WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-print resources suitable

  1. Comparative effectiveness of non-print media and live CME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an integral ingredient of professional development of health care providers. The educational activity can be delivered by different modes. Here we share our experience of using Digital Video Disc (DVD of a CME on Sleep Medicine as an alternative and cost effective mode.Objective: To assess improvement in knowledge and competencies in terms of comparative effectiveness of a model CME program using validated non-print medium for medical education.Methods: Recorded and validated DVD of talks delivered at NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine was played to the participants in presence of one of the content experts. Video scripts of talk were also distributed to the participants. The assessment of participants and program evaluation of this CME was compared to the previously held live CME.Results: Eighty nine participants completed both pre and post test. Mean score increased from 9.91± 3.5 to 14.09 ± 2.85. Pass percentage based on an arbitrary cut off of 50%, increased from 8.3 to 43.8 (p< 0.001. Among the live CME group, mean score improved from 12.1±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8. Comparative analysis between live and DVD based CME showed improvement in scores of 6.17 and 4.18 respectively while pass percentage of 84.7 and 43.8 post CME among two modes were significant. The program evaluation showed identical level of satisfaction in all parameters except they were less satisfied vis-a-vis 'organizers made use of any critical comments I made' since all locally available resource persons were not present. Activity could be completed at just half the cost of live CME.Conclusions: The educational background and selection process of UG students between two medical institutes were strikingly different. While students at one institute were selected by highly competitive exam at All India level, the students at other institute were selected through state level competitive examination. In spite of that, results showed

  2. Readability, complexity, and suitability of online resources for mastectomy and lumpectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Singh, Mansher; Singhal, Dhruv; Rudd, Rima; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-05-15

    Nearly half of American adults have low or marginal health literacy. This negatively affects patients' participation, decision-making, satisfaction, and overall outcomes especially when there is a mismatch between information provided and the skills of the intended audience. Recommendations that patient information be written below the sixth grade level have been made for over three decades. This study compares online resources for mastectomy versus lumpectomy using expanded metrics including readability level, complexity, and density of data and overall suitability for public consumption. The 10 highest ranked Web sites for mastectomy and lumpectomy were identified using the largest Internet engine (Google). Each Web site was assessed for readability (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook), complexity (PMOSE/iKIRSCH), and suitability (Suitability Assessment of Materials). Scores were analyzed by each Web site and overall. Readability analysis showed a significant reading grade level difference between mastectomy and lumpectomy online information (15.4 and 13.9, P = 0.04, respectively). Complexity analysis via PMOSE/iKIRSCH revealed a mean score of 6.5 for mastectomy materials corresponding to "low" complexity and eighth to 12(th) grade education. Lumpectomy literature had a lower PMOSE/iKIRSCH score of 5.8 corresponding to a "very low" complexity and fourth to eighth grade education (P = 0.05). Suitability assessment showed mean values of 41% and 46% (P = 0.83) labeled as the lowest level of "adequacy" for mastectomy and lumpectomy materials, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high for both complexity and suitability analysis. Online resources for the surgical treatment of breast cancer are above the recommended reading grade level. The suitability level is barely adequate indicating a need for revision. Online resources for mastectomy have a higher reading grade level than do materials for lumpectomy and tend to be more complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  3. Evaluating the Marginal Land Resources Suitable for Developing Bioenergy in Asia

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    Jingying Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from energy plants is an alternative fuel that is expected to play an increasing role in fulfilling future world energy demands. Because cultivated land resources are fairly limited, bioenergy development may rely on the exploitation of marginal land. This study focused on the assessment of marginal land resources and biofuel potential in Asia. A multiple factor analysis method was used to identify marginal land for bioenergy development in Asia using multiple datasets including remote sensing-derived land cover, meteorological data, soil data, and characteristics of energy plants and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. A combined planting zonation strategy was proposed, which targeted three species of energy plants, including Pistacia chinensis (P. chinensis, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL, and Cassava. The marginal land with potential for planting these types of energy plants was identified for each 1 km2 pixel across Asia. The results indicated that the areas with marginal land suitable for Cassava, P. chinensis, and JCL were established to be 1.12 million, 2.41 million, and 0.237 million km2, respectively. Shrub land, sparse forest, and grassland are the major classifications of exploitable land. The spatial distribution of the analysis and suggestions for regional planning of bioenergy are also discussed.

  4. The Suitability of Conductive and Convective Geothermal Resources in New Mexico for EGS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Owens, L.; Hubbling, J.; Kelley, S.; Witcher, J. C.; Lucero, S.

    2010-12-01

    The State of New Mexico is endowed with both deep conductive and shallow convective geothermal prospects. Shallow convective resources are associated with relatively permeable, fractured crystalline plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary bedrock units. In most instances, hot springs associated with these systems are located along gaps in Paleozoic to Tertiary confining units that form hydrogeologic windows. Hydrogeologic windows are created either from tectonic or erosional unroofing of permeable units or juxtaposition of permeable units by fault block rotation or the emplacement of fractured volcanic dikes. Other hydrogeologic windows form as a result of close-spaced faulting associated with normal fault accommodation or transfer zones. These systems have broad areas of low and background heat flow in recharge areas and deep lateral flow domains with narrow regions of extremely high heat flow over the upflow zones and associated shallow lateral outflow plumes. These systems can show isothermal conditions at depth in the upflow zones that feed shallow outflow plumes and hot springs. The Socorro geothermal system is a prime example of this type of a geothermal prospect. Deeper conductive targets are overlain by relatively thick low permeability sedimentary or volcanoclastic sequences that have relatively, low thermal conductivity and higher temperature gradients. Portions of the San Juan Basin and Rio Grande rift are characterized by this type of geothermal prospect. NM Tech is currently developing a state-wide assessment of New Mexico’s geothermal resources for the New Mexico Energy Conservation and Management Division. We present two finite element models of conductive-convective heat transfer along the Rio Grande Rift and San Juan Basin to evaluate the suitability of these two types of geothermal resources for EGS systems.

  5. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

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    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  6. Suitability of Local Resource Management Practices Based on Supernatural Enforcement Mechanisms in the Local Social-cultural Context

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    Masatoshi Sasaoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental anthropological studies on natural resource management have widely demonstrated and thematized local resource management practices based on the interactions between local people and supernatural agencies and their role in maintaining natural resources. In Indonesia, even though the legal status of local people's right to the forest and forest resources is still weak, the recent transition toward decentralization presents a growing opportunity for local people to collaborate with outsiders such as governmental agencies and environmental nongovernmental organizations in natural resource management. In such situations, in-depth understanding of the value of local resource management practices is needed to promote self-directed and effective resource management. Here, we focus on local forest resource management and its suitability in the local social-cultural context in central Seram, east Indonesia. Local resource management appears to be embedded in the wider social-cultural context of the local communities. However, few intensive case studies in Indonesia have addressed the relationship between the Indigenous resource management practices closely related to a people's belief in supernatural agents and the social-cultural context. We illustrate how the well-structured use of forest resources is established and maintained through these interactions. We then investigate how local resource management practices relate to the social-cultural and natural resources context of an upland community in central Seram and discuss the possible future applications for achieving conservation.

  7. A resource-based modelling framework to assess habitat suitability for steppe birds in semiarid Mediterranean agricultural systems.

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    Laura Cardador

    Full Text Available European agriculture is undergoing widespread changes that are likely to have profound impacts on farmland biodiversity. The development of tools that allow an assessment of the potential biodiversity effects of different land-use alternatives before changes occur is fundamental to guiding management decisions. In this study, we develop a resource-based model framework to estimate habitat suitability for target species, according to simple information on species' key resource requirements (diet, foraging habitat and nesting site, and examine whether it can be used to link land-use and local species' distribution. We take as a study case four steppe bird species in a lowland area of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. We also compare the performance of our resource-based approach to that obtained through habitat-based models relating species' occurrence and land-cover variables. Further, we use our resource-based approach to predict the effects that change in farming systems can have on farmland bird habitat suitability and compare these predictions with those obtained using the habitat-based models. Habitat suitability estimates generated by our resource-based models performed similarly (and better for one study species than habitat based-models when predicting current species distribution. Moderate prediction success was achieved for three out of four species considered by resource-based models and for two of four by habitat-based models. Although, there is potential for improving the performance of resource-based models, they provide a structure for using available knowledge of the functional links between agricultural practices, provision of key resources and the response of organisms to predict potential effects of changing land-uses in a variety of context or the impacts of changes such as altered management practices that are not easily incorporated into habitat-based models.

  8. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

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    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  9. Evaluation of the Suitability of Power Equipment Elements for Use Over the Park Resource

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    Drobenko, B.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An approach for determination of the stress-strain state of operating boiler unit elements and study of a possibility of their further exploitation is proposed. The state of the boiler drums of Dobrotvir power plant Unit 6 and Burshtyn power plant PAO DTEK «ZakhidEnergo» Unit 5 with exhausted park resources is studied. Recommendations on the imp ro ve ment of their repair technologies are developed; conclusion on the possible extension of their operational lifetime is made.

  10. On Using Fuzzy Linguistic 2-Tuples for the Evaluation of Human Resource Suitability in Software Development Tasks

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    Vassilis C. Gerogiannis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of human resources to the development tasks comprising a software project is a key challenge in software project management. To address this critical issue, a systematic human resource evaluation and selection approach can be proven helpful. In this paper, a fuzzy linguistic approach is introduced to evaluate the suitability of candidate human resources (software developers considering their technical skills (i.e., provided skills and the technical skills required to perform a software development task (i.e., task-related skills. The proposed approach is based on qualitative evaluations which are derived in the form of fuzzy linguistic 2-tuples from a group of decision makers (project managers. The approach applies a group/similarity degree-based aggregation technique to obtain an objective aggregation of the ratings of task-related skills and provided skills. To further analyse the suitability of each candidate developer, possible skill relationships are considered, which reflect the contribution of provided skills to the capability of learning other skills. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated and discussed through an exemplar case study scenario.

  11. Global agricultural land resources--a high resolution suitability evaluation and its perspectives until 2100 under climate change conditions.

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    Florian Zabel

    Full Text Available Changing natural conditions determine the land's suitability for agriculture. The growing demand for food, feed, fiber and bioenergy increases pressure on land and causes trade-offs between different uses of land and ecosystem services. Accordingly, an inventory is required on the changing potentially suitable areas for agriculture under changing climate conditions. We applied a fuzzy logic approach to compute global agricultural suitability to grow the 16 most important food and energy crops according to the climatic, soil and topographic conditions at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. We present our results for current climate conditions (1981-2010, considering today's irrigated areas and separately investigate the suitability of densely forested as well as protected areas, in order to investigate their potentials for agriculture. The impact of climate change under SRES A1B conditions, as simulated by the global climate model ECHAM5, on agricultural suitability is shown by comparing the time-period 2071-2100 with 1981-2010. Our results show that climate change will expand suitable cropland by additionally 5.6 million km2, particularly in the Northern high latitudes (mainly in Canada, China and Russia. Most sensitive regions with decreasing suitability are found in the Global South, mainly in tropical regions, where also the suitability for multiple cropping decreases.

  12. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  13. Assessment of phytoplankton resources suitable for bigheaded carps in Lake Michigan derived from remote sensing and bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Tim T.; Paukert, Craig

    2017-01-01

    We used bioenergetic simulations combined with satellite-measured water temperature and estimates of algal food availability to predict the habitat suitability of Lake Michigan for adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis). Depending on water temperature, we found that bigheaded carp require ambient algal concentrations between 1 and 7 μg chlorophyll/L or between 0.25 × 105 and 1.20 × 105 cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. When the bioenergetics model is forced with the observed average annual temperature cycle, our simulations predicted silver carp bioenergetics predicted annual weight change ranging from 9% weight loss to 23% gain; bighead carp ranged from 68 to 177% weight gain. Algal concentrations b4 μg chlorophyll/L and b200,000 cells/mL were below the detection limits of the remote sensing method. However, all areas with detectable algae have sufficient concentrations of algal foods for bigheaded carp weight-maintenance and growth. Those areas are predominately along the nearshore areas.

  14. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  15. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

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    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  16. Distributed modelling of water resources in the Lower Jordan River Basin - from present day variability to suitability for new water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, Anne; Lange, Jens

    2010-05-01

    results give a basin wide view on the availability of surface water resources without human intervention with a high resolution in time (5 min) and space (up to 250 x 250 m²). The scarcity of water resources in many areas within the region is illustrated and detailed maps of the water balance components reveal spatial pattern of water availability characterizing the different potentials of regions or sub basins for water management options. Moreover, comparing different climate conditions provides valuable information for water management, including insights into the relation between green and blue water. For instance, runoff generation and percolation react stronger to changes in precipitation than evapotranspiration and the changes in runoff and percolation are considerably higher than the differences in rainfall between the three years. This amplification of rainfall variability by the hydrological cycle is significant for water management. Based on the results for current conditions, the impact of different scenarios and management options is analyzed, e.g. the effect of land use changes or the suitability of different regions for rainwater harvesting, one of the urgently needed new water sources.

  17. Integrating Resources in the Education Library: Trends, Issues, and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Justina O.

    2005-01-01

    Resources found in the typical education library that supports teacher education programs often include print and non-print library items, and other items that are unique to education library collections. This article attempts to share what the education library is doing to integrate all of its resources irrespective of their formats. The main…

  18. Changes in the surface roughness of aluminium oxide (non-printing areas on offset printing plate depending on number of imprints

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    Živko Pavlović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A printing and non-printing surface structure of the offset printing forms are key factors in maintaining the conventionaloffset printing. The main characteristics of the surface are: physical and chemical structure, surface tensionand surface roughness. Surface topography is one of the critical factors which could cause the instability inthe quality performance and the durability of the printing forms. During the printing process these characteristicschange and directly influence the print. Performed investigations are based on the fact that the changes in physicalchemicalproperties of the non-printing areas as well as the changes in the surface micro structure of the printingforms directly influence the quality of the reproduction. In this paper, the behaviour of non-printing elements of athermal CTP plate developed in a fresh developer and used for a print run of 123.000, 177.000 and 300.000 copieson a web offset heat-set printing press has been investigated. Investigation made in a paper showed that high depthof focus SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope can provide detailed topographical information about the surface,but cannot provide quantitative topographical information. Due to this fact, the printing forms have been also observedand analysed before and after the print run by a mechanical stylus profilometer. The investigations revealthe appearance of the physical changes as well as the geometrical ones. As a result of these changes, the influenceof a fountain solution on the printing form may also vary, as well as the balance between the ink and the fountainsolution during the printing process.

  19. Identification of Suitable Water Harvesting Zones Based on Geomorphic Resources for Drought Areas: A Case Study of Una District, Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, D. C., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Water is one of the most vital natural resource and its availability and quality determine ecosystem productivity, both for agricultural and natural systems. Una district is one of the major potential agricultural districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. More than 70% of the population of this district is engaged in agriculture and allied sectors and major crops grown are maize, wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses and vegetables. The region faces drought every year and about 90 per cent of the area is water stressed. This has resulted in crop loss and shortage of food and fodder. The sources of drinking water, small ponds and bowlies dry-up during summer season resulting in scarcity of drinking water. Una district receives rainfall during monsoons from June to September and also during non-monsoon period (winter). The annual average rainfall in the area is about 1040 mm with 55 average rainy days. But due to heavy surface run-off the farmers not able to cultivate the crops more than once in a year. Past research indicate that the geomorphology of the Una district might be responsible for such droughts as it controls the surface as well as ground water resources. The research proposes to develop a water stress model for Una district using the geomorphic parameters, water resource and land use land cover data of the study area. Using Survey of India topographical maps (1:50000), the geomorphic parameters are extracted. The spatial layers of these parameters i.e. drainage density, slope, relative relief, ruggedness index, surface water body's frequency are created in GIS. A time series of normalized remotely sensed data of the study area is used for land use land cover classification and analyses. Based on the results from the water stress model, the drought/water stress areas and water harvesting zones are identified and documented. The results of this research will help the general population in resolving the drinking water problem to a certain extent and also the

  20. Investigation of the influence of cementation of chromium onto aluminium on the characteristics of non-printing elements of an offset printing plate

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    Živković Predrag M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the electro less deposition of chromium onto aluminum was investigated in order to improve non-printing element properties. It was determined that the electrochemical deposition of trivalent chromium was possible from alkaline solutions. The presence of chromium was confirmed by the EDAX procedure in three different laboratories. The influence of chromium on the wet ability of the nonprinting elements of the printing form was examined by drop spreading. Specimens were examined by pouring distilled water in drops onto the surface of the specimen. The picture of the drop was taken by a digital camera from two directions, in order to measure the diameter of the spreaded drop (a measuring gauge was recorded together with the drop and contact angle. The chromium-treated samples showed increased wettability compared with the non-chromium-treated samples. Improvement of the non-printing elements was confirmed during a printing test that was performed under real printing conditions. The purity of the prints made by two types of printing forms was analyzed in two ways: based on densitometric measurements and based on statistical analysis of the scanned print. Both methods of analysis of the control prints showed that the control prints made from chromium-treated specimens were purer than the prints made from the non-chromium-treated specimens. Considering that all the conditions of making the printing forms and the printing conditions, except the electro less deposition procedure were the same, it could be concluded that the electro less deposited layer of chromium improved the printing properties of the offset printing form because of the increased wettability.

  1. Suitability evaluation of the coastline resources in Shanghai from a multifunction perspective%多功能视角下的上海市岸线资源适宜性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许伟

    2016-01-01

    岸线资源是城市重要的自然资源和国土空间,科学、合理地评价和优化岸线资源功能,有利于实施海洋发展战略、大幅提高岸线资源的综合利用效率和提升城市活力品质。利用GIS技术,建立岸线资源功能评价的指标体系,并对上海岸线资源进行空间特征分析。研究结论:(1)上海滨江沿海岸线中,农渔业生产功能适宜岸线占34.9%,滨水旅游功能适宜岸线占11.7%,产城发展功能适宜岸线占37.5%,生态保护功能适宜评价岸线占15.9%。(2)崇明西北岸段、长兴岛东北、横沙、南汇东滩等岸段,沉积物环境质量优良,可进行适度农业围垦和渔业养殖;奉贤中部、金山中东部、崇明岛东南部、宝山与浦东毗邻处等岸段交通条件和自然人文资源优良,适合滨水旅游功能开发;崇明岛中部城镇群以南、浦东主城区、长兴岛南部、临港新城及宝山、奉贤、金山部分岸段适合城镇和产业发展;崇明东滩、长兴岛北岸、宝山部分岸段等由于较高的生态服务价值和城市安全保障的需要,应严格保护。%The coastline is an important resource for coastal cities which need to improve the utilization efifciency of their coastline and to elevate the quality of urban life. For the purpose of implementing an ocean development strategy, this paper attempts to ifnd a suitable evaluation method for coastline resources. Based on GIS technology, an index system for the evaluation of coastline functionality was built, which analyzes the spatial characteristics of Shanghai's coastline. Based on this, the folowing conclusions were reached: (1) Along Shanghai's coastline, 34.9% of the beach is suitable for agriculture and ifshery, 11.7% for travel, 37.5% for urban development and 15.9% for ecological protection. (2) The beaches to the northwest of Chongming, the northeast of Changxing Island, and the east of Nanhui and Hengsha

  2. 75 FR 68222 - Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR PART 731 RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... possible, of security and suitability standards. Public Trust Positions Public trust positions are those...) for a new public trust reinvestigation. Likewise, a suitability investigation based on a change...

  3. Shorebird Habitat Suitability Indicies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset consists of predicted habitat suitability indices and species richness for eight shorebird species (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola],...

  4. 76 FR 69601 - Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... RIN 3206-AL90 Suitability AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... reinvestigation) as determined by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management, to ensure their suitability... public trust positions with a frequency as determined by the Director of the Office of...

  5. How to Evaluate the Rice Cultivation Suitability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxi; LI; Yueping; ZHANG; Changsong; WANG; Wei; MAO; Tianwen; HANG; Ming; CHEN; Bingning; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    To rationally allocate farmland resources,and scientifically make farming industrial planning,we take Yizheng City in Jiangsu Province as the research object,and select 13 indicators.Based on Farmland Resources Management Information System in Yizheng City,we establish AHP model,and membership function model,for the evaluation of farmland suitability of rice.The results show that the farmland area in the highly suitable areas accounts for 10.2%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the suitable areas accounts for 56.08%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the marginally suitable areas accounts for 25.50%of the total farmland area;the farmland area in the unsuitable areas accounts for 8.22%of the total farmland area.There is significant positive correlation between the actual yield of rice surveyed and suitability index obtained through evaluation(R2=0.1964,319 samples);the actual yield of rice in the highly suitable areas is higher than in the marginally suitable areas and suitable areas,and the rice yield is the lowest in the unsuitable areas.

  6. Terrain correlation suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wang; McClintock, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Terrain-aided navigation (TAN), also referred to as terrain correlation, is a technique that has proven to be highly successful as a navigational aid for autonomous, unmanned guided missiles. Qualitatively speaking, the effectiveness of terrain correlation is a function of signal- to-noise (S/N) ratio. The signal is equivalent to terrain roughness, while the noise is the combination of reference map errors, radar altimeter errors, and INS altitude errors. However, it is not practical to use only a single parameter, such as S/N, to define the suitability of terrain correlation. This paper discusses the shortcomings of the conventional single-parameter approach to the terrain contour matching algorithm (TERCOM) used in cruise missile guidance systems scene selection. A more comprehensive technique is then presented that analyzes the terrain correlation suitability based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique. A figure-of-merit (FOM) for terrain correlation suitability, computed from sample statistics, is introduced and simulation results are provided to illustrate the feasibility of using a multi-parameter FOM technique. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed approach could provide a cost effective enhancement to the TAN-based mission planning process.

  7. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  8. Suitable scale of Weigan River plain oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShunJun; SONG YuDong; TIAN ChangYan; LI YueTan; LI XiuCang; CHEN XiaoBing

    2007-01-01

    Desert coexists with oasis in long time, and the existence and development of oasis system demand better oasis vegetation ecological system. Oasis scale of arid zone plain encircling water should be determined in case of desertification caused by land over-reclamation under the circumstance of water resources shortage. Steady oasis with virtuous circle must have appropriate land use structure for agriculture, forestry and graziery. The study on the suitable scale and developmental space of oasis will provide theoretical and applicable foundation for effective construction of oases. By analyzing the hydrothermal, water and soil balance, an optimal mathematical model has been established. Based on hydrometeorology data collected for years in Weigan River plain, and by the principle of water balance,a calculation has been made of the water resources for evapotranspiration and the optimal acreage of oasis and cultivated land, which shows that the water resources for evapotranspiration in the Weigan River plain oasis is 22.32×108 m3 and the optimal oasis acreage under the condition of conventional irrigation mode is 3716.06 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 1564.79 km2. Under the condition of water-saving irrigation, the suitable oasis acreage is 5515.49 km2, in which the suitable cultivated land acreage is 2322.31 km2. The oasis area had reached 4123 km2, and the cultivated land acreage had reached 1507 km2 after the Agriculture Irrigation Drainage Water Project of World Bank Loan in Weigan River basin was finished in 1997. The oasis and cultivated land acreage will be more suitable, and the oasis scale can be enlarged moderately by means of water saving irrigation.

  9. Prepare and pursue: Routes to suitable (re-)employment

    OpenAIRE

    Koen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation shows that there are routes besides job search that can lead to suitable (re-)employment. Employability is - by providing both the resources to engage and persist in proper job search methods and to eventually land suitable reemployment - a more fruitful route when pursuing genuine reemployment success. Moreover, particularly preparation (i.e., career adaptability) is essential for the quality of (re-)employment. Thus, in the pursuit of suitable (re-)employment, employabilit...

  10. 郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区浅层地热能资源量评价%The Shallow Geothermal Energy Resource Evaluation on the Suitable Area of Groundwater Source Heat Pump in Zhengzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田良河; 闫震鹏; 刘新号

    2011-01-01

    By numerical simulation, we determine the best distance between wells of the groundwater source heat pump in Zhengzhou City, and evaluate the shallow geothermal energy resource in the suitable areas. It can provide important basis for urban development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Zhengzhou City.%采用数值模拟法确定了郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区最佳井间距,评价了郑州市地下水源热泵适宜区浅层地热能资源。

  11. Prepare and pursue: Routes to suitable (re-)employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation shows that there are routes besides job search that can lead to suitable (re-)employment. Employability is - by providing both the resources to engage and persist in proper job search methods and to eventually land suitable reemployment - a more fruitful route when pursuing genuine

  12. Suitability Classification and Resource Evaluation of Shallow Geothermal Energy from Soils in Guiyang%贵阳市土壤源浅层地温能适宜性分区及资源量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小庆; 段启杉

    2015-01-01

    Shallow geothermal energy(SGE),as a new kind of clean and renewable energy,can be used to solve en-ergy shortage,emission of greenhouse gas,etc.On the basis of in-situ thermal conductivity test,the reserve condition of SGE in Guiyang was analyzed,and thermal parameters of the region in association with test data of stratum ther-mal effects were obtained.According to analytic hierarchy process(AHP),suitability classification was carried out for SGE from soil.Furthermore,we calculated the total heat power and the potential of development and utilization of SGE in Guiyang.Results show that,on the supposition of full utilization of SGE from soil in Guiyang,in the winter, we can supply heating for area of 1.95 ×108 m2;while in the summer,we can cool the identical area.In light of this,it is very significant to promote the utilization of SGE in Guiyang.%浅层地温能作为清洁、可再生的新型能源,对解决能源短缺、温室气体排放等问题有很大帮助。在分析贵阳市土壤源浅层地温能赋存条件、现场热响应试验的基础上,获得了区内热物性参数、地层的热效应试验特征。利用层次分析法对土壤源浅层地温能进行了适宜性分区,并以此为基础计算了贵阳市浅层地温能的总换热功率和开发利用潜力。贵阳市土壤源浅层地温能如能充分的开发利用,则冬季可供暖面积1.95×108 m2,夏季可制冷面积1.95×108 m2,推广和利用浅层地温能对贵阳市经济的快速发展具有重要意义。

  13. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Research on the Suitability Assessment Method for Harbor Shoreline Resource Based on GIS——A Case Study for Wuhan New port%基于GIS的港口岸线资源适宜性评价方法研究——以武汉新港为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓雪; 徐碧华; 郑志华; 寇英卫; 曹德友

    2012-01-01

    综合当前港口岸线资源适宜性评价的研究进展,侧重于岸线的生态、生活服务功能,将岸线资源分为生态岸线、生活岸线、宜港岸线、其他岸线四类。本着合理利用岸线资源、减少岸线恶性竞争的原则,基于GIS,以武汉新港为例,探索图形叠置法在港口规划环评中岸线资源适宜性评价的定量化研究。从区域宏观层面分析岸线资源的特征,对港口规划岸线的合理性和适宜性进行评价,对港口规划的下一步岸线利用和港区建设提出建议和对策。%The progress in research of the suitability assessment of harbor shoreline resources is summarized with the focus on the ecological and daily life functions of the shorelines. The shorelines are classified into 4 categories: the ecological shoreline, the shoreline for daily life, the shoreline suitable for port and shoreline for miscellaneous purposes. In line with the principle of the rational utilization of shoreline resources and reducing vicious competition in shorelines, the quantitative study of the suita- bility assessment for harbor shoreline resources is conducted in course of the Wuhan New Port plan EIA using the graphics o-verlay method based on GIS. The character of the shoreline resources is analyzed at the regional macro-level, and the rationality and suitability of the port planning shoreline is assessed. The suggestions on future utilization of the shoreline and the port con-struction are presented.

  15. Environmental Suitability for Leasing Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Defense, regarding the procedures to determine environmental suitability for leasing property available as a result of a base closure or realignment.

  16. Mapping marine habitat suitability and uncertainty of Bayesian networks: a case study using Pacific benthic macrofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Havron; Chris Goldfinger; Sarah Henkel; Bruce G. Marcot; Chris Romsos; Lisa Gilbane

    2017-01-01

    Resource managers increasingly use habitat suitability map products to inform risk management and policy decisions. Modeling habitat suitability of data-poor species over large areas requires careful attention to assumptions and limitations. Resulting habitat suitability maps can harbor uncertainties from data collection and modeling processes; yet these limitations...

  17. 从“天时、地利、人和”看古代洛阳私家园林兴盛%On the Prosperity of Luoyang Traditional Private Gardens from the Perspective of "Suitable Weather, Favorable Location and Good Human Resources"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫红; 刘保国

    2012-01-01

    从历史、文化、自然环境的角度,探讨洛阳古代私家园林从源起到兴盛的主要原因:顺应优越的地理自然环境,依托其深厚的历史文化背景,仰仗其富裕的经济条件,是洛阳私家园林类型丰富、地位重要、有自己独特风格的重要因素.2 000年的帝都陪京之位;四面环山,地形起伏,“不是江南胜似江南”的水环境;造园主的政治、经济、社会地位都使得洛阳私家园林的营造具备了“天时、地利、人和”的良好条件.%In the historical, cultural and natural environment perspectives, the paper analyses the main reasons of Luoyang traditional private gardens from origins to prosperity. Owing to their advantageous natural and geographical environment, inheritance of massive historical sense and the prosperous economic condition, Luoyang private gardens have earned their diverse forms and unique style and therefore the importance in Chinese history. Sufficient conditions as "suitable weather, favorable location and good human resources" for the building of Luoyang private gardens were drawn from three factors: l.City Luoyang as the alternate capital; 2.Water resource that equals South China; 3.Garden owners' political power, adequate economic condition and high social status.

  18. Identification of process suitable diluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean R. Peterman

    2014-01-01

    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  19. Suitable footwear for enhanced safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Safety shoes are the theme of a new safety campaign. Always remember that accidents can happen - even to your feet! When entering hazardous areas such as underground halls, work sites, experiment assembly sites, workshops etc., sandals, ordinary shoes or similar light footwear should not be worn. Whatever the risks to which you may be exposed, always think safety and wear suitable footwear, i.e. safety shoes, which have non-slip soles and steel reinforcements to protect your feet from being crushed, fractured or pierced. Is it serious, Doctor? "Some traumas resulting from foot-related accidents - open fractures for instance - can be quite serious," explains CERN Works Doctor Véronique Fassnacht. "But the most common injuries are sprained ankles sustained during simple falls caused by differences in floor-levels (e.g. false floors). Fractures, bruising, surface wounds or deep wounds caused by objects falling onto the top of the foot are also quite common." ...

  20. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  1. A Dynamic Hashing Algorithm Suitable for Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianwei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of the data numbers, the linear hashing will be a lot of overflow blocks result from Data skew and the index size of extendible hash will surge so as to waste too much memory. This lead to the above two Typical Dynamic hashing algorithm don’t suitable for embedded system that need certain real-time requirements and memory resources are very scarce. To solve this problem, this paper was proposed a dynamic hashing algorithm suitable for embedded system combining with the characteristic of extendible hashing and linear hashing.it is no overflow buckets and the index size is proportional to the adjustment number.

  2. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Andrew P. [PPPL; Bloom, Josh [PPPL; Albertson, Robert [PPPL; Gershman, Sophia [PPPL

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  3. 45 CFR 12a.4 - Suitability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suitability determination. 12a.4 Section 12a.4... PROPERTY TO ASSIST THE HOMELESS § 12a.4 Suitability determination. (a) Suitability determination. Within 30... determination to the landholding agency. Properties that are under lease, contract, license, or agreement by...

  4. 24 CFR 581.4 - Suitability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reviewed for suitability. HUD will maintain a written public record of the following: (1) The suitability... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability determination. 581.4... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  5. Suitability of gas flare locations for Mini Gas-To-Liquid Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    Site suitability analysis for Mini Gas-to-liquid (MiniGTL) deployment was carried out for gas flaring ( GF) .... Petroleum Company (Kahle Intelligence ... the pipeline in tapping the vast gas resources of .... decision support system to identify sites.

  6. Readability and suitability assessment of patient education materials in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Rennie L; Von Feldt, Joan M; Schumacher, H Ralph; Merkel, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Web-based patient education materials and printed pamphlets are frequently used by providers to inform patients about their rheumatic disease. Little attention has been given to the readability and appropriateness of patient materials. The objective of this study was to examine the readability and suitability of commonly used patient education materials for osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and vasculitis. Five or 6 popular patient resources for each disease were chosen for evaluation. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level and suitability was determined by the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), a score that considers characteristics such as content, graphics, layout/topography, and cultural appropriateness. Three different reviewers rated the SAM score and means were used in the analysis. Twenty-three resources written on the 4 diseases were evaluated. The education material for all 4 diseases studied had readability above the eighth-grade level and readability did not differ among the diseases. Only 5 of the 23 resources received superior suitability scores, and 3 of these 5 resources were written for OA. All 4 diseases received adequate suitability scores, with OA having the highest mean suitability score. Most patient education materials for rheumatic diseases are written at readability levels above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and have only adequate suitability. Developing more appropriate educational resources for patients with rheumatic diseases may improve patient comprehension. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. A aptidão de uso da terra como base para o planejamento da utilização dos recursos naturais no município de São João do Polêsine - RS Land suitability as a base for natural resource use planning at the São João do Polesine county - Rio Grande do Sul/ State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A falta de conhecimento da aptidão de uso da terra e do planejamento adequado da sua utilização tem sido fato freqüente ocasionando impactos negativos ao meio ambiente. Neste sentido, os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a aptidão de uso, uso atual e os conflitos de uso da terra, visando contribuir para o planejamento racional dos recursos naturais no município de São João do Polêsine (SJP, RS. A análise ambiental foi efetuada através da integração de diferentes planos de informações como solos, relevo, hidrografia, aptidão agrícola, uso das terras e áreas de preservação permanente (APP. SJP apresenta mais de 50% de sua área destinada a atividades agropecuárias, 14,8% do município enquadra-se como APP, sendo a metade dessa área utilizada inadequadamente. Os principais problemas relacionam-se com a utilização inadequada dos seus recursos naturais, sem considerar a legislação ambiental e a aptidão das terras no processo de planejamento.The lack of knowledge on land use suitability and appropriate planning of its use have been a frequent reality causing negative impacts on the environment. In this way, the objective of this research was to determine land suitability, current land use and conflicts of use, seeking to contribute for the rational planning of the natural resources in the São João do Polêsine (SJP, RS. The environmental analysis was made through the integration of different plans of information as soils, relief, hydrography, agricultural suitability, land use and areas of permanent preservation (APP. SJP presents more than 50% of its area destined to agricultural activities, 14.8% of the SJP are framed as APP, with half of that area being used inadequately. The main problems of the county are related to the inadequate use of natural resources, without considering information regarding to the environmental legislation and land suitability, in the planning process.

  8. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  9. Semantic Resource Discovery with Resource Usage Policies in Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grid Schedulers aggregate the Grid resource that belongs to multiple administrative domains in a transparent manner. The Grid resource providers have their own local resources policies for the resources that reflects the restrictions on the resource what they are providing to the users. However, the Grid users are submitting the user application requirements with the Quality of Service (QoS parameters. Currently, most of the existing Grid Schedulers discover the suitable Grid resources to execute the application based on the capability of the Grid resources using the keyword based matchmaking that leads to failure of finding out the potential resources. In this paper we have proposed the semantic based resource discovery mechanism that considers both the resource and local resource policy information. The proposed work is incorporated with semantic similarity calculator that will finds out the suitable and potential resources by considering the capability of resources and user required QoS parameter of deadline, job completion time and etc. It is integrated with the existing scheduler of Community Scheduling Framework (CSF and tested for the various test cases in the real-time experimental setup. The various performance metrics such as hit/miss ratio, matchmaking time has been measured and analyzed. The results infer that the proposed work enhances the various performance measures compared to the conventional scheduler.

  10. Land Suitability Assessmemtin Continental Grits of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use types (LUTs). using a qualitative physical land evaluation methodology. The results indicated that the ..... Suggested land characteristics and scores for suitability evaluation for cereals ..... the FAO framework: an example from Zambia.

  11. Suitable long tendon technologies and practices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Altounyan, P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available effective long tendon support systems suitable in South African coalmines. Appropriate test procedures for the evaluation of the performance of long tendon systems were also determined and are detailed in this report....

  12. EXPERT MODEL OF LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đurđević

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 17404 soil samples (2003rd-2009th year were analysed in the eastern Croatia. The largest number of soil samples belongs to the Osijek-Baranya county, which together with both Eastern sugar beet Factories (Osijek and Županja, conduct the soil fertility control (~4200 samples/yr.. Computer model suitability assessment for crops, supported by GIS, proved to be fast, efficient enough reliable in terms of the number of analyzed soil samples. It allows the visualization of the agricultural area and prediction of its production properties for the purposes of analysis, planning and rationalization of agricultural production. With more precise data about the soil (soil, climate and reliable Digital Soil Map of Croatia, the model could be an acceptable, not only to evaluate the suitability for growing different crops but also their need for fertilizer, necessary machinery, repairs (liming, and other measures of organic matter input. The abovementioned aims to eliminate or reduce effects of limiting factors in primary agricultural production. Assessment of the relative benefits of soil presented by computer model for the crops production and geostatistical method kriging in the Osijek-Baranya county showed: 1 Average soil suitability being 60.06 percent. 2 Kriging predicted that 51751 ha (17.16% are of limited resources (N1 for growing crops whereas a 86142 ha (28.57% of land is limited suitably (S3, b 132789 ha (44.04% are moderately suitable (S2 and c 30772 ha (10.28% are of excellent fertility (S1. A large number of eastern Croatian land data showed that the computer-geostatistical model for determination of soil benefits for growing crops was automated, fast and simple to use and suitable for the implementation of GIS and automatically downloading the necessary benefit indicators from the input base (land, analytical and climate as well as data from the digital soil maps able to: a visualize the suitability for soil tillage, b predict the

  13. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  14. Mapping habitat suitability for at-risk plant species and its implications for restoration and reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questad, Erin J; Kellner, James R; Kinney, Kealoha; Cordell, Susan; Asner, Gregory P; Thaxton, Jarrod; Diep, Jennifer; Uowolo, Amanda; Brooks, Sam; Inman-Narahari, Nikhil; Evans, Steven A; Tucker, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The conservation of species at risk of extinction requires data to support decisions at landscape to regional scales. There is a need for information that can assist with locating suitable habitats in fragmented and degraded landscapes to aid the reintroduction of at-risk plant species. In addition, desiccation and water stress can be significant barriers to the success of at-risk plant reintroduction programs. We examine how airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data can be used to model microtopographic features that reduce water stress and increase resource availability, providing information for landscape planning that can increase the success of reintroduction efforts for a dryland landscape in Hawaii. We developed a topographic habitat-suitability model (HSM) from LiDAR data that identifies topographic depressions that are protected from prevailing winds (high-suitability sites) and contrasts them with ridges and other exposed areas (low-suitability sites). We tested in the field whether high-suitability sites had microclimatic conditions that indicated better-quality habitat compared to low-suitability sites, whether plant-response traits indicated better growing conditions in high-suitability sites, whether the locations of individuals of existing at-risk plant species corresponded with our habitat-suitability classes, and whether the survival of planted individuals of a common native species was greater in high-suitability, compared to low-suitability, planting sites. Mean wind speed in a high-suitability field site was over five times lower than in a low-suitability site, and soil moisture and leaf wetness were greater, indicating less stress and greater resource availability in high-suitability areas. Plant height and leaf nutrient content were greater in high-suitability areas. Six at-risk species showed associations with high-suitability areas. The survival of planted individuals was less variable among high-suitability plots. These results

  15. [Ecology suitability study of Ephedra intermedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hui; Lu, You-Yuan; Huang, De-Dong; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Lv, Pei-Lin; Jin, Ling

    2017-06-01

    The study aims at predicting ecological suitability of Ephedra intermedia in China by using maximum entropy Maxent model combined with GIS, and finding the main ecological factors affecting the distribution of E. intermedia suitability in appropriate growth area. Thirty-eight collected samples of E. intermedia and E. intermedia and 116 distribution information from CVH information using ArcGIS technology were analyzed. MaxEnt model was applied to forecast the E. intermedia in our country's ecology. E. intermedia MaxEnt ROC curve model training data and testing data sets the AUC value was 0.986 and 0.958, respectively, which were greater than 0.9, tending to be 1.The calculated E. intermedia habitat suitability by the model showed a high accuracy and credibility, which indicated that MaxEnt model could well predict the potential distribution area of E. intermedia in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Spring Season Habitat Suitability Index raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster represents a continuous surface of sage-grouse habitat suitability index (HSI, created using ArcGIS 10.2.2) values for Nevada during spring, which is a...

  18. Web page classification on child suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhoff, C.; Serdyukov, P.; Vries, A.P. de

    2010-01-01

    Children spend significant amounts of time on the Internet. Recent studies showed, that during these periods they are often not under adult supervision. This work presents an automatic approach to identifying suitable web pages for children based on topical and non-topical web page aspects. We discu

  19. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich eggshell from archaeological sites remains largely free of more recent carbon contamination and as such is suitable material for radiocarbon dating. The carbonate fraction of the shell does, however, display an initial deficit in C14, which...

  20. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Maina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments greatly affect the storage depending on whether runoff is for surface storage or ground water recharge purposes. As a result, ArcGIS was used in delineating the lineaments from Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the catchment. Further, using weighted overlay the catchment was grouped into categories of restricted, not suitable, moderately suitable, suitable, or highly suitable. The study found that forest, agriculture, and built-up areas occupied about 39.42%, 36.32%, and 1.35% of catchment area, respectively. A large part of catchment was found to have curve number range of 82–89. About 50% of the catchment was found to fall within suitable and highly suitable categories. This implied that a great potential exists for rain water harvesting within the catchment.

  1. Mapping global environmental suitability for Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Brady, Oliver J; Pigott, David M; Shearer, Freya M; Weiss, Daniel J; Golding, Nick; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Gething, Peter W; Cohn, Emily; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran; Tatem, Andrew J; Jaenisch, Thomas; Murray, Christopher Jl; Marinho, Fatima; Scott, Thomas W; Hay, Simon I

    2016-04-19

    Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.

  2. A semiotic approach to suitability for psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, J D

    1978-11-01

    At the beginning of my career as a psychotherapist I interviewed a number of patients in an effort to find one who seemed to be a good prospect for long-term psychotherapy. While interviewing with this purpose in mind, I was struck by the fact that a number of the people I spoke with gave me a sense of being extremely suitable for this sort of therapy, but that others seemed quite unsuitable. An informal survey among my peers as well as among more senior therapists revealed that they were not unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The present empirical study of the semiotic aspects of suitability for psychotherapy grew out of this early experience.

  3. Assessing Land Suitability for Rainwater Harvesting Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Njoro Catchment, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, C. W.; J. M. Raude

    2016-01-01

    Water demand increases as population increases leading to overexploitation of water resource. Consequently, there is need for improved water resources management complemented with rain water harvesting within the catchments. This study sought to assess land suitability for surface runoff harvesting using geospatial techniques. Land use/land cover maps of the area were derived from Landsat image. Land use and soils data were used in generating curve number map of the catchment. Lineaments grea...

  4. Modelling Fish Habitat Suitability in the Eastern English Channel. Application to community habitat level

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Sandrine; Carpentier, Andre; Loots, Christophe; Koubbi, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Valuable marine habitats and living resources can be found in the Eastern English Channel and in 2003, a Franco-British Interreg IIIA project, ‘Eastern Channel Habitat Atlas for Marine Resource Management’ (CHARM), was initiated to support decision-making for management of essential fish habitats. Fish habitat corresponds to geographic areas within which ranges of environmental factors define the presence of a particular species. Habitat Suitability index (HSI) modelling was used to relate fi...

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Research on Items Suitable for Online Auction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhanghua; LIU Lu; WU Lihua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the classification to the attribute information of auctioned commodity, the valuation signal of auctioned commodity is categorized into two groups: codable valuation signal and un-codable valuation signal. A valuation signal model is developed and used to reason under the environment of common valuation auction. The results show that the value of commodity auctioned online tends to be lower and the commodity with bigger factor that can be described online is more suitable for online auction.

  8. Global habitat suitability models of terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinini, Carlo; Di Marco, Moreno; Chiozza, Federica; Santulli, Giulia; Baisero, Daniele; Visconti, Piero; Hoffmann, Michael; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Amori, Giovanni; Falcucci, Alessandra; Maiorano, Luigi; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Detailed large-scale information on mammal distribution has often been lacking, hindering conservation efforts. We used the information from the 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as a baseline for developing habitat suitability models for 5027 out of 5330 known terrestrial mammal species, based on their habitat relationships. We focused on the following environmental variables: land cover, elevation and hydrological features. Models were developed at 300 m resolution and limited to within species' known geographical ranges. A subset of the models was validated using points of known species occurrence. We conducted a global, fine-scale analysis of patterns of species richness. The richness of mammal species estimated by the overlap of their suitable habitat is on average one-third less than that estimated by the overlap of their geographical ranges. The highest absolute difference is found in tropical and subtropical regions in South America, Africa and Southeast Asia that are not covered by dense forest. The proportion of suitable habitat within mammal geographical ranges correlates with the IUCN Red List category to which they have been assigned, decreasing monotonically from Least Concern to Endangered. These results demonstrate the importance of fine-resolution distribution data for the development of global conservation strategies for mammals. PMID:21844042

  9. Niche suitability affects development: skull asymmetry increases in less suitable areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Maestri

    Full Text Available For conservation purposes, it is important to take into account the suitability of a species to particular habitats; this information may predict the long-term survival of a species. In this sense, morphological measures of developmental stress, such as fluctuating asymmetry, can be proxies for an individual's performance in different regions. In this study, we conducted tests to determine whether areas with different levels of suitability for a species (generated by ecological niche models were congruent with morphological markers that reflect environmental stress and morphological variance. We generated a Maxent niche model and compared the suitability assessments of several areas with the skull morphology data (fluctuating asymmetry and morphological disparity of populations of the Atlantic forest endemic to Brazil rodent Akodon cursor. Our analyses showed a significant negative relationship between suitability levels and fluctuating asymmetry levels, which indicates that in less suitable areas, the individuals experience numerous disturbances during skull ontogeny. We have not found an association between morphological variance and environmental suitability. As expected, these results suggest that in environments with a lower suitability, developmental stress is increased. Such information is helpful in the understanding of the species evolution and in the selection of priority areas for the conservation of species.

  10. Suitability of Alternative Lubricants for Automotive Gear Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Suhane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising environmental concerns due to the problems associated with conventional mineral lubricants has renewed interest in usage of alternative resources. Various attempts have been made to explore the possibilities of utilizing vegetable oils for range of applications. Properties like excellent viscosity features, higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, better renewability & natural lubricity etc shows its potential as lubricants inspite of certain technical problems. Critical issues like lower oxidation stability , poor cold temperature properties affects the performance of vegetable oils and restricts its application to limited range . Gear oils are the hidden workhorses of automotive applications. This article highlights the suitability of various vegetable oils for lubricant formulation as an alternative in automotive gearing applications.

  11. Understanding Peripheral Bat Populations Using Maximum-Entropy Suitability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Paul R.; Gillam, Erin H.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals along the periphery of a species distribution regularly encounter more challenging environmental and climatic conditions than conspecifics near the center of the distribution. Due to these potential constraints, individuals in peripheral margins are expected to change their habitat and behavioral characteristics. Managers typically rely on species distribution maps when developing adequate management practices. However, these range maps are often too simplistic and do not provide adequate information as to what fine-scale biotic and abiotic factors are driving a species occurrence. In the last decade, habitat suitability modelling has become widely used as a substitute for simplistic distribution mapping which allows regional managers the ability to fine-tune management resources. The objectives of this study were to use maximum-entropy modeling to produce habitat suitability models for seven species that have a peripheral margin intersecting the state of North Dakota, according to current IUCN distributions, and determine the vegetative and climatic characteristics driving these models. Mistnetting resulted in the documentation of five species outside the IUCN distribution in North Dakota, indicating that current range maps for North Dakota, and potentially the northern Great Plains, are in need of update. Maximum-entropy modeling showed that temperature and not precipitation were the variables most important for model production. This fine-scale result highlights the importance of habitat suitability modelling as this information cannot be extracted from distribution maps. Our results provide baseline information needed for future research about how and why individuals residing in the peripheral margins of a species’ distribution may show marked differences in habitat use as a result of urban expansion, habitat loss, and climate change compared to more centralized populations. PMID:27935936

  12. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: • Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? • How much could these areas produce sustainably? • How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? âÂÃÃÂ

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  15. Resonance enhancement by suitably chosen frequency detuning

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we report new effects of resonance detuning on various dynamical parameters of a generic 3-wave system. Namely, for suitably chosen values of detuning the variation range of amplitudes can be significantly wider than for exact resonance. Moreover, the range of energy variation is not symmetric with respect to the sign of the detuning. Finally, the period of the energy oscillation exhibits non-monotonic dependency on the magnitude of detuning. These results have important theoretical implications where nonlinear resonance analysis is involved, such as geophysics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics. Numerous practical applications are envisageable e.g. in energy harvesting systems.

  16. A new agro-climatic classification for crop suitability zoning in northern semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    The agro-climatic resources of Giba catchment in northern Ethiopia were assessed and characterized. The objectives were (i) to ascertain the suitability of the climate for growing teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare); (ii) to determine the onset and length of the growing period (LGP),

  17. Resources publication and discovery in manufacturing grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Fei; HU Ye-fa; DING Yu-feng; SHENG Bu-yun; ZHOU Zu-de

    2006-01-01

    In the manufacturing grid's architecture, Resources Management System (RMS) is the central component responsible for disseminating resource information across the grid, accepting requests for resources, discovering and scheduling the suitable resources that match the requests for the global grid resource, and executing the requests on scheduled resources. In order to resolve the problem of resources publication and discovery in Manufacturing Grid (MGrid), the classification of manufacturing resources is first researched after which the resources encapsulation class modes are put forward. Then, a scalable two-level resource management architecture is constructed on the model, which includes root nodes, domain nodes and leaf nodes. And then an RMS is proposed, and the resources publication and discovery mechanism are detailedly described. At last, an application prototype is developed to show the validity and the practicability of the proved theory and method.

  18. Assessing Potential Land Suitability for Surface Irrigation using Groundwater in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worqlul, A. W.; Jeong, J.; Osorio, J.; Gerik, T.; Yihun, D.; Srinivan, R.; Clark, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although Ethiopia has large land areas that can potentially be developed for surface irrigation, only a fraction of the potential available land has been utilized. This paper presents evaluation of the potential lands in Ethiopia that are suitable for irrigation using groundwater. The suitable land was identified using GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques applying a GIS model. The factors used were identified from literature and from experts in the region. Factors considered includes physical land features (land use, soil and slope), climate characteristics (rainfall and evapotranspiration), and market access (proximity to roads and access to market). Factors were weighted using a pair-wise comparison matrix, reclassified, and overlaid to identify the suitable areas for groundwater irrigation at 1 km grid. Groundwater data from the British Geological Survey were used to estimate potential groundwater availability and analyze the irrigation potential for dominant crops. Simulated output from SWAT could be used in areas where data is not available. Result indicates that approximately 6.0 million ha of land in Ethiopia is suitable for surface irrigation. A large portion of this suitable land is located in the Abbay, Rift Valley, Omo Ghibe, and Awash River basins, which all also have shallow groundwater access (< 20 m from the surface). The comparison between available groundwater and total crop water requirements indicated that current groundwater resources in the basins are not capable of irrigating all suitable land independently, but groundwater resources are a good option for supplementing current surface water resources in many regions. The study indicated that only 8 % of the suitable land could be irrigated with the groundwater within the grid.

  19. Second report: development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    Results are presented of mining and geotechnical studies provided to the University in support of the development of site suitability criteria. The work involved literature research, further evaluation of geotechnical and mining site suitability factors, further development of specific geotechnical descriptions and coefficients relating to uncertainties, additional documentation of descriptors and coefficients developed for the Cycle II model, and geotechnical and mining guidance to the overall LLL site suitability work. Work results are summarized in sections on general site suitability, geotechnical data base, descriptors and coefficients, uncertainty considerations, natural resources, hydrology, geology, and documentation. (JRD)

  20. Mid-Atlantic elasmobranchs: Suitable metal scouts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2017-04-15

    Heavy metals are a hazard to marine fauna and human health. In this study we assess stable isotopes and metal content in Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus and analyse these results within and among other species and across regions and geographical areas. Also, we evaluate their suitability, together with Raja clavata and Galeorhinus galeus, as Mid-Atlantic bioindicators. Prionace glauca and I. oxyrinchus shared the same trophic level in a pelagic food web and did not present significant differences between genders or metals, except for As. Arsenic and Hg accumulated while Cd and Pb were not detected. One I. oxyrinchus presented Hg values above regulatory limits. A high Hg exposure was associated with I. oxyrinchus since its maximum weekly intake was exceeded. Elasmobranchs can be used as metal sentinels, each presenting different key features which defines a good marine bioindicator, allowing long-term monitoring at different temporal and spatial scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monazite as a suitable actinide waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenz, Hartmut; Heuser, Julia; Schmitz, Stephan; Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); Neumann, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK), Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (IEK-6); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Crystallography

    2013-03-01

    The conditioning of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and in some countries even of weapons plutonium is an important issue for science and society. Therefore the research on appropriate matrices for the immobilization of fission products and actinides is of great interest. Beyond the widely used borosilicate glasses, ceramics are promising materials for the conditioning of actinides like U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm. Monazite-type ceramics with general composition LnPO{sub 4} (Ln = La to Gd) and solid solutions of monazite with cheralite or huttonite represent important materials in this field. Monazite appears to be a promising candidate material, especially because of its outstanding properties regarding radiation resistance and chemical durability. This article summarizes the most recent results concerning the characterization of monazite and respective solid solutions and the study of their chemical, thermal, physical and structural properties. The aim is to demonstrate the suitability of monazite as a secure and reliable waste form for actinides. (orig.)

  2. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses.......Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...

  3. Analysis of terrains suitable for tourism and recreation by using geographic information system (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklıbaşında, Meliha; Bulut, Yahya

    2014-09-01

    The use and utilization areas of geographic information system (GIS) increase every day due to both enabling easiness in storing, updating, grouping, analyzing, correlating, and mapping of data about evaluation factors in planning studies and having quite low error margin depending on the accuracy of data stored. In fact, GIS is also used both in visualization and in various analyses in planning tourism terrains. In this study, the effectiveness of GIS on holistic evaluation of natural and cultural resources in planning tourism terrains was analyzed. Natural and cultural resources in Kayseri Yahyalı were quantified by using ArcGIS 9.3 software from GIS software; data were analyzed and potential tourism and recreation terrains, level of suitability, and rate of coverage were determined. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that 11.847 ha area (6,53%) was quite suitable for such kind of activities, 103.010 ha (56,77%) was suitable, 39.278 ha (21,65%) was less suitable, and 27.314 ha area (15,05%) was not suitable. In the next stage, landscape properties which are suitable for tourism and recreation were evaluated and landscape types were classified in the sense of their tourist attraction. It was determined that the water resources and valley landscapes were the basic sources of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı, and it was determined that the landscape of the forest and mountain was important for variety of the tourism and recreation activities of Yahyalı.

  4. Uncertainty in Various Habitat Suitability Models and Its Impact on Habitat Suitability Estimates for Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are extensively used to project habitat suitability of species in stream ecological studies. Owing to complex sources of uncertainty, such models may yield projections with varying degrees of uncertainty. To better understand projected spatial distributions and the variability between habitat suitability projections, this study uses five SDMs that are based on the outputs of a two-dimensional hydraulic model to project the suitability of habitats and to evaluate the degree of variability originating from both differing model types and the split-sample procedure. The habitat suitability index (HSI of each species is based on two stream flow variables, including current velocity (V, water depth (D, as well as the heterogeneity of these flow conditions as quantified by the information entropy of V and D. The six SDM approaches used to project fish abundance, as represented by HSI, included two stochastic models: the generalized linear model (GLM and the generalized additive model (GAM; as well as three machine learning models: the support vector machine (SVM, random forest (RF and the artificial neural network (ANN, and an ensemble model (where the latter is the average of the preceding five models. The target species Sicyopterus japonicas was found to prefer habitats with high current velocities. The relationship between mesohabitat diversity and fish abundance was indicated by the trends in information entropy and weighted usable area (WUA over the study area. This study proposes a method for quantifying habitat suitability, and for assessing the uncertainties in HSI and WUA that are introduced by the various SDMs and samples. This study also demonstrated both the merits of the ensemble modeling approach and the necessity of addressing model uncertainty.

  5. Suitability Evaluation of River Bank Filtration along the Second Songhua River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Second Songhua River is the biggest river system in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, the rapid economic development in this area has increased the prominence of water resources and water-related environmental problems; these include surface water pollution and the overexploitation of groundwater resources. Bank infiltration on the floodplains of the Second Songhua River is an important process of groundwater-surface water exchange under exploitation conditions. Understanding this process can help in the development of water resource management plans and strategies for the region. In this research, a multi-criteria evaluation index system was developed with which to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration along the Second Songhua River. The system was comprised of main suitability indexes for water quantity, water quality, the interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resources. The index system was integrated into GIS (Geographic Information System to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration (RBF in the study area was divided into five grades. Although the evaluation index system and evaluation method are applicable only to the Second Songhua River basin, the underlying principle and techniques it embodies can be applied elsewhere. For future generalization of the evaluation index system, the specific evaluation index and its scoring criteria should be modified appropriately based on local conditions.

  6. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  7. Rethinking Resourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  8. Pastoral suitability driven by future climate change along the Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the impacts of climate change on pastoral resources located along the Apennines chain. To this end, random forest machine learning model was first calibrated for the present period and then applied to future conditions, as projected by HadCM3 general circulation model, in order to simulate possible spatial variation/shift of pastoral areas in two time slices (centred on 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Pre-existent spatial database, namely Corine land cover map and WorldClim, were integrated and harmonised in a GIS environment in order to extract climate variables (mean seasonal precipitation, mean maximum temperature of the warmest month and minimum temperature of the coldest month and response variables (presence/absence of pastures to be used as model predictors. Random forest model resulted robust and coherent to simulate pastureland suitability under current climatology (classification accuracy error=19%. Accordingly, results indicated that increases in temperatures coupled with decreases in precipitation, as simulated by HadCM3 in the future, would have impacts of great concern on potential pasture distribution. In the specific, an overall decline of pasturelands suitability is predicted by the middle of the century in both A2 (–46% and B2 (–41% along the entire chain. However, despite alarming reductions in pastures suitability along the northern (–69% and –71% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively and central Apennines (–90% under both scenarios by the end of the century, expansions are predicted along the southern areas of the chain (+96% and +105% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. This may be probably due to expansions in pastures dominated by xeric and thermophiles species, which will likely benefit from warmer and drier future conditions predicted in the southern zone of the chain by the HadCM3. Hence, the expected climate, coupled with an increasing abandonment of the

  9. Assessment of Irrigation Land Suitability and Development of Map for the Fogera Catchment Using GIS, South Gondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnenet Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation land suitability assessment and mapping play an imperative role for sustainable utilization of scarce physical land resources. The objectives of this study were to prepare spatial data base of physical land resources for irrigated agriculture and to assess land suitability for irrigation and developing suitable area map for the study area. The study was conducted at Fogera catchment, South Gondar. Soil and water sampling spots were selected based on free and grid survey techniques and their locations were taken using Global Positioning System (GPS. Geographical Information System (GIS techniques were used to develop irrigation land suitability map of the study area. Attributes of parameters were collected and used for suitability assessment. Attributes used as criteria for irrigation suitability analysis were ECe, ESP, soil depth, texture, pH, top and sub soil stoniness, water table depth, flood hazard, ground water quality (SAR and EC and slope. Point data with their attribute were arranged and proximity analysis of Arc-GIS was made this resulted into twelve mapping units. The final irrigation suitability map of the project area was derived after overlay analysis. On the basis of stoniness, soil salinity, soil alkalinity, soil depth and groundwater quality it was concluded that 72 percent of the study area is potentially suitable for irrigation and 28 percent was classified as unsuitable (N due to drainage limitation, flood hazard, texture and slope factors. Of the potentially suitable land, 1 percent was highly suitable (S1, 28 percent was moderately suitable (S2, and 43 percent is marginally suitable (S3.

  10. Analysis and Recommendations for the DTIC Non-Print Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    parent- child relationships between files, the enduring nature of the content, application software needed to open the files, and other attributes. On...MACII SYSTEM 7+ MAC (version unknown) MAC 7 NT (version unknown) NT 3.51 IRIX/SGI SGI (version unknown) SGI INDIGO SUN (version unknown) SUN SOLARIS UNIX

  11. FORMS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM SUITABLE TO APUSENI MOUNTAINS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is the result of the melange between tourism and sustainable tourism. The concept has evolved during the last decades of the twentieth century, in international conferences, summits etc. organized by the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations and other international organizations where it was defined, characterized and criticized. Unfortunately, the concept was not able to overcome its theoretical conceptualization and it did not reach practitioners of the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism has several forms which are actually practiced by tourists all over the world: ecotourism, backpacking, rural tourism, nature-based tourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism etc. In the present paper, we have focused on an area in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. We tried to identify the forms of sustainable tourism most suitable for this area considering: natural resources, socio-economical development, protected areas, gastronomic traditions etc. After considering all these we have selected three forms: ecotourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism, which could have the highest impact in promoting this area, and actually all the Apuseni Mountains as an important destination for sustainable tourism. The arguments for ecotourism are based on the numerous natural tourism resources> caves, gorges, forests and wildlife. Volunteers are needed especially in conservation and English language course. For slow tourism, there are numerous trails for walking and biking. Also there are several foods, mainly based on milk and wild berries that should be promoted and sold under the slow food brand. The shortcomings of the research are the lack of quantitative and qualitative results, as there is no information regarding the number of tourists which visit the area during each year. Also, it is hard to compare the benefits of sustainable tourism with those of mass tourism, due to the lack of references. So it is harder to argue for sustainable

  12. Groundwater suitability recharge zones modelling - A GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, S.; Bhatt, B.; Joshi, J. P.; Sharma, N.

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater quality in Gujarat state is highly variable and due to multiplicity of factors viz. influenced by direct sea water encroachment, inherent sediment salinity, water logging, overexploitation leading to overall deterioration in ground water quality, coupled with domestic and industrial pollution etc. The groundwater scenario in the state is not very encouraging due to imbalance between recharge and groundwater exploitation. Further, the demand for water has increased manifold owing to agricultural, industrial and domestic requirement and this has led to water scarcity in many parts of the state, which is likely to become more severe in coming future due to both natural and manmade factors. Therefore, sustainable development of groundwater resource requires precise quantitative assessment based on reasonably valid scientific principles. Hence, delineation of groundwater potential zones (GWPZ), has acquired great significance. The present study focuses on the integrated Geospatial and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques to determine the most important contributing factors that affect the groundwater resources and also to delineate the potential zones for groundwater recharge. The multiple thematic layers of influencing parameters viz. geology, geomorphology, soil, slope, drainage density and land use, weightages were assigned to the each factor according to their relative importance as per subject experts opinion owing to the natural setup of the region. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to these factors and potential recharge zones were identified. The study area for the assessment of groundwater recharge potential zones is Mahi-Narmada inter-stream region of Gujarat state. The study shows that around 28 % region has the excellent suitability of the ground water recharge.

  13. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  14. Comprehensive Suitability Evaluation of Tea Crops Using GIS and a Modified Land Ecological Suitability Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Li-Wen; HUANG Jing-Feng; JIN Zhi-Feng; D. K. GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most valuable cash crops in southern China; however,the planting distribution of tea crops is not optimal and the production and cultivation regions of tea crops are restricted by law and custom.In order to evaluate the suitability of tea crops in Zhejiang Province,the annual mean temperature,the annual accumulated temperature above 10 ℃,the frequency of extremely low temperature below -13 ℃,the mean humidity from April to October,slope,aspect,altitude,soil type,and soil texture were selected from climate,topography,and soil factors as factors for land ecological evaluation by the Delphi method based on the ecological characteristics of tea crops.These nine factors were quantitatively analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS).The grey relational analysis (GRA) was combined with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to address the uncertainties during the process of evaluating the traditional land ecological suitability,and a modified land ecological suitability evaluation (LESE) model was built.Based on the land-use map of Zhejiang Province,the regions that were completely unsuitable for tea cultivation in the province were eliminated and then the spatial distribution of the ecological suitability of tea crops was generated using the modified LESE model and GIS.The results demonstrated that the highly,moderately,and non-suitable regions for the cultivation of tea crops in Zhejiang Province were 27552.66,42724.64,and 26507.97 km2,and accounted for 28.47%,44.14%,and 27.39% of the total evaluation area,respectively.Validation of the method showed a high degree of coincidence with the current planting distribution of tea crops in Zhejiang Province.The modified LESE model combined with GIS could be useful in quickly and accurately evaluating the land ecological suitability of tea crops,providing a scientific basis for the rational distribution of tea crops and acting as a reference to land policy makers and land

  15. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  16. Predicting Suitable field workdays for soil tillage in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladimeji S. Ife

    A simulation model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for tillage operations in North Central ... KEYWORDS: Suitable field workdays, tillage, agro –meteorology, tractability. 1. ... approach, the calculation of the components.

  17. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  18. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  19. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  20. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  1. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  2. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  3. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  4. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  5. 10 CFR 963.14 - Preclosure suitability criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure suitability criteria. 963.14 Section 963.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE SUITABILITY GUIDELINES Site Suitability Determination...) Ability to preserve the option to retrieve wastes during the preclosure period....

  6. Gopher Tortoise Survey, Population Evaluation, and Habitat Suitability: Final Report to Georgia Department of Natural Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report desribes methods and results of the line transect distance sampling approach used to derive baseline gopher tortoise population estimates at 20 sites...

  7. Assessing the visual resource and visual development suitability values in metropolitanizing landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Yuill; Spencer A. Joyner Jr.

    1979-01-01

    In response to urbanization pressures on the New England landscape, researchers at the University of Massachusetts have developed and tested two visual landscape assessment procedures as part of a comprehensive research project in landscape planning. The first procedure identifies those visually significant and unique areas within a town or region that warrant public...

  8. Resources for methylome analysis suitable for gene knockout studies of potential epigenome modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gareth A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP is a popular enrichment based method and can be combined with sequencing (termed MeDIP-seq to interrogate the methylation status of cytosines across entire genomes. However, quality control and analysis of MeDIP-seq data have remained to be a challenge. Results We report genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of wild type (wt and mutant mouse cells, comprising 3 biological replicates of Thymine DNA glycosylase (Tdg knockout (KO embryonic stem cells (ESCs, in vitro differentiated neural precursor cells (NPCs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. The resulting 18 methylomes were analysed with MeDUSA (Methylated DNA Utility for Sequence Analysis, a novel MeDIP-seq computational analysis pipeline for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs. The observed increase of hypermethylation in MEF promoter-associated CpG islands supports a previously proposed role for Tdg in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing. Further analysis of genes and regions associated with the DMRs by gene ontology, pathway, and ChIP analyses revealed further insights into Tdg function, including an association of TDG with low-methylated distal regulatory regions. Conclusions We demonstrate that MeDUSA is able to detect both large-scale changes between cells from different stages of differentiation and also small but significant changes between the methylomes of cells that only differ in the KO of a single gene. These changes were validated utilising publicly available datasets and confirm TDG's function in the protection of regulatory regions from epigenetic silencing.

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of aquatic resource health and use suitability in Tennessee Valley Authority reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dycus, D.L.; Meinert, D.L.

    1993-06-01

    TVA initiated a Reservoir Monitoring Program in 1990 with two objectives -- to evaluate the health of the reservoir ecosystem and to examine how well each reservoir meets the swimmable and fishable goals of the Clean Water Act. In 1990 reservoir health was evaluated subjectively using a weight-of-evidence approach (a reservoir was deemed healthy if most of the physical, chemical, and biological monitoring components appeared healthy). In the second year (1991) a more objective, quantitative approach was developed using information on five important indicators of reservoir health -- dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, sediment quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fishes. The most recent information (1992) was evaluated with the same basic approach, modified to incorporate improvements based on comments from reviewers and additional data. Reservoirs were stratified into two groups for evaluation: run-of-the-river reservoirs and tributary storage reservoirs. Key locations are sampled in each reservoir (forebay, transition zone or midreservoir, inflow, and major embayments) for most or all of these five reservoir health indicators. For each indicator (or metric), scoring criteria have been developed that assign a score ranging from 1 to 5 representing poor to good conditions, respectively. Scores for the metrics at a location are summed and then the sums for all locations are totaled. Each reservoir has one to four sample locations depending on reservoir characteristics. The resultant total is divided by the maximum possible score (all metrics good at all locations) for the reservoir. Thus, the possible range of scores is from 20 percent (all metrics poor) to 100 percent (all metrics good). This reservoir ecological health evaluation method is proving to be a valuable tool for providing the public with information about the condition of the Valley`s reservoirs, for allowing meaningful comparisons among reservoirs, and for tracking changes in reservoir health with time.

  10. GIS-Based Assessment of Land Suitability for Optimal Allocation in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jie-Yong; GUO Li-Ying

    2006-01-01

    A GIS-based method was used to assess land suitability in the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province of China through simultaneous consideration of physical features and current land use. Through interpretation of Landsat TM images and extensive field visits the area was modeled into 40 land types in five altitudinal zones (valleys and gullies, hillsides and terraces, foothills, mid-mountain, and sub-alpine mountain). Then, a suitability score was assigned to five physical factors (climate, hydrology, topography, soil, and vegetation). Next, their integrated overall suitability value scores were compared with the observed land cover to determine whether it should be reallocated a new use. Results showed that the five suitability classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, farmland-woodland, and scrub-pasture had altitudinal stratification and a total of 1 151 km2 (8.89%) of lands on the northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains had to be reallocated. To achieve this reallocation, 657 km2 of arable land should be reduced, and forest, grassland and scrub-pasture increased by 615 km2, 131 km2 and 405 km2, respectively. Implementation of these recommended land reallocations should help achieve suitable use of land resources and prevent land degradation.

  11. Habitat suitability and conservation of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Resource managers often have little information regarding the habitat requirements and distribution of rare species. Factor analysis-based habitat suitability models describe the ecological niche of a species and identify locations where these conditions occur on the landscape using existing occurrence data.We used factor analyses to assess the suitability of habitats for Thamnophis gigas (Giant Gartersnake), a rare, threatened species endemic to the Central Valley of California, USA, and to map the locations of habitat suitable for T. gigas in the Sacramento Valley. Factor analyses indicated that the niche of T. gigas is composed of sites near rice agriculture with low stream densities. Sites with high canal densities and near wetlands also appeared suitable, but results for these variables were sensitive to potential sampling bias. In the Sacramento Valley, suitable habitats occur primarily in the central portion of the valley floor. Based upon the results of the factor analyses, recovery planning for T. gigas will require an on-the-ground assessment of the current distribution and abundance of T. gigas, maintaining the few remaining natural wetlands and the practice of rice agriculture in the Sacramento Valley, and studying the effects of agricultural practices and land use changes on populations of T. gigas.

  12. A methodology for evaluating land suitability for medicinal plants at a regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barbaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Before introducing a new crop in an area, such as medicinal plant species, crop-land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieve an optimum exploitation of the available land resources for a sustainable agricultural production. To evaluate the land suitability it is important to take into account the habitats of the plant species. Moreover, agronomic, logistic and product quality aspects have to be considered. The importance of these aspects changes according to the stakeholders: the local government is more involved in supporting environmental suitability and production sustainability, farmers need areas which satisfy agronomic and logistic requirements, while industry is interested in the quality of production. A methodology was developed and implemented to create suitability maps for medicinal plants. Because of the generally limited information about medicinal plant adaptation, a simple methodology, based on a priori information has been developed, based on three different criteria: i environmental suitability (point of view of local government; ii agronomic, productivity and logistic suitability (point of view of the farmer; iii quality suitability (point of view of industry. For each of the three criteria, a specific macro-indicator, based on land characteristics, was calculated using membership functions. Here, a methodology to create maps for the introduction of such species was developed and implemented. This methodology can be repeated by command scripts in an easy-to-use freeware GIS. The structure of the evaluation model can be easily adapted to consider more detailed land information like climate and soil. The methodology (implemented by scripts in a freeware GIS, can be easily repeated and adapted for other situations.

  13. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural resources. 960.4-2-8-1 Section 960.4-2-8-1 Energy... REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-8-1 Natural resources. (a) Qualifying condition. This site shall..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation...

  14. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing.

  15. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Jens G; Smith, Carl S; Durr, Peter A; McAlpine, Clive A; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  16. Suitability Evaluation on River Bank Filtration of the Second Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixue; Ye, Xueyan; Du, Xinqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Second Songhua River is the biggest river with the most economic value in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, water resources and water environment problem is getting prominent, including surface water pollution and over exploitation of groundwater resources, etc. By means of bank filtration, the Second Songhua River basin might realize the combined utilization of regional groundwater and surface water, and thus has important significance for the guarantee of water demand for industrial and agricultural production planning in the basin. The following steps were adopted to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration nearby the Scond Songhua River : Firstly, in order to focus on the most possible area, the evaluation area was divided based on the aspects of natural geographical conditions and hydraulic connection extent between river water and groundwater. Second, the main suitability indexes including water quantity, water quality, interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resource, and nine sub-indexes including hydraulic conductivity, aquifer thickness, river runoff, the status of groundwater quality, the status of surface water quality, groundwater hydraulic gradient, possible influence zone width of surface water under the condition of groundwater exploitation, permeability of riverbed layer and groundwater depth were proposed to establish an evaluation index system for the suitability of river bank filtration. Thirdly, Combined with the natural geography, geology and hydrogeology conditions of the Second Songhua River basin, the ArcGIS technology is used to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration in the study area is divided into five grades. The evaluation index system and evaluation method established in this article are applicable to the Second Songhua

  17. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  18. URECA: Efficient Resource Location Middleware for Ubiquitous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donggeon Noh; Heonshik Shin

    2008-01-01

    We describe an effective resource location framework for ubiquitous computing environments populated by a diverse set of networks, devices, services and computational entities. Our framework provides context adaptation with the aid of a middleware service to improve the quality of resource location. A resource location protocol suitable to each type of network locates resource effectively by means of dynamic reconfiguration to the current context. Our framework is also refined by support for interoperability between different types of resource location protocols occurring across a hybrid ubiquitous network. These characteristics also reduce the control overhead for resource location, saving resource, decreasing latency and permitting a considerable degree of scalability.

  19. Tutors' opinions of suitability of online learning programmes in continuing professional development for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Online learning is frequently used in continuing professional development for qualified nurses and midwives. It is frequently assumed that the same package is appropriate for different groups of learners and that by reducing the need for tutorial input, tutorial time is saved. We evaluated the suitability of an online learning resource for suitability in continuing professional development for midwives. Originally developed for use as part of a work-based package for a specific audience, there had always been plans for more general use of the resource with other groups of health workers. Sequential mixed methods study. English universities. Seventy university tutors. Online questionnaire and in-depth interviews. Tutors did not consider that the online learning materials would be suitable for a wider audience without significant adaptation. They thought that uptake would increase need for tutorial input. Our findings demonstrate the pitfalls of removing learning from the context of practice. Technology customised to meet the needs of one group of learners probably does not have the potential for transfer to another group without significant adaptation. Those responsible for designing e-learning should take into account the needs of all the different audiences for whom the resource is intended from the outset, with consideration for the context in which learning will be applied to practice and how students will be supported. If the same package is to be used by different audiences and in different settings, tutors and students will require explicit instructions of how they should use the resource and depth of knowledge and level of competency that should be attained at the conclusion of the programme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupling of pollination services and coffee suitability under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, Pablo; Fung, Emily; Hannah, Lee; Navarro-Racines, Carlos E; Roubik, David W; Ricketts, Taylor H; Harvey, Celia A; Donatti, Camila I; Läderach, Peter; Locatelli, Bruno; Roehrdanz, Patrick R

    2017-09-26

    Climate change will cause geographic range shifts for pollinators and major crops, with global implications for food security and rural livelihoods. However, little is known about the potential for coupled impacts of climate change on pollinators and crops. Coffee production exemplifies this issue, because large losses in areas suitable for coffee production have been projected due to climate change and because coffee production is dependent on bee pollination. We modeled the potential distributions of coffee and coffee pollinators under current and future climates in Latin America to understand whether future coffee-suitable areas will also be suitable for pollinators. Our results suggest that coffee-suitable areas will be reduced 73-88% by 2050 across warming scenarios, a decline 46-76% greater than estimated by global assessments. Mean bee richness will decline 8-18% within future coffee-suitable areas, but all are predicted to contain at least 5 bee species, and 46-59% of future coffee-suitable areas will contain 10 or more species. In our models, coffee suitability and bee richness each increase (i.e., positive coupling) in 10-22% of future coffee-suitable areas. Diminished coffee suitability and bee richness (i.e., negative coupling), however, occur in 34-51% of other areas. Finally, in 31-33% of the future coffee distribution areas, bee richness decreases and coffee suitability increases. Assessing coupled effects of climate change on crop suitability and pollination can help target appropriate management practices, including forest conservation, shade adjustment, crop rotation, or status quo, in different regions.

  1. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  2. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the Administrator... decide whether such product is a suitable substitute for any class or model or product being purchased by... substitute for any product or class of products being purchased by the Federal Government for its use, the...

  3. Evaluation of Agricultural Land Suitability: Application of Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problem of evaluation of agricultural land suitability is considered as a fuzzy modeling task. The application of individual fuzzy indicators provides an opportunity for assessment of lsand suitability of lands as degree or grade of performance when the lands are used for agricultural purposes....

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-38 - Specially suitable for vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... battery cables, must be in accordance with the applicable provisions of 49 CFR 176.905. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specially suitable for vehicles. 90.10-38 Section 90.10... GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-38 Specially suitable for...

  5. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied r

  6. apparel styles suitable for young swazi women with the prevalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    women. Thus, this study aimed at assessing apparel styles suitable for young Swazi women with the two most .... sleeve, cuff, pockets, tucks, pleats, creases and ruffles. A style ...... and pants are not suitable for the triangular body shape, and if ...

  7. The readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Nova; Ahmad, Fatuma

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the readability and suitability of sexual health promotion leaflets. Application of SMOG, FRY and SAM tests to assess the readability and suitability of a selection of sexual health leaflets. SMOG and FRY scores illustrate an average reading level of grade 9. SAM scores indicate that 59% of leaflets are superior in design and 41% are average in design. Leaflets generally perform well in the categories of content, literacy demand, typography and layout. They perform poorly in use of graphics, learning stimulation/motivation and cultural appropriateness. Sexual health leaflets have a reading level that is too high. Leaflets perform well on the suitability scores indicating they are reasonably suitable. There are a number of areas where sexual health leaflets could improve their design. Numerous practical techniques are suggested for improving the readability and suitability of sexual health leaflets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  9. Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM: a Case Study f Mariveles, Bataan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lou L. Mungcal

    2013-11-01

    . In addition, stakeholders’ analysis and documentary analysis, i.e., books, print and non-print materials, video footage, monograph, were used as secondary sources of information. The author is solely responsible for any information found in this paper.

  10. An integrated methodology on the suitability of offshore sites for wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Galanis, George; Péray, Marie; Filipot, Jean-François; Kalogeri, Christina; Spyrou, Christos; Diamantis, Dimitris; Kallos, Gerorge

    2016-04-01

    During, the last decades the potential and interest in wind energy investments has been constantly increasing in the European countries. As technology changes rapidly, more and more areas can be identified as suitable for energy applications. Offshore wind farms perfectly illustrate how new technologies allow to build bigger, more efficient and resistant in extreme conditions wind power plants. The current work proposes an integrated methodology to determine the suitability of an offshore marine area for the development of wind farm structures. More specifically, the region of interest is evaluated based both on the natural resources, connected to the local environmental characteristics, and potential constrains set by anthropogenic or other activities. State of the art atmospheric and wave models and a 10-year hindcast database are utilized in conjunction with local information for a number of potential constrains, leading to a 5-scale suitability index for the whole area. In this way, sub regions are characterized, at a high resolution mode, as poorly or highly suitable for wind farm development, providing a new tool for technical/research teams and decision makers. In addition, extreme wind and wave conditions and their 50-years return period are analyzed and used to define the safety level of the wind farms structural characteristics.

  11. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  12. An improved method for evaluating ecological suitability of hydropower development by considering water footprint and transportation connectivity in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guannan; Wang, Xuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Ecological suitability evaluation for hydropower development is effective in locating the most suitable area for construction and emphasizes a clear direction for water resources governance. In this paper, water footprints and transportation connectivity were introduced to improve the existing ecological suitability evaluation application for hydropower development by revising the defects of the traditional indicator system. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Tibet was in a state of water use surplus; the prospect of further hydropower development is positive. (2) Chamdo, Lhasa and Nyingchi excelled in water use efficiency, and Ali was placed last. Nakchu was slightly superior to Ali, but it lagged behind the southern regions. Lhasa, Chamdo, Nyingchi, Xigaze and Shannan were suitable for hydropower development, which could further meet local needs and benefit other regions of China. (3) The evaluation results were in accordance with the actual eco-environmental conditions of the built hydropower projects, indicating that current hydropower development planning was basically reasonable.

  13. Land suitability evaluation for greenhouse cultivation of cucumber in comparison with alternative plantations in Mobarakeh- Zarrinshahr district using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayoubi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability evaluation is the fitness of a given tract of land based on its production potential for a defined use. This study was conducted to evaluate the land suitability of Mobarakeh-Zarrinshahr district located in west of Isfahan province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. To do the evaluation, firstly the hierarchy structure was established, which consisted of objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The objective was determination of landuse priority in each land unit; the criteria comprised of soil suitability, climate suitability, gross income, market accessibility, water resources availability, physical environmental-impacts and chemical environmental-impacts; two alternative landuse types were chosen to be cultivation of rice and establishment of greenhouse. The questionnaires were filled out by experts and then the overall weight for each element at each level was calculated by multiplying its local weight, obtained from Expert Choice 2000 software. The results showed that climate suitability and market accessibility had the highest and least weights, respectively, for selection of the proper land use, and the inconsistency ratio was 9%. In all the land units, the greenhouse establishment had higher priority. Climate suitability and gross income were identified the major factors affecting the suitability for greenhouse establishment. In general, cultivation of rice is not recommended in the studied area, because of negative environmental impacts including soil physical-destruction, low water use efficiency, raising the groundwater levels and increasing soil salinity.

  14. The Use of Resources in Resource Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Wernerfelt, Birger

    2010-01-01

    The author considers the processes through which a firm can acquire resources and argues that its current stock of resources create asymmetries in competition for new resources. Two simple models illustrate how this can work through linkages on the demand and/or cost side. The normative implication is that firms should expand their resource portfolios by building on their existing resources; different firms will then acquire different new resources, and small initial heterogeneities will ampl...

  15. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability for reuse. ... for restricted use. Before reuse, effluent wastewater needs advanced treatment to prevent its impact on human health and the environment. ... Article Metrics.

  16. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa State Of Nigeria: A Geographic Information System (GIS) ... FUTY Journal of the Environment ... This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and ...

  17. Evaluation of the Reclamation Suitability of Industrial and Mining Wasteland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengjie; ZHANG; Zhongke; BAI

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reclamation suitability of industrial and mining wasteland is the premise of reclamation. The wasteland was firstly categorized according to land use status and damage types. Then the evaluation process of reclamation suitability was introduced, which involves two steps, the first step was to exclude those unsuitable wasteland by the limits conditions, while the second step was to evaluate the suitability degree of those suitable wasteland. From the perspectives of soil fertility, soil pollution, farmland water conservancy and land damage, twelve evaluation factors, including soil depth, gravel content, bulk density, organic material content, pollution index, gradient, flatness, irrigation and drainage condition, source of borrowed earth, distance from the residential settlement, erosion modulus and damage extent, were selected to establish an index system for evaluating the abandoned industrial and mining land, aiming to provide references for the future reclamation of industrial and mining wasteland.

  18. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  19. Ecological variables governing habitat suitability and the distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological variables governing habitat suitability and the distribution of the endangered ... This cryptic species is not evenly distributed throughout its restricted range and ... A multiple logistic regression model highlighted the importance of soil ...

  20. RESOURCE DEPENDENCE, KNOWLEDGE CREATION, AND GROWTH: REVISITING THE NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Welsch

    2008-01-01

    Several explanations have been put forward for the phenomenon - referred to as ¡®curse of natural resources¡¯ - that resource-rich countries tend to display low rates of economic growth. This paper studies an R&D-related explanation, using an endogenous growth model with natural resources and R&D-based technological change. For suitable values of preference parameters, the model predicts that knowledge creation as well as capital formation are inversely related to natural-resource intensity, ...

  1. Data base manipulation for assessment of multiresource suitability and land change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J.; Sanders, P.; Davis, G.; Thomson, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in three tasks which support the overall objectives of renewable resources inventory task of the AgRISTARS program. In the first task, the geometric correction algorithms of the Master Data Processor were investigated to determine the utility of data corrected by this processor for U.S. Forest Service uses. The second task involved investigation of logic to form blobs as a precursor step to automatic change detection involving two dates of LANDSAT data. Some routine procedures for selecting BLOB (spatial averaging) parameters were developed. In the third task, a major effort was made to develop land suitability modeling approches for timber, grazing, and wildlife habitat in support of resource planning efforts on the San Juan National Forest.

  2. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anhorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5% are fairly suitable (Category C.

  3. [Research on distribution and quality suitability division of Desmodium styracifolium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tang, Xiao-Min; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Yang, Quan; Cheng, Xuan-Xuan; Zhang, Chun-Rong; Pan, Li-Ming; Chen, Duan-Ni

    2017-02-01

    The research on distribution and quality suitability division of Desmodium styracifolium were formulated by Maxent and ArcGIS model based on the content of schaftoside and polysaccharide of D. styracifolium and its field research in the south and southwest areas of China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and Yunnan), and the most suitable habitats of distribution suitability and quality suitability were screened. The distribution suitability results indicated that average air temperature in April,mean temperature of coldest quarter, soil type, coldness index were found as the four dominant factors contributing to the plant distribution. The quality suitability results indicated that: ①Polysaccharide content and precipitation in April show significant positive correlation;Schaftoside content and mean temperature of April, mean temperature of coldest quarter show significant negative correlation. Schaftoside content shows significant negative correlation with the precipitation in October and November and the sunshine duration in April and May, while there is a significant positive correlation between schaftoside content and precipitation in April and temperature seasonality standard deviation, and a highly significant positive correlation was found between schaftoside content and precipitation in February and March. ②The quality zoning map was drawn depend on general content of polysaccharide and schaftoside as the index of quality. And this research provides scientific location basis for the production regionalization, cultivation bases selection and directive breeding of D. styracifolium. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Suitable Site Selection of Small Dams Using Geo-Spatial Technique: a Case Study of Dadu Tehsil, Sindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zahid

    2016-07-01

    Decision making about identifying suitable sites for any project by considering different parameters, is difficult. Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) can make it easy for those projects. This technology has proved to be an efficient and adequate in acquiring the desired information. In this study, GIS and MCA were employed to identify the suitable sites for small dams in Dadu Tehsil, Sindh. The GIS software is used to create all the spatial parameters for the analysis. The parameters that derived are slope, drainage density, rainfall, land use / land cover, soil groups, Curve Number (CN) and runoff index with a spatial resolution of 30m. The data used for deriving above layers include 30 meter resolution SRTM DEM, Landsat 8 imagery, and rainfall from National Centre of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and soil data from World Harmonized Soil Data (WHSD). Land use/Land cover map is derived from Landsat 8 using supervised classification. Slope, drainage network and watershed are delineated by terrain processing of DEM. The Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method is implemented to estimate the surface runoff from the rainfall. Prior to this, SCS-CN grid is developed by integrating the soil and land use/land cover raster. These layers with some technical and ecological constraints are assigned weights on the basis of suitability criteria. The pair wise comparison method, also known as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is took into account as MCA for assigning weights on each decision element. All the parameters and group of parameters are integrated using weighted overlay in GIS environment to produce suitable sites for the Dams. The resultant layer is then classified into four classes namely, best suitable, suitable, moderate and less suitable. This study reveals a contribution to decision making about suitable sites analysis for small dams using geo-spatial data with minimal amount of ground data. This suitability maps can be helpful for water resource

  5. Site Suitability Analysis for Dissemination of Salt-tolerant Rice Varieties in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D. D.; Singh, A. N.; Singh, U. S.

    2014-11-01

    Bangladesh is a country of 14.4 million ha geographical area and has a population density of more than 1100 persons per sq. km. Rice is the staple food crop, growing on about 72 % of the total cultivated land and continues to be the most important crop for food security of the country. A project "Sustainable Rice Seed Production and Delivery Systems for Southern Bangladesh" has been executed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in twenty southern districts of Bangladesh. These districts grow rice in about 2.9 million ha out of the country's total rice area of 11.3 million ha. The project aims at contributing to the Government of Bangladesh's efforts in improving national and household food security through enhanced and sustained productivity by using salinity-, submergence- and drought- tolerant and high yielding rice varieties. Out of the 20 project districts, 12 coastal districts are affected by the problem of soil salinity. The salt-affected area in Bangladesh has increased from about 0.83 million ha in 1973 to 1.02 million ha in 2000, and 1.05 million ha in 2009 due to the influence of cyclonic storms like "Sidr", "Laila" and others, leading to salt water intrusion in croplands. Three salinity-tolerant rice varieties have recently been bred by IRRI and field tested and released by the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). These varieties are BRRI dhan- 47 and Bina dhan-8 and - 10. However, they can tolerate soil salinity level up to EC 8-10 dSm-1, whereas the EC of soils in several areas are much higher. Therefore, a large scale dissemination of these varieties can be done only when a site suitability analysis of the area is carried out. The present study was taken up with the objective of preparing the site suitability of the salt-tolerant varieties for the salinity-affected districts of southern Bangladesh. Soil salinity map prepared by Soil Resources Development Institute of

  6. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  7. Printed health information materials: evaluation of readability and suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Hosei, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This study examined readability and suitability of printed health information materials colleted from multiple sources. In phase I, nursing students used Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG; McLaughlin, 1969) to assess the readability of 21 materials collected from the community. In phases II and III, nursing students and registered nurses used SMOG and the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM; Doak, Doak, & Root, 1996) to evaluate 15 prenatal materials from a Healthy Start program. SMOG assigns a reading grade level based on the number of words with 3 or more syllables. SAM has 22 items in 6 evaluation areas: content, literacy demand, graphics, layout and typography, learning stimulation and motivation, and cultural appropriateness. Major findings included that 53% to 86% of the printed materials had a reading level at or higher than 9th grade; materials lacked summary, interaction, and modeled behaviors, and registered nurses rated more materials as not suitable and fewer as superior for suitability qualities than students. Improving printed materials to have lower reading levels and better suitability qualities are indicated.

  8. Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge Site Suitability Using a GIS and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A; Fisher, Andrew T; Lockwood, Brian S

    2015-01-01

    We completed a two-step regional analysis of a coastal groundwater basin to (1) assess regional suitability for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and (2) quantify the relative impact of MAR activities on groundwater levels and sea water intrusion. The first step comprised an analysis of surface and subsurface hydrologic properties and conditions, using a geographic information system (GIS). Surface and subsurface data coverages were compiled, georeferenced, reclassified, and integrated (including novel approaches for combining related datasets) to derive a spatial distribution of MAR suitability values. In the second step, results from the GIS analysis were used with a regional groundwater model to assess the hydrologic impact of potential MAR placement and operating scenarios. For the region evaluated in this study, the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin, California, GIS results suggest that about 7% (15 km2) of the basin may be highly suitable for MAR. Modeling suggests that simulated MAR projects placed near the coast help to reduce sea water intrusion more rapidly, but these projects also result in increased groundwater flows to the ocean. In contrast, projects placed farther inland result in more long-term reduction in sea water intrusion and less groundwater flowing to the ocean. This work shows how combined GIS analysis and modeling can assist with regional water supply planning, including evaluation of options for enhancing groundwater resources.

  9. Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souma Chowdhury

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of turbine configurations to different wind resources has been traditionally restricted to considering turbines operating as standalone entities. In this paper, a framework is thus developed to investigate turbine suitability in terms of the minimum cost of energy offered when operating as a group of optimally-micro-sited turbines. The four major steps include: (i characterizing the geographical variation of wind regimes in the onshore U.S. market; (ii determining the best performing turbines for different wind regimes through wind farm layout optimization; (iii developing a metric to quantify the expected market suitability of available turbine configurations; and (iv exploring the best tradeoffs between the cost and capacity factor yielded by these turbines. One hundred thirty one types of commercial turbines offered by major global manufacturers in 2012 are considered for selection. It is found that, in general, higher rated power turbines with medium tower heights are the most favored. Interestingly, further analysis showed that “rotor diameter/hub height” ratios greater than 1.1 are the least attractive for any of the wind classes. It is also observed that although the “cost-capacity factor” tradeoff curve expectedly shifted towards higher capacity factors with increasing wind class, the trend of the tradeoff curve remained practically similar.

  10. Assessing current and projected suitable habitats for tree-of-heaven along the Appalachian Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John; Wang, Yeqiao; August, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of ecosystems by non-native species is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide. A critical component of effective land management to control invasion is the identification and active protection of areas at high risk of future invasion. The Appalachian Trail Decision Support System (A.T.-DSS) was developed to inform regional natural resource management by integrating remote sensing data, ground-based measurements and predictive modelling products. By incorporating NASA's remote sensing data and modelling capacities from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), this study examined the current habitat suitability and projected suitable habitat for the invasive species tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) as a prototype application of the A.T.-DSS. Species observations from forest surveys, geospatial data, climatic projections and maximum entropy modelling were used to identify regions potentially susceptible to tree-of-heaven invasion. The modelling result predicted a 48% increase in suitable area over the study area, with significant expansion along the northern extremes of the Appalachian Trail.

  11. Spatial Analysis of Pollution-free Land for Tea Plantation and Comprehensive Evaluation of Soil Suitability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ximei; WEN; Yang; LU; Anjun; LAN; Hong; TAN

    2013-01-01

    To survey the tea resource advantages in Guizhou’s mountainous areas and complete rational layout of pollution-free tea planting areas, we take the case of Guiding County in Guizhou Province to establish the comprehensive evaluation indicator system of pollution-free land for tea plantation and comprehensive evaluation model of soil suitability of land for tea plantation according to the Environmental Conditions Standard for Pollution-free Food-Tea Producing Areas by the Ministry of Agriculture (NY 5020-2001), using land use data, remote sensing data, soil data, temperature, precipitation, light, DEM and other critical basic data, combined with the spatial analysis statistical method. The results show that the area of land suitable for planting tea is 1265 km2, accounting for 77.57% of the entire study area; the area of land with soil quality, climatic conditions and terrain conditions to meet the planting standard of pollution-free tea is 1232.51 km2, accounting for 75.57% of the total land area; the area of land most suitable for the planting of pollution-free tea is 128.71 km2, accounting for 7.89% of the total land area. The above studies can provide scientific basis and decision support for the implementation of tea planting industry standards in the specific areas, and provide reference for the comprehensive assessment of tea planting in other areas.

  12. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  13. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  14. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  15. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  16. The wind resources in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallabazzer, R. [University of Trento (Italy). Dept. of Mechanical and Structural Engineering; Sebbit, A.M. [Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda). Faculty of Technology

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of existing wind data of 11 Ugandan sites, an exploratory investigation was carried out; all the characteristic parameters are presented as well as the output potentiality of the sites; a territorial wind map was also tentatively drawn out. It is shown that the wind resource of most of the country is too small to allow electric generation, and should be exploited only for water-pumping with multibladed windmills. However, two promising areas were found near the east and the south-west borders, where an adequate, even though moderate resource is available, suitable for irrigation or some electric power for primary needs. A specific investigation in these areas is suggested to find better sites. (author)

  17. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  18. [A suitable location for the placement of miniscrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, K H

    2014-02-01

    Miniscrews form a stable attachment point for anchoring during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. An additional advantage of this method of anchoring is that a set of teeth can be moved simultaneously, which means that the time required for treatment can be shortened considerably. Miniscrews can also be used for tooth movements that would otherwise be impossible. In selecting a suitable location for the placement of miniscrews, a number offactors play a role. On the basis of the findings reported in the literature on research, a miniscrew atlas has been developed which can serve as a guideline for the selection of a suitable location for the placement of miniscrews.

  19. Suitability analysis for rice growing sites using a multicriteria evaluation and GIS approach in great Mwea region, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja

    2013-12-01

    Land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of rice has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to develop a suitability map for rice crop based on physical and climatic factors of production using a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) & GIS approach. The study was carried out in Kirinyaga, Embu and Mberee counties in Kenya. Biophysical variables of soil, climate and topography were considered for suitability analysis. All data were stored in ArcGIS 9.3 environment and the factor maps were generated. For MCE, Pairwise Comparison Matrix was applied and the suitable areas for rice crop were generated and graduated. The current land cover map of the area was developed from a scanned survey map of the rice growing areas. According to the present land cover map, the rice cultivated area was 13,369 ha. Finally, we overlaid the land cover map with the suitability map to identify variances between the present and potential land use. The crop-land evaluation results of the present study showed that, 75% of total area currently being used was under highly suitable areas and 25% was under moderately suitable areas. The results showed that the potential area for rice growing is 86,364 ha and out of this only 12% is under rice cultivation. This research provided information at local level that could be used by farmers to select cropping patterns and suitability.

  20. Assessing the quality, suitability and readability of internet-based health information about warfarin for patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Nasser

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWarfarin is a high-risk medication where patient information may be critical to help ensure safe and effective treatment. Considering the time constraints of healthcare providers, the internet can be an important supplementary information resource for patients prescribed warfarin. The usefulness of internet-based patient information is often limited by challenges associated with finding valid and reliable health information. Given patients’ increasing access of the internet for information, this study investigated the quality, suitability and readability of patient information about warfarin presented on the internet.MethodPreviously validated tools were used to evaluate the quality, suitability and readability of patient information about warfarin on selected websites.ResultsThe initial search yielded 200 websites, of which 11 fit selection criteria, comprising seven non-commercial and four commercial websites. Regarding quality, most of the non-commercial sites (six out of seven scored at least an ‘adequate’ score. With regard to suitability, 6 of the 11 websites (including two of the four commercial sites attained an ‘adequate’ score. It was determined that information on 7 of the 11 sites (including two commercial sites was written at reading grade levels beyond that considered representative of the adult patient population with poor literacy skills (e.g. school grade 8 or less.ConclusionDespite the overall ‘adequate’ quality and suitability of the internet derived patient information about warfarin, the actual usability of such websites may be limited due to their poor readability grades, particularly in patients with low literacy skills.

  1. Spatial Based Assessment of Land Suitability and Availability for Maize (Zea mays L.) Development in Maros Region, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Baja, Sumbangan

    2013-01-01

    all the resources (land, infrastructures, and farmers) in agriculture areas for maize production in the province. This study is aimed at identifying the suitability and availability of land areas for maize development in Maros Region- the regency having the most extensive agriculture production in South Sulawesi province. This study employed land evaluation method in geographic information system (GIS) based on the FAO Framework for Land Evaluation. Land availability was assessed from overlay...

  2. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*. D. Sarpong, P. E. .... from observations and computer model-derived were also used for the .... such as forest and game reserves, tourist sites, etc. (iv) Siting in ...

  3. Regional technical innovation suitability and economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Dan; Ren, Liqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to use quantitative method to analyse the suitability of regional technical innovation and further compare its influence to regional economic growth in China. Based on literature review, the authors develop an evaluation index system containing four aspects (namely, innovators, innov

  4. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  5. RESISTANCE OF COATED ELECTRODES SUITABLE FOR RENOVATION OF TILLAGE TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the abrasive wear resistance of additional materials. The resistance of individual materials was figured out by determining a proportional wear resistance on a grinding fabric. Results of the experiment confirmed an increase in welds abrasive wear resistance. Chosen coated electrodes are suitable for the renovation of tillage tools of agricultural machines.

  6. A simple index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An index of habitat suitability for Cape mountain zebras was calculated using two parameters: acceptability indices for different grass species, and the aerial cover of the grass species in the habitat. The index was tested by calculating its value for a range of different habitat patches and comparing this with the frequency of use of the patches by zebras. The close relationship between the index and the observed frequency of use verified that the index could be used as a guide to habitat suitability. Two methods were used to determine the frequency of use of the patches: counts of faecal pellet groups and frequency of sightings. Both methods yielded similar results but the pellet group counts were less time- consuming and expensive. It is recommended that the index of habitat suitability be used (i as a parameter for monitoring of long-term changes in habitat suitability in the Mountain Zebra National Park and (ii as a guide for selecting appropriate areas to re- introduce mountain zebras.

  7. Regional technical innovation suitability and economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Dan; Brouwers-Ren, Liqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to use quantitative method to analyse the suitability of regional technical innovation and further compare its influence to regional economic growth in China. Based on literature review, the authors develop an evaluation index system containing four aspects (namely, innovators,

  8. Emotions and Young Offenders' Suitability for Victim-Offender Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Tracey A.

    Although evidence indicates that Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) provides an effective alternative to traditional sanctioning for young offenders, research investigating suitable candidates for VOM is lacking. Reintegrative shaming is theorized to be the mechanism underlying successful mediation; however, it is difficult to determine whether shame…

  9. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.3 Section 640.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... determination shall be made on the day of collection from the donor by means of medical history, a test...

  10. Land suitability for establishing rainwater harvesting systems for fighting wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    José María León Villalobos; Manuel Anaya Garduño; Enrique Ojeda Trejo; Dante Arturo Rodríguez Trejo; José Luis Oropeza Mota; Jorge Luis García Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems (RHSs) can be used to improve the efficiency of helicopter firefighting operations. To this end, RHSs need to be strategically located in areas with high wildfire occurrence to maximize their usefulness. In this study, spatial analysis was carried out to determine suitable sites for establishing RHSs intended for air attack operations in...

  11. Evaluating timber harvesting impacts on wildlife habitat suitability using FOREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    Precommercial, commercial, and final harvesting operations can impact wildlife habitat suitability by altering the vegetation composition on a given site. Harvesting operations remove trees and many times provide the necessary perturbation to trigger successional conditions different from those that existed prior to the harvest. Although these new successional changes...

  12. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  13. Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation: a Case Study from Debre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    irrigation water quality, the groundwater is suitable for irrigation with some minor ... specific toxicity effect on vegetables and field crops, however, there are ... alone cannot sustain the practice, the issues like ecological and social are to be taken in to ... particularly for crops that are sensitive to changes in quality (Bohn et al., ...

  14. An Anti-aliasing Algorithm Suitable to Map Publishing Symbol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shujun

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of various algorithms, an anti-aliasing algorithm called brush method was presented, which is suitable to map publishing symbol. After introducing the basic principle and implementation of brush method in detail, the result and efficiency were evaluated through experiments.

  15. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, van Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; Vliet, van Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are c

  16. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Lebouille, T.T.N.; Visser, G.C.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are Silicon, Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are close in p

  17. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  18. Fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge for land suitability classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicat, R.S.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Nidumolu, U.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a case study, we demonstrate fuzzy modeling of farmers' knowledge (FK) for agricultural land suitability classification using GIS. Capture of FK was through rapid rural participatory approach. The farmer respondents consider, in order of decreasing importance, cropping season, soil color, soil te

  19. Analysis of applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kraleva, Radoslava; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the use of mobile learning in Bulgarian education by young children. The most used mobile operating systems are analyzed. Also some of the most used existing applications suitable for mobile learning of preschool children are presented and classified. Keywords: Mobile applications for preschool children, mobile learning.

  20. Students developing resources for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  1. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  2. Comparison of Prime Movers Suitable for USMC Expeditionary Power Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, T J; Conklin, J. C.; Thomas, John F.; Armstrong, T. R.

    2000-04-18

    This report documents the results of the ORNL investigation into prime movers that would be desirable for the construction of a power system suitable for the United States Marine Corps (USMC) expeditionary forces under Operational Maneuvers From The Sea (OMFTS) doctrine. Discrete power levels of {approx}1, 5, 15, and 30 kW are considered. The only requirement is that the prime mover consumes diesel fuel. A brief description is given for the prime movers to describe their basic scientific foundations and relative advantages and disadvantages. A list of key attributes developed by ORNL has been weighted by the USMC to indicate the level of importance. A total of 14 different prime movers were scored by ORNL personnel in four size ranges (1,5, 15, & 30 kW) for their relative strength in each attribute area. The resulting weighted analysis was used to indicate which prime movers are likely to be suitable for USMC needs. No single engine or prime mover emerged as the clear-cut favorite but several engines scored as well or better than the diesel engine. At the higher load levels (15 & 30 kW), the results indicate that the open Brayton (gas turbine) is a relatively mature technology and likely a suitable choice to meet USMC needs. At the lower power levels, the situation is more difficult and the market alone is not likely to provide an optimum solution in the time frame desired (2010). Several prime movers should be considered for future developments and may be satisfactory; specifically, the Atkinson cycle, the open Brayton cycle (gas turbine), the 2-stroke diesel. The rotary diesel and the solid oxide fuel cell should be backup candidates. Of all these prime movers, the Atkinson cycle may well be the most suitable for this application but is an immature technology. Additional demonstrations of this engine will be conducted at ORNL. If this analysis is positive, then the performance of a generator set using this engine, the open Brayton and the 2-stroke diesel should

  3. Negotiating for Critical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartunek, Frank P.

    1994-01-01

    School districts dependent on outside resources must develop skills for securing educational resources, including competencies in collaborative, creative, and principled resource management. Constructive negotiations between local and provincial levels of government can improve relationships and support the development of collaborative…

  4. The Query of Suitable Areas for plantation and development of Taxus baccata L Species by Using GIS in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANOSHIRVAN ALAMI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxus baccata is a native species to the Caspian forests and is considered as the identification of these forests by some resources. The aim of this study was to understand the ecological characteristics of T. baccata in order to find suitable areas for its plantation in the Pone Aram preserve of Golestan province. Therefore, Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE methods based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP were used. In this process at first the needed and effective natural indexes were used as 10 parameters. Then the final map of suitable areas for T. baccata plantation were produced based on Bolian and MCE models. According to the results, in Bolian method about 6218 ha of the total area of the study site (30554 ha were estimated as suitable and semi suitable and 24336 ha were estimated as unsuitable for MCE model showed that about 2482 ha of the whole 30554 ha area of the study site is adequate for T. baccata plantation and 6181 ha is not adequate for T. baccata plantation. Regarding the results of the MCE and Bolian methods it has been concluded that for dynamic ecological parameters in delineation of suitable areas for T. baccata plantation the MCE weighting is more appropriate than Bolian. Using the results of this investigation it is possible to adequate areas for the presence of T. baccata and to execute a plan in order to facilitate the plantation of T. baccata in northern forests of Iran (watershed 88.

  5. An Improved Neural Network for Regional Giant Panda Habitat Suitability Mapping: A Case Study in Ya’an Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Song

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge is a combination of prior information and subjective opinions based on long-experience; as such it is often not sufficiently objective to produce convincing results in animal habitat suitability index mapping. In this study, an animal habitat assessment method based on a learning neural network is proposed to reduce the level of subjectivity in animal habitat assessments. Based on two hypotheses, this method substitutes habitat suitability index with apparent density and has advantages over conventional ones such as those based on analytical hierarchy process or multivariate regression approaches. Besides, this method is integrated with a learning neural network and is suitable for building non-linear transferring functions to fit complex relationships between multiple factors influencing habitat suitability. Once the neural network is properly trained, new earth observation data can be integrated for rapid habitat suitability monitoring which could save time and resources needed for traditional data collecting approaches through extensive field surveys. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca natural habitat in Ya’an prefecture and corresponding landsat images, DEM and ground observations are tested for validity of using the methodology reported. Results show that the method scores well in key efficiency and performance indicators and could be extended for habitat assessments, particularly of other large, rare and widely distributed animal species.

  6. Predicting Software Suitability Using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Justin M.; Schiavone, Guy A.; Berrios, Joseph S.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to reliably predict the end quality of software under development presents a significant advantage for a development team. It provides an opportunity to address high risk components earlier in the development life cycle, when their impact is minimized. This research proposes a model that captures the evolution of the quality of a software product, and provides reliable forecasts of the end quality of the software being developed in terms of product suitability. Development team skill, software process maturity, and software problem complexity are hypothesized as driving factors of software product quality. The cause-effect relationships between these factors and the elements of software suitability are modeled using Bayesian Belief Networks, a machine learning method. This research presents a Bayesian Network for software quality, and the techniques used to quantify the factors that influence and represent software quality. The developed model is found to be effective in predicting the end product quality of small-scale software development efforts.

  7. Evaluation methods for ceramic suitability of raw clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaji M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic suitability of kaolinitic-illitic and chloritic-illitic raw clays was assessed by methods involving microstructure investigation and ceramic properties measurements, some reported diagrams and response surface methodology (RSM. Results of the former method showed that all clays are suitable for red stoneware tiles. The stoneware manufacturing is facilitated by the marked reduction of porosity due to the flow of melt, mainly originated from the breakdowns of illite. This result was partially supported by the use of a diagram involving the chemical composition of clays as well as by the RSM results. According to the later method, bricks may be manufactured under restricted firing conditions and stoneware tiles could be prepared at temperatures as low as 950°C.

  8. The Application of BP Networks to Land Suitability Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The back propagation (BP) model of artificial neural networks (ANN) has many good qualities comparing with ordinary methods in land suitability evaluation.Through analyzing ordinary methods' limitations,some sticking points of BP model used in land evaluation,such as network structure,learning algorithm,etc.,are discussed in detail,The land evaluation of Qionghai city is used as a case study.Fuzzy comprehensive assessment method was also employed in this evaluation for validating and comparing.

  9. HEALTH SUITABILITY CRITERIA OF FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kirbiš

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Criteria of health suitability of food of animal origin are presence of causing agents of zoonosis and alimentary diseases, presence of environmental pollutants and substances, used in the veterinary treatments, radioactive contamination and senzoric changes. Hygienic irrevocability is guaranteed by a conscientious veterinary-sanitary inspection, strict discipline of breeders of slaughter animals and producers of milk but also by well-informed consumers and especially those who are professionally involved in the preparation of food.

  10. Suitability of Missions for the Air Force Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    capacity for out-of-the-ordinary or intermittent surges—e.g., for satellite constellation changes, resolution of anomalies, or system transitions...xiv Table S.2. Suitability of Space Missions for Assignment to the RC Launch Range Test Satellite Ops Warning Depl Control In-Place Control...one-third of the combined units’ crews. If it were reconfigured as an equipped RC unit, it would take one-third of the host unit’s aircraft with it

  11. ARE QUATERNARY AMMONIUM ANTIBACTERIALS SUITABLE FOR DENTAL COMPOSITE RESINS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman MOHAMMADZADEH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to answer the following question: are quaternary ammonium antibacterials suitable for dental materials? Reviewing the literature on quaternary ammonium compounds evidenced that this type of compounds is soluble in water. Our own findings also showed that they are well soluble in water and that their application as dental composites requires to check their solubility level in water.

  12. Suitability of Sour Crude Processing and Resid Hydrotreating Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2005-01-01

    This article has analyzed the environment and tasks confronting China's petroleum refining industry, and has referred to principles for selecting the resid processing technologies and viability of various combination technologies for resid processing. Taking into account the actual commercial practice of resid hydrogenation units, this article has also discussed methods for processing high-sulfur inferior crudes as well as the suitability of resid hydrogenation technology.

  13. A Suitable Artificial Intelligence Model for Inventory Level Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Sustrova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: To examine suitable methods of artificial neural networks and their application in business operations, specifically to the supply chain management. The article discusses construction of an artificial neural networks model that can be used to facilitate optimization of inventory level and thus improve the ordering system and inventory management. For the data analysis from the area of wholesale trade with connecting material is used. Methodology/methods: Methods used in the paper consists especially of artificial neural networks and ANN-based modelling. For data analysis and preprocessing, MS Office Excel software is used. As an instrument for neural network forecasting MathWorks MATLAB Neural Network Tool was used. Deductive quantitative methods for research are also used. Scientific aim: The effort is directed at finding whether the method of prediction using artificial neural networks is suitable as a tool for enhancing the ordering system of an enterprise. The research also focuses on finding what architecture of the artificial neural networks model is the most suitable for subsequent prediction. Findings of the research show that artificial neural networks models can be used for inventory management and lot-sizing problem successfully. A network with the TRAINGDX training function and TANSIG transfer function and 6-8-1 architecture can be considered the most suitable for artificial neural network, as it shows the best results for subsequent prediction.. Conclusions resulting from the paper are beneficial for further research. It can be concluded that the created model of artificial neural network can be successfully used for predicting order size and therefore for improving the order cycle of an enterprise.

  14. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  15. Is the Dragon a Suitable Symbol for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦雨

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently there has been a heated discussion on whether we should continue to use the dragon as the symbol for our China.Some claim that the dragon is no longer a suitable symbol for China. Whereas others don’t think so. A professor Wu in Shanghai who holds the view that the dragon is no good a symbol gives the following reasons.Firstly,the dragon is an evil

  16. A Network Software Architecture Suitable for Service Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the service customization in the view of network software architectures. The authors first abstract a network system into a framework that consists of several layered basic systems and then propose a component-based network software architecture for one basic system of network software, which is suitable for service customization. The network software architecture is formalized with the theory of Communicating Sequential Process and show its possible applications in areas of personal service environment and service customization.

  17. Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    emission. During the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the prompt radiation contributed from 40%-70% of the free-in-air dose depending on distance from...intermediate- and low -yield thermonuclear weapons for initial radiation shielding calculations No Gritzner, et al. 1976 (EM-1, Low , Henre...Publicly Released Prompt Radiation Spectra Suitable for Nuclear Detonation Simulations DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is

  18. Corrosion resistant coatings suitable for elevated temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwai S [San Antonio, TX; Cheruvu, Narayana Sastry [San Antonio, TX; Liang, Wuwei [Austin, TX

    2012-07-31

    The present invention relates to corrosion resistance coatings suitable for elevated temperature applications, which employ compositions of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and/or aluminum (Al). The compositions may be configured to regulate the diffusion of metals between a coating and a substrate, which may then influence coating performance, via the formation of an inter-diffusion barrier layer. The inter-diffusion barrier layer may comprise a face-centered cubic phase.

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIC PLANNING OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta, BELU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic planning of human resources is an ongoing process closely connected to the mission, vision and goals of an organization. The need for strategic planning arises from the dynamism of social and economic life, with a proactive approach in any type of organization. The role of strategic planning of human resources is to "ensure the right man in the right place at the right time", as a human resource is the only one with a creative and innovative effect. Thus, there is a synergistic effect between an individual and the organization in which he/she operates, between a human resources strategy and an organization's overall strategy. The main objectives of strategic planning are ensuring the necessary human resources, suitability to an organization's nature and the effective use of human resources in achieving organizational objectives. Analyzing the necessary human resources according to an organization's objectives and linking them to the existing labour supply and demand, there is an absolutely essential balance in strategic planning. The benefits obtained therefore are undeniable and human capital is transformed into a true competitive advantage. The challenges generated by the changes that may occur at any time in any type of organization and which directly affect the existing human resources can be effectively managed through strategic planning.

  20. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  1. Assessing Suitability of Rural Settlements Using an Improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanfang; CUI Jiaxing; KONG Xuesong; ZENG Chen

    2016-01-01

    Land suitability assessment is a prerequisite phase in land use planning;it guides toward optimal land use by providing information on the opportunities and constraints involved in the use of a given land area.A geographic information system-based procedure,known as rural settlement suitability evaluation (RSSE) using an improved technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS),was adopted to determine the most suitable area for constructing rural settlements in different geographical locations.Given the distribution and independence of rural settlements,a distinctive evaluation criteria system that differed from that of urban suitability was established by considering the level of rural infrastructure services as well as living and working conditions.The unpredictable mutual interference among evaluation factors has been found in practical works.An improved TOPSIS using Mahalanobis distance was applied to solve the unpredictable correlation among the criteria in a suitability evaluation.Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses obtained via Monte Carlo simulation were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Daye,a resource-based city with rapid economic development,unsatisfied rural development,and geological environmental problems caused by mining,was used as a case study.Results indicate the following findings:1) The RSSE model using the improved TOPSIS can assess the suitability of rural settlements,and the suitability maps generated using the improved TOPSIS have higher information density than those generated using traditional TOPSIS.The robustness of the model is improved,and the uncertainty is reduced in the suitability results.2) Highly suitable land is mainly distributed in the northeast of the study area,and the majority of which is cultivated land,thereby leading to tremendous pressure on the loss of cultivated land.3) Lastly,12.54% of the constructive expansion permitted zone and 8.36% of the constructive expansion

  2. Smartphone-based distributed data collection enables rapid assessment of shorebird habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Zeigler, Sara; Winslow, Luke; Hines, Megan K.; Read, Jordan S.; Walker, Jordan I.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing dynamic coastal landscapes for beach-dependent species requires biological and geological data across the range of relevant environments and habitats. It is difficult to acquire such information; data often have limited focus due to resource constraints, are collected by non-specialists, or lack observational uniformity. We developed an open-source smartphone application called iPlover that addresses these difficulties in collecting biogeomorphic information at piping plover (Charadrius melodus) nest sites on coastal beaches. This paper describes iPlover development and evaluates data quality and utility following two years of collection (n = 1799 data points over 1500 km of coast between Maine and North Carolina, USA). We found strong agreement between field user and expert assessments and high model skill when data were used for habitat suitability prediction. Methods used here to develop and deploy a distributed data collection system have broad applicability to interdisciplinary environmental monitoring and modeling.

  3. A restoration suitability index model for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica in the Mission-Aransas Estuary, TX, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Beseres Pollack

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs are one of the most threatened marine habitats on earth, with habitat loss resulting from water quality degradation, coastal development, destructive fishing practices, overfishing, and storm impacts. For successful and sustainable oyster reef restoration efforts, it is necessary to choose sites that support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Selection of suitable sites is critically important as it can greatly influence mortality factors and may largely determine the ultimate success of the restoration project. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS provides an effective methodology for identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration and removes much of the uncertainty involved in the sometimes trial and error selection process. This approach also provides an objective and quantitative tool for planning future oyster reef restoration efforts. The aim of this study was to develop a restoration suitability index model and reef quality index model to characterize locations based on their potential for successful reef restoration within the Mission-Aransas Estuary, Texas, USA. The restoration suitability index model focuses on salinity, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and depth, while the reef quality index model focuses on abundance of live oysters, dead shell, and spat. Size-specific Perkinsus marinus infection levels were mapped to illustrate general disease trends. This application was effective in identifying suitable sites for oyster reef restoration, is flexible in its use, and provides a mechanism for considering alternative approaches. The end product is a practical decision-support tool that can be used by coastal resource managers to improve oyster restoration efforts. As oyster reef restoration activities continue at small and large-scales, site selection criteria are critical for assisting stakeholders and managers and for maximizing long-term sustainability of oyster resources.

  4. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  5. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  6. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  7. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  8. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  9. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  10. US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  14. US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

  15. Projections of Suitable Wine Growing Regions and Varieties: Adaptation in Space or Place?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrestel, E. J.; Cook, B.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Nicholas, K. A.; Parker, A.; van Leeuwen, C.; Wolkovich, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Winegrapes (Vitis vinifera L) are the most valuable horticultural crop in the world with nearly eight million hectares of vineyards in cultivation. Different varieties of winegrapes (e.g., Grenache or Syrah) exhibit an unprecedented amount of phenological and genetic diversity for a cultivated species, which is an important resource to buffer against climate change. Matching phenological strategies of the different winegrape varieties to a particular climate is a fundamental aim for every vineyard manager, especially in the face of significant climatic shifts in many winegrape growing regions. Yet current projections of suitable winegrape growing regions based on future climate scenarios are limited in their utility, as they do not consider the possibility that other varieties better suited to a future climate could be planted within an existing region. For our projections, we built phenological models for the nine most-planted winegrapes globally, which constitutes over 40% of all planted hectares, using a global dataset of budburst, flowering, veraison and maturity. These models were then used to characterize the growing range of 1300 globally planted winegrape varieties. Combing these models with climate projection models under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios we examined future distributions of suitable wine growing regions, as well as the turnover of suitable varieties within existing regions. In some regions of the world, predicted climate change will not significantly alter the varieties that are able to grow, while in others there will need to be shifts in the region itself or in the varieties that are currently planted. Some regions will also see a significant increase in the number and diversity of varieties that can be grown. Our results suggest the need to utilize the full range of winegrape diversity available when considering adaptive strategies in response to changing climates.

  16. Manure as a suitable component of precise nitrogen nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Manures are an inevitable consequence of livestock in agriculture. They represent a valuable source of nutrients, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus and potassium. The industrial production of fertilisers containing these elements is associated with finite resources and this alone justifies a proper

  17. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together t

  18. The New Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  19. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...... on the Icelandic and Faroese experiences with marine resources and renewable energy resources in geothermal, hydro, tidal and wind power. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are selected because they are examples of very small Arctic societies, which particularly well illustrate how the combination of human capital...... and marine resources and renewable energy can contribute to socio-economic and political-constitutional development....

  20. International human resources management challenges and changes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the issues related to human resource management (HRM) in an international context. It gives perspectives and future direction in International HRM research. The chapters explore the models, tools and processes used by international organizations in order to assist international managers to better face the challenges and changes in HRM. It is suitable to HR managers, engineers, entrepreneurs, practitioners, academics and researchers in the field.

  1. [Climatic suitability of single cropping rice planting region in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ju-Qi; Zhou, Guang-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    To clarify the leading climate factors affecting the distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China at national and annual temporal scales and to reveal the potential distribution and climatic suitability divisions of this planting region in China could not only provide scientific basis for optimizing the allocation of single cropping rice production, modifying planting pattern, and introducing fine varieties, but also ensure the food security of China. In this paper, the potential climate factors affecting the single cropping rice distribution in China at regional and annual scales were selected from related literatures, and the single cropping rice geographic information from the national agro-meteorological observation stations of China Meteorological Administration (CMA), together with the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and spatial analyst function of Arc-GIS software, were adopted to clarify the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, and to construct a model about the relationships between the potential distribution of the planting region and the climate. The results showed that annual precipitation, moisture index, and days of not less than 18 degrees C stably were the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China, with their cumulative contribution rate reached 94.5% of all candidate climate factors. The model constructed in this paper could well simulate the potential distribution of single cropping rice planting region in China. According to the appearance frequency, the low, medium and high climatic suitability divisions of single cropping rice planting region in China were clarified, and the climate characteristics of the planting region in each climatic suitability division were analyzed.

  2. Quantitative validation of a habitat suitability index for oyster restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eTheuerkauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability index (HSI models provide spatially explicit information on the capacity of a given habitat to support a species of interest, and their prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite caution that the reliability of HSIs must be validated using independent, quantitative data, most HSIs intended to inform terrestrial and marine species management remain unvalidated. Furthermore, of the eight HSI models developed for eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica restoration and fishery production, none has been validated. Consequently, we developed, calibrated, and validated an HSI for the eastern oyster to identify optimal habitat for restoration in a tributary of Chesapeake Bay, the Great Wicomico River (GWR. The GWR harbors a high density, restored oyster population, and therefore serves as an excellent model system for assessing the validity of the HSI. The HSI was derived from GIS layers of bottom type, salinity, and water depth (surrogate for dissolved oxygen, and was tested using live adult oyster density data from a survey of high vertical relief reefs (HRR and low vertical relief reefs (LRR in the sanctuary network. Live adult oyster density was a statistically-significant sigmoid function of the HSI, which validates the HSI as a robust predictor of suitable oyster reef habitat for rehabilitation or restoration. In addition, HRR had on average 103-116 more adults m^−2 than LRR at a given level of the HSI. For HRR, HSI values ≥0.3 exceeded the accepted restoration target of 50 live adult oysters m^−2. For LRR, the HSI was generally able to predict live adult oyster densities that meet or exceed the target at HSI values ≥0.3. The HSI indicated that there remain large areas of suitable habitat for restoration in the GWR. This study provides a robust framework for HSI model development and validation, which can be refined and applied to other systems and previously developed HSIs to improve the efficacy of

  3. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

  4. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Rong; Tao, Shanwen

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  5. Suitability of laboratory animals for screening anti-hyperlipidemic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajwade N

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the lipid profiles of various laboratory animals to that of human beings. The human subjects and animals included in the study were from three age groups based on key physiological states. A record of the usual dietary constituents and their daily consumption was maintained. The results indicated that the lipid profile of pigs and dogs bears similarity to that of human beings. Results also revealed that lipid profile was labile in the second group of these animals indicating that this age is suitable to bring about the required changes to produce a hyperlipidemic animal.

  6. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  7. Communication Standards Suitable for MES Systems Designed for SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej WINKLER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A MES (Manufacturing Execution System is a system that large companies use to measure or control critical production activities. Individual parts of this system can be used as a model for development of tools suitable for small and medium enterprises (SMEs. It can demonstrate how manufacturing systems works and which communication standards are usable. The communication standards enable data acquisition, data processing, storing and their conversion for any production report. Furthermore, interfaces for web clients allow displaying the raw or transformed data as a text or a graphic chart. The development of tools for an access to the data retrieved from MES software is described in this paper.

  8. Readability, suitability, and health content assessment of web-based patient education materials on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chenlu; Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Agrawal, Deepak

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the Unites States are still below target level. Web-based patient education materials are used by patients and providers to provide supplemental information on CRC screening. Low literacy levels and patient perceptions are significant barriers to screening. There are little data on the quality of these online materials from a health literacy standpoint or whether they address patients' perceptions. To evaluate the readability, suitability, and health content of web-based patient education materials on colon cancer screening. Descriptive study. Web-based patient materials. Twelve reputable and popular online patient education materials were evaluated. Readability was measured by using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level, and suitability was determined by the Suitability Assessment of Materials, a scale that considers characteristics such as content, graphics, layout/typography, and learning stimulation. Health content was evaluated within the framework of the Health Belief Model, a behavioral model that relates patients' perceptions of susceptibility to disease, severity, and benefits and barriers to their medical decisions. Each material was scored independently by 3 reviewers. Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level score, Suitability Assessment of Materials score, health content score. Readability for 10 of 12 materials surpassed the maximum recommended sixth-grade reading level. Five were 10th grade level and above. Only 1 of 12 materials received a superior suitability score; 3 materials received inadequate scores. Health content analysis revealed that only 50% of the resources discussed CRC risk in the general population and <25% specifically addressed patients at high risk, such as African Americans, smokers, patients with diabetes, and obese patients. For perceived barriers to screening, only 8.3% of resources discussed embarrassment, 25% discussed pain with colonoscopy, 25% addressed cost of colonoscopy, and none

  9. RPOA Model-Based Optimal Resource Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha El. Attar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal utilization of resources is the core of the provisioning process in the cloud computing. Sometimes the local resources of a data center are not adequate to satisfy the users’ requirements. So, the providers need to create several data centers at different geographical area around the world and spread the users’ applications on these resources to satisfy both service providers and customers QoS requirements. By considering the expansion of the resources and applications, the transmission cost and time have to be concerned as significant factors in the allocation process. According to the work of our previous paper, a Resource Provision Optimal Algorithm (RPOA based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO has been introduced to find the near optimal resource utilization with considering the customer budget and suitable for deadline time. This paper is considered an enhancement to RPOA algorithm to find the near optimal resource utilization with considering the data transfer time and cost, in addition to the customer budget and deadline time, in the performance measurement.

  10. Pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries suitable for VLTI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, E W; Mundt, R; Covino, E; Alcalá, J M; Cusano, F; Stecklum, B

    2007-01-01

    A severe problem of the research in star-formation is that the masses of young stars are almost always estimated only from evolutionary tracks. Since the tracks published by different groups differ, it is often only possible to give a rough estimate of the masses of young stars. It is thus crucial to test and calibrate the tracks. Up to now, only a few tests of the tracks could be carried out. However, with the VLTI it is now possible to set constrains on the tracks by determining the masses of many young binary stars precisely. In order to use the VLTI efficiently, a first step is to find suitable targets, which is the purpose of this work. Given the distance of nearby star-forming regions, suitable VLTI targets are binaries with orbital periods between at least 50 days, and few years. Although a number of surveys for detecting spectroscopic binaries have been carried out, most of the binaries found so far have periods which are too short. We thus surveyed the Chamaeleon, Corona Australis, Lupus, Sco-Cen, rh...

  11. QFD Based Benchmarking Logic Using TOPSIS and Suitability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Users’ satisfaction on quality is a key that leads successful completion of the project in relation to decision-making issues in building design solutions. This study proposed QFD (quality function deployment based benchmarking logic of market products for building envelope solutions. Benchmarking logic is composed of QFD-TOPSIS and QFD-SI. QFD-TOPSIS assessment model is able to evaluate users’ preferences on building envelope solutions that are distributed in the market and may allow quick achievement of knowledge. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution provides performance improvement criteria that help defining users’ target performance criteria. SI (Suitability Index allows analysis on suitability of the building envelope solution based on users’ required performance criteria. In Stage 1 of the case study, QFD-TOPSIS was used to benchmark the performance criteria of market envelope products. In Stage 2, a QFD-SI assessment was performed after setting user performance targets. The results of this study contribute to confirming the feasibility of QFD based benchmarking in the field of Building Envelope Performance Assessment (BEPA.

  12. Thermogravimetric evaluation of the suitability of precursors for MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunte, G. V.; Shivashankar, S. A.; Umarji, A. M.

    2008-02-01

    A method based on the Langmuir equation for the estimation of vapour pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of subliming compounds is described. The variable temperature thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) curve of benzoic acid is used to arrive at the instrument parameters. Employing these parameters, the vapour pressure-temperature curves are derived for salicylic acid and camphor from their TG/DTG curves. The values match well with vapour pressure data in the literature, obtained by effusion methods. By employing the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the enthalpy of sublimation could be calculated. Extending the method further, two precursors for metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of titanium oxide bis-isopropyl bis tert-butyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, Ti(OiPr)2(tbob)2, and bis-oxo-bis-tertbutyl 2-oxobutanoato titanium, [TiO(tbob)2]2, have been evaluated. The complex Ti(OiPr)2(tbob)2 is found to be a more suitable precursor. This approach can be helpful in quickly screening for the suitability of a compound as a CVD precursor.

  13. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  14. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  15. Suitability of digital camcorders for virtual reality image data capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola; Maas, Hans-Gerd

    1998-12-01

    Today's consumer market digital camcorders offer features which make them appear quite interesting devices for virtual reality data capture. The paper compares a digital camcorder with an analogue camcorder and a machine vision type CCD camera and discusses the suitability of these three cameras for virtual reality applications. Besides the discussion of technical features of the cameras, this includes a detailed accuracy test in order to define the range of applications. In combination with the cameras, three different framegrabbers are tested. The geometric accuracy potential of all three cameras turned out to be surprisingly large, and no problems were noticed in the radiometric performance. On the other hand, some disadvantages have to be reported: from the photogrammetrists point of view, the major disadvantage of most camcorders is the missing possibility to synchronize multiple devices, limiting the suitability for 3-D motion data capture. Moreover, the standard video format contains interlacing, which is also undesirable for all applications dealing with moving objects or moving cameras. Further disadvantages are computer interfaces with functionality, which is still suboptimal. While custom-made solutions to these problems are probably rather expensive (and will make potential users turn back to machine vision like equipment), this functionality could probably be included by the manufacturers at almost zero cost.

  16. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  17. Suitability Evaluation of Groundwater for Irrigation, Drinking and Industrial Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hakim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Groundwater is an important source of freshwater for agricultural, drinking and domestic uses in many regions of the world including Bangladesh. Demand of groundwater has been increasing day by day for irrigation by bringing more area under cultivation. As a drinking water the bottled water market currently has an average annual growth rate of 7.4% between 2002 and 2007, which is parallel to the growth of this industry all over the world. Obviously, the feed water should be free of particles and colloidal material and as low as possible in soluble organic matter. Series of water quality problems have been identified and addressed since the 1950s. These include point and non-point source pollutants such as nutrients, hydrocarbons, pesticides and heavy metals. In this regard, some studies to assessment the quality of water had been conducted in world wide. Where as, a Chiribandar a selected southern part of Bangladesh has great importance in agriculture and industrial perspective, no study has been done yet to asses the ground water quality for agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. Approach: A research was conducted to assess the degree of ionic toxicity of groundwater sources as irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes. Twenty eight groundwater samples were analyzed for different elements of dominant cations and anions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, HCO3 and other minor ions P, B, As, N03-N, S04-S and Cl. In addition, to classify water quality as excellent, good suitable, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC were calculated following standard equations. The quality of water is generally judged by its total salts concentrations, relative proportion of cations or Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and the contents of HCO3. Results: According to the concentration of cation and anion constitutes of groundwater, water quality of study area were suitable for irrigation

  18. Suitable Strategies for the Development of Sahoolan Watery Cave Geotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, tourism is one of the largest and most beneficial industries in the world and in many countries it is used as a development strategy. Geotourism or geological tourism is emerging as a new global phenomenon. It is a form of natural area tourism that specifically focuses on geology and landscape. Because of appropriate planning and recognizing advantages and limitations, this kind of tourism can play an important role in the national development and diversification of local economy. There is a wide variety of caves in Iran, including calcareous (karst, salt, ancient and human-made caves which Sahoolan is one of the most important of them. Though Sahoolan has a great range of potentials for geotourism development, geotourism is just emerging and taking its first developmental steps. So these questions arise: What are the potentialities and limitations of Geotourism development in this region? Which strategies are required for developing this type of tourism and following national and regional development?2. Theoretical Bases Geotourism is a new phenomenon in tourism industry. It is defined as tourism activity pertaining to geology and geomorphology, and the natural resources of landscape, landforms, fossil beds, rocks and minerals, with an emphasis on appreciating the processes that are creating and have created such features. Geotourism’s first definition appeared after 1990s. An early definition of geotourism was made by Thomas Hose. He specifically focused on geology and geomorphologic sites. The goal of geotourism is to maintain the character of place. It is not just travelling to undisturbed natural areas or to centers of human activity but travelling to destinations where nature and humans come together to produce a working landscape. The focus is to encourage visitation to an area by visitors who value the same working landscapes valued by the residents. Ideally, geotourism can be beneficial for both

  19. Land suitability for final waste disposal with emphasis on septic systems installation in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeani Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental pollution is a problem that has been noted due to changes in the environment, affecting natural resources. Regarding the soil, it may offer great potential for waste disposal. Thus, this study aims to propose criteria for evaluating local suitability for waste disposal, according to soil and terrain attributes for southern Minas Gerais State, and to apply those criteria to define the most appropriate locations for installation of septic systems in a pilot watershed. Literature and the authors' experience were used to propose the more important criteria regarding the suitability of sites for waste disposal. The set of attributes taken into account was grouped into four suitability classes: Adequate, Regular, Restricted and Inadequate. The defined criteria and considered limiting were: soil depth, texture, textural gradient, structure, natural drainage, water infiltration, type of surface horizon, water table depth, depth of perched water table, distance from water bodies, relief, stoniness, rockiness and risk of flooding. From these, soil depth, natural drainage, water table depth, relief and distance from water bodies were adopted for the installation of septic systems. From the total area of the watershed, 5.29% fit in the Adequate suitability class. The Regular, Restricted, and Inadequate sites accounted for, respectively, 19.72%, 41.99% and 33% of the wathershed. Factors such as soil and terrain attributes provide a basis for defining more appropriate places for waste disposal. Future work should involve the refinement of these propositions, since there are rare studies in this research line in Brazil.

  20. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe economics of property rights furthers the resource-based view in a number ofways. Resource analysis is refined by conceptualizing resources as composed ofmultiple attributes to which property rights may be held. A resource owner's abilityto create, appropriate and sustain value from...... resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  1. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  2. Geophysical remote sensing of water reservoirs suitable for desalinization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Bonal, Nedra; Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2009-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, as well as other regions of the world, competing demands for fresh water or water suitable for desalination are outstripping sustainable supplies. In these areas, new water supplies are necessary to sustain economic development and agricultural uses, as well as support expanding populations, particularly in the Southwestern United States. Increasing the supply of water will more than likely come through desalinization of water reservoirs that are not suitable for present use. Surface-deployed seismic and electromagnetic (EM) methods have the potential for addressing these critical issues within large volumes of an aquifer at a lower cost than drilling and sampling. However, for detailed analysis of the water quality, some sampling utilizing boreholes would be required with geophysical methods being employed to extrapolate these sampled results to non-sampled regions of the aquifer. The research in this report addresses using seismic and EM methods in two complimentary ways to aid in the identification of water reservoirs that are suitable for desalinization. The first method uses the seismic data to constrain the earth structure so that detailed EM modeling can estimate the pore water conductivity, and hence the salinity. The second method utilizes the coupling of seismic and EM waves through the seismo-electric (conversion of seismic energy to electrical energy) and the electro-seismic (conversion of electrical energy to seismic energy) to estimate the salinity of the target aquifer. Analytic 1D solutions to coupled pressure and electric wave propagation demonstrate the types of waves one expects when using a seismic or electric source. A 2D seismo-electric/electro-seismic is developed to demonstrate the coupled seismic and EM system. For finite-difference modeling, the seismic and EM wave propagation algorithms are on different spatial and temporal scales. We present a method to solve multiple, finite-difference physics

  3. Economics of exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabhan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

  4. Shifts in climate suitability for wine production as a result of climate change in a temperate climate wine region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Liviu Mihai; Patriche, Cristian Valeriu; Quenol, Hervé; Sfîcă, Lucian; Foss, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is causing important shifts in the suitability of regions for wine production. Fine scale mapping of these shifts helps us to understand the evolution of vineyard climates, and to find solutions through viticultural adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify and map the structural and spatial shifts that occurred in the climatic suitability for wine production of the Cotnari wine growing region (Romania) between 1961 and 2013. Discontinuities in trends of temperature were identified, and the averages and trends of 13 climatic parameters for the 1961 to 1980 and 1981 to 2013 time periods were analysed. Using the averages of these climatic parameters, climate suitability for wine production was calculated at a resolution of 30 m and mapped for each time period, and the changes analysed. The results indicate shifts in the area's historic climatic profile, due to an increase of heliothermal resources and precipitation constancy. The area's climate suitability for wine production was modified by the loss of climate suitability for white table wines, sparkling wines and wine for distillates; shifts in suitability to higher altitudes by about 67 m, and a 48.6% decrease in the area suitable for quality white wines; and the occurrence of suitable climates for red wines at lower altitudes. The study showed that climate suitability for wine production has a multi-level spatial structure, with classes requiring a cooler climate being located at a higher altitude than those requiring a warmer climate. Climate change has therefore resulted in the shift of climate suitability classes for wine production to higher altitudes.

  5. The Challenge of Producing Skin Test Antigens with Minimal Resources Suitable for Human Application against a Neglected Tropical Disease; Leprosy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; TerLouw, Stephen; Groathouse, Nathan A.; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3–10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan) and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens). In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial. PMID:24874086

  6. The challenge of producing skin test antigens with minimal resources suitable for human application against a neglected tropical disease; leprosy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available True incidence of leprosy and its impact on transmission will not be understood until a tool is available to measure pre-symptomatic infection. Diagnosis of leprosy disease is currently based on clinical symptoms, which on average take 3-10 years to manifest. The fact that incidence, as defined by new case detection, equates with prevalence, i.e., registered cases, suggests that the cycle of transmission has not been fully intercepted by implementation of multiple drug therapy. This is supported by a high incidence of childhood leprosy. Epidemiological screening for pre-symptomatic leprosy in large endemic populations is required to facilitate targeted chemoprophylactic interventions. Such a test must be sensitive, specific, simple to administer, cost-effective, and easy to interpret. The intradermal skin test method that measures cell-mediated immunity was explored as the best option. Prior knowledge on skin testing of healthy subjects and leprosy patients with whole or partially fractionated Mycobacterium leprae bacilli, such as Lepromin or the Rees' or Convit' antigens, has established an acceptable safety and potency profile of these antigens. These data, along with immunoreactivity data, laid the foundation for two new leprosy skin test antigens, MLSA-LAM (M. leprae soluble antigen devoid of mycobacterial lipoglycans, primarily lipoarabinomannan and MLCwA (M. leprae cell wall antigens. In the absence of commercial interest, the challenge was to develop these antigens under current good manufacturing practices in an acceptable local pilot facility and submit an Investigational New Drug to the Food and Drug Administration to allow a first-in-human phase I clinical trial.

  7. Fungal Transformation of Tree Stumps into a Suitable Resource for Xylophagous Beetles via Changes in Elemental Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Filipiak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The elements present in dead pine stumps inhabited by larvae of wood-boring beetles (Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus and Chalcophora mariana were analyzed over the initial (first 5 years; a chronosequence stages of wood decay. The quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and Na (but not S increased with increases in the content of ergosterol (used as a proxy for the amount of fungal tissue. In fact, the amounts of P, N, K, Fe and Cu presented marked increases. These findings show that fungi stoichiometrically rearrange dead wood by importing externally occurring nutrients to decaying stumps. During the first years of wood decay, the ratios of C to other elements decrease substantially, but differently, for various elements, whereas the N:Fe, N:Cu, N:P and N:K ratios remain relatively stable. Therefore, the stoichiometric mismatch between xylophages and their food is greatly reduced. By changing the nutritional stoichiometry of dead wood, fungi create a nutritional niche for wood-eaters, and these changes enable the development of xylophages.

  8. Dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, K

    1999-12-01

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.

  9. A compact electroactive polymer actuator suitable for refreshable Braille display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Minren; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2007-04-01

    The large strain, high elastic modulus, and easy processing of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) electrostrictive terpolymer make it very attractive to replace low strain piezoceramics and piezopolymers in many applications with much improved performance. In this paper, a compact polymer actuator is developed utilizing the electrostrictive terpolymer, which is suitable for full page Braille Display and graphic display. Key issues related to the reliability of electroactive polymers used in the compact actuators and for the mass fabrication of these polymer actuators are investigated. Making use of a recently developed conductive polymer, a screen printing deposition method was developed which enables direct deposition very thin conductive polymer electrode layer (Braille actuator was designed and fabricated with these terpolymer films wound on a spring core. The test results demonstrate that the EAP Braille actuator meets all the functional requirements of actuators for refreshable full Braille display, which offers compact size, reduced cost and weight.

  10. Suitable Conditions of Reservoir Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangrang, Anongrit; Chaleeraktrakoon, Chavalit

    The objective of this study is to carry out a suitable length of inflow record using in the simulation model. The second objective is to find an effect of initial reservoir capacity of reservoir simulation for searching the optimal rule curves. The reservoir simulation model was connected with genetic algorithms to search the optimal rule curves quickly. The model has been applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Bhumibol and Sirikit Reservoirs (the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand). The optimal rule curves of each condition were used to assess by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the shortest period of dry inflow record using in the simulation model in order to search the optimal rule curves is 10 year. Furthermore, the minimum initial capacity of reservoir for searching optimal rule curves is 10% of full capacity.

  11. Evaluation of colour space transformation suitability to optical temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, A.; Fornalik-Wajs, E.

    2016-09-01

    All optical measurement methods base on the image analysis and relation between the measured parameter and some image features. In Digital Particle Image Thermometry (DPIT), such relation represents a function between the temperature and particles’ colour (i.a. Thermochromic Liquid Crystals). For the quantitative data acquisition the “colour” information is necessary, therefore the colour spaces based on hue H are used. Due to the big number of numerical operations needed in the analysis, the choice of colour space transformation is significant due to the accuracy and computational time. In this paper commonly applied RGB to HSI colour spaces’ transformations were compared and evaluation of their suitability to temperature measurement was performed. Time of obtaining the final results was considered as the main criterion. Appropriate calculations were conducted and presented.

  12. Spirostomum spp. (Ciliophora, Protista), a suitable system for endocytobiosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokin, S I; Schweikert, M; Brümmer, F; Görtz, H-D

    2005-04-01

    Among ciliate genera, only Paramecium and Euplotes species have been studied extensively as host organisms of bacterial endocytobionts. In this article, we show that members of the genus Spirostomum may also serve as a suitable system for endocytobiosis research. Two strains of Spirostomum minus (Heterotrichea, Ciliophora) collected in Germany and Italy, respectively, were found to harbor different types of bacterial infections. Bacteria of various sizes and shapes were observed in the cytoplasm or in the nuclei of the ciliates. The bacteria in the cytoplasm were either surrounded by a peribacterial membrane or lay naked. One of the bacterial species was found in the vicinity of the contractile fibrillar system (myonemes) of the ciliates. In rare cases, another type of bacteria was observed associated with mitochondria. The macronuclei of both the Italian and the German strains were crowded with endocytobionts. The endonuclear bacteria in the two S. minus strains differed with respect to their cytoplasmic structures but they were of similar size and both were rod shaped. According to the results of in situ hybridization, the endonuclear bacteria of the Italian strain belong to the subgroup of alphaproteobacteria, whereas the bacteria associated with the fibrillar system appeared to be gram-positive bacteria with high G+C content. While both the German and the Italian strains were found to permanently maintain their endocytobionts, they were at least partly colonized by different bacteria. This is taken as an indication that geographically separated populations of ciliates may be stably infected by different endocytobionts, possibly due to different ecological conditions. For S. minus and S. ambiguum a total of 7 different bacterial endocytobionts have now been recorded. We recommend the members of the genus Spirostomum as a suitable system for endocytobiosis research.

  13. Wetland suitability and connectivity for trans-Saharan migratory waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merken, Ronny; Deboelpaep, Evelien; Teunen, Joachim; Saura, Santiago; Koedam, Nico

    2015-01-01

    To complete their life cycle waterbirds rely on patchily distributed and often ephemeral wetlands along their migration route in a vast unsuitable matrix. However, further loss and degradation of remaining wetland habitats might lead to a configuration and size of stopovers that is no longer sufficient to ensure long-term survival of waterbird populations. By identifying optimal conservation targets to maintain overall habitat availability en route, we can accommodate an as yet absent functional connectivity component in larger management frameworks for migratory waterbirds, such as the Ramsar Convention and the EU Natura 2000 Network. Using a graph-based habitat availability metric (Equivalent Connected Area) we determine the functional connectivity of wetland networks for seven migratory waterbirds with divergent habitat requirements. Analyses are performed at two spatial extents both spanning the Mediterranean Sea and centered around Greece (Balkan-Cyrenaica and Greece-Cyrenaica). We create species-specific suitable habitat maps and account for human disturbance by species-specific disturbance buffers, based on expert estimates of Flight Initiation Distances. At both spatial extents we quantitatively determine the habitat networks' overall functional connectivity and identify wetland sites that are crucial for maintaining a well-connected network. We show that the wetland networks for both spatial extents are relatively well connected and identify several wetland sites in Greece and Libya as important for maintaining connectivity. The application of disturbance buffers results in wetland site-specific reduction of suitable habitat area (0.90-7.36%) and an overall decrease of the network's connectivity (0.65-6.82%). In addition, we show that the habitat networks of a limited set of species can be combined into a single network which accounts for their autoecological requirements. We conclude that targeted management in few but specific wetland complexes could

  14. Wetland suitability and connectivity for trans-Saharan migratory waterbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Merken

    Full Text Available To complete their life cycle waterbirds rely on patchily distributed and often ephemeral wetlands along their migration route in a vast unsuitable matrix. However, further loss and degradation of remaining wetland habitats might lead to a configuration and size of stopovers that is no longer sufficient to ensure long-term survival of waterbird populations. By identifying optimal conservation targets to maintain overall habitat availability en route, we can accommodate an as yet absent functional connectivity component in larger management frameworks for migratory waterbirds, such as the Ramsar Convention and the EU Natura 2000 Network. Using a graph-based habitat availability metric (Equivalent Connected Area we determine the functional connectivity of wetland networks for seven migratory waterbirds with divergent habitat requirements. Analyses are performed at two spatial extents both spanning the Mediterranean Sea and centered around Greece (Balkan-Cyrenaica and Greece-Cyrenaica. We create species-specific suitable habitat maps and account for human disturbance by species-specific disturbance buffers, based on expert estimates of Flight Initiation Distances. At both spatial extents we quantitatively determine the habitat networks' overall functional connectivity and identify wetland sites that are crucial for maintaining a well-connected network. We show that the wetland networks for both spatial extents are relatively well connected and identify several wetland sites in Greece and Libya as important for maintaining connectivity. The application of disturbance buffers results in wetland site-specific reduction of suitable habitat area (0.90-7.36% and an overall decrease of the network's connectivity (0.65-6.82%. In addition, we show that the habitat networks of a limited set of species can be combined into a single network which accounts for their autoecological requirements. We conclude that targeted management in few but specific wetland

  15. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book...

  16. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  17. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  18. Human Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  19. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the Natural Resources Atlas is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  20. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  1. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  2. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  3. Human Resources Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 21 st century will be the epoch of knowled ge economy. Knowledge economy is to develop economy on the basis of knowledge will surely become the major resources of economy development. Therefore, human resources accounting which provides such information as the ebb and follow of hu man resources investment, the size of the human resources employment, will bec ome the main stream of accounting the time of knowledge economy. To face China 's reality, to develop economy, and to flourish enterprise...

  4. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; V.Sangeetha; Gopalakrishnan,S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  5. The Utilizing of Agro-climatic Resources and Preventing Measures of Meteorological Disasters in Fushun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the meteorological data in Fushun,Qingyuan and Xinbing from 1961 to 2008,the status quo of major agro-climatic resources in Fushun were analyzed.The abundant rainfall,sufficient sunshine and rich thermal resources were suitable for the development of modern agricultural production.The specific measures of effective use of climate resources were put forward according to geographical location and climatic characteristics of Fushun.The advantages of agro-climate resources were exerted for large edible...

  6. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  7. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  8. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  9. Chapter Four: Discursive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the focus of attention moves from the contexts described in chapter 3 to the verbal, nonverbal, and interactional resources that participants employ in discursive practices. These resources are discussed within the frame of participation status and participation framework proposed by Goffman. Verbal resources employed by…

  10. Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.

  11. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  12. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  13. Taking Advantages of China's Increasing Demand for Recycled Resources : Case Company: Ni-Met Resources Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the feasibility and advise the management of Ni-Met on the location of a warehouse in China. Ni-Met is a global company involved in trading of resources and commodities - primary and secondary metals, minerals and plastics. A sizeable portion of its sales are into China. The objective of this thesis is to suggest the most suitable way for Ni-Met to take advantage of China’s huge demand for commodities and resources. Ni-Met wants to increase...

  14. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for

  15. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Suitability of Sterillium Gel for surgical hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kapella, M

    2003-07-01

    In some countries, alcohol-based hand gels are used for hygienic hand disinfection but their efficacy and suitability for surgical hand disinfection has never been investigated. The efficacy of Sterillium Gel was investigated according to prEN 12791 in two separate experiments. Finger tips of 20 volunteers per experiment were sampled for resident skin bacteria before surgical hand disinfection. In a cross-over design, each volunteer carried out a surgical hand disinfection with the reference alcohol [n-propanol 60%, (v/v)] or Sterillium Gel [ethanol 85% (v/v)] for 3 min. After the product application, one hand was sampled for the immediate effect, the other hand was gloved for 3 h and then sampled for the sustained effect. Samples were analysed for remaining resident bacteria. The mean of the pre-value, the 0 h and 3 h values of the reference disinfection and the test product were calculated. With the reference alcohol, respective mean immediate log10-reduction factors of 2.06+/-0.76 and 2.23+/-1.13 were found in both experiments. The mean sustained effects with the reference alcohol were 2.03+/-1.14 and 1.44+/-0.81. Sterillium Gel achieved respective mean immediate effects of 2.48+/-1.06 and 2.13+/-0.81, the mean sustained effects were 2.77+/-0.95 and 2.18+/-0.72. They proved significantly larger than those obtained with the reference alcohol (PSterillium Gel, therefore, more than fulfils the efficacy requirements for surgical hand disinfection of prEN 12791. In addition, 25 of 26 operating theatre healthcare workers in an orthopaedic hospital found it suitable for surgical hand disinfection after a single use, which included putting on a pair of surgical gloves. Although none of them had ever used an alcohol-based gel before, they had rather been accustomed to alcohol-based liquid products for years. The main reasons given for the positive assessment were better skin feeling after use, smell and easier donning of the surgical gloves. No significant correlation

  17. Assessment of Geological Security and Integrated Assessment Geo-environmental Suitability in Worst-hit Areas in Wenchuan Quake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenpeng; WEN Dongguang; ZHOU Aiguo; SUN Xiaoming; MENG Hui; SHI Jusong; CHEN Zongyu; XHANG Liqin; FENG Xiaoming; LIU Changli; ZHOU Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and geo-hazards triggered by the earthquake caused large injuries and deaths as well as destructive damage for infrastructures like construction, traffic and electricity. It is urgent to select relatively secure areas for townships and cities constructed in high mountainous regions with high magnitude earthquakes. This paper presents the basic thoughts, evaluation indices and evaluation methods of geological security evaluation, water and land resources security demonstration and integrated assessments of geo-environmental suitability for reconstruction in alp and ravine with high magnitude earthquakes, which are applied in the worst-hit areas (12 counties). The integrated assessment shows that: (1) located in the Longmenshan fault zone, the evaluated area is of poor regional crust stability, in which the unstable and second unstable areas account for 79% of the total; (2) the geo-hazards susceptibility is high in the evaluation area. The spots of geo-hazards triggered by earthquake are mainly distributed along the active fault zone with higher distribution in the moderate and high mountains area, in which the areas of high and moderate susceptibility zoning accounts for 40.1% of the total; (3) geological security is poor in the evaluated area, in which the area of the unsuitable construction occupies 73.1%, whereas in the suitable construction area, the areas of geological security, second security and insecurity zoning account for 8.3%, 9.3% and 9.3% of the evaluated area respectively; (4) geo-environmental suitability is poor in the evaluated area, in which the areas of suitability and basic suitability zoning account for 3.5% and 7.3% of the whole evaluation area.

  18. HARMONIZATION OF CROATIAN LEGAL REGULATIONS WITH EU DIRECTIVES CONCERNING PETROLEUM INDUSTRY WASTE DISPOSAL INTO SUITABLE GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and production of mineral resources, especially hydrocarbons, are from ecological point of view, one of the most sensitive activities. Concerning global ecological standards, which have also been enforced into petroleum industry, exploration and production of mineral energy sources have to be based on compliance with introduced environmental and human health protection requirements. Since it is expected that Croatia will join European Union in the near future, it is necessary to develop institutional and legislative frameworks for enabling and regulating the harmonization of mineral resources exploration and production waste disposal with European Union directives and regulations. Petroleum industry waste disposal by injection into suitable geological formations is one of environmentally acceptable methods for petroleum industry waste management (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Efficient Resources Provisioning Based on Load Forecasting in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application’s actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of process based on resource capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To improve the practicability, suitability and accuracy of the trade-off among time, cost and quality of a process, a method based on resource capability is introduced. Through analyzing the relationship between an activity and its' supporting resource, the model trades off the time, cost and quality by changing intensity of labor or changing the types of supporting resource or units of labor of resource in a certain time respectively according to the different types of its' supporting resources. Through contrasting this method with the model of unit time cost corresponding to different quality levels and inter-related linear programming model of time, cost and quality for process optimizing, it is shown that this model does not only cover the above two models but also can describe some conditions the above two models can not express. The method supports to select different function to optimize a process according to different types of its supporting resource.

  1. Efficient resources provisioning based on load forecasting in cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongdong; Jiang, Jingfei; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements.

  2. Evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation in the Skhirat region, Northwest of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Dakak, Houria; Douaik, Ahmed; El Khadir, Mhamed; Moussadek, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Morocco has arid and semiarid climates. Irrigation is an imperative for agriculture. Skhirat region is known for the production of vegetables. Intensive peri-urban agriculture is associated with inconsiderate pumping of groundwater, and water becomes less abundant and of poor quality resulting in degradation of soil and water quality. Therefore, the objective of this research work was the assessment of the quality of irrigation water. The study site is located in a coastal area and dedicated to intensive land use for growing vegetables in a peri-urban agricultural zone. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of water was carried out in 77 wells. Parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, and piezometric level were measured in situ while others like total dissolved solids and ionic balance were measured in laboratory whereas other parameters were calculated from those measured. Results showed that Na and Ca are predominant cations while Cl and SO4 are predominant anions. Piper diagram reveals two facies: sodic and calcic chlorinated. Regarding the permeability index, all wells are suitable for irrigation. The US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) diagram reveals that irrigation water has high salinization risk and low to medium alkalinization risk. The groundwater in the region is classified as very hard category; however, it does not present any risk of sodicity. These waters have a high risk of toxicity to chloride ions. In summary, although the groundwater in the Skhirat region presents a high risk of salinization, it is of good quality suitable for irrigation. Agricultural practices should be well managed to secure safe use of the water resource for a sustainable development of the agriculture in the region.

  3. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    -shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other......Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity....... It further examines the moderating effects of managerial ties, (i.e., ties with other firms and ties with the government) on the above relationships. Survey data from China¡¯s 202 new ventures demonstrates that the resource acquiring has an inverted U-shaped effect whereas the resource accumulating has a U...

  4. Finding Suitable Variability Abstractions for Family-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    For program families (Software Product Lines), specially designed variability-aware static (dataflow) analyses allow analyzing all variants (products) of the family, simultaneously, in a single run without generating any of the variants explicitly. They are also known as lifted or family-based an......For program families (Software Product Lines), specially designed variability-aware static (dataflow) analyses allow analyzing all variants (products) of the family, simultaneously, in a single run without generating any of the variants explicitly. They are also known as lifted or family......) and reduce it to something more tractable. % by manipulating the configuration space of the family. However, the number of possible abstractions is still intractably large to search naively, with most abstractions being too imprecise or too costly. In this work, we propose a technique to efficiently find...... suitable variability abstractions from a large family of abstractions for a variability-aware static analysis. The idea is to use a pre-analysis to estimate the impact of variability-specific parts of the program family on the analysis's precision. Then we use the pre-analysis results to find out when...

  5. Determining Suitable Areas for More Efficient Hazelnut Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralioglu, E.; Yildirim, D.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  6. DETERMINING SUITABLE AREAS FOR MORE EFFICIENT HAZELNUT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saralioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  7. Soil suitability evaluation for crop selection using fuzzy sets methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin SHARIFIFAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study appraisal of four different agricultural land evaluation methods including the so-called Storie method, square root method, maximum limitation method and fuzzy sets method, was done. The study was performed in Bastam region, located in Semnan province at the north east of Iran. Three crops including tomato, wheat and potato were assessed for the purpose of this research. Soil characteristics assessed were rooting depth, CaCo3, organic carboncontent, clay content, pH and slope gradient. Statistical analyses were done at significance levels of α = 0.1 and α = 0.05. Results of regression between land indices, calculated through the four methods, with observed yields of the crops, showed that the regression were significant in fuzzy sets method for all of the assessed crops at p = 0.05 but not significant in maximum limitation method for any of the crops. The Storie and square root methods also showed a significant correlation with wheat yield at p = 0.1. This study was a demonstrative test of fuzzy sets theory in land suitability evaluation for agricultural uses, which revealed that this methodology is the most correct method in given circumstances.

  8. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M

    2008-01-01

    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete.

  9. Suitability of technical materials for machinery subsoilers for soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bednář

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil processing belongs to the basic elements in the process of crop production. Currently classic tillage method is decreasing and the only trend has stated as a shallow plowing. Suitable post harvest soil tillage greatly affects yields in the next cycle. The aim of the study is the analysis of abrasive wear of selected construction materials and their subsequent use for DXRV-HD cultivator. The performed tests are focused on monitoring the mechanical properties of the materials and their use for variable cutting tip of cultivator body. Tested materials are divided into four categories. These materials include tool steel (19436, carbon steel (12050, cast iron with globular graphite and welding material supplied as a functional complex on low carbon steel by the Abraweld company. These materials are tested together with the original part of share cultivator. The present experiment is focused on metallorgraphic, mechanical and abrasive analysis. Structural component of the material is identified by metallographic photos and then compared with the impact strength tested on Charpy hammer. Followed the abrasion resistance according to CSN 01 5084 and the total evaluation of the tested samples are done.

  10. Suitability of various materials for porous filters in diffusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldaba, David; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Glaus, Martin; Van Loon, Luc [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Leupin, Olivier [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of different porous materials (stainless steel, VYCOR {sup registered} glass, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PEEK) for use as confining filters in diffusion experiments was evaluated by measuring the effective diffusion coefficients (D{sub e}) of neutral (HTO) and ionic solutes (Na{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the materials in through-diffusion experiments. For stainless steel filters, the D{sub e} values of the target solutes correlated satisfactorily with their bulk diffusion coefficient in water (D{sub w}); thus, the diffusion process in the stainless steel filters was primarily controlled by the diffusivity of the solvated ions. For the remaining materials, the D{sub e} and D{sub w} values were also correlated for the target solutes, and the geometric factors were in the sequence: VYCOR {sup registered} glass < Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} < PEEK. Stainless steel and VYCOR {sup registered} glass were the most appropriate materials because of their high D{sub e} values, but a specific interaction of caesium with VYCOR {sup registered} glass was hypothesised because the D{sub e} values obtained for this solute were slightly higher than expected.

  11. A new FPGA architecture suitable for DSP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liyun; Lai Jinmei; Tong Jiarong; Tang Pushan; Chen Xing; Duan Xueyan; Chen Liguang; Wang Jian; Wang Yuan, E-mail: 071021037@fudan.edu.cn [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-05-15

    A new FPGA architecture suitable for digital signal processing applications is presented. DSP modules can be inserted into FPGA conveniently with the proposed architecture, which is much faster when used in the field of digital signal processing compared with traditional FPGAs. An advanced 2-level MUX (multiplexer) is also proposed. With the added SLEEP MODE PASS to traditional 2-level MUX, static leakage is reduced. Furthermore, buffers are inserted at early returns of long lines. With this kind of buffer, the delay of the long line is improved by 9.8% while the area increases by 4.37%. The layout of this architecture has been taped out in standard 0.13 {mu}m CMOS technology successfully. The die size is 6.3 x 4.5 mm{sup 2} with the QFP208 package. Test results show that performances of presented classical DSP cases are improved by 28.6%-302% compared with traditional FPGAs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-04-03

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded.

  13. Archival bone marrow samples: suitable for multiple biomarker analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Landsem, Veslemøy M; Rasmussen, Kirsten K; Borst, Louise; Gupta, Ramneek; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Klungland, Helge

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole genome amplification (WGA), multiple marker analysis including 10 short tandem repeats, and finally a comprehensive genotyping of 33,683 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with multiplexed targeted next-generation sequencing. A total of 73 samples from 21 bone marrow smears and 13 bone marrow biopsies from 18 Danish and Norwegian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were included and compared with corresponding blood samples. Samples were grouped according to the age of sample and whether WGA was performed or not. We found that measurements of DNA concentration after DNA extraction was dependent on detection method and that spectrophotometry overestimated DNA amount compared with fluorometry. In the short tandem repeat analysis, detection rate dropped slightly with longer fragments. After WGA, this drop was more pronounced. Samples stored for 0 to 3 years showed better results compared with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP analysis seems feasible, but the method has to be further optimized.

  14. Host preference and suitability of grasses for Oebalus pugnax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, GA; Gore, J; Cook, D; Bond, JA; Musser, FR; Adams, CA

    2014-01-01

    The rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. This could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. To clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of O. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the central Mississippi Delta (MS, USA), and (2) no-choice tests to evaluate the impact of rice (Oryza sativa L.), junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link], and dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) (all Poaceae), on the development of O. pugnax from second instar to adult. In the free-choice test, four experiments were conducted, each with four sets of host grass species and observed 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 h after release in cages. Approximately 4 h was necessary for O. pugnax to settle on preferred host grasses. Oebalus pugnax showed a feeding preference for junglerice over all 10 other grass species. Bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum Flueggé, was the least preferred. The no-choice tests showed significant effect of host grass species on O. pugnax mean development time of nymphal survival to adults. Survival of nymphs was lower and mean development time was longer on dallisgrass compared to rice and junglerice. Knowledge of O. pugnax rate of growth and development on host grasses could be useful in the future development of rice integrated pest management strategies. PMID:25635144

  15. New telescope designs suitable for massively-multiplexed spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquini, L; Ellis, R; de Zeeuw, T

    2016-01-01

    We present two novel designs for a telescope suitable for massively-multiplexed spectroscopy. The first is a very wide field Cassegrain telescope optimised for fibre feeding. It provides a Field Of View (FOV) of 2.5 degrees diameter with a 10m primary mirror. It is telecentric and works at F/3, optimal for fibre injection. As an option, a gravity invariant focus for the central 10 arc-minutes can be added, to host, for instance, a giant integral field unit (IFU). It has acceptable performance in the 360-1300 nm wavelength range. The second concept is an innovative five mirror telescope design based on a Three Mirror Anastigmatic (TMA) concept. The design provides a large FOV in a convenient, gravity- invariant focal plane, and is scalable to a range of telescope diameters. As specific example, we present a 10m telescope with a 1.5 degree diameter FOV and a relay system that allows simultaneous spectroscopy with 10,000 mini-IFUs over a square degree, or, alternatively a 17.5 square arcminutes giant IFU, by usi...

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf of Mexico American Oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Edwin W.

    1983-01-01

    The American or eastern oyster (Crassostrea virrinica [Gmelin]), a bivalve in the family Ostreidae, is an important commercia and recreational species along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America and other areas (U.S. Pacific coast and Hawaii) where it has been introduced (Galtsoff 1964). It evolved over the last 25 million years (Miocene and Pliocene epochs) from an ancestral, Atlantic-Pacific species that also gave rise to the Central American oyster of the Pacific coast, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein) (Stenzel 1971). It evolved to fill a eurytopic niche in coastal estuaries where it forms massive reefs in nearshore bays, sounds, lagoons, and river mouths. Its existence depends on suitable substratum (cultch and firm bottom sediments) and acceptable sal-inity conditions. The location and distribution of oyster reefs in a salt marsh-estuari ne ecosystem are not acci denta 1; rather, they result from the interacti on of many bi 01 ogi ca 1, chemica1, geo1ogi ca1, and phys i ca 1 processes (Butler 1954a; Marshall 1954; Bahr and Lanier 1981).

  17. Determination of Selection Method in Genetic Algorithm for Land Suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfianti Asti Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algoirthm is one alternative solution in the field of modeling optimization, automatic programming and machine learning. The purpose of the study was to compare some type of selection methods in Genetic Algorithm for land suitability. Contribution of this research applies the best method to develop region based horticultural commodities. This testing is done by comparing the three methods on the method of selection, the Roulette Wheel, Tournament Selection and Stochastic Universal Sampling. Parameters of the locations used in the test scenarios include Temperature = 27°C, Rainfall = 1200 mm, hummidity = 30%, Cluster fruit = 4, Crossover Probabiitiy (Pc = 0.6, Mutation Probabilty (Pm = 0.2 and Epoch = 10. The second test epoch incluides location parameters consist of Temperature = 30°C, Rainfall = 2000 mm, Humidity = 35%, Cluster fruit = 5, Crossover Probability (Pc = 0.7, Mutation Probability (Pm = 0.3 and Epoch 10. The conclusion of this study shows that the Roulette Wheel is the best method because it produces more stable and fitness value than the other two methods.

  18. Cervine tibia morphology and mechanical strength: a suitable tibia model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Alexander D W; Landauer, Alexander K; Clark, Alexander Martin; Kuxhaus, Laurel

    2015-03-01

    Animal models for orthopaedic implant testing are well-established but morphologically dissimilar to human tibiae; notably, most are shorter. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the morphology and mechanical properties of the cervine tibia, particularly with regard to its suitability for testing orthopaedic implants. Two endosteal and eleven periosteal measurements were made on 15 cervine tibiae. The mechanical strength in axial compression and torsion was measured using 11 tibiae. The cervine tibia is morphologically similar to the human tibia and more closely matches the length of the human tibia than current tibia models (ovine, porcine, and caprine). The distal epiphysis dimensions are notably different, but no more so than the current tibia models. The torsional stiffness of the cervine tibia is within the range of previously reported values for human tibiae. Furthermore, in many regions, cervine tibiae are abundant and locally available at a low cost. Given these mechanical and morphological data, coupled with potential cost savings if regionally available, the cervine tibia may be an appropriate model for orthopaedic implant testing.

  19. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  20. Which medications are suitable for agonist drug maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Farrell, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We examine the feasibility of agonist maintenance treatment for the major psychoactive drug classes: opioids, nicotine, benzodiazepines, cannabis, psychostimulants and alcohol. Eight clinical criteria for an agonist maintenance drug were assessed for each major drug class. These related to pharmacological aspects of the drug (agonist, pharmacological stability, dose-response, non-toxic) and neurocognitive sequelae (psychiatric, cognitive, craving, salience). Opioids and nicotine met all eight criteria for a maintenance drug. While nicotine has not been promoted widely or used for maintenance, it has the potential to fulfil that role. Cannabis met five criteria and has potential, but long-term data on cognitive impairment are required. Benzodiazepine maintenance would appear an option for the high-dose chaotic abuser, also meeting five criteria, although clinic dosing appears the safest option. Psychostimulants (three of eight criteria) and alcohol (one of eight) appear poor propositions for maintenance, in terms of both their pharmacological and their neurocognitive characteristics. Drug classes have properties that distinguish them in their suitability for maintenance treatment. Some classes not yet used for maintenance (notably nicotine and cannabis) have potential to fulfil such a role. Others, however, by their inherent nature, appear unsuitable for such a treatment regimen. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Neuroprotection by Radical Avoidance: Search for Suitable Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration is frequently associated with damage by free radicals. However, increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which may ultimately lead to neuronal cell death, do not necessarily reflect its primary cause, but can be a consequence of otherwise induced cellular dysfunction. Detrimental processes which promote free radical formation are initiated, e.g., by disturbances in calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial malfunction, and an age-related decline in the circadian oscillator system. Free radicals generated at high rates under pathophysiological conditions are insufficiently detoxified by scavengers. Interventions at the primary causes of dysfunction, which avoid secondary rises in radical formation, may be more efficient. The aim of such approaches should be to prevent calcium overload, to reduce mitochondrial electron dissipation, to support electron transport capacity, and to avoid circadian perturbations. l-Theanine and several amphiphilic nitrones are capable of counteracting excitotoxicity and/or mitochondrial radical formation. Resveratrol seems to promote mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial effects of leptin include attenuation of electron leakage. Melatonin combines all the requirements mentioned, additionally regulates anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes and is, with few exceptions, very well tolerated. In this review, the perspectives, problems and limits of drugs are compared which may be suitable for reducing the formation of free radicals.

  2. THE ROLE OF PEDOLOGICAL INFORMATION IN AGRICULTURAL LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dicu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil characteristics can exert an influence on the development of root systems, mineral nutrition, providing the required heat treatment and conduct aerohidric main physiological processes, and plants (phytocoenosis, in turn, act both directly and indirectly on the state of soil fertility. In the soil conditions can be defined certain characteristics that may be conducive to land productivity and other properties derived from the first. Attributes such as size and composition of soil, humus content are crucial features, while cationic exchange capacity is determined by the first two and by the mineralogical nature of clay. Similarly, available water capacity can be considered as determined by soil texture and structure. Our research concerns an area of 141,249 ha. (72721ha. in Timis county and 68,528 ha in Arad county, belonging to areas located in Vinga Plain and its connection to the low plains or Lipova hills. The research of ecopedological conditions, data ordering and processing was done according to the Methodology of pedological studies elaboration; (vol I, II, III, developed by ICPA Bucharest in 1987 and the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS-2003. In assessing of land pretability for culture systems are considered soil factors who determine the degree of suitability, soil texture and soil moisture excess. Pretability estimation can be based on the information contained in existing soil studies in the area but also in the field research conducted on soils representative of a particular physical and geographical space.

  3. Treatment of phosphogypsum waste using suitable organic extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Didamony, H; Ali, M M; Awwad, N S; Fawzy, M M; Attallah, M F

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry that has relatively high concentrations of harmful radioactive materials. The reduction in concentration of the radionuclides from PG was investigated. The removal process is based on leaching of radionuclides using suitable organic extractants. The studied radionuclides were (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (238)U and (40)K. The factors affect the leaching process such as type of leaching materials, contact time, concentration of the desired solvent, liquid to solid ratio, and temperature were studied. Based on the experimental results, about 71.1, 76.4, 62.4, and 75.7% of (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (238)U and (40)K respectively were successfully removed from the PG. The reduction in the concentration of radionuclides was accompanied by reduction in the concentration of rare earth elements (∑REE) equals to 69.8%. Using the desired organic extractant under optimum conditions for treatment of the PG waste leads to obtain a decontaminated product that can be safely used in many industrial applications.

  4. An experimental investigation of Fang's Ag superlens suitable for integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Xiao, Sanshui

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of the Fang Ag superlens structure [1] suitable for further processing and integration in bio-chips by replacing PMMA with a highly chemical resistant cyclo-olefin copolymer, mr-I T85 (Micro Resist Technology, Berlin, Germany). The superlens was able to resolve...... processing is needed involving various organic polar solvents, PMMA cannot be used. We propose to use mr-I T85, which is highly chemically resistant to acids and polar solvents. Our superlens stack consists of a quartz/chrome grating mask, a 40 nm layer of mr-I T85, 35 nm Ag, and finally 70 nm...... to the excitation wavelength of the surface plasmons at the mr-I T85/Ag interface. Supporting COMSOL simulations illustrate the field intensity distribution inside the resist as well as the presence of surface plasmons at the mr-I T85/Ag boundary. AFM scans of the exposed structure revealed 80 nm gratings....

  5. Mitochondrial data are not suitable for resolving placental mammal phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Claire C; Creevey, Christopher J; O'Connell, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial data have traditionally been used in reconstructing a variety of species phylogenies. The low rates of recombination and thorough characterization of mitochondrial data across vertebrate species make it a particularly attractive phylogenetic marker. The relatively low number of fully sequenced mammal genomes and the lack of extensive sampling within Superorders have posed a serious problem for reaching agreement on the placement mammal species. The use of mitochondrial data sequences from large numbers of mammals could serve to circumvent the taxon-sampling deficit. Here we assess the suitability of mitochondrial data as a phylogenetic marker in mammal phylogenetics. MtDNA datasets of mammal origin have been filtered as follows: (i) we have sampled sparsely across the phylogenetic tree, (ii) we have constrained our sampling to genes with high taxon coverage, (iii) we have categorised rates across sites in a phylogeny independent manner and have removed fast evolving sites, and (iv), we have sampled from very shallow divergence times to reduce phylogenetic conflict. However, topologies obtained using these filters are not consistent with previous studies and are discordant across different genes. Individual mitochondrial genes, and indeed all mitochondrial genes analysed as a supermatrix, resulted in poor resolution of the species phylogeny. Overall, our study highlights the limitations of mitochondrial data, not only for resolving deep divergences and but also for shallow divergences in the mammal phylogeny.

  6. Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Costa

    approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

  7. Suitability analysis for sand and gravel extraction site location in the context of a sustainable development in the surroundings of Zaragoza (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, M. T.; Marinoni, O.; Hoppe, A.; de La Riva, J.

    2008-10-01

    Zaragoza city is located in the central Ebro Basin, in the Iberian Peninsula. The fluvial terraces formed by the Ebro River present a valuable resource of sand and gravel deposits. However, taking advantage of these available resources implies conflicts with other land use interests like urban and industrial development as well as agricultural use, which has also traditionally occupied the alluvial terraces. These deposits represent a substantial groundwater resource that should be preserved for future generations. The development of spatial decision support systems (SDSS) has greatly assisted efforts for solving land-use conflicts. These systems combine the benefits of geographic information systems (GIS) and decision support methodologies and are therefore suitable to manage sustainable development of urban areas. In this contribution, an extraction suitability map taking into consideration a variety of environmental criteria is created with the help of a SDSS. The method used is the analytical hierarchy process which is integrated in ArcGIS. Areas most suitable to sand and gravel extraction are located in the high terraces, and in those terraces covered by pediments where the thickness of resource is relatively high. These areas are far from valuable natural areas, outside areas most vulnerable to groundwater contamination, and beneath soils with poor irrigation characteristics.

  8. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... The following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ... Urology Care Foundation -- www. ...

  9. A Semi-Preemptive Computational Service System with Limited Resources and Dynamic Resource Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yie Leu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we integrate a grid system and a wireless network to present a convenient computational service system, called the Semi-Preemptive Computational Service system (SePCS for short, which provides users with a wireless access environment and through which a user can share his/her resources with others. In the SePCS, each node is dynamically given a score based on its CPU level, available memory size, current length of waiting queue, CPU utilization and bandwidth. With the scores, resource nodes are classified into three levels. User requests based on their time constraints are also classified into three types. Resources of higher levels are allocated to more tightly constrained requests so as to increase the total performance of the system. To achieve this, a resource broker with the Semi-Preemptive Algorithm (SPA is also proposed. When the resource broker cannot find suitable resources for the requests of higher type, it preempts the resource that is now executing a lower type request so that the request of higher type can be executed immediately. The SePCS can be applied to a Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET, users of which can then exploit the convenient mobile network services and the wireless distributed computing. As a result, the performance of the system is higher than that of the tested schemes.

  10. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  11. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  12. Application of NASA Observational Data and Habitat Suitability Modeling to Wavyleaf Basketgrass (Oplismenus hirtellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C.; Suss, C.

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, a rapidly spreading invasive grass known as Wavyleaf Basketgrass (Oplismenus hirtellus, WLBG), was found in Maryland's Patapsco Valley State Park. It is a low-lying, trailing perennial grass, branching and rooting at the lower stem nodes. The leaves are short and hairy, and produce a sticky substance that can adhere to passing animals and further its dispersion. WLBG is similar to Japanese stiltgrass, which has taken over Eastern forests in the last 25 years. WLBG, a stoloniferous grass, covers the forest floor, crowds out native herbaceous plants, and negatively alters the habitats of plants and animals in that ecosystem. It has spread beyond the park into the surrounding areas and other parts of Maryland and Virginia. How it arrived to Maryland is still unknown but mitigation efforts are clearly required and are being undertaken by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MD DNR) Wildlife and Heritage Service (WHS). The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method was used to model the potential distribution of WLBG in the Maryland region. MaxEnt models species distributions from presence-only records, making it particularly well-suited for the types of data collected by resource managers such as the WHS. Input into the MaxEnt model were a combination of in situ presence points and covariates (environmental predictors) comprised of environmental data and NASA Earth observation data that are ecologically relevant to WLBG. These environmental predictors include temperature and precipitation data, soil classifications, landcover measures and classifications, and topology data including elevation, aspect, and slope. The remotely sensed data layers include products derived from Landsat 5 and 7, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). MaxEnt produced a list of top covariate contributors and created habitat suitability maps to predict potential areas where WLBG may spread.

  13. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  14. Investigation into the suitability of capillary tubes for microcrystalline testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Leonie E; Baron, Mark G; Croxton, Ruth S; Elie, Mathieu P

    2013-07-01

    A comparison between microcrystalline tests performed on microscope slides and flat capillary tubes with inner diameters ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mm was carried out to explore the appropriateness of tubes for rapid testing of suspected drugs of abuse in the laboratory as well as in the field. Tests for mephedrone, cocaine, and phencyclidine were chosen as examples to investigate the handling of the capillary tubes, the influence on crystal habit, size, and the effects on the limit of detection. Image stacking software was used to increase the depth of field of micrographs taken from developed microcrystals greatly enhancing the interpretability even months after carrying out the microcrystalline test. Additionally, the potential of seeding capillary tubes with a reagent was studied. Pre-treatment of tubes would allow microcrystalline tests to be carried out quicker and anywhere without the necessity of taking along expensive and hazardous reagents. The sealing of capillary tubes containing developed microcrystalline tests in order to preserve results for a long period of time was successfully done by applying paraffin wax to the open ends. Finally, it was concluded that capillary tubes are suitable vessels for performing microcrystalline tests. The increased portability of the improved set-up allows tests to be safely executed outside laboratories without impairing the quality of the result. Findings were applied to six legal high samples purchased online between May and August 2011. The active ingredients like MDAI as well as cutting agents like caffeine were successfully identified using the microcrystalline test technique in capillary tubes.

  15. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C; Shepherd, Jessica G; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-03-15

    The term "marginal biomass" is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average+82.8% Cr, +226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition +22.5 mg Cr kg(-1) biochar and +44.4 mg Ni kg(-1) biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser.

  16. Suitability of Aquatic Plant Fibers for Handmade Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordiah Bidin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns for future fiber supplies in pulp and paper industries has shifted interest in nonwood sources from agriculture residues and aquatic plants. Aquatic plants with short growth cycles, in abundance, and with low lignin are a potential fiber source. Five aquatic plant species, Cyperus digitatus, Cyperus halpan, Cyperus rotundus, Scirpus grossus, and Typha angustifolia, were examined for fiber dimensions and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin and compared with other nonwood plants. All aquatic plants possessed short (length, 0.71–0.83 mm and thin (diameter, 9.13–12.11 µm fibers, narrow lumen (diameter, 4.32–7.30 µm, and thin cell wall (thickness, 2.25–2.83 µm compared with most other nonwood plants. Slenderness ratio ranged from 73.77 to 89.34 with Typha angustifolia having the highest ratio. Except for Scirpus grossus, the flexibility coefficient ranged from 52.91 to 58.08. Scirpus grossus has low Runkel ratio, 0.84 ± 0.17. Fiber characteristics, short and thin fibers, Slenderness ratio >60, flexibility coefficient within 50–75, and Runkel ratio 34% is suitable for pulp and papermaking. Lignin content in aquatic plants in the present study ranged 9.54–20.04% and below the wood lignin content of <23–30% encountered in pulp and papermaking. Handmade paper sheets produced for paperboard, craft, and decorative purposes are with permissible tensile strength, breaking length, and low moisture content.

  17. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  18. Ergonomic suitability of kitchen furniture regarding height accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrovatin, Jasna; Prekrat, Silvana; Oblak, Leon; Ravnik, David

    2015-03-01

    It is possible to significantly ease kitchen chores with properly sized and appropriately arranged cupboards. In designing kitchen furniture and the optimal depth and the height of storage capacities, accessibility should be taken into consideration. It is known that the optimal storage zone is between 800 and 1100 mm and that there is reduced visibility and accessibility at the level between 1400 and 1700 mm, which is even more prominent for the elderly. This suggests that wall cabinets are not recommended for the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent kitchens manufactured by Slovenian furniture manufacturers are suitable for users of different age groups with regard to the accessibility of goods stored in the cupboards. Furthermore, based on the measurement analysis, recommendations are provided for designing kitchen furniture that would meet the needs of the elderly. The study, carried out using a computer simulation model, analyzed the products of three Slovenian kitchen manufacturers. The cross section of accessibility in the wall cabinets was determined for different age groups of men and women. The results show that the efficacy of the volume in wall cabinets higher than 600 mm, in comparison to places where objects are easily reachable, is 30% lower for women, thus indicating the inefficiency of storage space in wall cabinets. In terms of accessibility, existing kitchens are not optimal for the elderly, and a model with a deeper worktop and wall cabinets lowered onto the worktop is proposed. Accessibility in such wall cabinets is increased by up to 70% if the body is moved forward by 30°.

  19. Gestures as Semiotic Resources in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzarello, Ferdinando; Paola, Domingo; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider gestures as part of the resources activated in the mathematics classroom: speech, inscriptions, artifacts, etc. As such, gestures are seen as one of the semiotic tools used by students and teacher in mathematics teaching-learning. To analyze them, we introduce a suitable model, the "semiotic bundle." It allows focusing…

  20. Cover Crop Chart: An Intuitive Educational Resource for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Mark A.; Johnson, Holly; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John; Nichols, Kristine; Schmer, Marty; Tanaka, Don

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cover crops by agricultural producers has increased the need for information regarding the suitability of crops for addressing different production and natural resource goals. To help address this need, staff at the USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory developed a decision aid called the Cover Crop Chart (CCC). Visually…

  1. Testing research for assessing suitability of multi-species of trees Introduced in habitats In hilly and gully areas of Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hai; Zhang Lixin; Liu Jianghua

    2006-01-01

    To enrich resource of species,105 arbor species (25 genera,15 families) were introduced to the hilly and gully areas on Loess Plateau.By acclimation and selection,more than 90 tree species (12 genera,8 families) were identified as fine species,including trees suitable for sloping fields such as Pinus sylvestri var mongolica,Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia,trees suitable for gully bottoms such as Populus davidiana, Populus diversifolia, and Salix cheilophila and non-timber trees such as Prunus armeniaca,Ziziphus jujuba and Prunus persica.For those fine trees,habitat conditions and regularity of requirement of water and fertilizers were studied and then habitat ranges were given.From research results,it could be seen that Robinia pseudoacacia consumed more water,but it could improve the content of organic matters in soil;by contrast,Pinus tabulaeformis and Platycladus orientalis consumed less water and were suitable for dry sloping fields;species of apricot were suitable for sunny or semi-shady sloping fields with good conditions of water and fertilizer;species of pear were suitable for both shady sloping fields and sunny sloping fields;species of Chinese date were suitable for sunny sloping fields.

  2. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  3. Cockpit resource management training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, M.; Foushee, C.

    1984-01-01

    Cockpit resource management which is a multifaceted concept is outlined. The system involves the effective coordination of many resources: aircraft systems, company, air traffic control, equipment, navigational aids, documents, and manuals. The main concept, however, is group interaction. Problems which arise from lack of coordination, decision making, and lack of communication are pointed out. Implementation by the regional airline industry of cockpit resource management, designed to deal with human interactions problems in the most cost effective manner, is discussed.

  4. Text mining resources for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Shifts of heat availability and stressful temperatures in Russian Federation result in gains and losses of wheat thermal suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Caporaso, Luca; Santini, Monia; Di Paola, Francesco; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes are likely to shift the suitability of lands devoted to cropping systems. We explored the past-to-future thermal suitability of Russian Federation for wheat (Triticum aestivum) culture through an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5-GCMs outputs considering two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Thermal suitability assesses where wheat heat requirement, counted from suggested sowing dates, is satisfied without the occurrence of stressful hot and frost temperatures. Thermal requirement was estimated by means of phenological observations on soft wheat involving different wheat cultivar collected in different regions of Russian Federation, Azerbaidhan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan, whilst stressful temperatures were taken from a literature survey. Results showed projected geographical shift of heat resource toward the north-eastern regions, currently mainly covered by forests and croplands, but also an increase of very hot temperatures in the most productive areas of the southern regions. Gains and losses were then quantified and discussed from both agronomical and climatic perspective.

  6. Suitability Evaluation on the Information Service System of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is used to carry out suitability evaluation on the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province, China. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert consultation method are used to determine the evaluation index system and index weight. Suitability effect of the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" is taken as the target layer. The five indices at criterion layer are the organizational mode of agricultural information service, the support system of agricultural information resources, the agricultural information transfer system, the capital source of agricultural information service, and the support system of agricultural information service. And the index layer includes the talent team of agent service, the interaction between the subject and object, the accuracy of agricultural information, the convenience of agricultural information transfer, the adequacy of fund, the efficiency in the use of fund, the status of information infrastructure and so on. Evaluation result shows that the information service system of "Agricultural Science and Technology 110" in Sichuan Province is suitable for the rural economic development at present. The major factors restricting the information service system are the lack of continuity, the weak infrastructure of agricultural information infrastructure, and the relatively low education level of agricultural producers. Therefore, we should further explore and improve the operation mechanism of agricultural information service, expand the capital source of agricultural information service, strengthen the construction of agricultural infrastructure, and ensure the continuous operation of information service system.

  7. Identification Of Marginal Land Suitable For Biofuel Production In Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojević Uroš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass as a potential energy source has both advantages and disadvantages. Biomass is a potential source of fuel energy that provides economic and environmental benefits such as less expensive and less energy intensive production, carbon sequestration and soil preservation. However, the main concern associated with biofuels is that land needed for food will be used for biofuel crops. One potential solution is the use of marginal lands which are not suited for food production. Marginal lands generally refer to the areas not only with low production, but also with limitations that make them unsuitable for agricultural practices and ecosystem functions. This can be due to various forms of land degradation such as pollution, surface exploitation of mineral resources, erosion, overexploitation and others. We used remotely sensed data, environmental data and field survey data to identify possible marginal lands in Serbia. All gathered data was transferred to GIS in order to create maps and database of potential marginal lands which could be used for biomass production.

  8. 1990 Resource Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    This document is a summary providing an overview of the analysis, thought process, and conclusions of the Resource Program. This summary is accompanied by a Technical Report, under separate cover, that provides a more in-depth discussion of the information presented here. Another companion document published under separate cover, the Resource Program Public Comment Summary and BPA's Response, provides a detailed summary of public comments on the Draft 1990 Resource Program and BPA's response to those comments. For a thorough understanding of how BPA arrived at the following conclusions, all three documents should be consulted. The 1990 Resource Program describes the actions Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) will take to develop new resources to meet the power requirements of its customers. The main focus is to determine what BPA should do in Fiscal Years (FY's) 1992 and 1993. This document presents Energy Resource budgets for these years. However, much care has been taken to define near-term actions aimed at meeting BPA's long-term resource needs. consequently, proposed program actions are presented for FY's 1994 through 1997. In addition, the 1990 Resource Program addresses some resource-related policy issues.

  9. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications. We start from the fun

  10. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  11. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  12. National Airspace System Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Airspace System Resources (NASR) maintains the national aeronautical information database, containing static data related to NAS facilities and operations....

  13. Phytoremediation Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide provides abstracts of over 100 phytoremediation overviews, field studies and demonstrations, research articles, and Internet resources. It also provides a brief summary of phytoremediation.

  14. The Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation and Changes in Agricultural Land of Garmsar basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bakhshandehmehr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, due to the reduction in surface water, utilization of groundwater has been increased to meet the growing demand of irrigation water. The quality of these water resources is continually changing, due to the geological formations, the amount of utilization, and climatic parameters. In many developing countries, the irrigation water is obtained from poor quality groundwater resources, which in turn, creates unfavorable circumstances for plant growth and reduces the agricultural yield. Providing adequate water resources for agricultural utilization is one of the most important steps needed to achieve the developmental targets of sustainable agriculture. Thus, this necessitates the assessment and evaluation of the quality of irrigation water. There are many proposed methods to determine the suitability of water for different applications, such as Piper, Wilcox, and Schoeller diagrams. Zoning of quality and suitability of irrigation water could represent the prone and critical areas to groundwater exploitation. Garmsar alluvial fan is one of the most sensitive areas in the country where traditional agriculture practices had turned into modern techniques and excessive exploitation of groundwater has caused an intensepressure on aquifers and increased water salinity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation in a 10-year period (2002-2012 and its changes in this basin. Materials and Methods: Garmsar alluvial fan is located in the North-West of Semnan Province. Semnan is situated in the Southern hillside of the Alborz Mountains, in North of Iran. The study area includes the agricultural land on this alluvial fan and covers over 3750 hectares of this basin. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in this area, the electrical conductivity and sodium absorption ratio of 42 sample wells were calculated. The raster maps of these indicators were obtained using Geo

  15. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Wolfram [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Jessica G. [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Mašek, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.masek@ed.ac.uk [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg{sup −1} biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg{sup −1} biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni

  16. Suitability of rapid energy magnitude determinations for emergency response purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Bormann, Peter; Grosser, Helmut; Saul, Joachim; Wang, Rongjiang; Zschau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    It is common practice in the seismological community to use, especially for large earthquakes, the moment magnitude Mw as a unique magnitude parameter to evaluate the earthquake's damage potential. However, as a static measure of earthquake size, Mw does not provide direct information about the released seismic wave energy and its high frequency content, which is the more interesting information both for engineering purposes and for a rapid assessment of the earthquake's shaking potential. Therefore, we recommend to provide to disaster management organizations besides Mw also sufficiently accurate energy magnitude determinations as soon as possible after large earthquakes. We developed and extensively tested a rapid method for calculating the energy magnitude Me within about 10-15 min after an earthquake's occurrence. The method is based on pre-calculated spectral amplitude decay functions obtained from numerical simulations of Green's functions. After empirical validation, the procedure has been applied offline to a large data set of 767 shallow earthquakes that have been grouped according to their type of mechanism (strike-slip, normal faulting, thrust faulting, etc.). The suitability of the proposed approach is discussed by comparing our rapid Me estimates with Mw published by GCMT as well as with Mw and Me reported by the USGS. Mw is on average slightly larger than our Me for all types of mechanisms. No clear dependence on source mechanism is observed for our Me estimates. In contrast, Me from the USGS is generally larger than Mw for strike-slip earthquakes and generally smaller for the other source types. For ~67 per cent of the event data set our Me differs events. A reason of that may be the overcorrection of the energy flux applied by the USGS for this type of earthquakes. We follow the original definition of magnitude scales, which does not apply a priori mechanism corrections to measured amplitudes, also since reliable fault-plane solutions are hardly

  17. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim

  18. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  19. Predictive mechanistic bioenergetics to model habitat suitability of shellfish culture in coastal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Manganaro, A.; Mazzola, A.; Mirto, S.; Sanfilippo, M.; Sarà, G.

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative tools based on mechanistic modelling of functional traits able to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture and most other human activities (i.e. reducing the likelihood of detrimental impacts optimising productions), are especially important factors in the decision to site aquaculture facilities in coastal lakes, ponds and lagoons and, in the case of detrimental impact, to adopt mitigation measures. We tested the ability of mechanistic functional trait based models to predict life history traits of cultivable shellfish in shallow coastal lakes. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models were run to generate spatially explicit predictions of Mytilus galloprovincialis life history (LH) traits (e.g. body size and fecundity). Using fortnightly data of food supply and hourly data of body temperatures, and exploiting the power of mechanistic rules, we estimated the amount of faeces ejected by a fixed quantity of organisms cultivated in two shallow Southern Mediterranean (Sicily) lakes. These differed in terms of temperature and food density, implying large differences in life history traits of mussels in the two study areas. This information could help facilitate the selection of sites where environmental conditions are more suitable for aquaculture and contextually compatible with sustainability. The validation exercise obtained by comparing the predicted and observed data was nearly consistent. Therefore, a mechanistic functional traits-based model seems able to capture the link between habitat characteristics and functional traits of organisms, delineating the fundamental portion of an ecological niche, the possibility of predicting LH traits and potential ecological applications in the management of natural coastal resources.

  20. On the dynamics of a wind-hydrogen energy system undergoing a suitable operation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Clua, J.G. [National University of La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Faculty of Engineering. Lab. de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI)]. E-mail: jose.garciaclua@ing.unlp.edu.ar; Mantz, R.J. [National University of La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Scientific Research Commission of the Province of Buenos Aires (CICpBA); Battista, H. de [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    Hydrogen production from renewable energy sources represents a potential solution for sustainable development. However, there are still some barriers to a cost-competitive hydrogen economy. Among other open topics, there is a need for suitable controllers being capable of maximizing the wind energy extraction despite the primary resource variability and, at the same time, of accomplishing the electrolyzer specifications. Several operation strategies have been proposed to cope with these objectives. Nevertheless, the design of dynamic controllers to track a given strategy is a problem less treated in literature, though not less important. For the proper design of such controllers it is necessary to study the inherent properties of the system dynamics. In this context, this paper is devoted to investigate the dynamic behaviour of a wind-hydrogen energy system where the wind turbine is coupled to the electrolyzer through an electronic converter. Particular attention is given to the zero dynamics of the system because of their potential limitations to the operation strategy tracking. It is found that the zero dynamics exhibits interesting phenomena such as bifurcation of equilibria, which mainly appears because of the nonlinearity introduced by the aerodynamic torque. (author)

  1. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using GOES satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, Jorge R.; Feijo, Eleandro S.

    2003-04-01

    Images from GOES satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. Forty-three images from the GOES meteorological satellite in channels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning an 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology can produce valid results and can be applied to studies covering larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method is valid and can effectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites.

  2. Search for astronomical sites suitable for infrared observations using goes satellite images release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, J. R.; Feijó, E.

    2003-08-01

    Astronomical sites are traditionally found after studies performed over many years, including preliminary selection of places based in general information on climate, clear skies and logistical adequacy. It follows extensive "in situ" monitoring of seeing and cloudiness. Theses procedures are long and expensive, and alternatives can be looked for. In this study, images from GOES meteorological satellite were used to develop a method to search for sites suitable to astronomical observations in the infrared. An area of study located in the Peruvian Andes was chosen, with altitudes above 2500 m. 43 images from the GOES meteorological satellite in chanels 3, 4 and 5 were used. The GOES images, spanning a 11-day period, in each channel, were combined to produced images expressing the surface visibility in each channel. Atmospheric turbulence could be estimated from the variation of visibility over six-hour periods, with one image per hour. As criteria to classify sites on the Andes, we combined information on altitude, visibility of the surface in the infrared, the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, and atmospheric turbulence. Results of this new method showed that the region of Moquegua, in South Peru, is to be preferred in surveys for astronomical sites. Comparisons with results from other investigators, which used other approaches, indicated that this methodology produces valid results and can be used to studies spanning larger periods. The general results of this study indicate that the method can efectively be used as an important resource in surveys for infrared astronomical sites

  3. Test of a habitat suitability index for black bears in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Zimmerman, J.W.; Powell, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a habitat suitability index (HSI) model for black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the southern Appalachians that was developed a priori from the literature, then tested using location and home range data collected in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, over a 12-year period. The HSI was developed and initially tested using habitat and bear data collected over 2 years in the sanctuary. We increased number of habitat sampling sites, included data collected in areas affected by timber harvest, used more recent Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to create a more accurate depiction of the HSI for the sanctuary, evaluated effects of input variability on HSI values, and duplicated the original tests using more data. We found that the HSI predicted habitat selection by bears on population and individual levels and the distribution of collared bears were positively correlated with HSI values. We found a stronger relationship between habitat selection by bears and a second-generation HSI. We evaluated our model with criteria suggested by Roloff and Kernohan (1999) for evaluating HSI model reliability and concluded that our model was reliable and robust. The model's strength is that it was developed as an a priori hypothesis directly modeling the relationship between critical resources and fitness of bears and tested with independent data. We present the HSI spatially as a continuous fitness surface where potential contribution of habitat to the fitness of a bear is depicted at each point in space.

  4. Selection of a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage insulation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosier, I. L.; Guushaa, A.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    Many items of high voltage plant employ a liquid both as a dielectric and a coolant. Currently these systems use a mineral oil, however, this suffers from the drawback of being potentially toxic and hence leakages and eventual disposal can be serious issues. To overcome this problem, an increasing trend in the UK is to backfill existing paper/oil cable systems with dodecylbenzene (DDB). This fluid possesses the advantages of improved gas absorption, good dielectric properties and biodegradability; nevertheless it is still derived from crude oil, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils offer the added advantage of being renewable although many types are available with very different properties. In order to select a suitable vegetable oil for high voltage applications, a standardised ageing and testing regime is required. In this paper, a wide range of vegetable oils were subjected to controlled laboratory ageing and the resulting aged oils were characterised by a number of analytical techniques. The results from these tests were then used to rank the different oils, and to select the most ageing resistant oil.

  5. Low Delta-V Near-Earth Asteroids: a survey of suitable targets for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Ieva, S; Perna, D; Barucci, M A; Bernardi, F; Fornasier, S; De Luise, F; Perozzi, E; Rossi, A; Brucato, J R

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have become very important targets to study, since they can give us clues to the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. In addition, they may represent either a threat to humankind, or a repository of extraterrestrial resources for suitable space-borne missions. Within this framework, the choice of next-generation mission targets and the characterisation of a potential threat to our planet deserve special attention. To date, only a small part of the 11,000 discovered NEOs have been physically characterised. From ground and space-based observations one can determine some basic physical properties of these objects using visible and infrared spectroscopy. We present data for 13 objects observed with different telescopes around the world (NASA-IRTF, ESO-NTT, TNG) in the 0.4 - 2.5 um spectral range, within the NEOSURFACE survey (http://www.oa-roma.inaf.it/planet/NEOSurface.html). Objects are chosen from among the more accessible for a rendez-vous mis...

  6. Optimization of Land Use Suitability for Agriculture Using Integrated Geospatial Model and Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, S. B.; Pormanafi, S.; Mahmud, A. R. B.; Pirasteh, S.

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a geospatial model for land use allocation was developed from the view of simulating the biological autonomous adaptability to environment and the infrastructural preference. The model was developed based on multi-agent genetic algorithm. The model was customized to accommodate the constraint set for the study area, namely the resource saving and environmental-friendly. The model was then applied to solve the practical multi-objective spatial optimization allocation problems of land use in the core region of Menderjan Basin in Iran. The first task was to study the dominant crops and economic suitability evaluation of land. Second task was to determine the fitness function for the genetic algorithms. The third objective was to optimize the land use map using economical benefits. The results has indicated that the proposed model has much better performance for solving complex multi-objective spatial optimization allocation problems and it is a promising method for generating land use alternatives for further consideration in spatial decision-making.

  7. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  8. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  9. characteristics and suitability evaluation of the “white soils” of etung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    Improving the income generation capacity of the farmers ... suitability classes by matching their characteristics (Tables 4 and 5) with the land suitability ..... Bruno G., Johannes L. and Wolfgang Z. (2002) Ameliorating physical and chemical ...

  10. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  11. Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Ovalle-Rivera

    Full Text Available Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee.

  12. Projected Shifts in Coffea arabica Suitability among Major Global Producing Regions Due to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Rivera, Oriana; Läderach, Peter; Bunn, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Schroth, Götz

    2015-01-01

    Regional studies have shown that climate change will affect climatic suitability for Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) within current regions of production. Increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will decrease yield, reduce quality and increase pest and disease pressure. This is the first global study on the impact of climate change on suitability to grow Arabica coffee. We modeled the global distribution of Arabica coffee under changes in climatic suitability by 2050s as projected by 21 global circulation models. The results suggest decreased areas suitable for Arabica coffee in Mesoamerica at lower altitudes. In South America close to the equator higher elevations could benefit, but higher latitudes lose suitability. Coffee regions in Ethiopia and Kenya are projected to become more suitable but those in India and Vietnam to become less suitable. Globally, we predict decreases in climatic suitability at lower altitudes and high latitudes, which may shift production among the major regions that produce Arabica coffee. PMID:25875230

  13. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Fitness and Suitability Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) initiated the Nuclear Energy-Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE supported or related infrastructure. This database will be used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc. in order to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of the infrastructure calls. The NSUF developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a wide variety of reports from the Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID contains data on 802 R&D instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the US and abroad. A Database Review Panel (DRP) was formed to review and provide advice on the development, implementation and utilization of the NEID. The panel is comprised of five members with expertise in nuclear energy-associated research. It was intended that they represent the major constituencies associated with nuclear energy research: academia, industry, research reactor, national laboratory, and Department of Energy program management. The Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Review Panel concludes that the NSUF has succeeded in creating a capability and infrastructure database that identifies and documents the major nuclear energy research and development capabilities across the DOE complex. The effort to maintain and expand the database will be ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements.

  14. Human Resource Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  15. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  16. Learning resource metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Temesio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metadata of educational resources are subject of analysis including LOM, OBAA and in a particular way LOM-ES Profile and accesibility VII annex. Conclusions are the importance of getting quality descriptions of resources to fulfill discovery, localization and reuse operations. The information professionals have a principal importance in the metadata registration.

  17. Resources for Teaching Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Teresa; Suggett, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Resources that are available for teachers presenting astronomy in the National Curriculum are listed. Included are societies and organizations, resource centers and places to visit, planetaria, telescopes and binoculars, planispheres, star charts, night sky diaries, equipment, audiovisual materials, computer software, books, and magazines. (KR)

  18. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues its first white paper on human resources The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September 10, highlighting the country’s policies to cope with employment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents.

  19. The Strategic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2011-01-01

    “The reason I pay close attention to and am very concerned about standards is that fiom my point of view standards are very important resources or even strategic resources.The meteorological work is highly professional and requires standards in every aspect.With disjoint standards,businesses,services and scientific researches cannot be properly done.”

  20. Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2017-01-01

    While digital products have made significant inroads into the educational resources market, textbooks and other print materials still command about 60 percent of sales. But whether print or digital, all of these commercial offerings now face threats from a burgeoning effort to promote "open" resources for education--that is, materials…

  1. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    , particularly following a widespread flood, when crops and livestock are lost and mutual assistance is compromised. Furthermore, ethnicity, market distance, resource type/proximity, and household wealth, among other variables, are all significant determinants of natural resource harvest for household income...

  2. World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  3. School Library Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    As part of an on-going effort to provide high-quality resources to support instruction, this resource guide provides a list of nonbook materials evaluated according to their currency, relevance, and value to Hawaii's educational programs. The following information is included: (1) Subject Heading List; (2) Listing of Titles by Subject Heading,…

  4. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  5. Forest Resources: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, J. S.; Schreuder, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Concern for long-term availability of nonrenewable resources has fostered proposals for substitution with renewable resources. Forest products could become the basis for materials substitution and production. Further feasibility studies are needed to determine the technical, economic, energy, and environmental aspects of substitution. (MR)

  6. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  7. Educational resources: website and book review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, C

    2007-12-01

    Good quality educational material for anaesthesia providers in the developing world is limited in both quantity and availability. Traditionally, textbooks have been the main source of information but these are frequently expensive, easily damaged and rapidly become outdated. Many first world texts concentrate on the use of expensive drugs for an increasingly complex range of patients and procedures, making them less suitable for practitioners in resource-poor locations. Improved access to broadband internet connections will increasingly be a major portal for the delivery of up to date educational material.

  8. A habitat suitability model for Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, T.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Brink, van den A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The modelled habitat suitability maps show a reasonable estimation of the suitability for oysters throughout the Delta and can be used to broadly indicate the consequences of the effect of climate change and infrastructural changes on the habitat suitability for oysters. The largest effect on the su

  9. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  10. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    Companies that wish to draw benefit from supplier resources beyond standard market offerings must actively make an effort to mobilize these resources. This task has been a major topic of interest in the management literature, but the continued reported problems of companies attempting to influence...... suppliers suggests that the knowledge of this challenge is yet inadequate. The purpose of this paper is therefore to establish a research agenda on supplier resource mobilization that can improve this knowledge. To fulfill the purpose we review the management literature and identify the most prevalent...... theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  11. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  12. Dynamic Resource Access Using Graphical Game in Asymmetric Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the resource utilization in asymmetric wireless networks, a novel dynamic resource access algorithm was presented. As the asymmetry of information and the locality of users' actions in distributed wireless networks, the resource access problem was expressed as a simple graphical game model. Let the graphic topology indicate the internal game structure of the realistic environment. Then the Nash equilibrium was got by minimizing the individual regret instead of the system regret. The proposed algorithm realized efficient resource access through exchanging the active information and regret in the competitive community. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm can converge to a suitable pure strategy Nash equilibrium point quickly with less amount of calculation, avoids conflict effectively, and improves the system capacity and power utilization especially in the condition of insufficient resources

  13. Future climate resources for tourism in Europe based on the daily Tourism Climatic Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perch-Nielsen, S.; Amelung, B.; Knutti, R.

    2010-01-01

    Climate is an important resource for many types of tourism. One of several metrics for the suitability of climate for sightseeing is Mieczkowski’s “Tourism Climatic Index” (TCI), which summarizes and combines seven climate variables. By means of the TCI, we analyse the present climate resources for

  14. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

  15. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  16. Distribution of wind power resource over Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M.; Raja, I.A. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and presentation of the wind data are required to establish the wind resource climatology for an area. In this respect, wind contour maps are essential to visualize and quantify the variation of wind speed over the country. Using the average data from 59 locations, iso-wind speed contours are drawn by constructing monthly and yearly maps. The most suitable period for utilizing wind potential is May-August. During this period, the country as a whole exhibits the best wind resource potential, with an average speed of about 3 m/s. (3 m/s average wind speed is very poor for wind power generation). The most promising regions for exploiting wind power throughout the year are the coastline, lower Sind and north-western Balochistan. (author).

  17. Automating usability of ATLAS Distributed Computing resources

    CERN Document Server

    "Tupputi, S A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic exclusion/recovery of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources who feature non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes SAM (Site Availability Test) site-by-site SRM tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites.\

  18. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  19. Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…

  20. Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…

  1. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources.......The Greenland development is a story about: Having a hinterland position in relation to the global development. An indigenous people achieving more political influence. How conflicts and discussions on power and ownership of the subsurface resources between a state and an autonomy (Home Rule) can...

  2. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  3. Medical pedagogical resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Delamarre, Denis; Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to help the management of training resources for students using a pedagogical network available at the Medical School of Rennes. With the increase of the number of connections and the number of medical documents available on this network, the management of new contents requires a lot of efforts for the webmaster. In order to improve the management of the resources, we implemented an automatic web engine for teachers, able to manage the links for the most interesting resources for their practice.

  4. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  5. Discussion on Correct Implementing the System of Human Resource Management and Improving the Effectiveness of Training——Sufficient and Reasonable Evaluation or Assessment of Ability is the Foundation of Assure Suitability of Training Needs%正确实施系统的人力资源管理和提高培训有效性的探讨——充分合理的能力评价或考核是保证培训需求充分适宜性的基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红兵

    2012-01-01

    本文对岗位要求、培训需求确定和培训的实施、能力评价和能力保证的关系进行了系统探讨,旨在提高系统探讨培训的有效性,将管理体系管理与现代人力资源管理有机地结合起来,提高人力资源管理水平.%This paper system discuss the relations of job requirements, training needs are identified and the implementation of, training, competence evaluation and the ability to guarantee, In order to improve the system of training effectiveness, combination of management system management and modern human resources management organically, improving the human resource management level.

  6. A Matchmaking Strategy Of Mixed Resource On Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Elshareef

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today cloud computing has become a key technology for online allotment of computing resources and online storage of user data in a lower cost where computing resources are available all the time over the Internet with pay per use concept. Recently there is a growing need for resource management strategies in a cloud computing environment that encompass both end-users satisfaction and a high job submission throughput with appropriate scheduling. One of the major and essential issues in resource management is related to allocate incoming tasks to suitable virtual machine matchmaking. The main objective of this paper is to propose a matchmaking strategy between the incoming requests and various resources in the cloud environment to satisfy the requirements of users and to load balance the workload on resources. Load Balancing is an important aspect of resource management in a cloud computing environment. So this paper proposes a dynamic weight active monitor DWAM load balance algorithm which allocates on the fly the incoming requests to the all available virtual machines in an efficient manner in order to achieve better performance parameters such as response time processing time and resource utilization. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is analyzed using Cloudsim simulator which proves the superiority of the proposed DWAM algorithm over its counterparts in literature. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed algorithm dramatically improves response time data processing time and more utilized of resource compared Active monitor and VM-assign algorithms.

  7. Load Balancing in Local Computational Grids within Resource Allocation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Golmohammadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A suitable resource allocation method in computational grids should schedule resources in a way that provides the requirements of the users and the resource providers; i.e., the maximum number of tasks should be completed in their time and budget constraints and the received load be distributed equally between resources. This is a decision-making problem, while the scheduler should select a resource from all ones. This process is a multi criteria decision-making problem; because of affect of different properties of resources on this decision. The goal of this decision-making process is balancing the load and completing the tasks in their defined constraints. The proposed algorithm is an analytic hierarchy process based Resource Allocation (ARA method. This method estimates a value for the preference of each resource and then selects the appropriate resource based on the allocated values. The simulations show the ARA method decreases the task failure rate at least 48% and increases the balance factor more than 3.4%.

  8. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, A. Edward

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  9. Evaluation of Abiotic Resource LCIA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a life cycle assessment (LCA, the impacts on resources are evaluated at the area of protection (AoP with the same name, through life cycle impact assessment (LCIA methods. There are different LCIA methods available in literature that assesses abiotic resources, and the goal of this study was to propose recommendations for that impact category. We evaluated 19 different LCIA methods, through two criteria (scientific robustness and scope, divided into three assessment levels, i.e., resource accounting methods (RAM, midpoint, and endpoint. In order to support the assessment, we applied some LCIA methods to a case study of ethylene production. For RAM, the most suitable LCIA method was CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (but SED (Solar Energy Demand and ICEC (Industrial Cumulative Exergy Consumption/ECEC (Ecological Cumulative Exergy Consumption may also be recommended, while the midpoint level was ADP (Abiotic Depletion Potential, and the endpoint level was both the Recipe Endpoint and EPS2000 (Environmental Priority Strategies. We could notice that the assessment for the AoP Resources is not yet well established in the LCA community, since new LCIA methods (with different approaches and assessment frameworks are showing up, and this trend may continue in the future.

  10. Terminology and French-Spanish business translation: evaluating terminology resources for the translation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate a series of terminology resources and determine their suitability to the practice of French-Spanish translation of accounting documents. First we identify the terminology needs of a specific group of translator trainees when facing business translation, as well as the resources they use particularly when translating annual accounts. Then, we select various terminology resources used in this context and evaluate them according to their needs. The results su...

  11. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...... high degree of natural resource reliance compared to other forested regions (an average 42% of household income derived from forest and agroforestry products, plus 14% derived from fishing). Results from household shock coping surveys highlight the safety net functions of forest and fishery products......, particularly following a widespread flood, when crops and livestock are lost and mutual assistance is compromised. Furthermore, ethnicity, market distance, resource type/proximity, and household wealth, among other variables, are all significant determinants of natural resource harvest for household income...

  12. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  13. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives and Programs Guidance and Tools Chronic Homelessness LGBT Domestic Violence Families Youth Youth Main Page Provider ... of Chronic Homelessness View new resources on the definition of chronic homelessness , as well as other materials ...

  14. Resources for International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about NCI's Center for Global Health, which facilitates global collaboration by leveraging research resources with U.S. government agencies, foreign governments, non-government organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies.

  15. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  16. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  17. Mineral resources of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, D.F.; Woodcock, J.T. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    The papers presented cover geological, geochemical technology and geophysics in mineral exploration, mineral resources, mining methods and technology, aspects of beneficiation, pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, and environmental aspects. 4 of the 14 papers have been abstracted separately.

  18. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  19. Tay-Sachs - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - Tay-Sachs ... The following organizations provide information on Tay-Sachs disease : US National Library of Medicine -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tay-sachs-disease March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pnhec/ ...

  20. BEI Resource Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BEI Resources provides reagents, tools and information for studying Category A, B, and C priority pathogens, emerging infectious disease agents, non-pathogenic...

  1. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  2. Myasthenia gravis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - myasthenia gravis ... The following organizations provide information on myasthenia gravis : Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America -- www.myasthenia.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/myasthenia_gravis/ ...

  3. Resources for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI develops and commercializes novel technologies and products to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer through its Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer programs. Find links to these programs and resources.

  4. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September I0, highlighting the coun-try's policies to cope with employ-ment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents."

  5. Resources to Riches?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Africa's natural resources can be a cornerstone of development for some countries on the struggling continent Africa is a vast territory with abundant mineral and biological resources, and this is where great hope lies for a better future. Its valuable metallic reserves, which include gold, cobalt, platinum, chromium, manganese, titanium and vanadium, and mineral reserves, such as diamond, bauxite and phosphate, top the world. Its verified oil and natural gas deposits

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  7. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  8. Strategic Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Muqaj

    2016-01-01

    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation...

  9. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  10. Establishing lunar resource viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  11. Lunar Resources: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  12. Site suitability to tourist use or management programs South Marsa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMRO ABD-ELHAMID ABD-ELGAWAD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA, Hassanein M, Madkour HA, Abd-Elgawad AE. 2011. Site suitability to tourist use or management programs South Marsa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 36-43. Twenty sites in the southern Egyptian Red Sea (Marsa Alam-Ras Banas sector were surveyed principally for sensitivity significance throughout the periode 2002-2003. Sensitivity of the study area was derived from internationally known criteria, the key words of each criterion and a brief description of its use was described. The present study assigned for the first time a numerical total environmental significance score that gives a full sensitivity significance evaluation for any site to decide to select either for tourist use or management purposes. However, the results of the study still have the availability to arrange sites with respect to one criterion or only two or many of the used criteria whichever needed. Sites selected for protection are categorized as belonging to the following protected area categories: sites 7, 10 (category vi, site 18 (category ib, site 5 (category iv, sites 16, 17 (category ii. Sites selected for tourist uses are suggested to be classified into 2 categories: first category sites (sites 1, 3, 8, 11, 13, 15 which are recommended as tourist use sites with management of the sensitive resources beside non consumptive recreational activities like swimming, diving, boating, surfing, wind-surfing, jet skiing, bird watching, snorkelling, etc.; second category sites (sites 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14, 19, 20 which are recommended as tourist use sites with both non consumptive and managed consumptive recreational activities like fishing.

  13. Semi-arid Vegetation Pattern, Stability and Suitability to Suppress Sand Movement in Central Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K.N. Al-Amin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving sand that threatens Gezira scheme is the dominant land degradation feature in central Sudan and the front line defence is the sparse scattered natural vegetation of the area. The study aimed to assess the role of this vegetation to suppress drifting sand and to monitor their ability to face the impact of climate change and human activity (deforestation. The dimensions of the sand captured by single tree of dominant species, Acacia tortilis, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Prosopis juliflora and Panicum turgidum were measured and the volumes were calculated. To picture the drought pattern 5-year running means of annual rainfalls (1941-2007 of the study area were calculated and compared with long-term mean. Deforestation was indicated by local community wood consumption in relation to the average woody biomass (in good condition. The results show that scattered trees of the right densities had potentiality to settle drifting sand, but they were subjected to 20 years dry seasons followed by only 4 wet years and now are subjected to a new era of dry spell. This condition is not in favour of the semi-arid vegetation pattern sustainability and a suitable measure to enhance natural regeneration is needed. In addition, the community's wood demand was higher than the resource, where a person would destroy 0.5 ha/year compared to 0.9 ha/year per person available reveals the magnitude of deforestation. Encouragement of farmers to use alternative energy sources and functional application of laws and regulations to protect the existing vegetation rem ain crucial.

  14. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  15. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  16. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  17. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    resources on the continental margins as in deep sea is currently uneconomical. With further depletion of onshore resources and advancement in technology, the mining of these resources may also become a reality in the near future....

  18. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  19. Increase in quantity and quality of suitable areas for invasive species as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Luque, Gloria M; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    As climatically suitable range projections become increasingly used to assess distributions of species, we recommend systematic assessments of the quality of habitat in addition to the classical binary classification of habitat. We devised a method to assess occurrence probability, captured by a climatic suitability index, through which we could determine variations in the quality of potential habitat. This relative risk assessment circumvents the use of an arbitrary suitability threshold. We illustrated our method with 2 case studies on invasive ant species. We estimated invasion potential of the destroyer ant (Monomorium destructor) and the European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) on a global scale currently and by 2080 with climate change. We found that 21.1% of the world's landmass currently has a suitable climate for the destroyer ant and 16% has a suitable climate for European fire ant. Our climatic suitability index showed that both ant species would benefit from climate change, but in different ways. The size of the potential distribution increased by 35.8% for the destroyer ant. Meanwhile, the total area of potential distribution remained the same for the European fire ant (>0.05%), but the level of climatic suitability within this range increased greatly and led to an improvement in habitat quality (i.e., of invasive species' establishment likelihood). Either through quantity or quality of suitable areas, both invasive ant species are likely to increase the extent of their invasion in the future, following global climate change. Our results show that species may increase their range if either more areas become suitable or if the available areas present improved suitability. Studies in which an arbitrary suitability threshold was used may overlook changes in area quality within climatically suitable areas and as a result reach incorrect predictions. Incremento de la Cantidad y Calidad de Áreas Idóneas para Especies Invasoras a Medida que Cambia el Clima.

  20. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  1. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands with least vulnerability to the impacts of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very helpful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  2. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  3. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  4. Assessment of brown trout habitat suitability in the Jucar River Basin (SPAIN): comparison of data-driven approaches with fuzzy-logic models and univariate suitability curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martínez-Capel, Francisco; Schneider, Matthias; Mouton, Ans M

    2012-12-01

    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive implies the determination of an environmental flow (E-flow) in each running water body. In Spain, many of the minimum flow assessments were determined with the physical habitat simulation system based on univariate habitat suitability curves. Multivariate habitat suitability models, widely applied in habitat assessment, are potentially more accurate than univariate suitability models. This article analyses the microhabitat selection by medium-sized (10-20 cm) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) in three streams of the Jucar River Basin District (eastern Iberian Peninsula). The data were collected with an equal effort sampling approach. Univariate habitat suitability curves were built with a data-driven process for depth, mean velocity and substrate classes; three types of data-driven fuzzy models were generated with the FISH software: two models of presence-absence and a model of abundance. FISH applies a hill-climbing algorithm to optimize the fuzzy rules. A hydraulic model was calibrated with the tool River-2D in a segment of the Cabriel River (Jucar River Basin). The fuzzy-logic models and three methods to produce a suitability index from the three univariate curves were applied to evaluate the river habitat in the tool CASiMiR©. The comparison of results was based on the spatial arrangement of habitat suitability and the curves of weighted usable area versus discharge. The differences were relevant in different aspects, e.g. in the estimated minimum environmental flow according to the Spanish legal norm for hydrological planning. This work demonstrates the impact of the model's selection on the habitat suitability modelling and the assessment of environmental flows, based on an objective data-driven procedure; the conclusions are important for the water management in the Jucar River Basin and other river systems in Europe, where the environmental flows are a keystone for the achievement of the goals established

  5. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diana Anoubam; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Keesari, Tirumalesh

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F- (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2- (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 - (22 %), HCO3 - (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F- (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2- (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 - (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper's trilinear plot and Chadha's plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to

  6. Suitable Environmental Flow Release Criteria for Both Human and Riverine Ecosystems: Accounting for the Uncertainty of Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental flow (e-flow release criteria are key parameters in water resources management and riverine ecosystem protection. The previous methods for e-flow criterion determination are based on the historical flow time series without the consideration of flow uncertainty. Due to low possibility of reoccurrence of the historical flows and the uncertainty of future flows, the flow uncertainty needs to be integrated in the process of determining e-flow release criteria. In this research, a new method is proposed to determine the optimal e-flow release criteria under flow uncertainty accounting for both the human and riverine ecosystem needs. In the new method, the scenario tree method is applied to generate the scenarios of flows, which can cover most of possible flow conditions and can effectively reflect the uncertainty of flows; the Range of Variability Approach (RVA, a most commonly used method to assess the flow regime alteration, is refined by incorporating the uncertainty of flows. The Tang River in Northern China is taken as a case study to test the effectiveness of the new method. The results show that the previous method obviously overestimates the optimal e-flow release criteria and the new method can get more suitable criteria that are suitable for both human and riverine ecosystems.

  7. Bandwidth Resource Dynamic Allocation in Differentiated Services Model%Diffserv中带宽代理BB的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑜; 朱淼良

    2003-01-01

    To employ Differentiated Services, efficient and flexible resource allocation mechanism is needed. Static bandwidth resource allocation Is not suitable for the situations in which traffic varies greatly with times. If customers bought bandwidth according to their highest traffic demands, some resource will be wasted when traffic load is light. On the other hand, the static allocated bandwidth may not satisfy the growing traffic demands. So it is necessary to allocate bandwidth resource in dynamic way. We bring up a prototype of BB, discussing the necessary components to realize the dynamic bandwidth resource allocation and further more, our BB can provides advanced reservation for bandwidth resource. Simulation tests show our design is feasible.

  8. Teleporting squeezing: Optimization using non-Gaussian resources

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, F; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F

    2010-01-01

    We study the continuous-variable quantum teleportation of states, statistical moments of observables, and scale parameters such as squeezing. We investigate the problem both in ideal and imperfect Vaidman-Braunstein-Kimble protocol setups. We show how the teleportation fidelity is maximized and the difference between output and input variances is minimized by using suitably optimized entangled resources. Specifically, we consider the teleportation of coherent squeezed states, exploiting squeezed Bell states as entangled resources. This class of non-Gaussian states includes photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states as special cases. At variance with the case of entangled Gaussian resources, the use of entangled non-Gaussian squeezed Bell resources allows for different optimization procedures that lead to inequivalent results. Performing two independent optimization procedures one can either maximize the state teleportation fidelity, or minimize the difference between input and output quadrature varian...

  9. The Aalborg Model and management by objectives and resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Palle; Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2010-01-01

    The Aalborg Model has proven to be a successful learning method on at least 3 accounts: high completion rates2, the providing of graduates that are highly valued in the labour market3 and its suitability for young people from homes without an academic background4. But the reason why the Aalborg...... Model is successful has never been subject to a scientific study. An educational program in an HEI (Higher Education Institution) can be seen and understood as a system managed by objectives (MBO)5 within a given resource frame and based on an “agreement” between the student and the study board....... The student must achieve the objectives decided by the study board and that achievement is then documented with an exam. The study board supports the student with resources which helps them to fulfill the objectives. When the resources are divided into human, material and methodological resources...

  10. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  11. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  12. Battle for natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This book examines federal land management conflicts in the nation's resource battles. It begins by tracing the shift away from the 19th century policy of granting, giving, or selling lands to homesteaders, railroads, and miners toward the modern-day belief in preserving wilderness and conserving public resources through permanent government control. Subsequent chapters outline specific controversies over leasing federal energy reserves, selling timber from national forests, controlling grazing by ranchers' livestock on federally owned rangelands, and opening the public lands for prospecting and mining. The book concludes by assessing the building tensions between regions within the US over federal policies on water, public lands, and their resources. 109 references, 13 tables.

  13. Storage resource manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and the Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.

  14. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  15. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  16. Resources for teaching English

    CERN Document Server

    Ceranic, Helena

    2011-01-01

    English teachers constantly have to think up new ways to engage their class. It's hard enough for teachers to fit all their marking, extra-curricular duties and training into their lives, let alone finding time to think up exciting new ways of introducing Dickens, or designing activities to bring Caribbean poetry to life. Resources for Teaching English 11-14 provides complete, curriculum-friendly lesson plans and student worksheets for busy secondary school teachers. This resource comprises an assortment of more than 70 lesson plans, each designed to motivate and inspire students and

  17. Timber resource information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The investigators are convinced that high altitude photography when supported with ground measurements and existing surveys, contain all the resource data needed for overall land management planning. This overall planning would include land use classification, environmental impact statements, and similar documentation. First inspection of the RBV ERTS imagery on the Quinault Reservation shows that much of the cultural and resources detail can be identified. Of particular note, is the obvious contrast between recently harvested timber cutting blocks as opposed to those cut more than a year ago. The RBV color composite would have been of better definition if Band 3 had been excluded.

  18. Web resources for myrmecologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard

    2005-01-01

    The world wide web provides many resources that are useful to the myrmecologist. Here I provide a brief introduc- tion to the types of information currently available, and to recent developments in data provision over the internet which are likely to become important resources for myrmecologists...... in the near future. I discuss the following types of web site, and give some of the most useful examples of each: taxonomy, identification and distribution; conservation; myrmecological literature; individual species sites; news and discussion; picture galleries; personal pages; portals....

  19. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

  20. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

  1. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  2. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

  3. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

  4. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  8. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  9. Multicultural Resources for Arts Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Soyini; And Others

    The chapters in this annotated bibliography list resources available to educators for an inclusive, multicultural approach to arts education. The first four chapters are limited to the four most-prevalent ethnic minority groups in Minnesota: (1) African American Resources; (2) Asian American Resources; (3) Hispanic American Resources; (4) Native…

  10. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  12. Characteristics of suitable work from the perspective of patients with fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossema, E.R.; Kool, M.B.; Cornet, D.; Vermaas, P.; Jong, M. de; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of work ability of patients with FM is difficult. Our aim was to investigate the characteristics of suitable work from the perspective of patients with FM. METHODS: Interviews with patients yielded statements about characteristics of suitable work. Patients individually so

  13. Agriculture land suitability analysis evaluation based multi criteria and GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedawi Ahmed, Goma; Shariff, Abdul Rashid M.; Balasundram, Siva Kumar; Abdullah, Ahmad Fikri bin

    2016-06-01

    Land suitability evaluation (LSE) is a valuable tool for land use planning in major countries of the world as well as in Malaysia. However, previous LSE studies have been conducted with the use of biophysical and ecological datasets for the design of equally important socio-economic variables. Therefore, this research has been conducted at the sub national level to estimate suitable agricultural land for rubber crops in Seremban, Malaysia by application of physical variables in combination with widely employed biophysical and ecological variables. The objective of this study has been to provide an up-to date GIS-based agricultural land suitability evaluation (ALSE) for determining suitable agricultural land for Rubber crops in Malaysia. Biophysical and ecological factors were assumed to influence agricultural land use were assembled and the weights of their respective contributions to land suitability for agricultural uses were assessed using an analytic hierarchical process. The result of this study found Senawang, Mambau, Sandakan and Rantau as the most suitable areas for cultivating Rubber; whereas, Nilai and Labu are moderately suitable for growing rubber. Lenggeng, Mantin and Pantai are not suitable for growing rubber as the study foresaw potential environmental degradation of these locations from agricultural intensification. While this study could be useful in assessing the potential agricultural yields and potential environmental degradation in the study area, it could also help to estimate the potential conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.

  14. 42 CFR 85a.6 - Provision of suitable space for employee interviews and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of suitable space for employee interviews... HEALTH INVESTIGATIONS OF PLACES OF EMPLOYMENT § 85a.6 Provision of suitable space for employee interviews... such space is reasonably available, to NIOSH to conduct private interviews with, and...

  15. Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Victoria A. Saab; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability models can provide guidelines for species conservation by predicting where species of interest are likely to occur. Presence-only models are widely used but typically provide only relative indices of habitat suitability (HSIs), necessitating rigorous evaluation often using independently collected presence-absence data. We refined and evaluated...

  16. Acronyms & Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide includes the following: higher education and related associations; advocacy organizations and coalitions of interest to research universities; explanations of acronyms and terms commonly used in the university community; web links to government resources and agencies; Executive and Legislative Branch offices; and key federal…

  17. China Sets Resources Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMin

    2003-01-01

    All mineral mining in China now has a set road to follow, and straying off its path will attract severe penalties. The country's first-round programs for provincial mineral resources exploitation took effect in mid-January, setting output goals and designating mining regions.

  18. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  19. China resource book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, K.O.; Eijndthoven, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The China Resource Book explains the organisation of the agricultural production in China and relates it to China's efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve self-sufficiency in food. It also highlights the variety of environmental problems, which haverisen since the rapid industrial development in t

  20. Kansas' Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; R.L. Atchison

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  1. Kansas' forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; P.D. Miles; R.A. Atchison

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  2. Kansas' forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; C.H. Barnett; C.M. Kurtz; R.A. Atchison

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  3. Kansas' forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; M.H. Hansen; C.H. Barnett; R.A. Atchison

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  4. Kansas' forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Moser; D.E. Haugen; R.A. Atchison

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Kansas based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  5. Forest Resource Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrocznyski, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three processing functions aid in utilizing LANDSAT data for forest resource management. Designed to work primarily with digital data obtained from measurements recorded by multispectral remote sensors mounted on aerospace platforms. communication between processing functions, simplicity of control, and commonality of data files in LARSFRIS enhance usefulness of system as tool for research and development of remote sensing systems.

  6. Maize Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  7. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...

  8. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  9. Dealing with Dwindling Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, S. V.

    Factors contributing to the struggle for survival faced by postsecondary institutions and ways to deal with dwindling resources, in particular by regionalism and regionalization, are considered. Among the contributing factors are the leveling off of the college-age population (18-21-year-olds), the declining status of advanced learning in American…

  10. Bioethics Consultations and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.

  11. Massachusetts' Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Charles Burnham; I. Ted Goodnight; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Massachusetts based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service....

  12. Connecticut's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; I. Ted Goodnight; Helene F. Hochholzer; Barbara O' Connell; Bryan Tirrell

    2008-01-01

    Table 1 and Figures 2 and 3 have been revised by the authors and these revisions were incorporated into the publication on May 27, 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These...

  13. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  14. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  15. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  16. Recorder Resources, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Herbert D.; VanHaaren, Peg

    2006-01-01

    This article provides teaching tips and materials related to recorder lesson. Teaching Recorder in the Music Classroom, by Fred Kersten, compiles more current recorder information than any other resource. In planning instruction, the major determining factor seems to be Rote or Note. This allows instructors to take familiar repertoire that…

  17. Resource Centers; Some Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Dwight Mark; Starkey, John

    Teachers, Principals, and other public school personnel interested in establishing learning resource centers are provided with guidelines and a framework within which they can structure their efforts. Professional literature, observation, and experimental trials serve as the sources from which observations are drawn. The advantages of the resource…

  18. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  19. NCBI viral genomes resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, J Rodney; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets.

  20. Declining Resources, Targeted Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    As resources shrink, the need to do more with less becomes critical. As a business CEO turned superintendent, the author has seen firsthand that many options exist, but none are fun, easy, or politically rewarding. In 2005, he launched a 50-person listening tour with school committee members, central-office staff, curriculum leaders, and…

  1. Illinois' forest resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Earl C. Leatherberry

    1988-01-01

    The third inventory of forest resources in Illinois shows a 1.2% increase in timberland and a 40.5% gain in growing stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Text and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, biomass, and future timber supply.

  2. Continental Rifts and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.

    2017-04-01

    Nearly all resource-forming systems involve upward mobility of fluids and melts. In fact, one of the most effective means of chemically transforming the earth's crust can be readily observed in the rift environment. Imposition of rifting is based on deeper stresses that play out in the crust. At its most fundamental level, rifting transfers heat and fluids to the crust. Heat delivered by fluids aids both in transport of metal and maturation of hydrocarbons. The oxidizing capacity of fluids on their arrival in the deep crust, whether derived from old slabs, depleted upper mantle and/or deeper, more primitive mantle, is a fundamental part of the resource-forming equation. Oxidizing fluids transport some metals and breakdown kerogen, the precursor for oil. Reducing fluids transport a different array of metals. The tendency is to study the resource, not the precursor or the non-economic footprint. In doing so, we lose the opportunity to discover the involvement and significance of initiating processes; for example, externally derived fluids may produce widespread alteration in host rocks, a process that commonly precedes resource deposition. It is these processes that are ultimately the transferable knowledge for successful mineral and hydrocarbon exploration. Further limiting our understanding of process is the tendency to study large, highly complex, and economically successful ore-forming or petroleum systems. In order to understand their construction, however, it is necessary to put equal time toward understanding non-economic systems. It is the non-economic systems that often clearly preserve key processes. The large resource-forming systems are almost always characterized by multiple episodes of hydrothermal overprints, making it difficult if not impossible to clearly discern individual events. Understanding what geologic and geochemical features blocked or arrested the pathway to economic success or, even worse, caused loss of a resource, are critical to

  3. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  4. Review of tourism resources valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Xiaoye; Cheng Shengkui; Chen Yuansheng

    2006-01-01

    Tourism resources valuation is now a hot issue of the science of tourism resources, resources economics and environmental economics. This paper reviews research progress on tourism resources valuation, introduces its theoretic basis, and elaborates two classical valuation methods: TCM and CVM. And two existing problems are discussed.Firstly, tourism resources value constitution system is still under dispute. This paper puts forward the value constitution system based on present value categories. Secondly, tourism resources valuation methods need further studies because both TCM and CVM have deficiencies. Finally, the paper points out the development direction of tourism resources valuation.

  5. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  6. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society......, depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources....... Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...

  7. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...... for a whole range of different DERs. The devised information model can serve as input to the international standardization efforts on distributed energy resources....

  8. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  9. Mapping suitability of rice production systems for mitigation: Strategic approach for prioritizing improved irrigation management across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2016-04-01

    After the successful conclusion of the COP21 in Paris, many developing countries are now embracing the task of reducing emissions with much vigor than previously. In many countries of South and South-East Asia, the agriculture sector constitutes a vast share of the national GHG budget which can mainly be attributed to methane emissions from flooded rice production. Thus, rice growing countries are now looking for tangible and easily accessible information as to how to reduce emissions from rice production in an efficient manner. Given present and future food demand, mitigation options will have to comply with aim of increasing productivity. At the same time, limited financial resources demand for strategic planning of potential mitigation projects based on cost-benefit ratios. At this point, the most promising approach for mitigating methane emissions from rice is an irrigation technique called Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD). AWD was initially developed for saving water and subsequently, represents an adaptation strategy in its own right by coping with less rainfall. Moreover, AWD also reduces methane emissions in a range from 30-70%. However, AWD is not universally suitable. It is attractive to farmers who have to pump water and may save fuel under AWD, but renders limited incentives in situations where there is no real pressing water scarcity. Thus, planning for AWD adoption at larger scale, e.g. for country-wide programs, should be based on a systematic prioritization of target environments. This presentation encompasses a new methodology for mapping suitability of water-saving in rice production - as a means for planning adaptation and mitigation programs - alongside with preliminary results. The latter comprises three new GIS maps on climate-driven suitability of AWD in major rice growing countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh). These maps have been derived from high-resolution data of the areal and temporal extent of rice production that are now

  10. Modelling white-water rafting suitability in a hydropower regulated Alpine River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolli, Mauro; Zolezzi, Guido; Geneletti, Davide; Siviglia, Annunziato; Carolli, Fabiano; Cainelli, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides. The methodology allows to compute streamflow thresholds for conditions of suitability and optimality of a river reach in relation to rafting. Rafting suitability response to past, present and future flow management scenarios can be predicted on the basis of a hydrological model, which is incorporated in the methodology and is able to account for anthropic effects. Rafting suitability is expressed through a novel metric, the "Rafting hydro-suitability index" (RHSI) which quantifies the cumulative duration of suitable and optimal conditions for rafting. The approach is applied on the Noce River (NE Italy), an Alpine River regulated by hydropower production and affected by hydropeaking, which influences suitability at a sub-daily scale. A dedicated algorithm is developed within the hydrological model to resemble hydropeaking conditions with daily flow data. In the Noce River, peak flows associated with hydropeaking support rafting activities in late summer, highlighting the dual nature of hydropeaking in regulated rivers. Rafting suitability is slightly reduced under present, hydropower-regulated flow conditions compared to an idealized flow regime characterised by no water abstractions. Localized water abstractions for small, run-of-the-river hydropower plants are predicted to negatively affect rafting suitability. The proposed methodology can be extended to support decision making for flow

  11. Elasticity Ratio of Resource Consumption and the Resource Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Weihua; Zhu Dajian; Zhou Xinhong

    2009-01-01

    Today the resources are becoming scarcer,which should not be regarded as unexhausted any more.Correspondingly,the production would be constrained by the scarcity of resources clearly.Then the economic researchers would pay much more attention to reducing the consumption of natural resources in the future.Therefore this paper brings foreword the conception of elasticity ratio of resource consumption based on the concept of elasticity and analyzes the relationship between the parameters.For the certain relationships between the elasticity ratio of resource consumption and resource consumption,this-paper will try to reveal,to keep economy growing while resource consumption reducing,what conditions should be met as to the relationships among resource productivity,its growth rate,energy saving efficiency,economic growth rate and elasticity ratio of resource consumption.This paper proves the relationship between the China's energy consumption and economy growth using statistic data from 1978 to 2003

  12. Reinforcement learning techniques for controlling resources in power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowli, Anupama Sunil

    As power grids transition towards increased reliance on renewable generation, energy storage and demand response resources, an effective control architecture is required to harness the full functionalities of these resources. There is a critical need for control techniques that recognize the unique characteristics of the different resources and exploit the flexibility afforded by them to provide ancillary services to the grid. The work presented in this dissertation addresses these needs. Specifically, new algorithms are proposed, which allow control synthesis in settings wherein the precise distribution of the uncertainty and its temporal statistics are not known. These algorithms are based on recent developments in Markov decision theory, approximate dynamic programming and reinforcement learning. They impose minimal assumptions on the system model and allow the control to be "learned" based on the actual dynamics of the system. Furthermore, they can accommodate complex constraints such as capacity and ramping limits on generation resources, state-of-charge constraints on storage resources, comfort-related limitations on demand response resources and power flow limits on transmission lines. Numerical studies demonstrating applications of these algorithms to practical control problems in power systems are discussed. Results demonstrate how the proposed control algorithms can be used to improve the performance and reduce the computational complexity of the economic dispatch mechanism in a power network. We argue that the proposed algorithms are eminently suitable to develop operational decision-making tools for large power grids with many resources and many sources of uncertainty.

  13. Community-Aware Resource Profiling for Personalized Search in Folksonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Ran Xie; Qing Li; Yi Cai

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,there is a fast proliferation of collaborative tagging (a.k.a.folksonomy) systems in Web 2.0 communities.With the increasingly large amount of data,how to assist users in searching their interested resources by utilizing these semantic tags becomes a crucial problem.Collaborative tagging systems provide an environment for users to annotate resources,and most users give annotations according to their perspectives or feelings.However,users may have different perspectives or feelings on resources,e.g.,some of them may share similar perspectives yet have a conflict with others.Thus,modeling the profile of a resource based on tags given by all users who have annotated the resource is neither suitable nor reasonable. We propose,to tackle this problem in this paper,a community-aware approach to constructing resource profiles via social filtering.In order to discover user communities,three different strategies are devised and discussed.Moreover,we present a personalized search approach by combining a switching fusion method and a revised needs-relevance function,to optimize personalized resources ranking based on user preferences and user issued query.We conduct experiments on a collected real life dataset by comparing the performance of our proposed approach and baseline methods.The experimental results verify our observations and effectiveness of proposed method.

  14. Resource on-demand reservation based on time-window in optical grid network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Runze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    On-demand reservation strategy is proposed for optical network resource scheduling. The proposed approach introduces time window reservation on grid integrated with wavelength-routed optical network, according to the application request with anticipant time range and rate. The time window deploys variable size, when time-window is not suitable for current application requirement, the resource scheduler can negotiate the next time window allocation with the switch. Time-window resource reservation approach loans dividing time multiplexing mechanism. Considering with multiple parallel lightpaths' monopolization, the proposed reservation approach improves network resource request service rate and makes the application having the QoS-aware ability.

  15. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  16. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    Large space settlements on the Moon (thousands of people) will require use of indigenous resources to build and maintain the infrastructure and generate products for export. Prospecting for these resources is a crucial step in human migration to space and needs to begin before settlement and the establishment of industrial complexes. We are devising a multi-faceted approach to prospect for resources. A central part of this work is developing the methodology for prospecting the Moon and other planetary bodies. This involves a number of investigations: (1) It is essential to analyze the economics of planetary ore deposits. Ore deposits are planetary materials that we can mine, process, and deliver to customers at a profit. The planetary context tosses in some interesting twists to this definition. (2) We are also making a comprehensive theoretical assessment of potential lunar ore deposits. Our understanding of the compositions, geological histories, and geological processes on the Moon will lead to significant differences in how we assess wh a t types of ores could be present. For example, the bone-dry nature of the Moon (except at the poles) eliminates all ore deposits associated with hydrothermal fluids. (3) We intend to search for resources using existing data for the Moon. Thus, prospecting can begin immediately. We have a wealth of remote sensing data for the Moon. We also have a good sampling of the Moon by the Apollo and Luna missions, and from lunar meteorites. We can target specific types of deposits already identified (e.g. lunar pyroclastic deposits) and look for other geological settings that might have produced ores and other materials of economic value. Another approach we will take is to examine all data available to look for anomalies. Examples are unusual spectral properties, large disagreements between independent techniques that measure the same property, unusual elemental ratios, or simply exceptional properties such as elemental abundances much

  17. Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathrellos, George D; Skilodimou, Hariklia D; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Youssef, Ahmed M; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map. This map represents the potential suitability map for urban development in the study area and was evaluated by means of uncertainty analysis. The outcome revealed that the most suitable areas are distributed in the southern part of the study area, where the landslide, flood and seismic hazards are at low and very low level. The uncertainty analysis shows small differences on the spatial distribution of the suitability zones. The produced suitability map for urban development proves a satisfactory agreement between the suitability zones and the landslide and flood phenomena that have affected the study area. Finally, 40% of the existing urban pattern boundaries and 60% of the current road network are located within the limits of low and very low suitability zones.

  18. Web resources for pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yunsheng; Ling, Yunchao; Jia, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the study of the impact of genetic variations or genotypes of individuals on their drug response or drug metabolism. Compared to traditional genomics research, pharmacogenomic research is more closely related to clinical practice. Pharmacogenomic discoveries may effectively assist clinicians and healthcare providers in determining the right drugs and proper dose for each patient, which can help avoid side effects or adverse reactions, and improve the drug therapy. Currently, pharmacogenomic approaches have proven their utility when it comes to the use of cardiovascular drugs, antineoplastic drugs, aromatase inhibitors, and agents used for infectious diseases. The rapid innovation in sequencing technology and genome-wide association studies has led to the development of numerous data resources and dramatically changed the landscape of pharmacogenomic research. Here we describe some of these web resources along with their names, web links, main contents, and our ratings.

  19. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    Parents who realize that their newborn child is severely disabled often experience severe physical and emotional stress. Parental well-being is essential for the care-taking of the child. It is yet not known why some cope well and others do not. The aim of this study was to explore how parents...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... interpreted in a theoretical framework of Lazarus and Folkman's studies on coping and Fredrickson's broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, as well as theories of positive illusions and benefit finding during severe adversity. We found that parents continually created and sustained their personal...

  20. Resources for Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C. Hill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers and researchers have for many years advocated disparate approaches to ensuring teachers deliver high-quality instruction, including requiring that teachers complete specific training requirements, possess a minimum level of content knowledge, and use curriculum materials and professional development resources available from schools and districts. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which these factors, which we conceptualize as resources for teaching, predict instructional quality in upper elementary mathematics classrooms. Results show that teachers’ mathematical knowledge and their district context explained a moderate share of the variation in mathematics-specific teaching dimensions; other factors, such as teacher experience, preparation, non-instructional work hours, and measures of the school environment, explained very little variation in any dimension.