åhrström, B. O.

    1999-05-01

    In the assessment of lubricant performance and also in various other contact applications it is of importance to know the frictional qualities of a surface. Under quasi-static conditions, normal and frictional forces are measured using force transducers but the task is more difficult when loads are transient. The experimental method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of propagating waves in a beam, due to an impact on the end surface. The impact is oblique and therefore a transverse as well as a normal force is generated. The normal force history is measured from the axial non-dispersive wave using strain gauges. Transverse force and bending moment both generate dispersive flexural waves. From the FFT of two transverse acceleration histories, the frictional force at the end of the rod is evaluated using beam theory. The relation between normal and frictional force histories displays the frictional properties at the impact. Preliminary results are presented.

  19. Quasi monolithic silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg with insensitivity to non-homogeneous load distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco; Zwijze, Robert; Krijnen, Gijs; Lammerink, Theo; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented for measuring loads up to 1000 kg. The sensitive surface of 1 cm2 contains a matrix of capacitive sensing elements to make the load cell insensitive to non-homogeneous load distributions. The load cell has been realized and

  20. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  1. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  2. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  3. Disciplinary History and the Situation of History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in the history education community supports the idea that the discipline of history provides the best opportunity for moving beyond a "nation-building" or "skills-based" approach to teaching about the past. The social and temporal characteristics of the discipline of history mean such conclusions have…

  4. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  5. Immediate loading of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P J; Liddelow, G J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the concept of immediate loading as it pertains to dental implants and the indications for clinical practice. The definition of immediate loading will be considered together with a review of the relevant literature in an attempt to provide evidence-based guidelines for successful implementation into practice. A search of electronic databases including Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken using the terms "immediate loading'', "dental implants'', "immediate function'', "early loading'', "oral implants'', "immediate restoration'' and "systematic review''. This was supplemented by handsearching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Emphasis was given to systematic reviews and controlled clinical trials. A definition of immediate loading was suggested pertinent to the realities of logistics in clinical practice with respect to application and time frame. The literature was evaluated and shown to be limited with significant shortcomings. Guidelines and recommendations for clinical protocols were suggested and illustrated by examples of case types with a minimum of 1-3 years follow-up. A list of additional references for further reading was provided. Within the limitations of this review, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols have demonstrated high implant survival rates and may be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, more high level evidence studies, preferably randomized controlled trials (RCTs), over a long time frame are required to show a clear benefit over more conventional loading protocols.

  6. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  7. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories.

  8. Summary of The History Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Noortje

    2016-06-01

    This essay provides a brief, impartial summary of some main points of The History Manifesto, of the debate among historians that it has engendered, and of its connection to previous debates in and about the history of the sciences.

  9. Inventing the History of Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molella, Arthur P.

    1988-01-01

    Selected are three pioneers who invented the history of technology: Abbott P. Usher, Lewis Mumford, and Sigfried Giedion. Their careers, publications, and contributions to the history of technology are described. (YP)

  10. Integrating Educational Theory and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommends that history teachers incorporate educational theory into their courses. Describes and evaluates a history course at Brooklyn College constructed around Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives. (Author/DB)

  11. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández;

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  12. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  13. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, Marcelo, E-mail: marcelolosada@yahoo.com [Instituto de Física Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Laura, Roberto, E-mail: rlaura@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura and Instituto de Física Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  14. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  15. Power Load Management as a Computational Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ygge, Fredrik; Akkermans, Hans; Akkermans, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power load management enables energy utilities to reduce peak loads and thereby save money. Due to the large number of different loads, power load management is a complicated optimization problem. We present a new decentralized approach to this problem by modeling direct load management as a

  16. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov;

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface....... These are used as input to loads calculation, and with a statistical loads output description, they allow for improved design and loads calculations....

  17. Power Load Management as a Computational Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ygge, F.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Power load management enables energy utilities to reduce peak loads and thereby save money. Due to the large number of different loads, power load management is a complicated optimization problem. We present a new decentralized approach to this problem by modeling direct load management as a computa

  18. Power Load Management as a Computational Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ygge, Fredrik; Akkermans, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Power load management enables energy utilities to reduce peak loads and thereby save money. Due to the large number of different loads, power load management is a complicated optimization problem. We present a new decentralized approach to this problem by modeling direct load management as a computa

  19. Voices in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Leudar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of “hearing voices” nowadays usually count as verbal hallucinations and they indicate serious mental illness. Some are first rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and the mass media, at least in Britain, tend to present them as antecedents of impulsive violence. They are, however, also found in other psychiatric conditions and epidemiological surveys reveal that even individuals with no need of psychiatric help can hear voices, sometimes following bereavement or abuse, but sometimes for no discernible reason. So do these experiences necessarily mean insanity and violence, and must they be thought of as pathogenic hallucinations; or are there other ways to understand them and live with them, and with what consequences?One way to make our thinking more flexible is to turn to history. We find that hearing voices was always an enigmatic experience, and the people who had it were rare. The gallery of voice hearers is, though, distinguished and it includes Galilei, Bunyan and St Teresa. Socrates heard a daemon who guided his actions, but in his time this did not signify madness, nor was it described as a hallucination. Yet in 19th century French psychological medicine the daemon became a hallucination and Socrates was retrospectively diagnosed as mentally ill. This paper examines the controversies which surrounded the experience at different points in history as well as the practice of retrospective psychiatry. The conclusion reached on the basis of the historical materials is that the experience and the ontological status it is ascribed are not trans-cultural or trans-historic but situated both in history and in the contemporary conflicts.

  20. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  1. Build Skills by Doing History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  2. Treating Globalization in History Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

  3. Nationalist Histories and Multiethnic Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Canadians do not have a common history, despite the English-speaking Eurocentric narrative that passes for Canadian history. Rethinking the history curriculum, combined with innovative practices such as using primary historical documents, conducting heritage fairs, and encouraging students to research and produce their own heritage minutes, can…

  4. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  5. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  6. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  7. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  8. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  9. Opening the Doors of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s Central Archives aspires to improve public access to information China is blessed with a long history,and for millenniums the people of China have used history as a mirror to learn from the past. An important part of the country’s history, all the archives of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

  10. Recasting History: The Public Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  11. History of Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  12. The history of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Sula

    2004-08-01

    Autism remains a fascinating condition, perhaps the most prolifically researched of all child psychiatric disorders. Its history yields many lessons: early accounts of possible autism are, with one exception, unclear; the greatest contributions to our understanding have come from individual clinicians and researchers; the concept and definition of the disorder have changed greatly over the years; some ideas once held with conviction, were later proved to be unfounded; and socio-political shifts as well as research findings have radically altered our understanding of the syndrome as well as the care and treatment offered to people with autism.

  13. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  14. History of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinfante, Louis S

    2012-02-01

    Man has considered the nose to be a key feature, if not the key feature, of facial appearance, beauty, and dynamics. However, because of its central facial location and weak cartilaginous support, the nose is susceptible to disfiguring infection, trauma, pathologic entities, and human-associated carnages. This article discusses the various methods (eg, endonasal approach, external approach, and osteoplastic operations) surgeons have tried throughout history to give their patients a more attractive face by altering the one physical anatomic structure that one usually notices first.

  15. Philosophy and its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Gutiérrez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Socratic irony already stated that philosophy did not progress because it always devoted itself to the same matters; philosophical knowledge, besieged by the question of legitimacy, shows its regenerative capacity by always going back to its historical-conceptual foundations. Hence, whoever tried to define the essence of philosophy leaving history aside will be in danger of narrow dogmatism. In its factical situation philosophical reflection deals with issues referred to previous knowledge and opinions which determine the limits to the rationality claims of its knowledge. Philosophical truth is temporal, like any other human truth.

  16. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  17. Critical Zen art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. A. Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay sketches a history of the study of Zen art from the late nineteenth century to post-war reconsiderations, leading towards what I term “critical Zen art studies.” The latter, I suggest, has been undertaken by historians of art and others to challenge normative definitions of Zen art based on modern constructs, revise understanding of the types and functions of visual art important to Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhist monasteries, and study iconographies and forms not as a transparent aesthetic indices to Zen Mind or No Mind but as rhetorically, ritually, and socially complex, even unruly, events of representation.

  18. Essentials of filoviral load quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; van Griensven, Johan; Honko, Anna N; Bausch, Daniel G; Sprecher, Armand; Hill, Charles E; Colebunders, Robert; Johnson, Joshua C; Griffiths, Anthony; Palacios, Gustavo F; Kraft, Colleen S; Kobinger, Gary; Hewlett, Angela; Norwood, David A; Sabeti, Pardis; Jahrling, Peter B; Formenty, Pierre; Kuhn, Jens H; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative measurement of viral load is an important parameter in the management of filovirus disease outbreaks because viral load correlates with severity of disease, survival, and infectivity. During the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in parts of Western Africa, most assays used in the detection of Ebola virus disease by more than 44 diagnostic laboratories yielded qualitative results. Regulatory hurdles involved in validating quantitative assays and the urgent need for a rapid Ebola virus disease diagnosis precluded development of validated quantitative assays during the outbreak. Because of sparse quantitative data obtained from these outbreaks, opportunities for study of correlations between patient outcome, changes in viral load during the course of an outbreak, disease course in asymptomatic individuals, and the potential for virus transmission between infected patients and contacts have been limited. We strongly urge the continued development of quantitative viral load assays to carefully evaluate these parameters in future outbreaks of filovirus disease.

  19. Time dependence of biomarkers: Non-proportional effects of immunohistochemical panels predicting relapse risk in early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stephen; G. Murray; D.A. Cameron (David); J. Thomas; I. Kunkler (Ian); W. Jack (W.); G.R. Kerr; M.D. Piper; C.L. Brookes (Cassandra); D.W. Rea; C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); A. Hasenburg (Annette); C. Markopoulos; L.Y. Dirix (Luc); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.M.S. Bartlett (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground:We investigated the impact of follow-up duration to determine whether two immunohistochemical prognostic panels, IHC4 and Mammostrat, provide information on the risk of early or late distant recurrence using the Edinburgh Breast Conservation Series and the Tamoxifen vs Exemest

  20. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  1. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  2. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  3. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO{sub 2} emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production.

  4. Healing History. Narrating History, Trauma and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langwadt, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Trauma, history, reconciliation, South Africa, TRC, traume, historie, forsoning, Sydafrika, Sandhedskommission......Trauma, history, reconciliation, South Africa, TRC, traume, historie, forsoning, Sydafrika, Sandhedskommission...

  5. Zebra mussel life history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.D. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  6. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  7. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  8. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1989-01-01

    "Boyer and Merzbach distill thousands of years of mathematics into this fascinating chronicle. From the Greeks to Godel, the mathematics is brilliant; the cast of characters is distinguished; the ebb and flow of ideas is everywhere evident. And, while tracing the development of European mathematics, the authors do not overlook the contributions of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic civilizations. Without doubt, this is--and will long remain--a classic one-volume history of mathematics and mathematicians who create it." --William Dunham Author, Journey Through Genius, The Great Theorems of Mathematics "When we read a book like A History of Mathematics, we get the picture of a mounting structure, ever taller and broader and more beautiful and magnificent--and with a foundation, moreover, that is as untainted and as functional now as it was when Thales worked out the first geometrical theorems nearly 26 centuries ago." --From the Foreword by Isaac Asimov "One of the most useful and comprehensive general introductions t...

  9. Substance, History, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace J. Black

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between two approaches to the measurement of life history (LH strategies: A traditional approach, termed here the biodemographic approach, measures developmental characteristics like birthweight, gestation length, interbirth intervals, pubertal timing, and sexual debut, and a psychological approach measures a suite of cognitive and behavioral traits such as altruism, sociosexual orientation, personality, mutualism, familial relationships, and religiosity. The biodemographic approach also tends not to invoke latent variables, whereas the psychological approach typically relies heavily upon them. Although a large body of literature supports both approaches, they are largely separate. This review examines the history and relations between biodemographic and psychological measures of LH, which remain murky at best. In doing so, we consider basic questions about the nature of LH strategies: What constitutes LH strategy (or perhaps more importantly, what does not constitute LH strategy? What is gained or lost by including psychological measures in LH research? Must these measures remain independent or should they be used in conjunction as complementary tools to test tenets of LH theory? Although definitive answers will linger, we hope to catalyze an explicit discussion among LH researchers and to provoke novel research avenues that combine the strengths each approach brings to this burgeoning field.

  10. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  11. History of acupuncture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong

    2013-01-01

    The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research.

  12. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  13. Measurement of buckling load for metallic plate columns in severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sagawa, Wataru, E-mail: sagawa@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Buckling load was experimentally measured in a wide range of temperature up to 1200 °C. • Two different test methods for measuring buckling failure load were suggested and compared. • Creep buckling under compressive load was performed to explain results of buckling tests. • Reduced buckling load was explained by effects of creep buckling, geometrical imperfection, and thermal stress. • Buckling processes were visualized by a high speed camera. - Abstract: In severe accidents, a reactor pressure vessel, its components, and piping have to be under extremely high temperature and high pressure conditions, which results in failure modes like rupture by internal pressure, buckling, creep, and their combinations. In this study, buckling (failure) load was experimentally measured for metallic columns under the compressive force from room temperature up to 1200 °C. A stainless steel was chosen to be a test material to measure the buckling load. Two different test methods were employed to explore the effect of thermal history of the material on the buckling load. Particularly, the effect of creep under a compressive load was considered as a reason for the reduced buckling load at high temperatures. Additionally, finite element simulations were also conducted to predict buckling load for both an ideal column and a column with geometrical imperfection as well. Moreover, buckling process was visualized using a high speed camera to understand buckling processes.

  14. [Evaluation of diving stress implication of analysis of work loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y

    1987-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on the actual diving conditions of 2,996 divers in Japan except those engaged in fishery. Results of analysis made on the diving profiles and actual working conditions showed that some of their jobs required heavy load and that the burden was excessively large. Little study has been made for the proper evaluation of diving stress or work loads, but it has been assumed from these limited studies that the load is not so heavy. The load has been generally estimated to be about 1.8l/min STPD of oxygen consumption (VO2) during 40 l/min STPD of expiratory gas volume/min (VE). In our examination of their actual diving work, their work load was far greater than our expectation. It was in practice not only difficult to obtain the actual VO2 but also very difficult to determine their actual fatigue. Instead of these, it is necessary to establish an adequate index for evaluating diving work load. Studies have been made in our laboratory since 1981 and regression equations have been finally obtained, by which load during diving work can be determined using heart rate as index. Seven healthy males were chosen as subjects of the present study having a mean age of 34.4 yr and a mean diving history of 7.3 yr. First, performance time was acquired in each subject by bicycle ergometer exercise and the maximalen oxygen consumption (VO2-max) was obtained. In the second step, VO2-max was obtained by using the regulator apparatus for breathing during SCUBA diving. This value was 86.1% of the first step. The third step was made in a swimming pool.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  16. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  17. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  18. Calibration set up for load cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.

    1989-05-01

    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  19. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  20. Histories of Hating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Shepherd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This roundtable discussion presents a dialogue between digital culture scholars on the seemingly increased presence of hating and hate speech online. Revolving primarily around the recent #GamerGate campaign of intensely misogynistic discourse aimed at women in video games, the discussion suggests that the current moment for hate online needs to be situated historically. From the perspective of intersecting cultural histories of hate speech, discrimination, and networked communication, we interrogate the ontological specificity of online hating before going on to explore potential responses to the harmful consequences of hateful speech. Finally, a research agenda for furthering the historical understandings of contemporary online hating is suggested in order to address the urgent need for scholarly interventions into the exclusionary cultures of networked media.

  1. The history of COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmore, Peter

    The Space Age started with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1958, during the International Geophysical Year and at the height of the Cold War. The International Geophysical Year showed the power and spirit of which international collaboration in science was capable in a world just emerging from the Second World War, which had now become again deeply riven by the Cold War. COSPAR was born out of a determination to harness the former in spite of the latter. By the 1980's, the moderation of the Cold War meant this was no longer a reason for COSPAR's continued existence and new forms and objectives needed to be formulated. That debate has continued right until the Paris Assembly of 2004 and we now see COSPAR revitalized and, by objective measures, once more growing. This history will be reviewed from, in the early years, a rather personal viewpoint.

  2. Historie og livsverden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevy, Carlo

    Historie og livsverden henvender sig til alle, der interesserer sig for undervisning, fx lærere, lærerstuderende og forældre til børn i folkeskolen. Bogen beskæftiger sig med folkeskolen generelt. Der er forslag til innovative måder at tilrettelægge undervisningen på. Historiefaget bruges som...... undervisningen, og det vises, hvordan dette muliggør demokratisk dannelse, og hvordan det kan gøre skolen til et rart og meningsfuldt sted at være. Forfatterens udgangspunkt er, at vi lever i det senmoderne, hvor børnene ikke ubetinget kan bruge erfaringer fra tidligere tider til at løse nye problemer og...

  3. Marketing History from Below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to introduce the theme of this special issue. In doing so, the paper argues that marketing historical research is in need of a paradigmatic shift. Rather than privilege primary and secondary sources that preserve the perspectives and actions of corporate...... historical research. It also tests to what extent a stronger consumer focus might be able to enrich historical research in marketing. Findings – Although contemporary marketing historiography is characterized by a richness of themes and methodological approaches, there is still a marked difference between...... sources they discuss. This means that a genuine “People’s History of Marketing” has yet to be written. Research limitations/implications – Findings from the paper will be of value to marketing historians who wish to expand the scope and agenda of their research and help historical research move away from...

  4. Natural history of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ying

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present an overview of the recent observations and research that shed light on the understanding of open and closed angle glaucoma. Methods: Literature review. Results: Glaucoma is a major eye problem afflicting millions of people worldwide. As the population increases, the number of people with glaucoma also increases, with glaucoma becoming an increasing public health concern. This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fi elds as well as the risk factors for progression. Conclusions: This present review highlights the magnitude of glaucoma globally and the need for a greater understanding of this disease and its natural progression.

  5. The History of Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Perryman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The history of astrometry, the branch of astronomy dealing with the positions of celestial objects, is a lengthy and complex chronicle, having its origins in the earliest records of astronomical observations more than two thousand years ago, and extending to the high accuracy observations being made from space today. Improved star positions progressively opened up and advanced fundamental fields of scientific enquiry, including our understanding of the scale of the solar system, the details of the Earth's motion through space, and the comprehension and acceptance of Newtonianism. They also proved crucial to the practical task of maritime navigation. Over the past 400 years, during which positional accuracy has improved roughly logarithmically with time, the distances to the nearest stars were triangulated, making use of the extended measurement baseline given by the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This led to quantifying the extravagantly vast scale of the Universe, to a determination of the physical properties...

  6. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    across cultures and disciplines and for my work as a management consultant. Naturally, I would include the tool for my students in educational psychology when I began teaching a course on qualitative interviews last semester. Large was my surprise when I failed to find any references to the specific time...... line tool. I wondered where I had first read about this type of interview and looked through my old books on development research. While I was sure the inspiration came from Britha Mikkelsen’s Methods for Development Work and Research, I did not succeed in finding to find any instruction to the use......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...

  7. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content...... will present the historical broadcast archive from a cultural historical and media policy perspective, suggesting that the cultural heritage of state owned audio-visual archives remains a contested area not only due to the existing copyright laws but to aspects of historical contextualisation as well...... of the broadcast material. Furthermore, the digitisation process renders visible a number of problems. This includes possible access for researchers, general availability of the content, permission to present archival material in the public domain, problems all related to intellectual property rights. The article...

  8. History of entomopathogenic nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, G O; Grewal, P S

    2012-06-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted.

  9. Cultural history and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenberg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space.

  10. Fagets historie og fritagelsesparagraffen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Marlene Printz

    2016-01-01

    for folkeskolefaget kristendomskundskab. I bogens kapitel 1 til 8 fremlægges indledningsvist de grundlagsovervejelser, der udgør forståelsesrammen omkring faget og dets historie. Kapitel 9 til 21 behandler mere konkret undervisningens indholdsside, hvor hvert af kristendomskundskabsfagets fire kompetenceområder...... tematiseres, Livsfilosofi og etik, Bibelske fortællinger, Kristendom, Ikke-kristne religioner og andre livsopfattelser. Kapitel 22 til 25 behandler fagets metodiske aspekter. Som religionspædagogisk grundbog er værket rettet til lærerstuderende i undervisningsfaget „Kristendomskundskab/religion“ samt til...... folkeskolens lærere i den daglige forberedelse til undervisningen i faget og i forbindelse med efteruddannelse. Forfatterne til bogen er alle undervisere med tilknytning til Læreruddannelsen i Aalborg, UCN...

  11. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  12. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  13. Theoretical research and experimental validation of elastic dynamic load spectra on bogie frame of high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Sun, Shouguang; Li, Qiang; Zou, Hua

    2016-05-01

    When a train runs at high speeds, the external exciting frequencies approach the natural frequencies of bogie critical components, thereby inducing strong elastic vibrations. The present international reliability test evaluation standard and design criteria of bogie frames are all based on the quasi-static deformation hypothesis. Structural fatigue damage generated by structural elastic vibrations has not yet been included. In this paper, theoretical research and experimental validation are done on elastic dynamic load spectra on bogie frame of high-speed train. The construction of the load series that correspond to elastic dynamic deformation modes is studied. The simplified form of the load series is obtained. A theory of simplified dynamic load-time histories is then deduced. Measured data from the Beijing-Shanghai Dedicated Passenger Line are introduced to derive the simplified dynamic load-time histories. The simplified dynamic discrete load spectra of bogie frame are established. Based on the damage consistency criterion and a genetic algorithm, damage consistency calibration of the simplified dynamic load spectra is finally performed. The computed result proves that the simplified load series is reasonable. The calibrated damage that corresponds to the elastic dynamic discrete load spectra can cover the actual damage at the operating conditions. The calibrated damage satisfies the safety requirement of damage consistency criterion for bogie frame. This research is helpful for investigating the standardized load spectra of bogie frame of high-speed train.

  14. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  15. Why the history of nephrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement.

  16. Underfrequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System With Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Significant penetration of distributed generation in many distribution systems has opened an option of operating distribution systems in island mode for economical and technical reasons. However, balancing frequency of the islanded system is still an issue to be solved, especially when the demand...... exceeds the generation in the power island. This paper presents a strategy to shed an optimal number of loads in the island to stabilize the frequency. The load shedding strategy is based on frequency information, rate of change of frequency, customers' willingness to pay, and loads histories. Different...

  17. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... to the event of failure in ultimate loading in flapwise bending in the normal operating condition of a site-specific turbine....

  18. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  19. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.

  20. Decoherent Histories and Hydrodynamic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Halliwell, J J

    1998-01-01

    For a system consisting of a large collection of particles, a set of variables that will generally become effectively classical are the local densities (number, momentum, energy). That is, in the context of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, it is expected that histories of these variables will be approximately decoherent, and that their probabilites will be strongly peaked about hydrodynamic equations. This possibility is explored for the case of the diffusion of the number density of a dilute concentration of foreign particles in a fluid. It is shown that, for certain physically reasonable initial states, the probabilities for histories of number density are strongly peaked about evolution according to the diffusion equation. Decoherence of these histories is also shown for a class of initial states which includes non-trivial superpositions of number density. Histories of phase space densities are also discussed. The case of histories of number, momentum and energy density for more general...

  1. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History.Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland.Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered. Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation.By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  2. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1, 2NATIONAL CENTRE FOR HYDROPOWER RESEARCH AND DEV., UNIV. OF ILORIN ... be integrated to meet the present and future energy needs of this are ... paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community located in Kwara State, ... geothermal and ocean energies [5].

  3. Opening the Doors of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China is blessed with a long history,and for millenniums the people of China have used history as a mirror to learn from the past.An important part of the country's history,all the archives of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Central Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) are housed in the Central Archives of China,also known as the State Archives Administration.

  4. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  5. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  6. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  7. Sustainability and the Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Baweja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will address the challenges of incorporating the discourse of Sustainability into the architectural history curriculum and how Sustainability in the survey can be related to the Sustainability education the design studio. I argue that the inclusion of Sustainability into the architectural survey will necessitate the production of revisionist architectural histories that are written through an environmental paradigm and are able to establish a dialogue with Sustainability education in the design studio. These revisionist histories will occupy the disciplinary territory that is produced at the intersection of architectural and environmental histories

  8. Life History Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚平; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    Life history research,as one of the most powerful research methods in sociology,brings some re-freshened air into interpretive research.In this paper,the development of life history research,from modernism to postmodemism,from life story to life history,is firstly illustrated.Then the process of conducting life history research is analyzed specifically,which is followed by its unique strengths.Finally,its issues,its general issues and its special issues in Chinese context,are critically examined.

  9. Loading Rate for Modulus of Rupture Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUMing; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    Relationship among load rate,strain rate and stress rate for modulus of ruptue test,the way of applying load with stress rate using both hydraulic compression testing machine and nechanical compression testing machine have been described.The test results are identical with selected strain rate loading and stress rate loading.

  10. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia.

  11. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia.

  12. Improving History Learning through Cultural Heritage, Local History and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Graça; de Carvalho, Joaquim Ramos; Marcelino, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    History learning is many times considered dull and demotivating by young students. Probably this is due because the learning process is disconnected from these students' reality and experience. One possible way to overcome this state of matters is to use technology like mobile devices with georeferencing software and local history and heritage…

  13. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  14. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  15. [Natural history of HBV in dialysis population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, F; Martin, P; Lunghi, G; Ponticelli, C

    2004-01-01

    Dialysis patients remain at risk of acquiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The issue of the natural history of HBV among patients undergoing long-term dialysis remains unclear. Assessing the natural history of hepatitis B in patients on maintenance dialysis is problematic because of the unique characteristics of this population: serum aminotransferase activity is lower in dialysis patients compared with patients without renal disease; also, chronic hepatitis B has an insidious and prolonged natural history, and the competing mortality from complications of end-stage renal disease may obscure the long-term consequences of hepatitis B. HBV-related liver disease frequently runs an asymptomatic course in dialysis patients and the liver-related mortality in this population is very low; thus, the prognosis for chronic HBV infection in dialysis patients has been reported as benign. However, the frequency of liver cancer in dialysis patients appears higher than that observed in the general population, this has been related to a greater exposure to HBV/HCV. Cirrhosis is not a frequent comorbid condition in the dialysis population of industrialised countries, but the death rate for dialysis patients with cirrhosis is 35% higher than for those without it. In addition, it has been observed that liver disease remains a significant cause of mortality among HbsAg-positive carriers on dialysis in developing countries. The low viral load measured in dialysis patients with persistent HBsAg carriage could be accounted for by the relatively benign course of HBV-related liver disease in this population. Prospective clinical trials are under way to better define the virological features of HBV in the dialysis population.

  16. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  17. History of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  18. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  19. The history of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas M

    2006-11-01

    Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. It reached epidemic proportions in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, earning the sobriquet, "Captain Among these Men of Death." Then it began to decline. Understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis began with the work of Théophile Laennec at the beginning of the 19th century and was further advanced by the demonstration of the transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by Jean-Antoine Villemin in 1865 and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent by Robert Koch in 1882. Clemens von Pirquet developed the tuberculin skin test in 1907 and 3 years later used it to demonstrate latent tuberculous infection in asymptomatic children. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries sanatoria developed for the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. The rest provided there was supplemented with pulmonary collapse procedures designed to rest infected parts of lungs and to close cavities. Public Health measures to combat the spread of tuberculosis emerged following the discovery of its bacterial cause. BCG vaccination was widely employed following World War I. The modern era of tuberculosis treatment and control was heralded by the discovery of streptomycin in 1944 and isoniazid in 1952.

  20. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  1. MUSLIM LIBRARIES IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Laugu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Secara historis, perpustakaan Islam telah memberikan banyak kontribusi dalam sejarah perkembangan peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan, khususnya di kalangan ummat Islam. Isu perpustakaan Islam yang sangat menarik dan bahkan kontroversial dalam perjalanan sejarah Islam adalah,  misalnya, eksistensi dan kejayaan perpustakaan Bayt al-Hikma di Baghdad pada abad II Hijriyyah. Selain itu, perlu dicatat bahwa fenomena semacam ini banyak ditemukan dalam literatur-literatur wacana perpustakaan Islam. Isu yang menarik pula adalah kemunculan perpustakaan Muslim telah berbasis dari awal pembentukan masyarakat Islam, misalnya penyediaan koleksi-koleksi al-Quran di masjid dan mushalla serta tempat ibadah lainnya. Tulisan ini mencoba menelusuri dan membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim dan menjajaki isu-isu kemunculan dan perkembangan sampai stagnasinya. Wacana pertama yang disodorkan adalah asal-usul perpustakaan Islam, yang bertujuan untuk melihat sejauh mana perpustakaan mengalami perkembangan dan kemajuan dalam masyarakat Islam. Pembahasan selanjutnya mengenai temuan-temuan dari beragam literatur tentang perpustakaan di kalangan masyarakat Islam untuk membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim yang dianggap merepresentasikan jenis-jenis perpustakaan Muslim dalam sejarah perkembangan Islam. Terakhir adalah wacana yang mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi proses stagnasi dan bahkan keruntuhan perpustakaan Islam.

  2. History at your fingertips

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Would you have liked to meet Victor Weisskopf, Niels Bohr or Robert Oppenheimer? Do you wish you had visited the famous Gargamelle or UA1 experiments? Well, you still can... at least on video. Thanks to the ETT Division's Document Handling (DH) Group, you now have access to the Audiovisual Service's amazing archives, where you can meet the leading figures and relive the main events in the Laboratory's history. All this without even having to leave your office. The DH Group has launched a new on-line catalogue comprising a selection of the Audiovisual Service's collection. These films were digitised from the original D3, Numatic or VHS tapes, and you can watch them from your work station. The desire to make the Laboratory's historical visual resources available to as many users as possible had already led to the creation in 1997 of an on-line catalogue of photographs covering the period from 1951 to the present day. (See http://weblib.cern.ch/Photos/). The new video catalogue provides you with the rare opport...

  3. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  4. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  5. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20(th) century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21(st) century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  6. History and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Armesto, Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an account on the idea of change in history, in particular, the possibility of change in such a peculiar object of inquiry for the historian as culture. This work will consider various elements associated with the development of non-human culture, taken from areas such as primatology and cultural zoology, before analysing the increasingly frantic pace of transformations experienced by contemporary culture.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una reflexión sobre el cambio en la historia, en particular, el cambio en un área de trabajo del historiador tan particular como es la cultura. Para ello se tendrán en cuenta, en primer lugar, aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo de la cultura no-humana, tomados de áreas como la primatología o la zoología cultural, para después analizar el ritmo cada vez más frenético de transformaciones que experimenta nuestra cultura contemporánea.

  7. NIF Gamma Reaction History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform γ-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting γ-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

  8. a History of Emats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, George

    2008-02-01

    This paper was prepared for a Special Session in the 34th Annual Review of Quantitative NDE devoted to "Applications of EMATs". As such, it reviews the past history of electromagnetic induction of vibrations in metals with special attention to the application to nondestructive testing. The first patent describing the use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to replace the commonly used piezoelectric transducer was in 1969 but their first appearance in the scientific literature was in 1939 when the principles were applied to exciting and detecting the longitudinal resonance modes of bars of brass. The first true application to nondestructive testing was an R&D program sponsored by the American Gas Association to develop a device for inspecting buried gas pipelines for stress corrosion cracks in the early 1970's. During this same time period, theoretical models to describe the transduction mechanism appeared and led to the engineering of solutions to NDT and NDE problems that could not be accomplished with piezoelectric devices. The papers in the session to follow this historical summary show how the field has developed over the past 30 years and expose an impressive array of applications to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) practices.

  9. A History of Until

    CERN Document Server

    Masini, Andrea; Volpe, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Until is a notoriously difficult temporal operator as it is both existential and universal at the same time: A until B holds at the current time instant w iff either B holds at w or there exists a time instant w' in the future at which B holds and such that A holds in all the time instants between the current one and w'. This "ambivalent" nature poses a significant challenge when attempting to give deduction rules for until. In this paper, in contrast, we make explicit this duality of until to provide well-behaved natural deduction rules for linear-time logics by introducing a new temporal operator that allows us to formalize the "history" of until, i.e., the "internal" universal quantification over the time instants between the current one and w'. This approach provides the basis for formalizing deduction systems for temporal logics endowed with the until operator. For concreteness, we give here a labeled natural deduction system for a linear-time logic endowed with the new operator and show that, via a prop...

  10. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  11. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2009-01-01

    of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  12. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2008-01-01

    of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests......Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  13. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    , with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  14. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...

  15. The strength of Glued-in Bolts after 9 Years In Situ Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Damkilde, Lars;

    1996-01-01

    An experimental determination of the remaining strength of glued-in bolts after 9 years is presented. The hollow tapered bolts served as the blade to rotor hub connection of a windmill with wooden blades. The test method is presented along with the load history of the bolts, the recorded residual...

  16. Impact of Life History on Fear Memory and Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Remmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral profiles are strongly shaped by an individual’s whole life experience. The accumulation of negative experiences over lifetime is thought to promote anxiety-like behavior in adulthood (‘allostatic load hypothesis’. In contrast, the ‘mismatch hypothesis’ of psychiatric disease suggests that high levels of anxiety-like behavior are the result of a discrepancy between early and late environment. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different life histories shape the expression of anxiety-like behavior and modulate fear memory. In addition, we aimed to clarify which of the two hypotheses can better explain the modulation of anxiety and fear. For this purpose, male mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phase of life. In adulthood they were further subdivided in groups that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced before, resulting in four different life histories. The main results were: (i Early life benefit followed by late life adversity caused decreased levels of anxiety-like behavior. (ii Accumulation of adversity throughout life history led to impaired fear extinction learning. Late life adversity as compared to late life benefit mainly affected extinction training, while early life adversity as compared to early life benefit interfered with extinction recall. Concerning anxiety-like behavior, the results do neither support the allostatic load nor the mismatch hypothesis, but rather indicate an anxiolytic effect of a mismatched early beneficial and later adverse life history. In contrast, fear memory was strongly affected by the accumulation of adverse experiences over the lifetime, therefore supporting allostatic load hypothesis. In summary, this study highlights that anxiety-like behavior and fear memory are differently affected by specific combinations of adverse or beneficial events experienced throughout life.

  17. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 after 9 years of use one of the blades of a windmill with wooden blades was struck by lightning. After demounting the damaged blade was handed over to the Technical University of Denmark for the investigation of potential fatigue damage. The paper presents an experimental determination...... of the residual strength of the glued-in bolts that served as the blade to rotor hub connection in the windmill. The load history of the bolts, the test method, the observed fracture modes and the force displacement curves are presented along with the recorded residual strength of the bolts. The bolts...

  18. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  19. Apt strain measurement technique for impulsive loading applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Nanda, Soumya; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Sahoo, Niranjan

    2017-03-01

    The necessity of precise measurement of strain time history for impulsive loading applications has been addressed in the present investigation. Finite element modeling is initially carried out for a hemispherical test model and stress bar assembly to arrive at an appropriate location for strain measurement. In dynamic calibration experiments, strain measurements are performed using two wire and three wire quarter bride arrangements along with half bridge circuit. Usefulness of these arrangements has been verified by analyzing strain signals in time and frequency domains. Comparison of recovered force time histories proved that the half bridge circuit is the most suitable for such applications. Actual shock tube testing of the instrumented hemispherical test model confirmed the applicability of half bridge circuit for short duration strain measurements.

  20. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Crottini, Angelica; Della Venezia, Lidia; Selfa, Jesús; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2013-06-28

    Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment.

  1. History of wildlife toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  2. The history of LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2012-04-01

    Keratomileusis, brainchild of Jose I. Barraquer Moner, was conceived and developed as the first stromal sculpting method to correct refractive error in 1948. The word "keratomileusis" literally means "sculpting" of the "cornea." Barraquer's first procedures involved freezing a disc of anterior corneal tissue before removing stromal tissue with a lathe. Over the years, the procedure continued to develop, first through the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger non-freeze technique where tissue was removed from the underside of the disc by a second pass of the microkeratome. In-situ keratomileusis was later developed by passing the microkeratome a second time directly on the stromal bed. The procedure became known as automated lamellar keratoplasty with the invention of an automated microkeratome and was further refined by replacing the disc without sutures and later by stopping the microkeratome before the end of the pass to create a hinged flap, as first demonstrated in 1989. The history of the excimer laser dates back to 1900 and the quantum theory, eventually leading to the discovery that 193-nm ultraviolet excimer laser pulses could photoablate tissue without thermal damage. Ultrastructural and wound healing studies confirmed that large area ablation could be performed in the central cornea. This was described as photorefractive keratectomy in 1986 and the first sighted eyes were treated in 1988. An excimer laser was first used to sculpt from the stromal bed under a hinged flap created manually using a trephine and scalpel in 1988. The incorporation of a microkeratome in 1990 finally led to laser in situ keratomileusis-LASIK-as we know it today.

  3. History of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2009-06-01

    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  4. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...... history matching metode. Den foreslåede metode forsøger at forbedre konvergensen af traditionel probability perturbation ved at inkludere kvalitativ gradient information.......Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history...... matching dækker over arbejdsprocessen, hvor de fysiske parametre i en reservoirsimuleringsmodel bliver justeret således, at en simulering af olieproduktionen stemmer overens med egentlige målte produktionsdata. Mange history matching metoder er baseret på et geostatistisk fundament, hvilket også gør sig...

  5. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  6. The Florida Library History Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  7. The Cultural History of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Cultural History of Work is a multi-volume project on the history of work in the western world from Antiquity to the 21st century. The series will consist of six illustrated volumes, each devoted to an examination of work in one of six historical periods (Antiquity, The Medieval Age, The Early ...

  8. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  9. History's Purpose: Becker or Ortega?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, John R., Jr.; Gulick, Barbara

    1972-01-01

    The transition from a functionally pragmatic interpretation of history to a humanistic existential one is explored by comparing the philosophy of the eminent intellectual historian, Carl Becker, with that of Jose Ortega y Gasset, who interprets history from a humanistic point of view. (Author/SM)

  10. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  11. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  12. Art History in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…

  13. Media History in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, Frank van

    2014-01-01

    abstractArticle published in 1993 in GBG-nieuws related to a seminar on Media History in the Netherlands. Republished in 2014 in Tijdschrift voor mediageschiedenis in the context of a seminar held in september 2014 at Sound and Vision on the past 25 years of Media History and its future.

  14. Introduction to Media Literacy History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Why is it important for us to consider the history of media literacy? Beyond forging connections of the past to the present, exploring the history of the field can deepen intellectual curiosity and understanding for those who work in media literacy education, ignite interest in others, and drive investigation into understanding the relationships…

  15. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  16. Teaching Black History after Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the teaching of black history after the Obama presidency and at the dawn of the Trump era. It is both an analysis of the state of the academic field and a primer on how to integrate the past few decades of scholarship in black history broadly across standard K-12 curriculum. It demonstrates the importance of…

  17. History's Purpose: Becker or Ortega?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, John R., Jr.; Gulick, Barbara

    1972-01-01

    The transition from a functionally pragmatic interpretation of history to a humanistic existential one is explored by comparing the philosophy of the eminent intellectual historian, Carl Becker, with that of Jose Ortega y Gasset, who interprets history from a humanistic point of view. (Author/SM)

  18. Writing histories of contemporary Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2002-01-01

    This essay argues that historians need to engage with the history of contemporary Africa both as a way of throwing new light on Africa's more remote past and as a way of understanding the present. It considers how a new generation of works on Africa's contemporary history might be written. Most of

  19. Der er liv i historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Anette; Müller Glibstrup, Tine; Roj Søndergaard, Anja

    I denne antologi præsenteres de første konkrete bud på, hvordan en senmoderne og konstruktivistisk historieundervisning kan tage sig ud i praksis. Der tages udgangspunk i bl.a. Bernard Eric Jensen "Historie - livsverden og fag" og Carlo Grevy "Historie og livsverden - en historiedidaktik"...

  20. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  1. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  2. The Case for Natural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living...... and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying a knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus...... on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young...

  3. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  4. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free of...

  5. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  6. Danish auroral science history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. Danish auroral science history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stauning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872 to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high

  8. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  9. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  10. An efficient method to reduce ill-posedness for structural dynamic load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Xianghua; Zhang, Dequan; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu

    2017-10-01

    For the inverse problem of structural dynamic load identification, high system ill-posedness is a main cause leading to instability and low accuracy. In this study, an efficient interpolation-based method is proposed to reduce ill-posedness availably and identify dynamic load stably. The load history is discretized into a series of time elements, and the load profile in each time element is approximated through interpolation functions. Then, in the whole time domain, the dynamic responses under interpolation function loads are calculated through a few finite element analysis and then assembled together to form a global kernel function matrix for load identification. Using singular value decomposition (SVD), the ill-posed degree of the global kernel function matrix can be analyzed. Compared with the conventional Green kernel function method (GKFM), the ill-posedness of global kernel function matrix in the proposed method is significantly reduced. Especially, when the length of time element is selected appropriately, the global kernel function matrix is entirely well-posed and the corresponding dynamic load can be stably identified without any regularization operation. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the correctness of identified load.

  11. Genealogies of Czech Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Rychterová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the most important and most influential narratives of the history of Czech medieval literature that were produced from the beginnings of modern historiography and literary history in the 19th century onwards. The question is how the character of individual narratives and their socio-historical contexts influenced the questions, topics and areas of interest in research on the history of medieval literatures in Bohemia. For Czech literature, such analysis is especially important, because it shows that the problems the history of Czech literature has had to fight from its modern beginnings are also the problems of any new approach that literary historiography may pursue in future, from whatever point of departure. The narratives on which the article focuses are built on an amalgamation of the history of society, language and literature, which a makes it difficult to supersede them and b makes any detailed research on transmitted texts look less important. Here lies one of the challenges for future research: the relation of language, text and social and political history has to be analysed in detail, because it is only via their conflation that a coherent narrative of the history of Czech literature has been maintained in the past.

  12. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics.

  13. Thermal loading of natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    . The pressure distribution as well as the total force is then determined by integration over a pseudo-three-dimensional presentation of the hull geometry.In this paper the evaluation of the slamming load is taken one step further by performing direct three-dimensional, fully non-linear numerical calculations...... in a realistic wave environment.Both the global and the local slamming loads are assessed numerically using a finite-volume formulation with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid technique. This numerical procedure is justified by comprehensive validation studies where numerically evaluated slamming...... pressures are compared with experimentally measured results.To obtain an insight into the three-dimensional flow effects the next step is to apply the validated numerical procedure to evaluate and compare the accuracy and performance of the traditionally used two-dimensional formulations by a comparison...

  15. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-02-08

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution.

  16. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  17. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    b) q=0.1 with the load levels, for channel F7 of subject 1. On each box, the red mark is the median; the edges of the box are the 25th and the...channel F7 of subject 1, for two extreme values of q (entropic index); (a) q= 0.9, (b) q= 0.1, in the delta frequency band. As shown, the median of

  18. Polymer brushes under high load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Balko

    Full Text Available Polymer coatings are frequently used to provide repulsive forces between surfaces in solution. After 25 years of design and study, a quantitative model to explain and predict repulsion under strong compression is still lacking. Here, we combine experiments, simulations, and theory to study polymer coatings under high loads and demonstrate a validated model for the repulsive forces, proposing that this universal behavior can be predicted from the polymer solution properties.

  19. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  20. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  1. Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.

  2. Oral History and the Special Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between oral history and libraries notes the character of oral history (both auditory and visual); types of oral history interviews (focused or subject-oriented, life review); forming an oral history collection (audiotapes, videotapes, transcripts); legal agreements and oral history; and collecting versus creating…

  3. Evaluation and history: a traditional tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guillermo Ortíz Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It shows which interactions between the educative evaluations are in History and these discipline developments. It points out that the first history tests of the State Examinations were sustained in the homeland History proposal supported by the Colombian History Academy. An analysis of the tests allows grouping the questions in traditional working lines of this History version

  4. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  5. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  6. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Simmons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. The article follows the intellectual lineage of two precursors of Impostor Syndrome, Fear of Success and the Impostor Phenomenon. It argues that the grouping of gender/ race/ success/ affect was a keystone of twentieth-century American psychology and development theory. The history of this feeling has consequences for thinking about situated knowledge, realism and epistemic justice.

  7. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  8. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  9. Consistent Histories in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, David A; 10.1007/s10701-010-9422-6

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the univese is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum states which are superpositions of expanding and contracting universes may suggest that a "quantum bounce" is possible i.e. that the wave function of the universe may remain peaked on a non-singular classical solution throughout its history. However, a more careful consistent histories analysis shows that for arbitrary states in the physical Hilbert space the probability of this Wheeler-DeWitt quantum universe encountering the big bang/crun...

  10. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  11. Teaching Personality Through Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of life histories as case material requiring disciplined observation and objectivity and exemplifying basic principles and theories of behavior is described as a teaching technique for a course in the psychology of personality. (JH)

  12. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  13. History Kern National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Details the location, physiography, relief, and drainage, vegetation, settlement and population, transportation and markets, climate, soils, acquisition history, and...

  14. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  15. History of early atomic clocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, N.F. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lyman Lab. of Physics

    2005-06-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  16. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9317 - Suspended loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites...

  18. Historie filmové postprodukce

    OpenAIRE

    Mencl, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the history of post production in film. The theoretical section describes the development of sound, recording, cutting and general film editing worldwide. It deals with both technological and methodological development. It provides a clear overview of the history of film which is relevant to the whole world and analyzes it with regards to the events that affected it. The practical section then describes the process of realizing videos reporting on int...

  19. Two books History of Cartography

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Two valuable books were published under the title History of Cartography in the group Lecture Notes and the subgroup Publications of the International Cartographic Association. The books were published as a result of collaboration between International Cartographic Association (ICA) and the Springer-Verlag publishing company and contain most papers from the following symposia:3rd International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography at University of Texas in Arlington, O...

  20. Business history and economic globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Espen; Lange, Even

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviewers of the current state and future direction of business history have complained that, despite the growth of business history as a distinct academic discipline in recent decades, the field has tended to become side-lined in a number of debates which traditionally have been of major concern to business and economic historians. The paper discusses this issue by focusing on one of the major fields of research among economic historians and social scientists in recent years, namely t...

  1. History Gets a Modern Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Learning about history has never been so trendy as new TV programs and contemporary textbooks make the past pleasurable The past is catching up with China and it’s now cool to learn history. Public demand for the who,why and when of events and people in ancient times is seeing a new craze in a country with 5,000 years worth of resources to delve into. While popular TV soaps about China’s

  2. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... second using an IBM PC. Finally the proposed simulation method for fatigue load generation is tested by comparing some fatigue damage measures obtained by the simulation methods....

  3. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  4. Time and frequency domain models for multiaxial fatigue life estimation under random loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carpinteri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering structures and components are often subjected to random fatigue loading produced, for example, by wind turbulences, marine waves and vibrations. The methods available in the literature for fatigue assessment under random loading are formulated in time domain or, alternatively, in frequency domain. The former methods require the knowledge of the loading time history, and a large number of experimental tests/numerical simulations is needed to obtain statistically reliable results. The latter methods are generally more advantageous with respect to the time domain ones, allowing a rapid fatigue damage evaluation. In the present paper, a multiaxial criterion formulated in the frequency-domain is presented to estimate the fatigue lives of smooth metallic structures subjected to combined bending and torsion random loading. A comparison in terms of fatigue life prediction by employing a time domain methods, previously proposed by the authors, is also performed.

  5. Experimental study of masonry wall exposed to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of protecting the nation against the attack of terrorism has raised the importance to explore the understanding of building materials against the explosion. Unlike most of the building materials, brick masonry materials offer relatively small resistance against blast loading. In this research, a brick masonry wall was exposed to varying blast load at different scaled distances. Six tests with different amounts of explosives at various distances were carried out. Pressure time history, acceleration time history and strain at specific location were measured. The parameters measured from experimental pressure time history and acceleration time history is compared with those determined by ConWep to establish the correlations between experimental determined records and ConWep values. The experimental results were also compared with some researchers. These correlations may assist in understanding the behaviour of masonry structures subjected to explosive loading.Con el reto que supone proteger a la nación contra atentados terroristas se ha visto acrecentada la importancia de conocer el comportamiento de materiales de construcción cuando se someten a una carga explosiva. Al contrario de la mayoría de los materiales, las fábricas de ladrillo ofrecen poca resistencia a dichas cargas. En el presente trabajo, se estudió el comportamiento de una fábrica de ladrillo ante cargas explosivas colocadas a diferentes distancias del muro. Se realizaron seis pruebas con explosivos de potencias distintas y a diferentes distancias. Se trazaron las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo, midiéndose asimismo la deformación en un punto concreto. Los valores experimentales de las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo se compararon con los que se calcularon con la ayuda de la aplicación informática ConWep a fin de establecer las correlaciones entre ambos conjuntos de resultados. También se compararon los resultados experimentales

  6. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  7. Comparison of load parameters for stored materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, J.; Nielsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    that the wall friction measured in a silo might be significantly larger than the value obtained from shear tests. The load parameters depend on the load level, perhaps in a way not reflected by the internal friction angle. It is not necessarily on the safe side to determine the parameters for a high load level....

  8. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  9. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  10. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  11. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...

  12. Load Characteristics Analysis of State Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhou Feng; Han Xinyang; Shan Baoguo; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Analysis and forecast of load characteristics are important aspects in power market analysis and prediction.Correctly mastering grid load characteristics and its development trend is not only the vital basis for power planning,generation and operation,but also the important references for formulating the relevant policies.It is usually very hard to grasp the load characteristics of power grid.

  13. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  15. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  16. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  17. The Effects of Fatigue, Load Carriage, and Physical Activity History on Musculoskeletal Injury Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    press max , VO2 peak, or minimum tibial CSA) were significantly related to strain rates (p > 0.05). SUMMARY and DISCUSSION: We had hypothesized...time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this...institutional review board for human subject participation in research and the HRPO of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, participants were

  18. Effects of hydromechanical loading history and antecedent soil mechanical damage on shallow landslide triggering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the sudden triggering of rainfall‐induced shallow landslides is preceded by accumulation of local internal failures in the soil mantle before their abrupt coalescence into a landslide failure plane...

  19. [The practice of research in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Michel

    2013-11-01

    History is a discipline whose research methods present similarities with those of other human and social sciences, with certain specificities. The nursing profession can use these methods to showcase its history and the history of nursing care.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Hysteretic Behavior of Wide-Flange Steel Columns under High Axial Load and Lateral Drift Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Lignos, Dimitrios; Cravero, Julien; Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings from a large-scale experimental program that characterized the hysteretic behavior of typical steel wide-flange columns in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs). The test specimens were tested in a cantilever configuration with a fixed point of inflection. The main testing parameters included various lateral and axial loading histories, the applied axial compressive load and the local slenderness of the cross-section. It is shown that (a) steel columns subject...