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Sample records for non-prescription syringe sales

  1. Non-prescription syringe sales in California: a qualitative examination of practices among 12 local health jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Valerie J; Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

    2010-07-01

    Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others' efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

  2. The spatiotemporal association of non-prescription retail sales with cases during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stacy; Diggle, Peter J; White, Peter J; Fearne, Andrew; Read, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether retail sales of non-prescription products can be used for syndromic surveillance and whether it can detect influenza activity at different spatial scales. A secondary objective was to assess whether changes in purchasing behaviour were related to public health advice or levels of media or public interest. Setting The UK. Participants National and regional influenza case estimates and retail sales from a major British supermarket. Outcome measures Weekly, seasonally adjusted sales of over-the-counter symptom remedies and non-pharmaceutical products; recommended as part of the advice offered by public health agencies; were compared with weekly influenza case estimates. Comparisons were made at national and regional spatial resolutions. We also compared sales to national measures of contemporaneous media output and public interest (Internet search volume) related to the pandemic. Results At a national scale there was no significant correlation between retail sales of symptom remedies and cases for the whole pandemic period in 2009. At the regional scale, a minority of regions showed statistically significant positive correlations between cases and sales of adult ‘cold and flu’ remedies and cough remedies (3.2%, 5/156, 3.8%, 6/156), but a greater number of regions showed a significant positive correlation between cases and symptomatic remedies for children (35.6%, 55/156). Significant positive correlations between cases and sales of thermometers and antiviral hand gels/wash were seen at both spatial scales (Cor 0.477 (95% CI 0.171 to 0.699); 0.711 (95% CI 0.495 to 0.844)). We found no significant association between retail sales and media reporting or Internet search volume. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the British public responded appropriately to health messaging about hygiene. Non-prescription retail sales at a national level are not useful for the detection of cases. However, at finer spatial scales, in particular

  3. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

    2013-04-01

    The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment.

  4. Primary and secondary analysis of local elected officials' decisions to support or oppose pharmacy sale of syringes in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Glenn; Rose, Valerie J

    2010-07-01

    Under California law, local governments may authorize pharmacies within their jurisdictions to sell ten or fewer syringes to an adult without prescription, proof of identity, or proof of medical need. Local governments may simultaneously exempt adults from prosecution for violation of state drug paraphernalia codes for possession of ten or fewer syringes for personal use. Both of these provisions are temporary and sunset on December 31, 2010, unless subsequent state legislation amends that date. The objective of our study was to ascertain how and why local policymakers made their decisions regarding non-prescription syringe sale (NPSS). We examined influences on their decisions, including specific messengers and the arguments that were most salient to their decision making. We selected jurisdictions that were geographically representative of California counties; those with and without syringe exchange programs, and those that had passed or rejected NPSS. We conducted nine semi-structured interviews in five jurisdictions. To enrich primary data collection, we analyzed secondary data by reviewing audio, video, and written transcripts of public hearings and newspaper coverage in five jurisdictions, including three jurisdictions without primary interview data. Among proponents of NPSS, we identified common themes, including: (1) public health research provided conclusive evidence for reduction in HIV and hepatitis transmission without problems of crime, drug use, or unsafe discard of syringes; (2) the local health officer was the key to influencing local policymakers; (3) recall of prior debates over syringe exchange served to inform their decision making; and (4) a lack of local opposition or controversy. Common concerns among opponents of NPSS included: (1) that there would be an increase in unsafe discard of syringes; (2) loss of an important law enforcement tool; (3) that drug users were incapable of desired behavior change; and (4) that research was inconclusive

  5. Self-reported participation in voluntary nonprescription syringe sales in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A

    2017-08-11

    California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is a human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacies to sell syringes without a prescription. This study assesses self-reported implementation of SB41 and characterizes barriers amenable to intervention. Interviewer-administered survey. Fresno and Kern Counties, CA. Pharmacists and other pharmacy staff (n = 404) at 212 pharmacies. Self-reported nonprescription pharmacy sales to known or suspected IDUs. Overall, 29.3% of participants said their pharmacy would sell nonprescription syringes to a known or suspected IDU, whereas a far higher proportion (79.3%) would sell nonprescription syringes to a person with diabetes. More than one-half said that their pharmacy requires nonprescription syringe purchasers to enter their signature and name and address in a log book although that is not required under SB41. Fewer than 2 out of 3 participants (61.1%) knew that it is legal to sell nonprescription syringes to IDUs. That knowledge, as well as having syringe sales practices based on both store policy and discretion, were positively associated with IDU syringe sales after controlling for other factors. Working at an independent pharmacy, agreeing that only people with "medical conditions" such as diabetes should be able to buy syringes, and viewing syringe sales to IDUs as "not good business" were independently but negatively associated with IDU syringe sales. This study complements an earlier syringe purchase trial documenting low participation in voluntary nonprescription syringe sales under SB41 in Fresno and Kern Counties. In the absence of legislation requiring mandatory syringe sales, interventions should be developed to increase knowledge of the law and frame addiction as a medical condition, with a special focus on independent pharmacies. Informational interventions should stress the need to eliminate

  6. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  7. General sale of non-prescription medicinal products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanna Lena Maria; Schafheutle, Ellen; Hägg, Annika Nordén

    2016-01-01

    between Sweden and the UK. METHOD: The main method was analysis of legislative text and policy documents, conducted in 2012. RESULTS: Both countries had specified medicines available to the public in non-pharmacy outlets, but with restrictions on different factors, e.g. placement and package size...

  8. [Risks of non-prescription medication. Clobutinol cough syrup as a recent example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottlaender, D; Hoppe, U C

    2008-01-01

    The arbitrary use of additional drugs other than prescribed medication is known to be a huge part of drug sales. However, the interactions of such non-prescription medication with any daily medication or concomitant diseases remain often unclear. Recently, in accordance with the decision of the competent authority in Germany, clobutinol (e.g. Silomat), a drug against non-productive cough was withdrawn in all countries worldwide in which this medication had been available. The drug had first been approved in 1961 and estimated to have had 200 million patient exposures. A recent clinical study revealed that clobutinol can prolong the QT interval compared to placebo and may thus cause cardiac tachyarrhythmias. Even in therapeutic doses (240 mg daily) this effect was seen in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, this study was prematurely discontinued because of an epileptic grand mal seizure in one volunteer, suggesting neurological side effects of clobutinol. Clobutinol prolongs the QT interval and may cause life-threatening arrhythmias. This should serve as a warning to doctors to be careful when prescribing non-prescription medication. Non-prescription drugs can be a potential risk for patients who are also taking other pharmaceutical preparations or having concomitant disease. This is because such drugs may cause harmful interactions, most of them previously unknown. All doctors should avoid unsupervised use of non-prescription medication.

  9. Syringe sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this article I consider the impact of social epistemologies for understanding the object of the syringe. My aim is to examine the process through which the syringe transforms from an injecting device to a tool of social and political inquiry. Paying particular attention to the uses of Foucault, Becker, Bourdieu, Freud and Latour in empirical studies of injecting heroin use, I examine the sociology of the syringe through the lens of habit and habitus, discourse and deviance, mourning and melancholia, attachment and agencement. In pursuing the theory behind the object my goal is to address a sociological object in the making. In so doing I show how the syringe has been significant for social research, social theory, and sociology. It is the difference the object makes that this article seeks to describe. In tracing the epistemology of the syringe I show how the object is important not just for knowledge of addiction but sociology itself. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  10. Sale

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant No. 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Mpntagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.

  11. Sale

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Montagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.

  12. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  13. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4% of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%, there were no syringes in stock (31.0%, or a prescription was required (20.7%. Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2% reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5% had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  14. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs) may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4%) of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%), there were no syringes in stock (31.0%), or a prescription was required (20.7%). Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2%) reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5%) had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:21609471

  15. Oral syringe use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J N; Wedemeyer, H F

    1980-09-01

    Use of oral syringes at children's and ASHP-accredited residency hospitals in the United States was surveyed. Questionnaires were mailed to 131 hospitals; 117 (89.3%) were returned. Of the responding hospitals, 54.5% of children's hospitals and 67.1% of residency hospitals used oral syringes. There was no definite preference for a particular brand or type (glass vs. plastic) of syringe. Patients who often required liquid dosage forms, including pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with nasogastric tubes, were most frequently included in oral syringe distribution systems. Twenty-six of the 73 hospitals utilizing oral syringes used them for most unit dose liquids in all drug distribution systems. The remainder reported use for specific medications or circumstances. Expiration dating policies varied from 24 hours to one year to the manufacturer's expiration dating. The survey indicates widespread use of oral syringes and identifies a need for evaluation of medication stability in these devices.

  16. Overuse of non-prescription analgesics by dental clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallen Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients present to dental clinics for treatment of painful conditions. Prior to seeking treatment, many of these patients will self-medicate with non-prescription analgesics (NPA, and some will unintentionally overdose on these products. The objective of this study is to describe the use of NPA among dental patients. Methods All adult patients presenting to an urban dental clinic during a two-week period in January and February of 2001 were approached to participate in this research project. Trained research assistants using a standardized questionnaire interviewed patients. Patient demographics and the NPA usage over the 3 days preceding the office visit were recorded. We defined a supra-therapeutic dose as any dose greater than the total recommended daily dose stated on package labeling. Results We approached 194 patients and 127 participated. The mean age of participants was 35.5 years, 52% were male. Analgesic use preceding the visit was reported by 99 of 127 patients, and most (81/99 used a NPA exclusively. Fifty-four percent of NPA users were taking more than one NPA. NPA users reported using ibuprofen (37%, acetaminophen (27%, acetaminophen/aspirin combination product (8%, naproxen (8%, and aspirin (4%. Sixteen patients reported supra-therapeutic use of one or more NPA (some ingested multiple products: ibuprofen (14, acetaminophen (3, and naproxen (5. Conclusion NPA use was common in patients presenting to a dental clinic. A significant minority of patients reported excessive dosing of NPA. Ibuprofen was the most frequently misused product, followed by naproxen and acetaminophen. Though mostly aware of the potential toxicity of NPA, many patients used supra-therapeutic dosages.

  17. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  18. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  19. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…

  20. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural,…

  1. Community Impact of Pharmacy-Randomized Intervention to Improve Access to Syringes and Services for Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D.; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V.; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In an effort to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDUs), New York State deregulated pharmacy syringe sales in 2001 through the Expanded Syringe Access Program by removing the requirement of a prescription. With evidence suggesting pharmacists' ability to expand their public health role, a structural, pharmacy-based…

  2. Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkiz Uyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma is a rare, transient, and usually bilaterally symmetric, palmoplantar keratoderma. Patients complain of tingling and pain in the hands starting a few minutes after exposure to water and lasting for 20-30 minutes after removal. Clinically, there is marked wrinkling with edematous white papules on the palms or, less often, the soles. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman who used spironolactone for polycystic ovary syndrome and had similar clinical features 2 weeks later, after withdrawing the drug.

  3. Barriers to pharmacy-based syringe purchase among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Lozada, Remedios; Gallardo, Manuel; Rosen, Perth; Vera, Alicia; Macias, Armando; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2010-06-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) may be denied purchase of sterile syringes even where purchase without a prescription is legal. This study examined barriers to over-the-counter (OTC) syringe purchase among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. A quantitative survey and subsequent focus groups were used to quantify barriers to purchase, identify their correlates and provide in-depth exploration of syringe purchase experiences. Of 627 IDUs, 81% purchased a syringe in the past 6 months and 16% were refused or overcharged. Factors independently associated with refusal/overcharging were homelessness, receptive syringe sharing, >5 uses per syringe, and number of lifetime abscesses. Few pharmacies sold syringes to IDUs, who adapted by limiting purchase attempts to pharmacies known to sell syringes consistently. Failed purchases occurred when drug withdrawal required purchase at unusual times or locations, often following release from jail. IDUs reported syringe sharing, syringe reuse, and searching through unsecured medical waste for syringes in response to failed purchase attempts. Interventions to expand OTC syringe sales to IDUs, particularly near detention facilities, will facilitate safer injection practices.

  4. Widening consumer access to medicines through switching medicines to non-prescription: a six country comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switching or reclassifying medicines with established safety profiles from prescription to non-prescription aims to increase timely consumer access to medicines, reduce under-treatment and enhance self-management. However, risks include suboptimal therapy and adverse effects. With a long-standing government policy supporting switching or reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription, the United Kingdom is believed to lead the world in switch, but evidence for this is inconclusive. Interest in switching medicines for certain long-term conditions has arisen in the United Kingdom, United States, and Europe, but such switches have been contentious. The objective of this study was then to provide a comprehensive comparison of progress in switch for medicines across six developed countries: the United States; the United Kingdom; Australia; Japan; the Netherlands; and New Zealand. METHODS: A list of prescription-to-non-prescription medicine switches was systematically compiled. Three measures were used to compare switch activity across the countries: "progressive" switches from 2003 to 2013 (indicating incremental consumer benefit over current non-prescription medicines; "first-in-world" switches from 2003 to 2013; and switch date comparisons for selected medicines. RESULTS: New Zealand was the most active in progressive switches from 2003 to 2013, with the United Kingdom and Japan not far behind. The United States, Australia and the Netherlands showed the least activity in this period. Few medicines for long-term conditions were switched, even in the United Kingdom and New Zealand where first-in-world switches were most likely. Switch of certain medicines took considerably longer in some countries than others. For example, a consumer in the United Kingdom could self-medicate with a non-sedating antihistamine 19 years earlier than a consumer in the United States. CONCLUSION: Proactivity in medicines switching, most notably

  5. Aquagenic Syringeal Acrokeratoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma (ASA; which is a rare acquired condition with unknown etiology appears to predominantly affect adolescent and young adult women. ASA is characterized by symmetrical, translucent, whitish papules with burning sensation which are localized mainly on palms and sometimes plantar regions and developing after few minutes of exposure to warm water. The condition spontaneously resolves after drying. Diagnosis of the disease is established by clinical and histopathologic examinations. Histopathologically, dilatation is observed on hyperkeratosis and dilated ecrine ducts. It has been reported that dermatoscopy is useful in diagnosing ASA with the increasing use of in recent years. Herein, we report, a twenty-one year old woman presented with a seven-month-history of burning sensation, whitening and thickening of the skin on both palms after sweating or immersion in water for a few minutes. In this case the diagnosis of ASA was based on clinical, histopathological and dermatoscopic features.

  6. Multifaceted determinants of online non-prescription drug information seeking and the impact on consumers' use of purchase channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies.

  7. The syringe gap: an assessment of sterile syringe need and acquisition among syringe exchange program participants in New York City

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    Siegler Anne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmatic data from New York City syringe exchange programs suggest that many clients visit the programs infrequently and take few syringes per transaction, while separate survey data from individuals using these programs indicate that frequent injecting – at least daily – is common. Together, these data suggest a possible "syringe gap" between the number of injections performed by users and the number of syringes they are receiving from programs for those injections. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of 478 injecting drug users in New York City at syringe exchange programs to determine whether program syringe coverage was adequate to support safer injecting practices in this group. Results Respondents reported injecting a median of 60 times per month, visiting the syringe exchange program a median of 4 times per month, and obtaining a median of 10 syringes per transaction; more than one in four reported reusing syringes. Fifty-four percent of participants reported receiving fewer syringes than their number of injections per month. Receiving an inadequate number of syringes was more frequently reported by younger and homeless injectors, and by those who reported public injecting in the past month. Conclusion To improve syringe coverage and reduce syringe sharing, programs should target younger and homeless drug users, adopt non-restrictive syringe uptake policies, and establish better relationships with law enforcement and homeless services. The potential for safe injecting facilities should be explored, to address the prevalence of public injecting and resolve the 'syringe gap' for injecting drug users.

  8. Patterns and predictors of non-prescription medicine use among Malaysian pharmacy patrons: a national cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. RESULTS: A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%, followed by respiratory system (19.4% and musculoskeletal system (15.8% usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57, p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19, p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13, p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39, p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117, p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. CONCLUSION: The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural, gender, age, ethnicity, type of

  9. A comparison of six impression syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, M; Shillingburg, H T; Duncanson, M G

    1980-05-01

    Five manually operated, and one air-activated, syringes were evaluated and compared. When used with polyether or polysulfide, some disposable syringes were found to require in excess of 100 pounds of force to operate. The metal reusable syringe required only 13 and 21 pounds, respectively, with the same materials; the air-activated syringe required none. There was no significant difference among the syringes with regard to bubble entrapment during impression making. There was a significant difference found in this regard among the five experienced dentists. The air-activated syringe was most easily controlled, as evidenced by the significantly smaller number of tracing errors made with it.

  10. Quality of care after acute coronary syndromes in a prospective cohort with reasons for non-prescription of recommended medications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Auer

    Full Text Available Adherence to guidelines is associated with improved outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Clinical registries developed to assess quality of care at discharge often do not collect the reasons for non-prescription for proven efficacious preventive medication in Continental Europe. In a prospective cohort of patients hospitalized for an ACS, we aimed at measuring the rate of recommended treatment at discharge, using pre-specified quality indicators recommended in cardiologic guidelines and including systematic collection of reasons for non-prescription for preventive medications.In a prospective cohort with 1260 patients hospitalized for ACS, we measured the rate of recommended treatment at discharge in 4 academic centers in Switzerland. Performance measures for medication at discharge were pre-specified according to guidelines, systematically collected for all patients and included in a centralized database.Six hundred and eighty eight patients(54.6% were discharged with a main diagnosis of STEMI, 491(39% of NSTEMI and 81(6.4% of unstable angina. Mean age was 64 years and 21.3% were women. 94.6% were prescribed angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers at discharge when only considering raw prescription rates, but increased to 99.5% when including reasons non-prescription. For statins, rates increased from 98% to 98.6% when including reasons for non-prescription and for beta-blockers, from 82% to 93%. For aspirin, rates further increased from 99.4% to 100% and from to 99.8% to 100% for P2Y12 inhibitors.We found a very high adherence to ACS guidelines for drug prescriptions at discharge when including reasons for non-prescription to drug therapy. For beta-blockers, prescription rates were suboptimal, even after taking into account reason for non-prescription. In an era of improving quality of care to achieve 100% prescription rates at discharge unless contra-indicated, pre-specification of reasons

  11. THE CLEANING OF INSTRUMENTS AND SYRINGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DARMADY, E M; HUGHES, K E; DREWETT, S E; PRINCE, D; TUKE, W; VERDON, P

    1965-01-01

    The dangers to the handler of syringes used for routine injections were found to be negligible, but known infected syringes and those contaminated with antibiotics should be autoclaved before handling as a high proportion of these carry pathogenic organisms. Mechanical methods of cleaning syringes and instruments are assessed. The use of an artificial soil for testing purposes is described. Using this soil, ultrasonics by themselves are inadequate for cleaning syringes and instruments. Agitation with ultrasonics is essential for syringes, but is insufficient for instruments. Detergents are therefore an essential adjunct to the cleaning process. For syringes Pyroneg proved to be the most satisfactory, particularly if they had been previously siliconized. The best detergent for instruments contaminated with these types of soil was Penesolve 814 at a temperature of 95 degrees C. but the instruments must be adequately rinsed after this treatment. A number of other detergents and cleaning agents are discussed.

  12. Non-prescription proton-pump inhibitors for self-treating frequent heartburn: the role of the Canadian pharmacist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heartburn and acid regurgitation are the cardinal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and occur commonly in the Canadian population. Multiple non-prescription treatment options are available for managing these symptoms, including antacids, alginates, histamine-H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs. As a result, pharmacists are ideally positioned to recommend appropriate treatment options based upon an individual’s needs and presenting symptoms, prior treatment response, comorbid medical conditions, and other relevant factors. Individuals who experience mild heartburn and/or have symptoms that occur predictably in response to known precipitating factors can manage their symptoms by avoiding known triggers and using on-demand antacids and/or alginates or lower-dose non-prescription H2RAs (e.g. ranitidine 150 mg. For those with moderate symptoms, lifestyle changes, in conjunction with higher-dose non-prescription H2RAs, may be effective. However, for individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms that occur frequently (i.e. ≥2 days/week, the non-prescription (Schedule II PPI omeprazole 20 mg should be considered. The pharmacist can provide important support by inquiring about the frequency and severity of symptoms, identifying an appropriate treatment option, and recognizing other potential causes of symptoms, as well as alarm features and atypical symptoms that would necessitate referral to a physician. After recommending an appropriate treatment, the pharmacist can provide instructions for its correct use. Additionally, the pharmacist should inquire about recurrences, respond to questions about adverse events, provide monitoring parameters, and counsel on when referral to a physician is warranted. Pharmacists are an essential resource for individuals experiencing heartburn; they play a crucial role in helping individuals make informed self-care decisions and educating them to ensure that therapy is used in an optimal

  13. Non-prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Maguire, Terry; Roy, Yvonne M; Tyrrell, Laila

    2015-11-04

    Non-prescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) analgesics (painkillers) are used frequently. They are available in various brands, package sizes, formulations, and dose. They can be used for a range of different types of pain, but this overview reports on how well they work for acute pain (pain of short duration, usually with rapid onset). Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. To examine published Cochrane reviews for information about the efficacy of pain medicines available without prescription using data from acute postoperative pain. We identified OTC analgesics available in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA by examining online pharmacy websites. We also included some analgesics (diclofenac potassium, dexketoprofen, dipyrone) of importance in parts of the world, but not currently available in these jurisdictions.We identified systematic reviews by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. From individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also calculated the success rate to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief. We also examined the number of participants experiencing any adverse event, and whether the incidence was different from placebo. We found information on 21 different OTC analgesic drugs, doses, and formulations, using information from 10 Cochrane reviews, supplemented by information from one non-Cochrane review with additional information on ibuprofen formulations (high quality evidence). The lowest (best) NNT values were for combinations of

  14. Yard Sale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    In America,people always make a yard sale in order to get rid of something they don’t like.If the family wants to move to another place,they will sell away their old things.In some parts of the country,such a sale might be called a

  15. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  16. Comparison of injecting drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talu Ave

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both syringe exchange programs (SEPs and pharmacy sales of syringes are available in Estonia, though the current high incidence and high prevalence of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs in Tallinn, Estonia requires large-scale implementation of additional harm reduction programs as a matter of great urgency. The aims of this report were to compare risk behavior and HIV infection and to assess the prevention needs among IDUs who primarily use pharmacies as their source of sterile syringes with IDUs who primarily use SEPs in Tallinn. Methods A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 350 IDUs for an interviewer-administered survey and HIV testing. IDUs were categorized into two groups based on their self-reported main source for syringes within the last six months. Odds ratios with 95% CI were used to compare characteristics and risk factors between the groups. Results The main sources of sterile needles for injection drug users were SEP/SEP outreach (59% and pharmacies (41%. There were no differences in age, age at injection drug use initiation, the main drug used or experiencing overdoses. Those IDUs using pharmacies as a main source of sterile needles had lower odds for being infected with either HIV (AOR 0.54 95% CI 0.33–0.87 or HCV (AOR 0.10 95% CI 0.02–0.50, had close to twice the odds of reporting more than one sexual partner within the previous 12 months (AOR 1.88 95% CI 1.17–3.04 and engaging in casual sexual relationships (AOR 2.09 95% CI 1.24–3.53 in the last six months. Conclusion The data suggest that the pharmacy users were at a less "advanced" stage of their injection career and had lower HIV prevalence than SEP users. This suggests that pharmacies could be utilized as a site for providing additional HIV prevention messages, services for IDUs and in linking IDUs with existing harm reduction services.

  17. A systematic review of health economic models of opioid agonist therapies in maintenance treatment of non-prescription opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Mersha; Kenworthy, James J; Langham, Sue; Walker, Andrew; Dunlop, William C N

    2017-02-24

    Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites. Studies were included if they: investigated populations that were dependent on non-prescription opioids and were receiving opioid agonist or maintenance therapy; compared any pharmacological maintenance intervention with any other maintenance regimen (including placebo or no treatment); and were health-economic models of any type. A total of 18 unique models were included. These used a range of modelling approaches, including Markov models (n = 4), decision tree with Monte Carlo simulations (n = 3), decision analysis (n = 3), dynamic transmission models (n = 3), decision tree (n = 1), cohort simulation (n = 1), Bayesian (n = 1), and Monte Carlo simulations (n = 2). Time horizons ranged from 6 months to lifetime. The most common evaluation was cost-utility analysis reporting cost per quality-adjusted life-year (n = 11), followed by cost-effectiveness analysis (n = 4), budget-impact analysis/cost comparison (n = 2) and cost-benefit analysis (n = 1). Most studies took the healthcare provider's perspective. Only a few models included some wider societal costs, such as productivity loss or costs of drug-related crime, disorder and antisocial behaviour. Costs to individuals and impacts on family and social networks were not included in any model. A relatively small number of studies of varying quality were found. Strengths and weaknesses relating to model structure, inputs and approach were identified across

  18. Prefilled syringes: An innovation in parenteral packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Sagar; Basu, Biswajit; Makasana, Yogita; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    Parenteral administration of pharmaceutical products is one of the most popular methods used to produce quick onset of action and also 100% bioavailability. Main problem occurs with the parenteral drug delivery is lack of convenience, affordability, accuracy, sterility, safety etc. Such drawbacks with this delivery system makes it less preferable. Hence, all the disadvantages of these systems can be easily overcome by use of prefilled syringes. The objective of this review article is to provide information regarding prefilled syringes; it's method of preparation, direction to use, advantages, its future scope, and development.

  19. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Boutsioukis; L.W.M. van der Sluis

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  20. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  1. Open-source syringe pump library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Hunt, Emily J; Anzalone, Gerald C; Pearce, Joshua M

    2014-01-01

    This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD) software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications.

  2. Open-source syringe pump library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Wijnen

    Full Text Available This article explores a new open-source method for developing and manufacturing high-quality scientific equipment suitable for use in virtually any laboratory. A syringe pump was designed using freely available open-source computer aided design (CAD software and manufactured using an open-source RepRap 3-D printer and readily available parts. The design, bill of materials and assembly instructions are globally available to anyone wishing to use them. Details are provided covering the use of the CAD software and the RepRap 3-D printer. The use of an open-source Rasberry Pi computer as a wireless control device is also illustrated. Performance of the syringe pump was assessed and the methods used for assessment are detailed. The cost of the entire system, including the controller and web-based control interface, is on the order of 5% or less than one would expect to pay for a commercial syringe pump having similar performance. The design should suit the needs of a given research activity requiring a syringe pump including carefully controlled dosing of reagents, pharmaceuticals, and delivery of viscous 3-D printer media among other applications.

  3. Aspects of syringeal mechanics in avian phonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, O.N.; Goller, F.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The vocal organ of birds, the syrinx, is formed by modified cartilages of the trachea and bronchi. Recently, the use of thin, flexible endoscopes has made direct observation of the syrinx possible in situ. The effects of direct muscle stimulation on the syringeal aperture identified adductor and abd

  4. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  5. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device (RPD), were studied. 20 operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: 1) vacuum (Torr), 2) time to vacuum (seconds), 3) hand force to generate vacuum (Torr-cm2), 4) operator difficulty during aspiration, 5) biopsy yield (mg), and 6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (p aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (pneedle control (pneedle and maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered. PMID:21057795

  6. Direct sale in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Koula, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with direct sales. The thesis discuss the connection between theoretical part of my personal experience as a door to door sales person in the US, describing a sales process, using a techniques of direct sales and communication skills in practice. It stresses the importance of understanding the basic concepts of personality and communication. The main objective of this work is a suggestion to improve the sales manual for increasing sales success of door to door sales persons ...

  7. Similarities of Water-soluble Vitamin Components among Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Vitamin Products Generally Available on the Domestic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kojina, Moeko; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

     Similarities among non-prescription pharmaceutical vitamin products generally available in community pharmacies were examined based on their vitamin components, and a chart was constructed to differentiate products to assist in appropriate product choice. In the analysis of the similarities, two hundred and seventy-six data entries on vitamin products were extracted from the database on the package inserts of the pharmaceutical products provided by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, and they were reviewed for the amounts of vitamins they contained, in which the B vitamins, or vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, and niacin, were considered as well as vitamins C and E. Pantothenic acid and L-Cysteine that are frequently used in combination with those vitamins are also taken into consideration. The data entries were then processed by classical multi-dimensional scaling to evaluate the inter-product similarities. As a result, it was shown that the products categorized as pharmaceutical nutrients and tonics containing vitamins (NTcV) are similar to one another, reflecting the fact that they are less characteristic regarding their vitamin components. As for the products in other categories, they were generally found to be featured for their unique content of vitamin components, and thereby, each category includes products with a wide range of variation. It was also indicated that some products categorized as vitamin B1, B2, and C products are less distinguishable from those categorized as NTcV. These findings will assist pharmacists to decide on an appropriate product for a customer following consultation.

  8. Non-prescription dispensing of emergency oral contraceptives: Recommendations from the German Federal Chamber of Pharmacists [Bundesapothekerkammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA. EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours. In the context of the UPA implementation process, Germany switched LNG to non-prescription status as well. Objectives: To develop recommendations, a protocol, and a continuing education program for pharmacists to assure quality when giving advice and dispensing EHCs in community pharmacies without a medical prescription. Methods: The recommendations were developed by an iterative process of drafting, recognizing, and discussing comments and proposals for amendments as well a seeking agreement with a number of stakeholders such as the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, Federal Chamber of Physicians (BÄK, Drug Commission of German Physicians (AkdÄ, professional organizations/associations of gynaecologists, pharmaceutical OTC-industry as well as government-controlled, private, and church-based organizations and centres providing advice on sex education and family planning. Results: The recommendations were eventually endorsed by the BMG in consultation with the BfArM. Conclusions: The recommendations were made public, published in the professional journal and used in an uncounted number of continuing education programs based on the curriculum and provided by the State Chambers of Pharmacists.

  9. Auction Sale Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains sale data information for Agency reported items sold via GSA Auctions® Sales. The data is for closed sales during FY2009. GSA Auctions® offers...

  10. A descriptive study of chiropractors' opinions and practices regarding office-based health product sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Stacey A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the sale of non-prescription health products is ubiquitous, the views of health professionals, such as chiropractors, regarding the sale of such products are not well known. Practitioner opinion is important to understand and inform professional practice. The purpose of this study was to describe chiropractors' perspectives and practices on the sale of health care products from practitioners' offices. Methods Chiropractors were invited to provide written comments about health product sales at the end of a fixed choice, mailed survey. Respondents' comments were analyzed using qualitative description. Ethics approval was received from the Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board at the University of Calgary. Results One hundred seven of the 265 respondents (response rate of 51% provided written comments. Approximately 30 pages of double-spaced, typed text were gathered. Respondents did not consistently endorse or condemn health product sales, and engaged in the practice to greater and lesser extents. While some were opposed to health products sales, some accepted the practice with a degree of ambivalence whereas others clearly embraced it. Some respondents acknowledged a professional conflict of interest in such sales and marketing, and described strategies used to mitigate it. Others provided a range of justifications for the practice. Personal integrity and professional standards were discussed and a need for monitoring identified. Conclusions A wide range of opinions and practices were described and this is consistent with resulting variation in practice. In light of this, standards that facilitate consistency in practice may benefit professionals and the public alike.

  11. Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. METHOD: During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences, and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. RESULTS: 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118, which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36 were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. CONCLUSIONS: Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until

  12. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Luijf; J.H. Devries

    2010-01-01

    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on pati

  13. Auto-disable syringes for immunization: issues in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J S; Milstien, J B

    1999-01-01

    WHO and its partners recommend the use of auto-disable syringes, "bundled" with the supply of vaccines when donor dollars are used, in all mass immunization campaigns, and also strongly advocate their use in routine immunization programmes. Because of the relatively high price of auto-disable syringes, WHO's Technical Network for Logistics in Health recommends that activities be initiated to encourage the transfer of production technology for these syringes as a means of promoting their use and enhancing access to the technology. The present article examines factors influencing technology transfer, including feasibility, corporate interest, cost, quality assurance, intellectual property considerations, and probable time frames for implementation. Technology transfer activities are likely to be complex and difficult, and may not result in lower prices for syringes. Guidelines are offered on technology transfer initiatives for auto-disable syringes to ensure the quality of the product, the reliability of the supply, and the feasibility of the technology transfer activity itself.

  14. Use of SoloShot autodestruct syringes compared with disposable syringes, in a national immunization campaign in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C M; Sutanto, A; Suradana, I G

    1999-01-01

    Autodestruct syringes can reduce the improper reuse of syringes, which present a significant risk in the transmission of bloodborne pathogens in developing countries, especially during immunization campaigns owing to the high number of injections given per session. SoloShot is an autodestruct syringe, distributed by UNICEF, which has been shown to be safer and easier to use than standard syringes. This study analyses the accuracy and dose-efficiency of SoloShot, compared with disposable syringes, during a national tetanus toxoid immunization campaign on the Indonesian island of Lombok. Observation and dose measurements revealed that SoloShot syringes delivered more precise and consistent doses and 15% more doses per vial than disposable syringes. Vaccine savings may partially be offset by the higher price of SoloShot. Vaccinators preferred SoloShot, describing it as easier to use, faster, and more accurate than the disposable syringe. The study indicates that SoloShot is highly appropriate for use in immunization campaigns by reducing vaccine wastage and improving injection safety.

  15. Training the Sales Neophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clyde E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The article reappraises initial sales training and presents a program emphasizing objectives, responsibility for training, program content, and teaching techniques. Formal Initial Responsive Sales Training System (FIRSTS) is the name of the program explored and evaluated. (Author/MW)

  16. Foreign Military Sales versus Direct Commercial Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Gultekin, Metin

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The transfer of arms from the U.S. to other countries under the Security Assistance Program is done in two basic ways: government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS), and contractor-to-government Direct Commercial Sales (DCS). These methods help to increase standardization and interoperability between the U.S. and its Allies. This study examines the U.S. arms sales policies and procedures for FMS and DCS. It is aimed at identif...

  17. Fabrication of Syringe-Shaped GaN Nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Cheng-Shan; CAO Yu-Ping; WU Yu-Xin; ZHUANG Hui-Zhao; TIAN De-Heng; LIU Yi-An; HE Jian-Ting; AI Yu-Jie; SUN Li-Li; WANG Fu-Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Syringe-shaped GaN nanorods are synthesized on Si(111) substrates by annealing sputtered Ga2O3/BN films under flowing ammonia at temperature of 950° C. Most of the nanorods consist of a main rod and a top needle, looking like a syringe. X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction confirm that the syringe-shaped nanorods are hexagonal wurtzite GaN. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that these nanorods are as long as several micrometres, with diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm. In addition to the BN intermediate layer, the proper annealing temperature has been demonstrated to be a crucial factor for the growth of syringe-shaped nanorods by this method.

  18. The effects of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küme, Tuncay; Şişman, Ali Rıza; Solak, Ahmet; Tuğlu, Birsen; Çinkooğlu, Burcu; Çoker, Canan

    2012-01-01

    Introductıon: We evaluated the effect of different syringe volume, needle size and sample volume on blood gas analysis in syringes washed with heparin. Materials and methods: In this multi-step experimental study, percent dilution ratios (PDRs) and final heparin concentrations (FHCs) were calculated by gravimetric method for determining the effect of syringe volume (1, 2, 5 and 10 mL), needle size (20, 21, 22, 25 and 26 G) and sample volume (0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mL). The effect of different PDRs and FHCs on blood gas and electrolyte parameters were determined. The erroneous results from nonstandardized sampling were evaluated according to RiliBAK’s TEa. Results: The increase of PDRs and FHCs was associated with the decrease of syringe volume, the increase of needle size and the decrease of sample volume: from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in 10 mL-syringe to 7.0% and 351 IU/mL in 1 mL-syringe; from 4.9% and 245 IU/mL in 26G to 7.6% and 380 IU/mL in 20 G with combined 1 mL syringe; from 2.0% and 100 IU/mL in full-filled sample to 34% and 1675 IU/mL in 0.5 mL suctioned sample into 10 mL-syringe. There was no statistical difference in pH; but the percent decreasing in pCO2, K+, iCa2+, iMg2+; the percent increasing in pO2 and Na+ were statistical significance compared to samples full-filled in syringes. The all changes in pH and pO2 were acceptable; but the changes in pCO2, Na+, K+ and iCa2+ were unacceptable according to TEa limits except fullfilled-syringes. Conclusions: The changes in PDRs and FHCs due nonstandardized sampling in syringe washed with liquid heparin give rise to erroneous test results for pCO2 and electrolytes. PMID:22838185

  19. The sales learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Mark; Holloway, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    When a company launches a new product into a new market, the temptation is to immediately ramp up sales force capacity to gain customers as quickly as possible. But hiring a full sales force too early just causes the firm to burn through cash and fail to meet revenue expectations. Before it can sell an innovative product efficiently, the entire organization needs to learn how customers will acquire and use it, a process the authors call the sales learning curve. The concept of a learning curve is well understood in manufacturing. Employees transfer knowledge and experience back and forth between the production line and purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, planning, and operations. The sales learning curve unfolds similarly through the give-and-take between the company--marketing, sales, product support, and product development--and its customers. As customers adopt the product, the firm modifies both the offering and the processes associated with making and selling it. Progress along the manufacturing curve is measured by tracking cost per unit: The more a firm learns about the manufacturing process, the more efficient it becomes, and the lower the unit cost goes. Progress along the sales learning curve is measured in an analogous way: The more a company learns about the sales process, the more efficient it becomes at selling, and the higher the sales yield. As the sales yield increases, the sales learning process unfolds in three distinct phases--initiation, transition, and execution. Each phase requires a different size--and kind--of sales force and represents a different stage in a company's production, marketing, and sales strategies. Adjusting those strategies as the firm progresses along the sales learning curve allows managers to plan resource allocation more accurately, set appropriate expectations, avoid disastrous cash shortfalls, and reduce both the time and money required to turn a profit.

  20. INNOVATIVE SALES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  1. Attitudes of North Carolina law enforcement officers toward syringe decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Johnston, Jill; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Clark, Katie; Castillo, Tessie; Childs, Robert

    2014-11-01

    North Carolina, like much of the U.S. South, is disproportionately affected by HIV and hepatitis. This persistently high disease burden may be driven in part by laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of syringes for illicit drug use. Legal change to decriminalize syringes may reduce infection rates in the state, but is unlikely absent support from law enforcement actors. We analyzed the responses of 350 North Carolina law enforcement officers to a confidential, anonymous survey. The survey instrument collected data regarding self-reported needle-stick injury (NSI), blood borne disease risk perception and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization. 82% of respondents reported that contracting HIV was a "big concern" for them. 3.8% of respondents reported ever receiving a job-related NSI, a rate of 36 NSI per 10,000 officer-years. Majorities of respondents reported positive views regarding syringe decriminalization, with approximately 63% agreeing that it would be "good for the community" and 60% agreeing that it would be "good for law enforcement." Black and female officers were significantly less likely to agree that on-the-job NSI was a "big concern" and significantly more likely to agree that it would be good for law enforcement. These findings suggest that many North Carolina LEOs understand the public health benefits of syringe access programs and may be inclined to support syringe decriminalization legislation. Further research is indicated to determine the causes of observed differences in perceptions of bloodborne disease risk and attitudes toward syringe decriminalization by race and sex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...... result in fire sale discounts. Discounts increase when the sale is urgent, market conditions are poor, and the seller is financially constrained. Overall, our study identifies when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts, and highlights that fire sales occur even in the absence of temporary demand...

  3. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  4. Editorial: Sales Strategy (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McPhee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we find a good sales person?" In short, his answer is "Don't." This is not meant as a slight to sales professionals, but rather, Zimmerman is advocating that companies should not equate having sales professionals to having a sales strategy. Sales professionals have a critical role to play in a company's success, but they are being given an impossible task if asked to sell something that has not been validated with customers. Zimmerman explains that sales professionals should be hired only once a company has validated that the value proposition resonates with customers and that the sales model will be effective. This lesson also applies to established companies, where existing sales staff require this same foundation to be effective. So how does a company determine whether its value proposition resonates with customers? The answer, of course, is to talk to customers. In the OSBR and elsewhere, the need for early customer input is a dominant theme in recent discussions of product development, marketing, and now sales strategy. By talking to customers, listening to how they describe their needs, and interpreting how their needs could be met, a value proposition can tested and refined. It is far more efficient and effective to iteratively refine a value proposition before attempting to sell than to attempt a salvage operation in response to slumping sales. Customer input is also a critical ingredient in developing an effective sales strategy. In this issue of the

  5. Prefilled syringes and usability of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiba T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Shiba, Hiroshi TsuneokaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To examine the influence of the configuration of prefilled syringes on the usability of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Design: Experimental study.Methods: The maximum force needed to extrude the whole OVD (extrusion force was compared among viscous cohesive OVDs (OPEGAN Hi® 0.85 mL and Healon® 0.85 mL and very low viscosity dispersive OVDs (OPEGAN® 0.6 mL and OPEGAN® 1.1 mL. Additionally, to exclude the influence of any differences between syringes of viscous cohesive OVDs on the extrusion force, empty syringes of the same configuration were refilled with the same products. In addition, the syringe inner surface and that of the piston attached to the tip of the plunger were measured.Results: The extrusion force of Healon 0.85 mL (3.28±0.19 kgf was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of OPEGAN Hi 0.85 mL (2.54±0.23 kgf. The inner syringe chamber for Healon 0.85 mL was vial shaped and had a built-in needle in the Luer tip, which was clearly different from OPEGAN Hi 0.85 mL. There were no significant differences in the extrusion force between refilled syringes. The extrusion force of OPEGAN 1.1 mL (3.44±0.12 kgf was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of OPEGAN 0.6 mL (1.63±0.06 kgf. The syringe of OPEGAN 1.1 mL was obviously bigger than that of OPEGAN 0.6 mL.Conclusion: It was confirmed that the configuration of the syringes is another determinant of the extrusion force and a factor related to the difference in usability among products that meet the same cohesive class.Keywords: configuration, syringe, extrusion force, viscous cohesive OVDs, low viscosity dispersive OVDs

  6. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  7. Some Advertising Sales Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Enumerates information that advertising sales people for school newspapers should have before they call on potential customers. Includes ideas on what to know about a number of items, including the publication, readers and nonreaders, advertising, sales opportunities, prospects, prospects' problems, shopping factors, and stores' images. (TJ)

  8. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  9. Survival of Hepatitis C Virus in Syringes Is Dependent on the Design of the Syringe-Needle and Dead Space Volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawuena Binka

    Full Text Available Many people who inject drugs (PWID use syringes with detachable needles, which have high dead space (HDS. Contaminated HDS blood may substantially contribute to the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C (HCV, and other blood-borne viruses within this population. Newly designed low dead space (LDS syringe-needle combinations seek to reduce blood-borne virus transmission among PWID. We evaluated the infectivity of HCV-contaminated residual volumes recovered from two LDS syringe-needle combinations.We tested two different design approaches to reducing the dead space. One added a piston to the plunger; the other reduced the dead space within the needle. The two approaches cannot be combined. Recovery of genotype-2a reporter HCV from LDS syringe-needle combinations was compared to recovery from insulin syringes with fixed needles and standard HDS syringe-needle combinations. Recovery of HCV from syringes was determined immediately following their contamination with HCV-spiked plasma, after storage at 22°C for up to 1 week, or after rinsing with water.Insulin syringes with fixed needles had the lowest proportion of HCV-positive syringes before and after storage. HCV recovery after immediate use ranged from 47%±4% HCV-positive 1 mL insulin syringes with 27-gauge ½ inch needles to 98%±1% HCV-positive HDS 2 mL syringes with 23-gauge 1¼ inch detachable needles. LDS combinations yielded recoveries ranging from 65%±5% to 93%±3%. Recovery was lower in combinations containing LDS needles than LDS syringes. After 3 days of storage, as much as 6-fold differences in virus recovery was observed, with HCV recovery being lower in combinations containing LDS needles. Most combinations with detachable needles required multiple rinses to reduce HCV infectivity to undetectable levels whereas a single rinse of insulin syringes was sufficient.Our study, the first to assess the infectivity of HCV in residual volumes of LDS syringes and needles available to PWID

  10. The Political Economy of Sales Taxes and Sales Tax Exemptions

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Militaru; Thomas Stratmann

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the choice politicians face when seeking votes from groups that lobby for sales tax rate decreases or from groups that lobby for certain tax exemptions, given the constraint that politician wants to raise a certain amount of revenue. Using the application of sales taxes and sales tax exemptions we develop a model predicting a positive relationship between the number of sales tax exemptions and the sales tax rate. We find support for the hypothesis that there is an equilibrium relat...

  11. Allegheny County Sheriff Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...

  12. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  13. A Comparison of Sales Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.; Das-Gupta, Arindam

    1997-01-01

    We describe the simple analytics of the four main types of sales taxes under revenue neutrality: the retail sales tax, the value added tax, a cascading sales tax and a manufacturers' sales tax. The retail sales tax is shown to be equivalent to a value added tax. In order to produce equal revenues these two taxes must be at a higher rate than a cascading tax. However, output under a retail sales tax exceeds that under a cascading sales tax and deadweight losses are lower. The manufacturers' sa...

  14. Better sales networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.

  15. Increasing syringe access and HIV prevention in California: findings from a survey of local health jurisdiction key personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Garfein, Richard S; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to "prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children." This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor's prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation.

  16. Disinfection of syringes contaminated with hepatitis C virus by rinsing with household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Mawuena; Paintsil, Elijah; Patel, Amisha; Lindenbach, Brett D; Heimer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is associated with the sharing of injection paraphernalia. People who inject drugs often "disinfect" used syringes with household products when new syringes are unavailable. We assessed the effectiveness of these products in disinfecting HCV-contaminated syringes. Methods.  A genotype-2a reporter virus assay was used to assess HCV infectivity in syringes postrinsing. Hepatitis C virus-contaminated 1 mL insulin syringes with fixed needles and 1 mL tuberculin syringes with detachable needles were rinsed with water, Clorox bleach, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, isopropanol, Lysol, or Dawn Ultra at different concentrations. Syringes were either immediately tested for viable virus or stored at 4°C, 22°C, and 37°C for up to 21 days before viral infectivity was determined. Results.  Most products tested reduced HCV infectivity to undetectable levels in insulin syringes. Bleach eliminated HCV infectivity in both syringes. Other disinfectants produced virus recovery ranging from high (5% ethanol, 77% ± 12% HCV-positive syringes) to low (1:800 Dawn Ultra, 7% ± 7% positive syringes) in tuberculin syringes. Conclusions.  Household disinfectants tested were more effective in fixed-needle syringes (low residual volume) than in syringes with detachable needles (high residual volume). Bleach was the most effective disinfectant after 1 rinse, whereas other diluted household products required multiple rinses to eliminate HCV. Rinsing with water, 5% ethanol (as in beer), and 20% ethanol (as in fortified wine) was ineffective and should be avoided. Our data suggest that rinsing of syringes with household disinfectants may be an effective tool in preventing HCV transmission in PWID when done properly.

  17. 我国非处方药品广告存在问题分析与对策探讨%Problems Existing in Advertising of Non-Prescription Drugs in Our Country and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纳泽; 赵辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:为提升我国非处方药药品广告传播效果提供借鉴。方法:从诉求方式、载体选择、传播内容和合法性等方面,分析目前非处方药药品广告存在的主要问题,进行针对性讨论。结果与结论:当前我国非处方药品广告存在诉求方式单一、对终端媒体重视不到位和盲目寻求代言等5个主要问题。建议选择多样化的诉求方式、加强终端药店的宣传、注重企业形象塑造和传播等应对策略,进一步提升我国非处方药广告的传播效果。%Objective:To provide reference for improving advertising communication effect of non-prescription drugs in our country.Methods:From aspects of demand ways, selection of media, contents and legality, the main problems in the current advertising of non-prescription drugs were analyzed and some considerations were made.Results and Conclusion:Five major problems exist in the current advertising status for non-prescription drugs in our country, such as simple demand ways, inefficient emphasis on terminal media and blind appeal for endorsement. It is suggested to carry out four countermeasures including enrichment of demand ways, enhancement of publicity in terminal drug stores, focus on corporate image building and communication, so as to promote the communication effect of advertisement of non-prescription drugs.

  18. Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Bill; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    When farmers sell retail or to the end-user, they must collect sales tax on the gross sales price of all retail sales. For the purpose of sales tax rules, farmers making direct sales are treated like all retail merchants and are obligated to collect and remit the sales tax on all retail sales to each customer.ï_ 

  19. ONLINE SALE Ten Profitable Sales Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1.Focus your entire online business onyour customers.Actually there should be15 sales techniques,and this one should berepeated 6 times because of itsimportance.Why are you in business,to sellto your customers?If they don’t buy yougo bankrupt.Then who is the number oneperson you need to satisfy?Your customer.Build your business strategy,model andweb site around the needs of your clients.The ability to serve their needs will makeor break your business.

  20. The Episure Autodetect syringe, a loss-of-resistance technique for locating the epidural space, used in pediatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielens, L.K.P.; Bruhn, J.; Vogt, M.; Geffen, G.J. van; Scheffer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Episure Autodetect syringe, a spring-loaded syringe, is a loss-of-resistance syringe with an internal compression that applies constant pressure on the plunger. As the principle of loss-of-resistance is the same for adult and for pediatric patients, the Episure Autodetect syringe s

  1. Smart syringe pumps for drug infusion during dental intravenous sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-09-01

    Dentists often sedate patients in order to reduce their dental phobia and stress during dental treatment. Sedatives are administered through various routes such as oral, inhalation, and intravenous routes. Intravenous administration has the advantage of rapid onset of action, predictable duration of action, and easy titration. Typically, midazolam, propofol or dexmedetomidine are used as intravenous sedatives. Administration of these sedatives via infusion by using a syringe pump is more effective and successful than infusing them as a bolus. However, during intravenous infusion of sedatives or opioids using a syringe pump, fatal accidents may occur due to the clinician's carelessness. To prevent such risks, smart syringe pumps have been introduced clinically. They allow clinicians to perform effective sedation by using a computer to control the dose of the drug being infused. To ensure patient safety, various alarm features along with a drug library, which provides drug information and prevents excessive infusion by limiting the dose, have been added to smart pumps. In addition, programmed infusion systems and target-controlled infusion systems have also been developed to enable effective administration of sedatives. Patient-controlled infusion, which allows a patient to control his/her level of sedation through self-infusion, has also been developed. Safer and more successful sedation may be achieved by fully utilizing these new features of the smart pump.

  2. SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

    2000-01-01

    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  3. Innovative component when developing design for the third generation self-destructing syringe with a small dead volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zhuravleva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent statistical observations, the number of suffering from use of disposable syringes grows every year. The self-destructing syringe of the third generation with small “the dead volume” is the medical product which design provides a safe injection and doesn't allow their reuse. At the present stage of medicine and healthcare development, application of disposable syringes with improved design - innovative syringes of the third generation (self-destructing syringes - can provide avoidance of syringe reuse and safe resolution of negative implications related to use of traditional syringes.

  4. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  5. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  6. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE SALES FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  7. Schedule Sales Query Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  8. Social marketing of low dead space syringes in Vietnam: findings from a 1-year pilot program in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Ngo Thi Thanh; Mundy, Gary; Neukom, Josselyn; Zule, William; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Tam, Nguyen Minh

    2015-05-30

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that low dead space syringes may reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus infection associated with sharing syringes among people who inject drugs, there is little evidence of effective approaches to motivate people who inject drugs (PWID) to shift from high to low dead space syringes. Using a mix of consumer and trade marketing approaches, informed by rapid assessments of both the syringe market and PWID preferences, practices, and behaviors in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Population Services International (PSI) Vietnam piloted an intervention to increase the use of low dead space syringes (LDSS) in the three provinces of Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Thai Nguyen, where an estimated 31% of PWID are HIV positive and 58% are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This paper provides a summary of the social marketing activities implemented and results achieved by PSI Vietnam during an initial 1-year pilot period from December 2012 to December 2013 in these three provinces to explore their effectiveness in motivating PWID to use low dead space syringes. We found major increases in sales of LDSS accompanied by increases in reported use and consistent use of LDSS among PWID in the three provinces included in the pilot program and a positive and independent association (odds ratio (OR) 21.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-27.3) between LDSS use and exposure to social marketing activities. We also found that LDSS use had a stronger association with perceptions of LDSS product quality than with perceptions regarding LDSS potential to reduce HIV transmission risk and use. We conclude that social marketing interventions have an important role to play in widening access to and the use of LDSS for PWID, as they address the need for PWID to find LDSS when and where they need them and also promote the benefits of LDSS use to PWID. High coverage of these activities among PWID appears to be the key in

  9. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...

  10. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...

  11. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  12. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...

  13. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  14. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  15. KEBERHASILAN PENETRASI BAHAN PIT & FISSURE SEALANT KE DALAM FISURA MENGGUNAKAN SYRINGE BLUE MICRO TIPS DAN SYRINGE WHITE MINI BRUSH TIPS (LAPORAN PENELITIAN)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the success and differences of pit & fissure sealant materal penetration of composite resin type (UltraSeal XT Plus) into fissure by using syringe blue micro tips and syringe white mini brush tips in fissure closure efforts for caries prevention of permanent teeth. The study was conducted to 30 maxillary first premolar, using syring blue micro tips, and 30 maxilary first premolar using syringw white mini brush tips. The samples, then, were made smears and...

  16. Effects of syringe material and silicone oil lubrication on the stability of pharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayukhina, Elena; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, polymer-based prefillable syringes are being promoted to the pharmaceutical market because they provide an increased break resistance relative to traditionally used glass syringes. Despite this significant advantage, the possibility that barrel material can affect the oligomeric state of the protein drug exists. The present study was designed to compare the effect of different syringe materials and silicone oil lubrication on the protein aggregation. The stability of a recombinant fusion protein, abatacept (Orencia), and a fully human recombinant immunoglobulin G1, adalimumab (Humira), was assessed in silicone oil-free (SOF) and silicone oil-lubricated 1-mL glass syringes and polymer-based syringes in accelerated stress study. Samples were subjected to agitation stress, and soluble aggregate levels were evaluated by size-exclusion chromatography and verified with analytical ultracentrifugation. In accordance with current regulatory expectations, the amounts of subvisible particles resulting from agitation stress were estimated using resonant mass measurement and dynamic flow-imaging analyses. The amount of aggregated protein and particle counts were similar between unlubricated polymer-based and glass syringes. The most significant protein loss was observed for lubricated glass syringes. These results suggest that newly developed SOF polymer-based syringes are capable of providing biopharmaceuticals with enhanced physical stability upon shipping and handling.

  17. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications.

  18. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...

  19. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  20. Determination of the Specific Heat Ratio of a Gas in a Plastic Syringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The rapid compression or expansion of a gas in a plastic syringe is a poor approximation of an adiabatic process. Heat exchange with the walls of the syringe brings the gas to equilibrium in an amount of time that is not significantly greater than the length of the compression or expansion itself. Despite this limitation, it is still possible to…

  1. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...

  2. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  3. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales... services for the Sales and Distribution Business Unit. The negative determination was based on the...

  4. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations...; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization,...

  5. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  6. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... buyers, the procedures for which are described in § 291.205; (c) Direct sales methods. There are three types of direct sales methods: (1) Direct sales of properties without insured mortgages to governmental...) Direct sales to displaced persons, sales of razed lots, or auctions, the procedures for which...

  7. The Washington Needle Depot: fitting healthcare to injection drug users rather than injection drug users to healthcare: moving from a syringe exchange to syringe distribution model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glickman Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Needle exchange programs chase political as well as epidemiological dragons, carrying within them both implicit moral and political goals. In the exchange model of syringe distribution, injection drug users (IDUs must provide used needles in order to receive new needles. Distribution and retrieval are co-existent in the exchange model. Likewise, limitations on how many needles can be received at a time compel addicts to have multiple points of contact with professionals where the virtues of treatment and detox are impressed upon them. The centre of gravity for syringe distribution programs needs to shift from needle exchange to needle distribution, which provides unlimited access to syringes. This paper provides a case study of the Washington Needle Depot, a program operating under the syringe distribution model, showing that the distribution and retrieval of syringes can be separated with effective results. Further, the experience of IDUs is utilized, through paid employment, to provide a vulnerable population of people with clean syringes to prevent HIV and HCV.

  8. User preference for a portable syringe pump for iloprost infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laria A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Laria,1 Alfredo Maria Lurati,1 Katia Angela Re,1 Maria Grazia Marrazza,1 Daniela Mazzocchi,1 Alberto Farina,2 Magda Scarpellini,1 1Department of Rheumatology, Fornaroli Hospital, Magenta, Milan, Italy; 2Medical Affairs Department, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Cinisello Balsamo, Milan, Italy Purpose: Administration of intravenous iloprost – a first-line European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-recommended choice for the treatment of scleroderma (SSc-related digital vasculopathy – requires repeated treatment cycles of 6 hours per day in a hospital setting. During the infusion, patient mobility is considerably restricted due to the size and fixity of traditional syringe pumps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction level of patients and nurses, after the introduction of a new portable syringe pump (Infonde®, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Milan, Italy at the Department of Rheumatology, Magenta Hospital, Milan, Italy. Patients and methods: Thirty-four consecutive SSc patients receiving stable therapy with iloprost, previously administered with a fixed pump, were treated using the portable Infonde® pump. Patients (n=34 and nurses (n=4 were asked to answer a nine- and six-item questionnaire, respectively, to assess the satisfaction of the administration comparing the new device versus the previous one. The health care staff of the ward developed the questionnaire, and the response scores ranged from 0 (fixed device better to 10 (portable device better; thus a score >5 indicates a preference for Infonde®. Results: Patients' answers indicated a preference towards the new portable syringe pump, versus the previous fixed pump. Questionnaires administered to patients generated a total of 306 responses, with over 95% of the responses in the range 8–10, of which 89% had a score equal to 10. The responses of nurses showed a score equal to 10 in 100% cases. No significant adverse events were recorded, indicating no change in the tolerability

  9. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  10. Pre-filled syringes: a review of the history, manufacturing and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, Gregory; Rogers, J Aaron; Miller, Reagan L

    2015-01-01

    Pre-filled syringes are convenient devices for the delivery of parenteral medications. They are small which makes them easy to carry and are dependable for delivering a precise dose of medication. These and many other reasons are leading to their growth in the pharmaceutical market. There are a number of review articles that describe the advantages and disadvantages of pre-filled syringes. However, there are few journal articles that present information on their manufacturing and challenges. The intent of this review article is to provide information on the history of the pre-filled syringe, methods of their manufacture, methods of filling syringes as a drug product and to examine the types of syringes available. This type of knowledge can familiarize the formulation scientist with the choices available and their possible challenges.

  11. Plausible authentication of manuka honey and related products by measuring leptosperin with methyl syringate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoji; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-07-01

    Manuka honey, obtained from Leptospermum scoparium flowers in New Zealand, has strong antibacterial properties. In this study, plausible authentication of the manuka honey was inspected by measuring leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, along with methyl syringate. Despite a gradual decrease in methyl syringate content over 30 days at 50 °C, even at moderate 37 °C, leptosperin remained stable. A considerable correlation between nonperoxide antibacterial activity and leptosperin content was observed in 20 certified manuka honey samples. Leptosperin and methyl syringate in manuka honey and related products were analyzed using HPLC connected with mass spectrometry. One noncertified brand displayed significant variations in the leptosperin and methyl syringate contents between two samples obtained from different regions. Therefore, certification is clearly required to protect consumers from disguised and/or low-quality honey. Because leptosperin is stable during storage and specific to manuka honey, its measurement may be applicable for manuka honey authentication.

  12. Syringe calibration factors and volume correction factors for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, D K

    2002-01-01

    The activity assay of a radiopharmaceutical administration to a patient is normally achieved via the use of a radionuclide calibrator. Because of the different geometries and elemental compositions between plastic syringes and glass vials, the calibration factors for syringes may well be significantly different from those for the glass containers. The magnitude of these differences depends on the energies of the emitted photons. For some radionuclides variations have been observed of 70 %, it is therefore important to recalibrate for syringes or use syringe calibration factors. Calibration factors and volume correction factors have been derived for the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator, for a variety of commonly used syringes and needles, for the most commonly used medical radionuclide.

  13. A Sales Representative Is Made: An Innovative Sales Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael A.; Peterson, Lori T.

    2016-01-01

    Job openings for nonscientific business-to-business sales professionals will increase over the next 10 years. A small private university in the Midwest has developed an innovative sales course to help create professionals who are ready to fill this need. This article addresses the challenges of creating a meaningful, hands-on, experiential course…

  14. [Trial manufacture of a plunger shield for a disposable plastic syringe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Emoto, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshige; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kubo, Naoki

    2008-08-20

    A syringe-type radiopharmaceutical being supplied by a manufacturer has a syringe shield and a plunger shield, whereas an in-hospital labeling radiopharmaceutical is administered by a disposable plastic syringe without the plunger shield. In cooperation with Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd., we have produced a new experimental plunger shield for the disposable plastic syringe. In order to evaluate this shielding effect, we compared the leaked radiation doses of our plunger shield with those of the syringe-type radiopharmaceutical (Medi shield type). Our plunger shield has a lead plate of 21 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. This shield is equipped with the plunger-end of a disposal plastic syringe. We sealed 99mTc solution into a plastic syringe (Terumo Co.) of 5 ml with our plunger shield and Medi shield type of 2 ml. We measured leaked radiation doses around syringes using fluorescent glass dosimeters (Dose Ace). The number of measure points was 18. The measured doses were converted to 70 microm dose equivalent at 740 MBq of radioactivity. The results of our plunger shield and the Medi shield type were as follows: 4-13 microSv/h and 3-14 microSv/h at shielding areas, 3-545 microSv/h and 6-97 microSv/h at non-shielding areas, 42-116 microSv/h and 88-165 microSv/h in the vicinity of the syringe shield, and 1071 microSv/h and 1243 microSv/h at the front of the needle. For dose rates of shielding areas around the syringe, the shielding effects were approximately the same as those of the Medi shield type. In conclusion, our plunger shield may be useful for reducing finger exposure during the injection of an in-hospital labeled radiopharmaceutical.

  15. FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.

  16. Anti-Endotoxic Effects of Syringic Acid of Radix Isatidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云海; 方建国; 雷婷; 王文清; 林爱华

    2003-01-01

    Summary: The anti-endotoxic effect of syringic acid (SA) isolated from Radisx Isatidis (Banlangen,BLG) was studied. SA was extracted and isolated from BLG and diluted into 1 % solution. The con-tent of SA-pretreated endotoxin (ET) was quantitatively determined using Limulus test. The abilityof fever induction of ET pretreated with SA was measured using endotoxin-induced fever test in rab-bits. The LPS-induced death in mice pretreated with and without SA was compared. Results showedthat after pretreatment with SA, 83.16 % of ET was destroyed, the ET-induced fever in rabbits re-lieved markedly and the LPS-induced death rate in mice dropped from 68 % to 20 %. It was con-cluded that SA isolated from BLG had anti-endotoxic effects.

  17. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  18. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  19. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  1. 78 FR 20116 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Staff; Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and Biological Products: Technical Information To Supplement... availability of draft guidance for industry and FDA staff entitled ``Glass Syringes for Delivering Drug and... glass syringes that comply with the ISO 11040-4 standard when connected to devices (``connecting...

  2. Commentary on Vorobjov et al., "Comparison of injection drug users who obtain syringes from pharmacies and syringe exchange programs in Tallinn, Estonia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werb Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data suggest that globally, between 5% and 10% of all new HIV cases are the result of unsafe injecting practices, and experts agree that reducing these practices is key to tackling the spread of HIV. And yet, despite the overwhelming evidence that providing sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDU through syringe exchange programs (SEPs or other means is an effective way of reducing HIV transmission among high-risk subpopulations, IDU in most settings still do not have access to sterile injecting equipment or if they do, access remains too restricted to effectively reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Vorobjov and colleagues have presented in this journal an interesting and timely study from Estonia comparing individuals who obtain syringes from SEPs and those who obtain syringes from pharmacies. As the authors point out, Estonia faces an unacceptably high HIV incidence rate of 50 new HIV cases per 100,000, this rate driven primarily by injection drug use. As such, the authors argue that Estonia's SEP network does not have the capacity to serve a growing IDU population at risk of transmitting HIV and pharmacy dispensation of clean syringes may be one potential approach to decreasing syringe sharing among high-risk injectors. It may be overly optimistic to consider the impact of higher threshold interventions such as pharmacy-based SEPs, given that IDU populations that engage in HIV risk behaviours such as syringe sharing are often hidden or hard to reach. Despite the need for a cautious approach, however, the findings presented by Vorobjov et al. may chart one potential course towards a more comprehensive societal response to reducing the health harms associated with injection drug use.

  3. Efficacy trial of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujaoney, S; Mamtani, M; Thakre, T; Tote, J; Hazarey, V; Hazarey, P; Kulkarni, H

    2013-12-01

    Dental fear and anxiety in early childhood are widely prevalent and contribute to dental problems and behaviour in adulthood. Novel ways to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children are needed. Our aim was to conduct an efficacy trial of a novel Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children. randomised controlled trial of efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe. We designed a Camouflage Syringe with a toy-like appearance that veils the conventional syringe to permit topical application and injection of local anaesthesia and ensure more involvement of the patient in the treatment process. We conducted a concurrent parallel, randomised controlled trial (NCT01398007) on the efficacy of this Camouflage Syringe to reduce the dental fear and anxiety in children seeking dental treatment who required the use of local anaesthesia. Using Venham's clinical rating scale, Venham's picture test, parental stress questionnaire and recall questionnaire, the efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety ranged from 82% to 97% for various outcomes and from 60% to 100% for prevention of related adverse outcomes. For all outcomes, the number needed to treat was close to unity. Our results strongly favour the use of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children.

  4. Evaluation of a filter-syringe set for preparation of packed cell aliquots for neonatal transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L A

    1995-09-01

    A closed-system filter-syringe set designed for preparation of prefiltered aliquots of packed red cells for neonatal transfusion was evaluated. In three experiments, filter-syringe sets were sterile-connected, and aliquots were prepared at six intervals during 35-day storage of CPDA-1 packed cells. Hemoglobin (HGB), supernatant potassium (K+), and free hemoglobin (fHGB) in the aliquot and primary storage container were compared. There was no tubing weld failure, filter-occlusion, or bacterial contamination of the units. Hemoglobin remained stable over 35 days of storage, with comparable values in the primary collection container and syringe aliquot. Supernatant potassium in the units increased to an average of 89.5 mEq/L at 35 days, and levels in the aliquots closely matched those in the primary containers at each storage interval (maximum average 91.8 mEq/L). Free hemoglobin also progressively and comparably increased in both the primary containers and syringe aliquots. The gentle negative pressure and turbulence during use of the filter-syringe set apparently causes little hemolysis. The set simplifies preparation of aliquots for neonatal small volume and syringe-pump transfusion at costs comparable to alternative preparation methods. When sterile-connected, the filter-syringe set facilitates "assigned unit" inventory management for neonatal transfusion, which has been shown to be highly effective in limiting donor exposures.

  5. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  7. KEBERHASILAN PENETRASI BAHAN PIT & FISSURE SEALANT KE DALAM FISURA MENGGUNAKAN SYRINGE BLUE MICRO TIPS DAN SYRINGE WHITE MINI BRUSH TIPS (LAPORAN PENELITIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avy Permata Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the success and differences of pit & fissure sealant materal penetration of composite resin type (UltraSeal XT Plus into fissure by using syringe blue micro tips and syringe white mini brush tips in fissure closure efforts for caries prevention of permanent teeth. The study was conducted to 30 maxillary first premolar, using syring blue micro tips, and 30 maxilary first premolar using syringw white mini brush tips. The samples, then, were made smears and observed by optic microscope with 300 times magnification. The result of this stuy showed that mean of pit & fissure sealant material penetration of composite resin type into fissure by using blue micro tips was (67.93 ± 13.09%. By using syringe white mini brush tips was (92.96 ± 6.18%. With t-test, it showed a significant difference (t = 9.84, p<0,01.

  8. Syringe exchange programs in Brazil: preliminary assessment of 45 programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Elize Massard da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the current operation of Brazilian syringe exchange programs (SEP. After consulting national and regional networks of people working in projects/ programs aiming to reduce drug-related harm, we identified 134 potential participant programs. Unfortunately, only 45 SEPs answered a survey, even after repeated attempts. The survey addressed: coverage, funding, procurement of basic supplies, managerial capacity, and the local political environment. Findings were triangulated with in-depth interviews with key informants. The main findings included: satisfactory adherence to the initiatives and adequate documentation, but deficiencies in terms of coverage and monitoring, and uneven procurement of resources. Program personnel work mostly on a provisional basis, despite the efforts of local coordinators. Most programs are funded by the National STDs/AIDS Program. A comprehensive agenda aiming to improve current operations should include: concerted efforts to improve local and regional databanks, incentives/sanctions toward full accountability of initiatives carried by the programs, and a genuine culture of monitoring and evaluation.

  9. Syringe exchange programs in Brazil: preliminary assessment of 45 programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize Massard da Fonseca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the current operation of Brazilian syringe exchange programs (SEP. After consulting national and regional networks of people working in projects/ programs aiming to reduce drug-related harm, we identified 134 potential participant programs. Unfortunately, only 45 SEPs answered a survey, even after repeated attempts. The survey addressed: coverage, funding, procurement of basic supplies, managerial capacity, and the local political environment. Findings were triangulated with in-depth interviews with key informants. The main findings included: satisfactory adherence to the initiatives and adequate documentation, but deficiencies in terms of coverage and monitoring, and uneven procurement of resources. Program personnel work mostly on a provisional basis, despite the efforts of local coordinators. Most programs are funded by the National STDs/AIDS Program. A comprehensive agenda aiming to improve current operations should include: concerted efforts to improve local and regional databanks, incentives/sanctions toward full accountability of initiatives carried by the programs, and a genuine culture of monitoring and evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of syringe shield effectiveness in handling radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yong-In

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the radiation shield of radionuclide syringes and the personal dose equivalent by performing a simulation of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine diagnosis. In order to evaluate the dose depending on the distance between the radiation source and the ICRU sphere against the thickness of the shielding device, the distance at which a nuclear medicine worker may inadvertently come into contact with radiation from the radiation source was set at 0 cm to 30 cm according to the thickness of the shield, thus fixing the ICRU sphere. For a dose evaluation, Hp(10, Hp(3, and Hp(0.07 measurable in specific depth of the ICRU were evaluated. It was found that a dose measured on skin surface of nuclear medicine workers was relatively higher, that the dose varied in relation to the thickness of the radiation shield, and that the shielding effect decreased for some radiation sources such as 67Ga and 111In. It proved necessary to increase thickness of shielding device to the radiation sources such as 67Ga and 111In. It is also considered that a study of proper shielding thickness will be needed in future.

  11. Selling Technical Sales to Engineering Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumblauskas, Daniel P.; Carberry, Adam R.; Sly, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Sales engineering or technical sales programs bridge engineering and business to educate engineering students in sales specific to their discipline. Students develop business awareness through such programs, providing the sales workforce with technically knowledgeable salespeople. The following study analyzed cohorts of students enrolled in a…

  12. 40 CFR 73.72 - Direct sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated...

  13. Paid to Persuade: Careers in Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Workers who make a living in sales are paid to persuade others to buy goods and services. Just about anything, from apricots to zip-line tours, needs an intermediary to move from producer to buyer. That go-between person is the sales worker. Sales jobs are numerous. In May 2010, there were over 13 million wage and salary sales workers in the…

  14. Sales bottlenecks and their effect on profit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Marban, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the term sales bottleneck, defined as a stage in a total production or service delivery process that limits sales. After analyzing the suitability of traditional methods to find sales bottlenecks, the study proposes the bottleneck accounting model as a method to determine sales

  15. Direct observation of syringeal muscle function in songbirds and a parrot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz

    2002-01-01

    , Toxostoma rufum, and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. Contraction of the dorsal muscles, m. syringealis dorsalis (dS) and m. tracheobronchialis...... dorsalis, constricts the syringeal lumen and thus reduces airflow by adducting connective tissue masses, the medial (ML) and lateral (LL) labia. Activity of the medial portion of the dS appears to affect the position of the ML and, consequently, plays a previously undescribed role in aperture control...... on the syrinx. Contraction of m. tracheobronchialis ventralis enlarges the syringeal lumen and thus increases airflow by abducting the LL but does not affect the ML. The largest syringeal muscle, m. syringealis ventralis, plays a minor role, if any, in direct aperture control and thus in gating airflow...

  16. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a ‘silent’ reformulation strategy, where a retail chain’s private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Methods Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases......, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between −3...

  17. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2012 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...

  18. Sport promotion and sales management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aminiroshan, Zahra; Sharifian, Esmaiel; Siyadat, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected...

  19. eTail (Online Sales)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

      Several executives gave their views on online sales. Kim Baudry, market development director, Dematic, said that one of the major hurdles that still exists for the consumer is finding what they want where they want...

  20. Sales Tax Collections in Nonmetropolitan Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsen, B. Wade; Lansford, Notie H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Small communities sometimes increase their local sales tax rate in order to maintain or expand public services. The question addressed here is what is the net effect of changing sales tax rates on revenues from sales taxes? Using both semiparametric and nonparametric regression, we find retail sales to be mostly unaffected by sales tax rates as long as the rate is less than four percent. At rates higher than four percent, however, there is a severe reduction in sales, yet not enough that sale...

  1. Social Networks and Sales Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.

  2. Freeze-drying in novel container system: Characterization of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing and understanding different modes of heat and mass transfer in glass syringes to develop a robust freeze-drying process. Two different holder systems were used to freeze-dry in syringes: an aluminum (Al) block and a plexiglass holder. The syringe heat transfer coefficient was characterized by a sublimation test using pure water. Mannitol and sucrose (5% w/v) were also freeze-dried, as model systems, in both the assemblies. Dry layer resistance was determined from manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and product temperature was measured using thermocouples, and was also determined from MTM. Further, freeze-drying process was also designed using Smart freeze-dryer to assess its application for freeze-drying in novel container systems. Heat and mass transfer in syringes were compared against the traditional container system (i.e., glass tubing vial). In the Al block, the heat transfer was via three modes: contact conduction, gas conduction, and radiation with gas conduction being the dominant mode of heat transfer. In the plexiglass holder, the heat transfer was mostly via radiation; convection was not involved. Also, MTM/Smart freeze-drying did work reasonably well for freeze-drying in syringes. When compared to tubing vials, product temperature decreases and hence drying time increases in syringes. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  3. Efficacy of Syringe Filtration for the Selective Isolation of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Young-Ji; Sung, Kidon; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of syringe filtration for selective isolation of Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinse by combining syringe filtration with the conventional culture method. Whole chicken carcass rinses were incubated in Bolton enrichment broth, set aside or subjected to syringe filtration, and streaked on Campy-Cefex agar with or without cefoperazone antibiotic supplement. Compared with the conventional method without filtration, 0.65-μm-pore-size syringe filtration resulted in a significantly higher number of Campylobacter-positive samples (23.8 to 37.5% versus 70.0 to 72.5%; P Campylobacter (93.8% versus 6.3 to 26.3%), and a lower growth index (1 = growth of a few colonies; 2 = growth of colonies on about half of the plate; and 3 = growth on most of the plate) for competing microbiota (2.9 to 3.0 versus 1.2 to 1.4). When syringe filtration was applied, agar plates containing the antibiotic had significantly less contamination (6.3% versus 26.3%; P Campylobacter isolation rate was similar (P > 0.05). Syringe filtration combined with conventional enrichment improved the rate and selectivity of Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcasses.

  4. Syringe Access, Syringe Sharing, and Police Encounters among People Who Inject Drugs in New York City: A Community-Level Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Heller, Daliah; Jenness, Samuel M.; Neaigus, Alan; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila; Hagan, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Background Injection drug user (IDU) experience and perceptions of police practices may alter syringe exchange program (SEP) use or influence risky behaviour. Previously, no community-level data had been collected to identify the prevalence or correlates of police encounters reported by IDUs in the United States. Methods New York City IDUs recruited through respondent-driven sampling were asked about past-year police encounters and risk behaviours, as part of the National HIV Behavioural Surveillance study. Data were analysed using multiple logistic regression. Results A majority (52%) of respondents (n=514) reported being stopped by police officers; 10% reported syringe confiscation. In multivariate modelling, IDUs reporting police stops were less likely to use SEPs consistently (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.40–0.89), and IDUs who had syringes confiscated may have been more likely to share syringes (AOR=1.76; 95% CI=0.90–3.44), though the finding did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Findings suggest that police encounters may influence consistent SEP use. The frequency of IDU-police encounters highlights the importance of including contextual and structural measures in infectious disease risk surveillance, and the need to develop approaches harmonizing structural policing and public health. PMID:23916801

  5. Determinants and antecedents of sales organization effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Razum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental objective of this paper was to identify and analyze the main antecedents of sales organization effectiveness in order to offer the guidelines for improving the standard sales practice. In addition to the customary challenges of achieving anticipated sales results, rising pressures of the contemporary business environment underscore the importance of establishing a more effective sales organization. The aim of the empirical research was to identify the sources of effectiveness of sales organizations based on the comparison between two groups of organizations, namely, the relatively high and low performing ones. The concept of sales performance was observed through five distinct factors: sales management activities, sales force characteristics, sales organization design and sales force effectiveness with regard to the sales outcome of these organizations and their behavior. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the most important sources of sales effectiveness are the activities of sales managers targeted towards monitoring and rewarding. Moreover, sales managers in relatively more effective organizations reported much higher satisfaction with the design of sales territories. Sales people in effective companies are highly motivated and committed to the organization. In addition, they are also considerably better at achieving high levels of outcome performance. The research presents an addition to a number of similar studies conducted worldwide but, more importantly, it contributes to the exceptionally small number of sales management studies carried out in Croatia. For a more complete analysis it would be necessary to include the variables of the external environment and examine the potential moderating impact of product type and industry on the overall sales effectiveness.

  6. Syringe disposal bins: the outcomes of a free trial for city traders in an inner-city municipality Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Madonna; Berends, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    Community responses toward discarded syringes have the potential to threaten the sustainability of harm reduction interventions. Many retailers in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia, have expressed concern about drug use and the associated discarded syringes. The Melbourne City Council has responded to these concerns through a variety of strategies. One such strategy was a 6-month free trial of syringe bins for businesses (2003-2004). The MCC commissioned an external evaluation of the trial. Eighteen business representatives and six key informants undertook semistructured interviews to monitor issues arising throughout the trial. Syringe disposal bins are a useful option for facilitating appropriate syringe disposal; 11 of the 13 businesses that participated in the trial continued with the maintenance of the syringe disposal bins beyond the free trial period.

  7. USA Pending Home Sales Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Some improvement is projected for existing-home sales in the months ahead,with broader gains seen by the fourth quarter as buyers take advantage of new provisions provided through the recently passed housing stimulus bill. The Pending Home Sales Index,a forward-looking indicator based on contracts signed in June,rose 5.3 percent to 89.0 from a downwardly revised reading of 84.5 in May,but remains 12.3 percent below June 2007 when it stood at 101.4.

  8. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1 expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR, a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  9. Root Cause Analysis of Tungsten-Induced Protein Aggregation in Pre-filled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Swift, Rob; Torraca, Gianni; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Wen, Zai-Qing; Jiang, Yijia; Vance, Aylin; Mire-Sluis, Anthony; Freund, Erwin; Davis, Janice; Narhi, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Particles isolated from a pre-filled syringe containing a protein-based solution were identified as aggregated protein and tungsten. The origin of the tungsten was traced to the tungsten pins used in the supplier's syringe barrel forming process. A tungsten recovery study showed that the vacuum stopper placement process has a significant impact on the total amount of tungsten in solutions. The air gap formed in the syringe funnel area (rich in residual tungsten) becomes accessible to solutions when the vacuum is pulled. Leachable tungsten deposits that were not removed by the supplier's wash process are concentrated in this small area. Extraction procedures used to measure residual tungsten in empty syringes would under-report the tungsten quantity unless the funnel area is wetted during the extraction. Improved syringe barrel forming and washing processes at the supplier have lowered the residual tungsten content and significantly reduced the risk of protein aggregate formation. This experience demonstrates that packaging component manufacturing processes, which are outside the direct control of drug manufacturers, can have an impact on the drug product quality. Thus close technical communication with suppliers of product contact components plays an important role in making a successful biotherapeutic.

  10. Costs of a Hospital-Based, Ready-To-Use Syringe Delivery Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Vand, S; Lisby, M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The risk of errors in the medication administration process is high. Applications of pre lled syringes may improve patient safety but could be more costly. The objective of this study was to assess the additional costs of a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme in comparison with a c......Objective: The risk of errors in the medication administration process is high. Applications of pre lled syringes may improve patient safety but could be more costly. The objective of this study was to assess the additional costs of a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme in comparison...... from a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme. Detailed measures of time and resource use related to the preparation process were obtained by direct observations. Registry-based data on activity, consumption and discards were obtained before and after the implementation to supplement the observed data....... Local unit costs were converted to 2013-€ to estimate the incremental costs. Results: The analysis showed that the ready-to-use programme was more costly than the conventional delivery programme. The annual incremental cost for the day surgery department was estimated at €70,469 (an increase of 105...

  11. Stability of micafungin sodium solutions at different concentrations in glass bottles and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briot, Thomas; Vrignaud, Sandy; Lagarce, Frédéric

    2015-08-15

    Micafungin is a costly treatment and packaging of 50 mg or 100 mg bottles only are available, while doses lower than 5 mg and 20 mg are often necessary in neonates and paediatrics patients, respectively. The stability of micafungin sodium in polypropylene syringes and glass bottles was studied at different concentrations. Solutions of micafungin diluted with NaCl 0.9% were prepared in glass bottles (20 and 10 mg/mL) or syringes (1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and stored at 25 °C, 60% humidity (RH), in the dark (ICH conditions). Solutions were also exposed to heat (70 °C) or alkaline solution (NaOH) in order to force degradation. Samples were analysed at days 1, 5, 8 (for bottles) and also 15 (for syringes) after the preparation and assayed in triplicate. Stability was studied using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Syringes stored at 25 °C retained over 90% of their initial concentration over the study period. Temperature and alkaline conditions had significant effect on the stability of micafungin, leading to apparition of degradation products. Moreover, sub visible particles were in the specification of the European Pharmacopeia along 15 days. To conclude, micafungin diluted in NaCl 0.9% and stored in polypropylene syringes was chemically stable for at least 15 days at 25 °C in the dark.

  12. Schedule Sales Query Report Generation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  13. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  14. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.41 Single sale. A single sale, unattended by...) tax liability. Change of Ownership...

  15. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  16. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  17. New Sale Policy for Olympic Tickets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Following the temporary suspension of the phase two domestic ticket sales of the Beijing Olympic Games, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad(BOCOG)released a new policy of tick- et sales on November 5.

  18. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the c

  19. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outco

  20. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  1. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and... sales have been purchased, the Administrator shall terminate the Direct Sale Subaccount and transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales...

  2. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20

  3. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... price. “Actual sale price” means the actual selling price for an article determined in the same manner... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive sale price... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code...

  4. Risk factors for nonfatal overdose at Seattle-area syringe exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lindsay M; Banta-Green, Caleb J; Maynard, Charles; Kingston, Susan; Hanrahan, Michael; Merrill, Joseph O; Coffin, Phillip O

    2011-02-01

    Opioid-involved overdose deaths are on the rise, both nationwide and in the state of Washington. In a survey of 443 participants at syringe exchanges in Seattle, Washington, 16% had overdosed in the last year. Several factors were significantly associated in bivariate analysis: lack of permanent housing; incarceration of five or more days in the past year; gender of sex partners; sharing of syringes and other injection paraphernalia; use of speedballs (cocaine and heroin together), goofballs (methamphetamine and heroin together), buprenorphine; injection use of crack cocaine and sedatives; and use of opioids with sedatives. Adjusting for other variables in multivariate logistic regression analyses, only recent incarceration and sharing of injection materials were still significantly associated with overdose. Correctional facilities, syringe exchange programs, and other agencies serving opioid injectors should include overdose prevention components in release planning and services.

  5. Costs of a Hospital-Based, Ready-To-Use Syringe Delivery Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    with a conventional delivery programme at day surgery and endoscopy departments at a large university hospital. Methods: The cost analysis used the hospital perspective and developed an “activity-based costing” model to assess the costs of medicine- handling activities. The model was calibrated with six-month data...... from a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme. Detailed measures of time and resource use related to the preparation process were obtained by direct observations. Registry-based data on activity, consumption and discards were obtained before and after the implementation to supplement the observed data......Objective: The risk of errors in the medication administration process is high. Applications of pre lled syringes may improve patient safety but could be more costly. The objective of this study was to assess the additional costs of a ready-to-use syringe delivery programme in comparison...

  6. Training students to use syringe pumps: an experimental comparison of e-learning and classroom training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Kolb, Lorenz; Korb, Maximilian O; Mengelkamp, Christoph; Held, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The inadequate use of syringe pumps can jeopardize patient safety, and syringe pump trainings are conducted to manage this risk. A critical step in this risk management process is the learning success of trainees. In the present paper, we compared an e-learning approach with standard classroom training in learning success effectives, trainees' opinion on the trainings, and investigated the relation between technological affinity and learning success. The results showed that e-learning was as effective as classroom training but nursing students' confidence in using the pump and satisfaction with the training was decreased for e-learning compared with classroom training. We discuss the results in context of the nursing e-learning literature. Finally, we discuss the literature for risk identification, risk analysis, risk treatment, and risk monitoring and control in the context of syringe pump training and add the lessons learned from the evaluated e-learning program.

  7. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the...

  8. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised...

  9. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and... direct sales Public Charters by a foreign air carrier upon a finding that such action is necessary in...

  10. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales Reporting Requirements AGENCY: Office of... frozen box/primal cuts) and distillers dried grain (DDG) to the Export Sales Reporting Requirements, is..., Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting Division, Office...

  11. Effects of syringe type and storage temperature on results of blood gas analysis in arterial blood of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picandet, Valerie; Jeanneret, Stephanie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time to analysis, syringe type, and temperature during storage. However, the acceptable delay between time of collection and analysis for equine arterial blood gas remains unknown. Dedicated plastic syringes provide better stability of arterial blood gases than multipurpose plastic syringes. Eight mares, 1 stallion, and 1 gelding, ages 3 to 10 years old. Arterial blood samples were collected in a glass syringe, a plastic syringe designated for blood gas collection, and a multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringe. Blood samples were stored at ambient temperature or in iced water. For each sample, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2), and pH were measured within a few minutes of collection and at 5, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after collection. Collection into glass syringes stored in iced water provided adequate PaO2 results for up to 117 +/- 35 minutes, whereas blood collected in either of the plastic syringes resulted in a variation >10 mm Hg after 10 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 minutes, depending on the storage conditions. Plastic syringes kept at ambient temperature offered more stability for PaCO2 analysis because they could be stored up to 83 +/- 16 minutes without significant variations. Values of pH did not show variations more than 0.02 for the first hour, irrespectively of storage condition. Glass syringes placed on ice are preferable for analysis of PaO2. Blood collected in plastic syringes should be analyzed within 10 minutes, irrespective of the storage temperature, to ensure the accuracy of PaO2 values.

  12. Could low dead-space syringes really reduce HIV transmission to low levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, P; Martin, N K; Hickman, M

    2013-01-01

    Studies published by Zule and colleagues have suggested that use of low dead-space syringes (LDSS) instead of high dead-space syringes (HDSS) by injecting drug users (IDUs) could dramatically reduce HIV transmission. However, evidence is limited because experiments have considered a small range of syringe types and have been unable to reliably estimate the efficacy of using LDSS for reducing HIV transmission. We critically appraise available evidence to determine whether using LDSS is likely to dramatically reduce HIV transmission. We systematically review the literature on the dead-space volume of syringes and estimate the factor difference in blood volume transferred from sharing LDSS or HDSS. Existing data on the relationship between host viral load and HIV transmission risk is used to evaluate the likely efficacy of using LDSS instead of HDSS. An HIV transmission model is used to make conservative impact projections for switching to using LDSS, and explore the implications of heterogeneity in IDU transmission risk and syringe preferences. Although highly variable, reviewed studies suggest that HDSS have on average 10 times the dead-space volume of LDSS and could result in 6/54/489 times more blood being transferred after 0/1/2 water rinses. Assuming a conservative 2-fold increase in HIV transmission risk per 10-fold increase in infected blood inoculum, HDSS use could be associated with a mean 1.7/3.6/6.5-fold increase in transmission risk compared to LDSS for 0/1/2 rinses. However, even for a low efficacy estimate, modelling suggests that partially transferring to LDSS use from using HDSS could dramatically reduce HIV prevalence (generally >33% if LDSS use is 50%), but impact will depend on IDU behavioural heterogeneity and syringe preference. Indirect evidence suggests that encouraging HDSS users to use LDSS could be a powerful HIV prevention strategy. There is an urgent need to evaluate the real life effectiveness of this strategy.

  13. An improvised two in one syringe suction drain for surgeries of extremities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of an improvised two in one syringe suction drain is being presented for a case with two adjacent non-communicating surgical wounds following release of Duputryn′s contracture primarily involving the longitudinal band of the palmar fascia of the hand, in line with the middle and ring finger. Instead of using two separate closed suction drainage system we modified our method by using a 3 way cannula which could accept 2 draining tubes to be connected to one 50cc syringe with negative suction pressure.

  14. Organisational capabilities for enhancing the sales quotas development process outcomes for pharmaceutical sales forces

    OpenAIRE

    Morelli, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of the sales quotas development process in Spanish pharmaceutical organisations is challenging as the market environment becomes dramatically complex. Setting sales quotas has always been difficult, exemplified by the difficulties in quantifying future sales by sales territory. Extensive research has been conducted and several conceptual models created to facilitate the process of developing sales quotas. Effective management of this process has proved problemat...

  15. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  16. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  17. The sale of alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    laCour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    that the income elasticity of total sales has been zero. Second, we analyse the composition of the alcohol sale between beer, wine and spirits in a multivariate model conditional on the development in prices. For this analysis we use Johansen cointegration techniques. Again we test that income can be omitted from......How do prices affect the choice of types of alcohol in Denmark? We study the Danish sale of alcoholic beverages in a time series framework. First, we look at annual data from 1980 investigating the hypothesis of a fairly stable level of sales. We conclude stationarity of sales and we also find...

  18. Sales Distribution of Consumer Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hisano, Ryohei

    2010-01-01

    Using the uniform most powerful unbiased test, we observed the sales distribution of consumer electronics in Japan on a daily basis and report that it follows both a lognormal distribution and a power-law distribution and depends on the state of the market. We show that these switches occur quite often. The underlying sales dynamics found between both periods nicely matched a multiplicative process. However, even though the multiplicative term in the process displays a size-dependent relationship when a steady lognormal distribution holds, it shows a size-independent relationship when the power-law distribution holds. This difference in the underlying dynamics is responsible for the difference in the two observed distributions.

  19. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    's implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... scope. Consequently, in this study we have chosen to focus on the consequences of the following amendments:Under the new provisions in s. 77a(3), any lack of conformity with the contract is assumed to have existed at the time of delivery if such lack of conformity becomes apparent within six months...... of the time of delivery.Where there is a lack of conformity, the consumer in general has a right to choose between replacement and repair under s. 78. Replacement is no longer contingent on the lack of conformity constituting a fundamental breach. Furthermore, it is no longer possible for the seller...

  20. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  1. Suppression of Methionine Oxidation of a Pharmaceutical Antibody Stored in a Polymer-Based Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masato, Amano; Kiichi, Fukui; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Oxidation of methionine residues is one of the well-known deteriorations in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics. Because methionine oxidation may affect their efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile, oxidation levels should be strictly controlled during their storage period. In this study, we revealed that when a therapeutic antibody was filled into a cyclo olefin polymer-based syringe and stored in a blister pack with an oxygen absorber, the methionine oxidation production under thermal or light stress was suppressed because of the reduction in the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Also unexpectedly, fewer amounts of the high-molecular-weight species and the acidic variants of the antibody were generated under thermal or light stress. Although the high-molecular-weight species contains methionine oxidants at similar levels to those in a monomer species, they were likely to be constituted from a higher amount of the oxidative species of internal disulfide linkage, tyrosine, or histidine. Because the dissolved oxygen could be readily removed from the mAb solution in the polymer-based syringe owing to its high gas permeability, this study shows the advantages of the polymer-based syringe with an oxygen absorber over glass syringes in terms of the suppression of the methionine oxidation and oxidative high molecular species.

  2. [Analysis and thinking on the post marketing quality of the disposable sterilized syringe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingli; Yang, Wanjuan; Hao, Qing; Ji, Yuan; Zhu, Bijun

    2012-11-01

    By scattered-sampling testing the disposable sterilized syringe according to legal inspection and explorative research methods of vitro cytotoxicity and easy oxide etc. testing, this article comprehensively evaluated and analyzed the product quality and found the potential risk. The results will help to improve the work process and product quality.

  3. Sport promotion and sales management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminiroshan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.

  4. Sales Design in Online Auctions: Evidence from iPad 2 Sales on eBay

    OpenAIRE

    Baránek, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies sales of iPads 2 on eBay. We examine the determinants of the choice of particular sales design among sellers and the effect of this design on probability of sale and price. There is not a difference in prices among fixed price sales and auctions, however posted price sales have lower probability of being sold. BIN option in auctions does not affect their outcome. We also found that higher minimum bids increase price and decrease probability of sale.

  5. Syringic acid, a novel natural phenolic acid, normalizes hyperglycemia with special reference to glycoprotein components in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayachandran Muthukumaran; Subramani Srinivasan; Vinayagam Ramachandran; Udaiyar Muruganathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of syringic acid, a natural phenolic compound on the levels of glycoprotein components in plasma and tissues of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:Diabetes was induced in maleWistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan(150 mg/kg b.w).Syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) was administered orally for30 d.The effects of syringic acid on plasma glucose, insulin,C-peptide, plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied.Results:Oral administration of syringic acid(50 mg/kg b.w) for30 d positively modulates the glycemic status in alloxan induced diabetic rats.The levels of plasma glucose were decreased with significant increase of plasma insulin andC-peptide level.The altered levels of plasma and tissue glycoprotein components were restored to near normal.No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with syringic acid.Conclusions:The present findings suggest that syringic acid can potentially ameliorate glycoprotein components abnormalities in addition to its antidiabetic effect in experimental diabetes, further clinical studies are required to evaluate the use of syringic acid as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Gender Differences in Response to Sales Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Solilyak, Maryna

    2015-01-01

    Today, more and more similar products in one product line appear on store shelves, and buying decisions have become more complicated for the consumer. Despite this, producers have a clear vision that one of the most effective tools that can be used to distinguish their products is sales promotion. Nevertheless, every customer is unique, and the responses to sales promotion tools differ as well. The reason for sales promotion campaigns success depends on the depth of understanding of consumer ...

  7. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-01-01

    Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview giv...

  8. Sinopec Launches Shanghai Asphalt Sales Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec Shanghai Asphalt Sales Company was launched in Shanghai on September 22, marking Sinopec as the largest asphalt supplier in China integrated in famous brand,production, sales and research, and distribution network.This is another important initiative for Sinopec's asphalt segment, after Sinopec won the bid for construction of F 1 racing course, to grasp the market opportunities, further improve the product quality and the level of after-sales services, and further make its asphalt business larger and stronger.

  9. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... and location is International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global... apply for worker adjustment assistance for workers and former workers of International Business...

  10. Key personality traits of sales managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2014-01-01

    Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.

  11. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    This paper examines the optimal sequencing of sales in the presence of network externalities. A firm sells a good to a group of consumers whose payoff from buying is increasing in total quantity sold. The firm selects the order to serve consumers so as to maximize expected sales. It can serve all...... consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  12. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are

  13. 24 CFR 291.210 - Direct sales procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct sales procedures. 291.210... Procedures § 291.210 Direct sales procedures. When HUD conducts the sales listed in § 291.90(c), it will sell... sales procedures provided in this section. (a) Direct sales of properties without insured mortgages...

  14. 29 CFR 779.334 - Sales of services for resale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resale § 779.334 Sales of services for resale. The same principles apply in the case of sales of services... retail jewelers who resell the services to their own customers, the services constitute a sale for resale... sell these services to their own customers, constitute sales for resale. As in the case of the sale...

  15. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  16. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  17. The new science of sales force productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, Dianne; Kovac, Mark; Simon, Heidi Locke

    2006-09-01

    For years, sales managers at many companies have relied on top performers and sheer numbers of sales reps to stay competitive. But while they may have squeaked by on this wing-and-a-prayer technique, their sales teams haven't thrived the way they once did. Today's most successful sales leaders are taking a more scientific approach. Savvy managers are reshaping their tactics in response to changing markets. They are reaching out to new customers in innovative ways. And they are increasing productivity by helping the reps they already have make the most of their skills and resources. Leaders who take a scientific approach to sales force effectiveness have learned to use four levers to boost their reps' productivity in a predictable and manageable way. First, they systematically target their firms' offerings, matching the right products with the right customers. Second, they optimize the automation, tools, and procedures at their disposal, providing reps with the support they need to boost sales.Third, they analyze and manage their reps' performance, measuring both internal processes and results to determine where their teams' strengths and weaknesses are. Fourth, they pay close attention to sales force deployment--how well sales, support, marketing, and delivery resources are matched to customers. These four levers can help sales leaders increase productivity across the board, the authors say, though they have the greatest impact on lower-ranked performers. The overall effect of increasing the average sales per employee can be exponential; it means a company won't have to rely on just a few talented individuals to stay competitive. This is especially important because finding and keeping star salespeople is more difficult than ever. What's more, managers who optimize the sales forces they already have can see returns they never thought possible.

  18. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  19. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals onto injection vials and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Ur Rehman, Taj; Safdar Mansur, Muhammad; Jehangir, Mustanser

    2008-06-01

    Many groups have reported the adsorption or retention of (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials and disposable plastic syringes. Such an enormously high loss of radioactivity would result in poor images, radiation exposure, waste, and economic burdens. We therefore decided to investigate the extent of adsorption or retention of several (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals on injection vials, rubber stoppers, and plastic syringes. These radiopharmaceuticals are produced as lyophilized kits in our department and supplied to various hospitals practicing nuclear medicine in Pakistan. A vial containing lyophilized material was reconstituted with 3 mL of freshly eluted Na(99m)TcO(4). A 1-mL aliquot of the resulting solution was withdrawn into a syringe at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 h after preparation. All preparations were stored at room temperature ( approximately 22 degrees C). After each withdrawal, the vial was reweighed and the activity remaining in the vial was measured using a radioisotope calibrator. The sample was reinjected into the vial. From the original weight and activity of solution in the vial, the initial activity per gram was calculated. From the weight and activity remaining in the vial after withdrawal of the sample, the activity per gram of the sample was calculated. From the difference between the initial activity per gram and the activity per gram of the sample, the percentage of (99m)Tc adsorbed on the vial was calculated. All preparations were kept in the syringe for 15 min, and the activity was measured before and after the syringe was emptied. The needle and plunger of the syringe were separated, and activity in the needle and plunger was also measured. The labeling efficiency of all radiopharmaceuticals used during these studies was more than 95%. In most cases, the activity of (99m)Tc found on the rubber stopper was less than 1%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc onto vials increased gradually with storage time. Adsorption was minimal at the initial stages

  20. Photocatalytic ozonation of phenolic wastewaters: Syringic acid, tyrosol and gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Olga; Fernandez, Lidia A; Carbajo, Maria; Beltran, Fernando; Rivas, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic ozonation of a mixture of 3 phenols (gallic acid, tyrosol and syringic acid) has been conducted under different operating conditions. The individual adsorption of the phenol type compounds onto titanium dioxide (photocatalyst) has been first evaluated. Equilibrium conditions are attained in less than an hour while the isotherm curves reveal that adsorption intensity increases in order: syringic acid tyrosol < gallic acid. When the photocatalytic ozonation is applied, an optimum in titanium dioxide concentration is experienced (1.5 g L(-1)). Direct comparison of the photocatalytic ozonation to other less sophisticated oxidation systems (i.e., single ozonation, catalytic ozonation, photo-ozonation, etc.) indicates a higher efficiency of the former in terms of ozone uptake.

  1. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  2. Housing Instability among People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the Australian Needle and Syringe Program Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Topp, Libby; Iversen, Jenny; Baldry, Eileen; Maher, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    High rates of substance dependence are consistently documented among homeless people, and are associated with a broad range of negative outcomes among this population. Investigations of homelessness among drug users are less readily available. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of housing instability among clients of needle syringe programs (NSPs) via the Australian NSP Survey, annual cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among NSP attendees. Following self-completion of a bri...

  3. Automatic In-Syringe Dispersive Microsolid Phase Extraction Using Magnetic Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Fernando; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Estela, Jose Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2015-08-04

    A novel automatic strategy for the use of micro- and nanomaterials as sorbents for dispersive microsolid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) based on the lab-in-syringe concept is reported. Using the developed technique, the implementation of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for automatic solid-phase extraction has been achieved for the first time. A hybrid material based on submicrometric MOF crystals containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles was prepared and retained in the surface of a miniature magnetic bar. The magnetic bar was placed inside the syringe of an automatic bidirectional syringe pump, enabling dispersion and subsequent magnetic retrieval of the MOF hybrid material by automatic activation/deactivation of magnetic stirring. Using malachite green (MG) as a model adsorption analyte, a limit of detection of 0.012 mg/L and a linear working range of 0.04-2 mg/L were obtained for a sample volume equal to the syringe volume (5 mL). MG preconcentration was linear up to a volume of 40 mL, obtaining an enrichment factor of 120. The analysis throughput is 18 h(-1), and up to 3000 extractions/g of material can be performed. Recoveries ranging between 95 and 107% were obtained for the analysis of MG in different types of water and trout fish samples. The developed automatic D-μ-SPE technique is a safe alternative for the use of small-sized materials for sample preparation and is readily implementable to other magnetic materials independent of their size and shape and can be easily hyphenated to the majority of detectors and separation techniques.

  4. Effectiveness of syringe shieldings using radionuclides in radiation synovectomy; Effizienz von Spritzenabschirmungen bei Radionuklidanwendung zur Radiosynoviorthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedel, R.; Reichmann, K.; Reinhardt, M.; Palmedo, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Mallek, D. von [Klinik und Poliklinik des Universitaetsklinikums Bonn (Germany); Ebert, A. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Aim: The radiation exposure in radiation synovectomy was investigated for technician and therapist using Erbium-169, Rhenium-186 and Yttrium-90 with and without syringe shieldings. Methods: Dose rates were measured in relation to the distance of the syringe containing the radionuclide. Measurements were repeated using syringe shieldings which consist of plastic surrounded by a lead layer. Results: The most relevant radiation exposure arises from Yttrium-90. Using syringe shieldings radiation exposure can be reduced by a factor of thousand. Conclusion: This kind of radiological protection is completely sufficient for the therapist. Concerning the technician preparing the radiopharmaceutics, the limit of the official German dosimetry service (500 mSv) might be exceeded if no special radiological protection is established. Thus, special dosimetry is recommended. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Beim Umgang mit Radionukliden im Rahmen der Radiosynoviorthese wurde das Ausmass der Strahlenexposition fuer aerztliches Personal ermittelt und der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit eine Reduktion der zugrunde liegenden Dosisleistungen durch handelsuebliche Spritzenabschirmungen moeglich ist. Methode: In verschiedenen Abstaenden zu Spritzen, die uebliche Aktivitaeten von Erbium-169, Rhenium-186 und Yttrium-90 enthielten, werden die oertlichen Dosisleistungen mit und ohne Spritzenabschirmungen aus Plastik und Bleiummantelung gemessen. Ergebnisse: Eine relevante Strahlenexposition war beim Umgang mit Yttrium-90 festzustellen. Unter Verwendung von Spritzenabschirmungen aus Plastik mit Bleiummantelung liess sich die Strahlenbelastung in unmittelbarer Naehe zur Spritze um etwa den Faktor 1000 reduzieren. Schlussfolgerung: Eine Abschirmung aus Plastik mit Bleiummantelung kann fuer den applizierenden Arzt als voellig ausreichend angesehen werden. Fuer das Personal, dem die Nuklidzubereitung obliegt, kann jedoch ohne besondere Strahlenschutzmassnahmen der Jahresgrenzwert von 500 mSv ueberschritten

  5. Competency Assessment for Entry-level Sport Ticket Sales Professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Pierce; Richard Irwin

    2016-01-01

      With the emergence of outbound sales philosophies taking hold in sport organizations, sales managers are seeking talent to fill sales positions with candidates launching their careers in the sport industry...

  6. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - Neighborhood Stabilization Outcome Pool Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  7. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance linkage

  8. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... history from acreage planted or replanted 2 years prior to the first harvest on that acreage, the sales... history from acreage planted or replanted 1 year prior to the first harvest on that acreage, the sales... formula x=(a−b)c. The letter “x” constitutes the additional number of barrels to be added to the...

  9. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  10. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  11. Sales-marketing encroachment effects on innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszey, Tamara; Biemans, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The role of sales-has changed dramatically during the last two decades, with sales becoming increasingly strategic and encroaching on domains that traditionally belong to marketing. Many studies address the role of marketing in new product development (NPD) success, but research on the increasing im

  12. Can Sales Tax Revenue Equitably Finance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anicca C.

    In 1988, 66 of Tennessee's rural school districts brought suit against the state government claiming that the school funding system of a local option sales tax discriminates against rural areas. This study examines the effects of increased reliance on local sales tax revenue on Tennessee's school expenditures. Not every county can support a major…

  13. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  14. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales. This section provides guidance on the sale of all inventory property by auction, except FSA real...

  16. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  17. Exchanging Skills in Sales and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Atkinson, J.; Perryman, S.

    A study of the changing nature of skill requirements in sales and marketing occupations in Great Britain included a review of literature and 17 interviews with key sales and marketing contacts and managers and human resource professionals in large companies during Autumn 1996 and Spring 1997. Results were reported in the following areas of study:…

  18. Sales-marketing encroachment effects on innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszney, Tamara; Biemans, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The role of sales-has changed dramatically during the last two decades, with sales becoming increasingly strategic and encroaching on domains that traditionally belong to marketing. Many studies address the role of marketing in new product development (NPD) success, but research on the increasing im

  19. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 310 Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  20. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 310 Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  1. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call... Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Telephone, Trade practices...

  2. Sales Promotion Arrangements in the FMCG Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Immink; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractSales promotions in FMCG involve some form of coordination/cooperation between manufacturer and retailer. The result is a sales promotion agreement (SPA). First, we examine which elements are agreed upon in SPAs (e.g. goals, budgets, etc.). Second, we explain the differences in SPAs (e.g

  3. Conformity of Goods in International Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    The Conformity of Goods in International Sales gives a systematic analysis of Article 35 in the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). Based on a detailed analysis of the most important cases and leading academic writing, Article 35 is described...

  4. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-01-01

    An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  5. Iloprost infusion by a new device as a portable syringe pump: safety, tolerability and agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Iloprost, prostacyclin (PGI2 analogue, effective in treatment of peripheral arterial disease, secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP to connective tissue disease (CTD, vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, is usually infused through peristaltic pump, or recently through a flow regulator.Materials and methods We tested a new portable syringe pump (Pompa Infonde®, Italfarmaco S.p.A., Cinisello Balsamo, Milano on 120 patients affected by RP to CTD and cryoglobulinaemia, in iloprost therapy with a flow regulator.Results Iloprost infused through portable syringe pump is better tolerated, better appreciated by the patients and nurses and no difference was observed on therapeutic effects, with a lower incidence of side effects statistically significant. Only 3 patients were unable to tolerate the device (2 for changes in pressure and 1 for fear and shifted to traditional method of iloprost infusion.Conclusions Iloprost infusion through the portable syringe Pompa Infonde® appears to be safe, better tolerated, more acceptable and equally effective compared to infusion through a flow regulator.

  6. Cylinder syringe suction: a simple and efficient technique for the evacuation of subcutaneous hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ayato; Matsuda, Norifumi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Komoto, Masakazu; Natori, Yuhei; Komuro, Yuzo; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Subcutaneous hematoma is commonly caused by trauma or surgery. Proper treatment of the condition is needed to avoid severe complications. The present paper introduces a simple technique of hematoma evacuation, called cylinder syringe suction (CSS). Experiments were also performed to determine the detailed mechanism underlying its effectiveness. The CSS procedure was performed as follows. A cylindrical plastic cylinder syringe was used. Either a few stitches were removed or a very small incision was made on the site of the hematoma. The edge of the syringe was compressed to the skin, which was covered by a thin hydrocolloid dressing. Vacuum aspiration was enforced at the site of the wound or incision, and the hematoma was gradually aspirated.For the experiment, house rabbits were used. Hematoma evacuation was performed in 4 different ways, including needle aspiration alone (group 1), needle puncture followed by CSS (group 2), and creation of a small wound (5 mm) followed by needle aspiration (group 3) or CSS (group 4). The amount of evacuated hematoma and the suction pressure created by each of the 4 methods were compared. Group 4 showed the highest suction pressure and the greatest evacuated amount of hematoma. High suction pressure was also obtained in group 1; however, the amount of evacuated hematoma was small as the other 2 groups. The CSS technique becomes effective mainly by creating high suction pressure, and the opening of a small wound enables the viscous coagula to pass through the skin.

  7. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh Kumar, T D; John, J Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Geetha Priya, P R; Punithavathy, R; Praburajan, V

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD). A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a) 20% benzocaine; (b) pressure with cotton applicator; (c) no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001), and pulse rate (P < 0.05) when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  8. Low-cost feedback-controlled syringe pressure pumps for microfluidics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, John R.; Heyde, Keith C.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics are widely used in research ranging from bioengineering and biomedical disciplines to chemistry and nanotechnology. As such, there are a large number of options for the devices used to drive and control flow through microfluidic channels. Commercially available syringe pumps are probably the most commonly used instruments for this purpose, but are relatively high-cost and have inherent limitations due to their flow profiles when they are run open-loop. Here, we present a low-cost ($110) syringe pressure pump that uses feedback control to regulate the pressure into microfluidic chips. Using an open-source microcontroller board (Arduino), we demonstrate an easily operated and programmable syringe pump that can be run using either a PID or bang-bang control method. Through feedback control of the pressure at the inlets of two microfluidic geometries, we have shown stability of our device to within ±1% of the set point using a PID control method and within ±5% of the set point using a bang-bang control method with response times of less than 1 second. This device offers a low-cost option to drive and control well-regulated pressure-driven flow through microfluidic chips. PMID:28369134

  9. Behavioral response and pain perception to computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system and cartridge syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Yogesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the pain perception, behavioral response, physiological parameters, and the role of topical anesthetic administration during local anesthetic administration with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD. Design: A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 120 children aged 7-11 years. They were randomly divided into Group A: Receiving injection with CCLAD during first visit; Group B: Receiving injection with cartridge syringe during first visit. They were further subdivided into three subgroups based on the topical application used: (a 20% benzocaine; (b pressure with cotton applicator; (c no topical application. Pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behavior and subjective evaluation of pain were done using face legs activity cry consolability scale and modified facial image scale, respectively. The washout period between the two visits was 1-week. Results: Injections with CCLAD produced significantly lesser pain response, disruptive behavior (P < 0.001, and pulse rate (P < 0.05 when compared to cartridge syringe injections. Application of benzocaine produced lesser pain response and disruptive behavior when compared to the other two subgroups, although the result was not significant. Conclusion: Usage of techniques which enhance behavioral response in children like injections with CCLAD can be considered as a possible step toward achieving a pain-free pediatric dental practice.

  10. Chemical stability and adsorption of atracurium besylate injections in disposable plastic syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramar, Y V; Loucas, V A; Word, D

    1996-06-01

    Atracurium besylate (AB) is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic aqueous solution for intravenous use. Hospitals pre-fill disposable plastic syringes with these solutions so that they are ready for immediate use when required. Drug loss due to potential adsorption on to the plastic material of the syringes has not been studied. Atracurium is also administered by intravenous infusion using a diluted solution in either 5% dextrose injection (USP) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP. Drug solutions not used within 24 h are usually discarded, resulting in tremendous waste. The purpose of these investigations was to determine the adsorption behaviour of atracurium when stored in plastic syringes, and to study the degradation of atracurium in i.v. fluids. For the adsorption study, 10 mg/ml solutions were used, whereas the diluted infusion solutions were prepared to contain 0.5 mg/ml of atracurium. Drug degradation was monitored using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Degradation studies were conducted at 5 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Refrigeration was observed to improve drug stability. The manufacturer's recommended expiry period was too conservative. Storage at room temperature for up to 6 weeks can be safely recommended, without significant loss of chemical stability.

  11. Comparison of the silicone oil removal rate between vitrectomy and manual syringe negative pressure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhong; Wu, Rong Han; Zhou, Ye Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the silicone oil removal rate between vitrectomy and manual syringe negative pressure approach. Thirty-five silicone oil-filled eyes were enrolled and allocated for manual (n = 19) and vitrectomy (n = 16) removal approaches. For manual approach, a 10-ml syringe was connected to the 23-gauge cannula through a short section of blood transfusion tube. Removal was started after pulling and fixing the plunger to the end part. The syringe was pulled away immediately once the residual of silicone oil cannot be observed through the cornea. For vitrectomy approach, the only difference was the source of negative pressure, i.e., the blood transfusion tube was connected to the cannula directly to remove the silicone oil. Silicone oil removal rate was defined as the volume of silicone oil divided by the time taken for removal. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal was faster for manual approach than vitrectomy approach (4.13 ± 1.41 vs. 6.14 ± 1.49, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the silicone oil removal rate was larger for manual approach (1.42 ± 0.30 vs. 0.90 ± 0.16 ml/min, p oil removal. The manual approach is more convenient and efficient.

  12. A mathematical model to predict the risk of hepatitis B infection through needle/syringe sharing in mass vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2013-11-19

    The Japanese Government settled a class litigation case with hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who claim to have been infected through needle/syringe sharing in childhood mass vaccination with a blanket compensation agreement. However, it is difficult to estimate how many of the present HBV carriers were infected horizontally from mass vaccination and how many were infected vertically from mothers. A mathematical model to predict the risk of infection through needle/syringe sharing in mass vaccination was proposed and a formula was developed. The formula was presented in a logarithmic graph enabling users to estimate how many people will be infected if a needle/syringe is shared by how many people for how many times under certain probability of infection. The formula was then applied to the historical data of mass tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and BCG inoculation, from which a best estimate of how much needle/syringe sharing was practiced in different birth cohorts was determined. For the oldest cohort born between 1951 and 1955, the prevalence of HBV carriers-0.65% at birth through vertical transmission-more than doubled in 1995 (1.46%) through horizontal transmission. If the probability of infection through needle/syringe sharing is assumed to be 10%, it is theoretically likely that an average of five or more people shared a needle/syringe four times to achieve the prevalence of HBV carriers in 1995. However, for the youngest cohort born between 1981 and 1985, the effects of needle/syringe sharing were negligible because the later prevalence of HBV carriers was lower than the prevalence at birth. More than half of the HBV carriers born in the early 1950s might have contracted the disease by mass vaccinations. Japan's experience needs to be shared with other countries as a caution in conducting mass vaccination programs under scarce needle/syringe supply (291 words).

  13. In-syringe-stirring: A novel approach for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstkotte, Burkhard [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, CZ-50005 Hradec Králové (Czech Republic); Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry – LQA2, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Suárez, Ruth [Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry – LQA2, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Solich, Petr [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, CZ-50005 Hradec Králové (Czech Republic); Cerdà, Víctor, E-mail: victor.cerda@uib.es [Laboratory of Environmental Analytical Chemistry – LQA2, University of the Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We propose a new automatic magnetic stirring assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. •It allows the extraction of aluminum from seawater and freshwater samples within less than 4 min. •The method was applicable to the natural samples. -- Abstract: For the first time, the use of a magnetic stirrer within the syringe of an automated syringe pump and the resulting possible analytical applications are described. A simple instrumentation following roughly the one from sequential injection analyzer systems is used in combination with an adaptor, which is placed onto the barrel of a glass syringe. Swirling around the longitudinal axis of the syringe and holding two strong neodymium magnets, it causes a rotating magnetic field and serves as driver for a magnetic stirring bar placed inside of the syringe. In a first study it was shown that this approach leads to a sealed but also automatically adaptable reaction vessel, the syringe, in which rapid and homogeneous mixing of sample with the required reagents within short time can be carried out. In a second study in-a-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (MSA-DLLME) was demonstrated by the application of the analyzer system to fluorimetric determination of aluminum in seawater samples using lumogallion. A linear working range up to 1.1 μmol L{sup −1} and a limit of detection of 6.1 nmol L{sup −1} were found. An average recovery of 106.0% was achieved for coastal seawaters with a reproducibility of 4.4%. The procedure lasted 210 s including syringe cleaning and only 150 μL of hexanol and 4.1 mL of sample were required.

  14. Unintended purge during the start-up process of a syringe pump: report of a case presented with vascular collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbood, Arash; Kazemi, Asif Parviz; Akbari, Kamal

    2010-12-01

    The case of a 50 year-old woman who developed a sudden decrease in arterial pressure while she was being prepared for surgery for a fractured lumbar spine in the prone position, is reported. She was receiving propofol, remifentanil, and sodium nitroprusside via three syringe pumps through an intravenous cannula at the dorsum of her left hand. The cause of the vascular collapse was the purge of the syringe pumps during the self-check process.

  15. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  16. Impact of Sales Experience and Training on Sales Presentation Skills between Industrial Salespersons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abdolvand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the relations between important sales presentation skills and salesperson job performance. Data on each construct in the model was gathered and the relations analyzed using LISREL software. More sales skills need to be considered and salespeople in other industry and also in other than those in the business to business environment should be studied. Finding shows that one of the salesperson characteristics, sales experience, underlies all the sales presentation skills and that the other, training, is associated with all the sales presentation skills with the exception of active listening skills. Sales managers are urged to ensure their business to business salespeople develop their skills in adaptive communication and closing as one means to improve sales performance.

  17. Marketing-sales interface and organizational competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Avlonitis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effectiveness of marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms. As the body of knowledge on this domain is scarce, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in such firms. The objective of this paper is to expand existing knowledge regarding marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms, in order to identify the effectiveness of each configuration. Based on quantitative data collected from marketing or sales managers of 98 B2B firms, the study identifies the most effective marketing-sales interface in terms of smooth relationships and enhanced performance. The implications of the study are discussed.

  18. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview gives the true measure of his/her professionalism. Elaborated based on the taxonomy of the sales steps and depending on customer objections, questions may constitute a basic premise in the development of sales strategies and techniques

  19. Impulse sales cooler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Per Henrik (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    In the past years, the use of impulse coolers has increased considerably and it is estimated that at least 30.000 are installed in shops in Denmark. In addition, there are many small barrel-shaped can coolers. Most impulse coolers are open, which results in a large consumption of energy, and the refrigeration systems are often quite inefficient. A typical impulse cooler uses app. 5 - 8 kWh/day corresponding to a consumption of energy in the magnitude of 60 GWh/year. For several years, the Danish company Vestfrost A/S has produced an impulse sales cooler in the high-efficiency end and the energy consumption of the cooler is measured to be 4.15 kWh/day. The POS72 cooler formed the baseline of this project. At the start-up meeting in 2008, several ideas were discussed with the objective to reduce energy consumption and to use natural refrigerants. Among the ideas were better air curtains, removable lids, better condensers, use of R600a refrigeration system and better insulation. Three generations of prototypes were built and tested in a climate chamber at Danish Technological Institute and the third generation showed very good performance: the energy consumption was measured to 2.215 kWh/day, which is a 47% reduction compared to the baseline. That was achieved by: 1) Improving the cold air cycling system including the air curtain. 2) Using the natural refrigerant R600a (isobutane) and the Danfoss NLE9KTK compressor, which has better efficiency compared to the compressor in the baseline product. 3) Using a box type condenser without fins (preventing dust build-up) and with a relatively high surface area. 4) Improving the insulation value of the plastic cabinet by reducing turbulence in the air gap between the plastic walls and improving the insulation value of the EPS moulded insulation surrounding the refrigeration system at the bottom of the cooler. 5) Preventing short-circuit of warm air around the condenser. 6) The improvements are cost efficient and will not add

  20. Development of a Mechatronic Syringe Pump to Control Fluid Flow in a Microfluidic Device Based on Polyimide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sek Tee, Kian; Sharil Saripan, Muhammad; Yap, Hiung Yin; Fhong Soon, Chin

    2017-08-01

    With the advancement in microfluidic technology, fluid flow control for syringe pump is always essential. In this paper, a mechatronic syringe pump will be developed and customized to control the fluid flow in a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device based on a polyimide laminating film. The syringe pump is designed to drive fluid with flow rates of 100 and 1000 μl/min which intended to drive continuous fluid in a polyimide based microfluidic device. The electronic system consists of an Arduino microcontroller board and a uni-polar stepper motor. In the system, the uni-polar stepper motor was coupled to a linear slider attached to the plunger of a syringe pump. As the motor rotates, the plunger pumps the liquid out of the syringe. The accuracy of the fluid flow rate was determined by adjusting the number of micro-step/revolution to drive the stepper motor to infuse fluid into the microfluidic device. With the precise control of the electronic system, the syringe pump could accurately inject fluid volume at 100 and 1000 μl/min into a microfluidic device.

  1. Cartridge syringe vs computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system: Pain related behaviour over two sequential visits - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoppe-Dhamodhara, Yogesh-Kumar; Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby-John; Pollachi-Ramakrishnan, GeethaPriya; Ramachandran, Punithavathy; Vilvanathan, Praburajan

    2015-10-01

    Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety provoking procedure in dentistry. Knowledge about change in pain related behaviour during consecutive visits helps in and scheduling of treatment procedures and management of children in dental clinic. To compare the pain perception, behavioural response and the associated change in physiological parameters while receiving local anesthesia injection with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD) over two consecutive visits. In this randomized controlled cross over trial, 120 children aged 7 - 11 years were randomly divided into group A: receiving injections with CCLAD during first visit; group B: receiving injections with cartridge syringe during first visit. The physiological parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behaviour and subjective evaluation of pain perceived were done using Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability (FLACC) scale and modified facial image scale (FIS) respectively. No statistical difference in pain response (p= 0.164) and disruptive behaviour (p = 0.120) between cartridge syringe and CCLAD injections were seen during the first visit although the latter showed lesser scores. However, during the second visit there were significant increase in pain response (p = 0.004) and disruptive behaviour (p = 0.006) in cartridge syringe group with an associated increase in heart rate. Injections with CCLAD produced lesser pain ratings and disruptive behaviour than cartridge syringe in children irrespective of order of visit. Behaviour, cartridge syringe, CCLAD, local anesthesia.

  2. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  3. Investigating Liquid Leak from Pre-Filled Syringes upon Needle Shield Removal: Effect of Air Bubble Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin; Maa, Yuh-Fun; Overcashier, David; Hsu, Chung C

    2011-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of headspace air pressure in pre-filled syringes on liquid leak (dripping) from the syringe needle upon needle shield removal. Drip tests to measure drip quantity were performed on syringes manually filled with 0.5 or 1.0 mL of various aqueous solutions. Parameters assessed included temperature (filling and test), bulk storage conditions (tank pressure and the type of the pressurized gas), solution composition (pure water, 0.9% sodium chloride, and a monoclonal antibody formulation), and testing procedures. A headspace pressure analyzer was used to verify the drip test method. Results suggested that leakage is indeed caused by headspace pressure increase, and the temperature effect (ideal gas expansion) is a major, but not the only, factor. The dissolved gases in the liquid bulk prior to or during filling may contribute to leakage, as these gases could be released into the headspace due to solubility changes (in response to test temperature and pressure conditions) and cause pressure increase. Needle shield removal procedures were found to cause dripping, but liquid composition played little role. Overall, paying attention to the processing history (pressure and temperature) of the liquid bulk is the key to minimize leakage. The headspace pressure could be reduced by decreasing liquid bulk storage pressure, filling at a higher temperature, or employing lower solubility gas (e.g., helium) for bulk transfer and storage. Leakage could also be mitigated by simply holding the syringe needle pointing upward during needle shield removal. Substantial advances in pre-filled syringe technology development, particularly in syringe filling accuracy, have been made. However, there are factors, as subtle as how the needle shield (or tip cap) is removed, that may affect dosing accuracy. We recently found that upon removal of the tip cap from a syringe held vertically with needle pointed downwards, a small amount of solution, up to 3-4% of

  4. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  5. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions.

  6. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  7. Multistate outbreak of Serratia marcescens bloodstream infections caused by contamination of prefilled heparin and isotonic sodium chloride solution syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, David; Noble-Wang, Judith; Su, John; Pur, Stacy; Chemaly, Roy; Shams, Alicia; Jensen, Bette; Pascoe, Neil; Gullion, Jessica; Casey, Eric; Hayden, Mary; Arduino, Matthew; Budnitz, Daniel S; Raad, Isaam; Trenholme, Gordon; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2009-10-12

    To investigate clusters of Serratia marcescens (SM) bloodstream infections (BSIs) at health care facilities in several states and determine whether contaminated prefilled heparin and isotonic sodium chloride solution (hereinafter, saline) syringes from a single manufacturer (company X) were the likely cause, we performed an outbreak investigation of inpatient and outpatient health care facilities from October 2007 through February 2008. Active case finding for clusters of SM BSIs. Information on SM BSIs was obtained, and SM blood isolates were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Culture specimens were taken from various lots of prefilled heparin and saline syringes by health care facilities and the CDC to test for the presence of SM. The SM isolates from syringes and blood were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 162 SM BSIs in 9 states were reported among patients at facilities using prefilled heparin and/or saline syringes made by company X. Cultures of unopened prefilled heparin and saline syringes manufactured by company X grew SM. Of 83 SM blood isolates submitted to the CDC from 7 states, 70 (84%) were genetically related to the SM strain isolated from prefilled syringes. A US Food and Drug Administration inspection revealed that company X was not in compliance with quality system regulations. A multistate outbreak of SM BSIs was associated with intrinsic contamination of prefilled syringes. Our investigation highlights important issues in medication safety, including (1) the importance of pursuing possible product-associated outbreaks suggested by strong epidemiologic data even when initial cultures of the suspected product show no contamination and (2) the challenges of medical product recalls when production has been outsourced from one company to another.

  8. China March Apparel Retail Sales Report Retail Sales Vaule + 21.8% Y/Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Total retail sales value in major department stores picked up sharply in Mar. 2011, rising by about 25.6 percent y/y to CNY 46.63 billion, according to Na-tion Commercial Information Center of China. Of which, retail sales value of apparel products in major department stores increased 21.8 per cent y/y to CNY 11.89 billion, 3.8% lower than national average. For volume, retail sales volum

  9. Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects (seco

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-16 - Sales for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales for export. 48.4041-16 Section 48.4041-16... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-16 Sales for export. (a) General rule. In order for a sale to be exempt from tax under section 4041 as a sale for export, it...

  11. Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects

  12. 78 FR 2424 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United... competitive sale by sealed bid, in accordance with the Federal regulations for competitive lease sale...

  13. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  14. 75 FR 40763 - Federal Management Regulation; Sale of Personal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION 41 CFR Part 102-38 RIN 3090-AJ04 Federal Management Regulation; Sale of Personal Property AGENCY... the provisions for the sale of personal property through Federal Asset Sales (FAS) Sales Centers..., Office of Governmentwide Policy, Personal Property Management Policy, at (202) 501-3828, or e-mail...

  15. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santini, Fernando de Oliveira; Sampaio, Cláudio Hoffmann; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann; Espartel, Lelis Balestrin; Ladeira, Wagner Junior

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions...

  16. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    This publication contains the 1992 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the fourth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1992 edition marks the ninth annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA).

  17. Lobster Processing and Sales Trip Report Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes lobster processing and sales information...

  18. Sales Tax Compliance and Audit Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1995-01-01

    Uses sample selection estimation techniques to identify systematic audit selection rules and determinants of sales tax underreporting. Though based on data from only one state (Tennessee), outcomes are useful in developing and evaluating audit selection results.

  19. 7 CFR 46.25 - Auction sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930 Auction Sales §...

  20. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    This paper examines the optimal sequencing of sales in the presence of network externalities. A firm sells a good to a group of consumers whose payoff from buying is increasing in total quantity sold. The firm selects the order to serve consumers so as to maximize expected sales. It can serve all...... consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...... to consumers, allowing success to breed success. Failure can also breed failure, but this is made less likely by consumers’ desire to influence one another’s behavior. We show that when consumers differ in the weight they place on the network externality, the firm would like to serve consumers with lower...

  1. Lobster Report for Transshipment and Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes transshipment and sales information for a...

  2. Sales promotion effect: concepts and terminology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O.V. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Sales promotion is a significant part of firm’s marketing activity, especially in the modern state of Ukrainian economy, when prices are growing fast and consumers are becoming more sensitive to the price changes...

  3. 7 CFR 1767.30 - Sales expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar educational activities. Materials and Expenses: 1. Advertising in newspapers, periodicals... activities for the benefit of employees. Insurance: 1. Premiums payable to insurance companies for fire..., and expenses incurred in the general direction and supervision of sales activities,...

  4. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  5. [Preference for etanercept pen versus syringe in patients with chronic arthritis. Nurse education workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Roig-Vilaseca, Daniel; Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; González, Marina; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Fíguls, Ramon; Corominas, Hèctor

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate the level of fear of post-injection pain prior to the administration, the difficulty in handling the device, and the level of satisfaction of patients using a pre-filled syringe versus an etanercept pen, as well as to evaluate the usefulness of the training given by nursing staff prior to starting with the pen, and the preferences of patients after using both devices. A prospective study was designed to follow-up a cohort of patients during a 6 months period. The data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS 18.00. Rank and McNemar tests were performed. Statistical significance was pre-set at an α level of 0.05. A total of 29 patients were included, of whom 69% female, and with a mean age 52.5±10.9 years. Of these, 48% had rheumatoid arthritis, 28% psoriatic arthritis, 21% ankylosing spondylitis, and 3% undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. There were no statistically significant differences either with the fear or pain or handling of the device between the syringe and the pen (P=.469; P=.812; P=.169 respectively). At 6 months, 59% of patients referred to being satisfied or very satisfied with the pen. Almost all (93%) found useful or very useful the training given by nursing staff prior to using the pen, and 55% preferred the pen over the pre-filled syringe. The etanercept pen is another subcutaneous device option for patients with chronic arthritis. According to the present study, nursing educational workshops before starting this therapy are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Starting in the 2007 time frame we found a significant growth in FMS sales volume that continued to grow nearly exponentially through 2009. This growth ...volume. Starting in the 2007 time frame we found a significant growth in FMS sales volume that continued to grow nearly exponentially through 2009...Executives @ Boeing Apache Plant (Mesa, AZ) notes 75 minutes DCMA Reps @ Boeing Apache Plant (Mesa, AZ) notes 3 hours Strategic Contracting Professor

  7. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  8. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri holds sample syringe during SLJ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri holds sample syringe while conducting Studies on the Effects of Microgravity on the Ultrastructure and Function of Cultured Mammalian Cells (KIDNEY CELLS). Mohri, wearing a lightweight headset, works inside the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. In the background are the NASDA Material Sciences Rack 10 with field sequential (FS) crew cabin camera attached and the SLJ end cone with a banner from Auburn University and portraits of the backup payload specialists. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  9. Syringe confiscation as an HIV risk factor: the public health implications of arbitrary policing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Lozada, Remedios; Gaines, Tommi; Abramovitz, Daniela; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-04-01

    Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) face elevated risk for HIV/STIs and constitute a key population for public health prevention. Through direct and indirect pathways including human rights violations, policing practices like syringe confiscation can compound FSW-IDU health risk and facilitate the spread of disease. We studied correlates of experiencing syringe confiscation among FSW-IDUs in northern Mexico, where formal policy allows for syringes to be available over the counter without a prescription, but police practices are often at odds with the law. FSW-IDUs reporting recent syringe sharing and unprotected sex with clients in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez were administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of syringe confiscation. Among 624 respondent FSW-IDUs, prevalence of syringe confiscation in the last 6 months was 48%. The following factors were positively associated with syringe confiscation: testing positive for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-5.80), reporting sexual abuse by police (aOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 6.58-24.72), engaging in groin injection (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.15-2.93), injecting in public (aOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.14-2.36), and obtaining syringes from pharmacies (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.06-2.23). Higher education level was negatively associated with syringe confiscation (aOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.98) as was frequent injection with clients within the last month (aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.94). This analysis adds to the body of evidence linking unauthorized law enforcement actions targeting high-risk groups with HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Using a public health lens to conceptualize abuse as a structural risk factor, we advocate for multi-prong prevention, systematic monitoring, and evidence-based intervention response to deleterious police practices.

  10. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a syringe pump assisted dynamic headspace sampling technique for needle trap device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, In-Yong; Niri, Vadoud H; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-07-04

    This paper describes a new approach that combines needle trap devices (NTDs) with a dynamic headspace sampling technique (purge and trap) using a bidirectional syringe pump. The needle trap device is a 22-G stainless steel needle 3.5-in. long packed with divinylbenzene sorbent particles. The same sized needle, without packing, was used for purging purposes. We chose an aqueous mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) and developed a sequential purge and trap (SPNT) method, in which sampling (trapping) and purging cycles were performed sequentially by the use of syringe pump with different distribution channels. In this technique, a certain volume (1 mL) of headspace was sequentially sampled using the needle trap; afterwards, the same volume of air was purged into the solution at a high flow rate. The proposed technique showed an effective extraction compared to the continuous purge and trap technique, with a minimal dilution effect. Method evaluation was also performed by obtaining the calibration graphs for aqueous BTEX solutions in the concentration range of 1-250 ng/mL. The developed technique was compared to the headspace solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of aqueous BTEX samples. Detection limits as low as 1 ng/mL were obtained for BTEX by NTD-SPNT.

  12. Analysis of Hypodermic Needles and Syringes for the Presence of Blood and Polydimethylsiloxane (Silicone) Utilizing Microchemical Tests and Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, John B; Lanzarotta, Adam; Witkowski, Mark R; Andria, Sara E

    2015-07-01

    Suspect hypodermic needles and syringes were seized from an unlicensed individual who was allegedly injecting patients with silicone (polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS]) for cosmetic enhancement. Since control syringe barrels and needles often contain an interfering PDMS lubricant, a risk for false positives of foreign PDMS exists. The focus of this report was to minimize this risk and determine a quick and reliable test for the presence of blood in PDMS matrices. Using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy, the risk for false-positive identification of foreign PDMS was reduced by (i) overfilling the sampling aperture to prevent spectral distortions and (ii) sampling a region of the suspect syringe/needle assembly where manufacturer-applied PDMS is not typically located. Analysis for blood indicated that the Teichman microchemical test was effective for detecting blood in the presence of PDMS. Overall, detecting PDMS established intent and detecting blood established that the needle containing the PDMS had been used for injection.

  13. The effect of exposures to policing on syringe sharing among people who inject drugs in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Ti, Lianping; Buxton, Jane A; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Kerr, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    While intensive drug law enforcement is recognized as a social-structural driver of HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs (IDU), few studies have investigated the effects of direct encounters with police, particularly in Asian settings. Using multivariate log-binomial regression, we examined the relationship between syringe sharing and exposures to two types of policing practices among IDU in Bangkok, Thailand: having been beaten by police and having been tested for illicit drugs by police. Between July and October 2011, 435 IDU participated in the study, with 75 (17.2 %) participants reporting syringe sharing in the past 6 months. In multivariate analyses, exposures to the two types of policing practices had an independent effect on syringe sharing, with experiencing both practices showing the greatest effect. These findings highlight the importance of addressing the policy and social environment surrounding IDU as a means of HIV prevention.

  14. Effect of air moisture content on adhesion to dentine: a comparison of dental air/water syringe tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A; Bennani, V; Chandler, N; Hanlin, S; Lowe, B

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the spray pattern and air moisture content produced by single-use syringe and multiple-use syringe tips. The drying efficacy was evaluated by analyzing the spray and by detecting the presence of moisture in the air blast through the tips. Single-use tips had a more consistent spray pattern and produced a moisture-free airflow compared to the multiple-use tips. The differences were statistically significant. Adhesion to dentine between tooth preparations dried with the two tips was evaluated using a tensile test. The differences were statistically insignificant.

  15. Syringe shape and positioning relative to efficiency volume inside dose calibrators and its role in nuclear medicine quality assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Carrasco, M.F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Lencart, J. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    A careful analysis of geometry and source positioning influence in the activity measurement outcome of a nuclear medicine dose calibrator is presented for {sup 99m}Tc. The implementation of a quasi-point source apparent activity curve measurement is proposed for an accurate correction of the activity inside several syringes, and compared with a theoretical geometric efficiency model. Additionally, new geometrical parameters are proposed to test and verify the correct positioning of the syringes as part of acceptance testing and quality control procedures.

  16. Scope of illegal tobacco products sales in Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananjeva, G.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilot assessment of illegal tobacco sales was conducted in Kazan city. The revealed law violations include placement of tobacco sales points within 100 meters around educational institutions, single cigarette sales and cigarette sales to minors. Single cigarettes were more likely to be sold in two of five types of sales outlets – pavilions and kiosks, those placed closer to educational institutions, and where larger part of the storefront was dedicated to cigarette packs. Points of sales with similar characteristics were more likely to sell to minors as well. Placement of notes regarding ban of cigarette sales to minors does not influence the levels of illegal sales. Measures to curb the levels of illegal cigarette sales were recommended. (Full text is in Russian

  17. Sales promotion effect: concepts and terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Yusupova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion is a significant part of firm’s marketing activity, especially in the modern state of Ukrainian economy, when prices are growing fast and consumers are becoming more sensitive to the price changes. But firms are becoming more careful about their expenses too. So now it’s exceptionally important for firms to evaluate properly effect of the sales promotion. Nowadays not only total effect of sales promotions is the subject of scientists’ and firms’ interest but factors that contribute to it. Decomposition of sales promotion effect allows us to understand which factor is responsible for sales enhancing and what to expect in future periods. World economists are already developing the issue of decomposition of sales promotion effect. Started by S. Gupta topic is being discussed for more than 20 years. Despite of that, Ukrainian scientific literature remains silent about decomposition of sales promotion effect. There are no strict terms in scientific Ukrainian language for labeling certain basic concepts that are used in articles of foreign colleges. The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to form such terminology in order to bring broad discussion of decomposition of sales promotion effect into both Ukrainian science and practice. Following terms were considered in the paper: primary demand, secondary demand, purchase incidence, purchase quantity, cross-period effect, category-expansion effect, brand switching, store switching and category switching. The results of the analysis show that strict translation into Ukrainian is not always a good choice because of several reasons. There was discovered that some terms are already used in Ukrainian literature in different meaning. For instance, term «secondary demand» is already used in Ukrainian literature for describing demand for a product that depends on demand for other product. The same problem occurs when translating term «category-expansion effect» in Ukrainian

  18. The Enhancing Impact of Friendship Networks on Sales Managers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest that firms should encourage managers to improve their friendships in order to access valuable information that will enhance customer knowledge and support their sales efforts.

  19. Moving beyond non-engagement on regulated needle-syringe exchange programs in Australian prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia is at a fork in the road with the possibility of a needle-syringe exchange program (NSP to be introduced at the new prison in the ACT. However, the current situation is characterised by non-engagement from major stakeholders. We explore why informed discussion will not be enough to convince prison officers, policy makers and the wider community of the benefits of prison-based NSPs. Other methods of engagement and communication will be proposed – in that may provide avenues for "breakthrough". Methods A review of the literature on needle-syringe exchanges and harm reduction strategies within the context of prisons and prisoner health was conducted. Literature on strategies to change attitudes and move beyond intractable situations was also consulted. In addition, one author, DM, conducted a two-hour interview with an ex-prison officer. Results No studies were found which investigated the potential efficacy of interventions to modify attitudes or behaviours in the specific context of introducing an NSP into a prison. Nonetheless, several theories were identified which may explain the failure of informed discussion alone to create change in this situation and may therefore lead to suggestions for engagement and communication to move towards a resolution Discussion Cognitive-behavioural therapy highlights the importance of individual cognitions and how they shape behaviours in any change campaign. Social identity theory emphasizes changes to social processes that may open the prison officer workforce to change. Peace studies also suggests socialization strategies such as observing an established and effective prison-based needle-syringe exchange. Social marketing provides suggestions on how to sell an exchange to ensuring the benefits are framed to outweigh the costs. Conclusion Psychology, peace studies and social marketing all agree people's views must be carefully collected and analysed if people are going to be

  20. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  1. The Sale of Alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2005-01-01

    . The sale of spirits has been fairly stable. Modelling the system of the beer-share and the wine-share we want to split the total development into a part that can be ascribed to changes in the relative prices and a part that can be explained by changes in taste and drinking habits specified as a trend....... By specifying a system conditionally on the prices of beer, wine and spirits and a trend we manage to estimate price sensitivity and taste sensitivity. A small forecasting exercise shows that the final model is fairly good at predicting changes in the shares due to price changes. Finally, the effects......In the following we will analyse the sale of alcohol in Denmark. Various figures related to this question are published by Statistics Denmark at different frequencies. Our main concern will be with quarterly data for the sale of beer, wine and spirits from the period 1990 - 2004. Our two hypotheses...

  2. Decomposing Firm-level Sales Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    , and that for the median product it drives 31% of the sales variation. When we remove first-time exports from our sample, the median value increases to 40%, implying that firm-destination-specific effects are most important the first year. We conclude that while firm-specific productivity can account for some......We measure the contribution of firm-specific effects to overall sales variation within a destination and find it remarkably low. Our empirical decomposition is structurally motivated by a heterogeneity model of exporting involving destination-specific, firm-specific, and firm......-destination-specific latent effects with incidental truncation. We use a highly detailed dataset with exports by products and destinations for all Danish manufacturing fi…rms. We fi…nd the contribution of firm-specific heterogeneity to within-destination sales variation varies greatly across HS6 products...

  3. Using Pharmacies in a Structural Intervention to Distribute Low Dead Space Syringes to Reduce HIV and HCV Transmission in People Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oramasionwu, Christine U; Johnson, Terence L; Zule, William A; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Golin, Carol E

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing injection drug use contributes to the HIV and HCV epidemics in people who inject drugs. In many places, pharmacies are the primary source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs; thus, pharmacies provide a viable public health service that reduces blood-borne disease transmission. Replacing the supply of high dead space syringes with low dead space syringes could have far-reaching benefits that include further prevention of disease transmission in people who inject drugs and reductions in dosing inaccuracies, medication errors, and medication waste in patients who use syringes. We explored using pharmacies in a structural intervention to increase the uptake of low dead space syringes as part of a comprehensive strategy to reverse these epidemics.

  4. Does Advertising Spending Improve Sales Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Mattila, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Hotel managers and investors commonly analyze the impact of advertising spending on firm performance. This paper investigates such an impact using a comprehensive framework incorporating the moderating effects of hotel size and star ratings. We estimated sales performance via dynamic, stochastic...... frontier modelling. Using longitudinal data from a sample of Slovenian and Croatian hotels, we demonstrate that advertising spending has a positive impact on hotel sales performance, and that the relationship strengthens for larger hotels and hotels with higher star ratings. Theoretical and managerial...

  5. Ace Auto's After-sale Adds Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the auto market,consumers often asked a question why the same car in the European and American market is cheaper than that in China.The key to this question lies in the difference of profit chains between European & American market and Chinese market.In the mature European or American market,the portion of profit from auto sales accounting for the total profit is comparatively small,and quite a large share of profit derives from the auto's after-sale service market.

  6. Preventing Point-of-Sale System Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    with certain digits (e.g., a 4 for a Visa or a 5 for a MasterCard). This in fact is the premise behind memory scraping malicious code. Venter et al...beneficial due to the fact that some point-of-sale system users conduct non-business Internet activities (e.g., checking email or browsing Web sites) on... scraping ,” which refers to the act of capturing card data as it briefly enters an unencrypted state in a point- of-sale terminal’s random access

  7. Strategic Sales – Customer Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates a proposition posed in the group project. While the group project demonstrated the importance of examining the approach to sales, this proposition looks at a specific segment of sales, customer portfolio management. There exists a theory put forward by Piercy and Lane in 2009 which looks at the array of customers that an organisation is about to target and states that attention should be given to the level of investment given to each one. On one end of the scale, some ...

  8. 3D Printing Prototypes for Healthcare Professionals: Creating a Reciprocating Syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Steven; Abdullah, Selwan; Hirsch, Jeffrey

    2017-01-30

    3D printing (additive manufacturing) has been around since 1984, but interest in the technology has increased exponentially as it has become both accessible and inexpensive. The applications of the technology in healthcare are still being explored; however, initial forays have been encouraging. It has the potential to revolutionize the process of prototyping for healthcare professionals by democratizing the process and enhancing collaboration, making it cheaper to do iterative prototyping with little or no engineering experience. This case report details the creation of a multi-lumen reciprocating syringe with 3D printing. The product has been created and tested using a variety of publicly available resources. It provides a detailed overview of the approach and the framework required to create such a medical device. However, the implications of this report are much larger than this one product, and the fundamental ideas discussed here could be used for creating customized solutions for many healthcare problems.

  9. A rapid and economic in-house DNA purification method using glass syringe filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Purity, yield, speed and cost are important considerations in plasmid purification, but it is difficult to achieve all of these at the same time. Currently, there are many protocols and kits for DNA purification, however none maximize all four considerations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We now describe a fast, efficient and economic in-house protocol for plasmid preparation using glass syringe filters. Plasmid yield and quality as determined by enzyme digestion and transfection efficiency were equivalent to the expensive commercial kits. Importantly, the time required for purification was much less than that required using a commercial kit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method provides DNA yield and quality similar to that obtained with commercial kits, but is more rapid and less costly.

  10. Illicit buprenorphine use, interest in and access to buprenorphine treatment among syringe exchange participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron D; Chamberlain, Adam; Sohler, Nancy L; Frost, Taeko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    Poor access to buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) may contribute to illicit buprenorphine use. This study investigated illicit buprenorphine use and barriers to BMT among syringe exchange participants. Computer-based interviews conducted at a New York City harm reduction agency determined: prior buprenorphine use; barriers to BMT; and interest in BMT. Of 102 opioid users, 57 had used illicit buprenorphine and 32 had used prescribed buprenorphine. When illicit buprenorphine users were compared to non-users: barriers to BMT ("did not know where to get treatment") were more common (64 vs. 36%, pbuprenorphine users were interested in BMT but did not know where to go for treatment. Addressing barriers to BMT could reduce illicit buprenorphine use.

  11. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim (i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to invest

  12. Subjective pain response to two anesthetic systems in dental surgery: traditional syringe vs. a computer controlled delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patini, R; Coviello, V; Raffaelli, L; Manicone, P F; Dehkhargani, S Z; Verdugo, F; Perfetti, G; D'Addona, A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate human pain perception at different phases of dental surgery using a computer controlled device, the Single Tooth Anesthesia System (STA System), versus the traditional syringe technique. One hundred healthy patients participated in this single-blind split-mouth design study. Individuals provided pain ratings at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution and tooth extraction via a numeric visual rating scale or NVRS. The anterior middle superior alveolar, or AMSA, injection was compared with traditional syringe injections in maxillary quadrants. NVRS scores for AMSA were significantly lower for the STA System when compared to traditional syringe technique at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution (p less than 0.0001) and also during tooth extractions (p=0.0002). A higher percentage of patients (23 percent) required a second injection after the traditional syringe technique. Subjects reported having less clinical pain with AMSA injection at every step of the dental surgery. The STA System combines an anesthetic pathway and controlled flow rate resulting in virtually imperceptible needle insertion and injection, and a rapid onset of profound anesthesia. NVRS scoring system facilitated patient comprehension in assessing pain value and intensity experienced. The two anesthetic delivery techniques were therapeutically equivalent for maxillary injections but AMSA/computer controlled protocol significantly minimizes subjective pain perception at needle insertion, anesthetic delivery and during tooth extraction.

  13. Methyl syringate, a low-molecular-weight phenolic ester, as an activator of the chemosensory ion channel TRPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jae-Ho; Ishii, Sho; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2012-12-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, nonselective cation channels and are often coexpressed in sensory neurons. Extracts of the first leaves of Kalopanax pictus Nakai (Araliaceae) have been shown to activate hTRPA1 and hTRPV1. Therefore, the effects of six commercially available chemicals (methyl syringate, coniferyl alcohol, protocatechuic acid, hederacoside C, α-hederin, and eleutheroside B) found in K. pictus were investigated on cultured cells expressing hTRPA1 and hTRPV1. Of the six compounds, methyl syringate selectively activated hTRPA1 (EC(50) = 507.4 μM), but not hTRPV1. Although methyl syringate had a higher EC(50) compared with allyl isothiocyanate (EC(50) = 7.4 μM) and cinnamaldehyde (EC(50) = 22.2 μM), the present study provides evidence that methyl syringate from K. pictus is a specific and selective activator of hTRPA1.

  14. A computer-controlled syringe driver for use during anaesthesia. A modification of the Graseby MS16A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A T

    1986-06-01

    The requirements of a drug infusion device for use in theatre are discussed. A modification of the Graseby MS16A syringe pump and an interface circuit permitting its remote control by microcomputer are described. The pump is controlled via a standard computer interface (RS232) which makes it a unique and powerful research tool. Aspects of safety are considered.

  15. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation : a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim(i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to investi

  16. MOF as a syringe pump for the controlled release of iodine catalyst in the synthesis of meso-thienyl dipyrromethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraj, Prasath; Parshamoni, Srinivasulu; Konar, Sanjit

    2015-11-04

    In a new concept, an iodine loaded amine functionalized MOF was employed as a syringe pump for the slow release of iodine as a catalyst in the synthesis of thienyl dipyrromethanes under ambient conditions and turned out to be successful. The catalytic activities were compared with an isoreticular non-functionalized MOF and other conventional catalysts.

  17. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Volkow; Bénédicte Jacquemin; Diana Vilar-Compte; José Ramón Castillo

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a) contained blood; b) contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage); c) used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV) tu...

  18. Contact with hospital syringes containing body fluids: implications for medical waste management regulation Jeringas en contacto con sangre y fluidos corporales utilizadas en el hospital: implicaciones para el manejo de desechos hospitalarios

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Volkow; Bénédicte Jacquemin; Diana Vilar-Compte; José Ramón Castillo

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine amount of syringes used in the hospital and extent of contact with blood and body fluids of these syringes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Syringe use was surveyed at a tertiary care center for one week; syringes were classified into the following four categories according to use: a) contained blood; b) contained other body fluids (urine, gastric secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, wound drainage); c) used exclusively for drug dilution and application in plastic intravenous (IV) tu...

  19. A syringe-like love dart injects male accessory gland products in a tropical hermaphrodite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris M Koene

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict shapes the evolution of many behaviours and processes involved in reproduction. Nearly all evidence supporting this comes from species where the sexes are separated. However, a substantial proportion of animals and most plants are hermaphroditic, and theoretical work predicts that sexual conflict plays an important role even when the sexes are joined within one individual. This seems to have resulted in bizarre mating systems, sophisticated sperm packaging and complex reproductive morphologies. By far the best-known example of such a strategy in hermaphrodites is the shooting of so-called love-darts in land snails. All known love darts carry a gland product on their outside and enter this into the partner's hemolymph by stabbing. Here, we show that species of the snail genus Everettia possess a syringe-like dart that serves as a real injection needle. Their dart is round in cross-section, contains numerous channels, and has perforations along its side. Histology and electron microscopy show that these holes connect to the channels inside the dart and run all the way up to the elaborate mucus glands that are attached to the dart sac. This is the first report on a love dart that is used as a syringe to directly inject the gland product into the partner's hemolymph. Although the exact use and function of this dart remains to be demonstrated, this clearly adds to the complexity of the evolution of reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites in general. Moreover, the perforations on the outside of the love dart resemble features of other injection devices, thus uncovering common design and repeated evolution of such features in animals.

  20. Mechanical properties of composites as functions of the syringe storage temperature and energy dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira CHAVES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the mechanical properties of different classifications of composites indicated for posterior application as functions of the storage condition and of the energy dose. Material and Methods: Specimens (8x2x2 mm were obtained according to the factors: I Composites (3M ESPE: Filtek P60, Filtek Z350XT, and Filtek Silorane; II Syringe storage conditions: room temperature, aged, oven, refrigerator, and freezer; and III Energy dose: 24 J/cm2 and 48 J/cm2. After photoactivation, the specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24 h. After storage, a three-point bending test was carried out in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Flexural strength (S and flexural modulus (E were calculated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: Different storage conditions significantly affected the silorane composite for S; conversely, no effects were noted in terms of E. The accelerated aging protocol significantly increased the S of Filtek P60 and Filtek Silorane, whereas storage in the oven significantly decreased the S for all of the composites tested. Filtek P60 was the only composite not affected by the lower storage temperatures tested for S, whereas for the silorane this parameter was impacted at the same conditions. The factor "dose" was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The syringe storage at different temperature conditions proved to influence mostly the flexural strength, a clinically important characteristic considering the posterior indication of the materials tested. The silorane composite should not be stored at lower temperatures.

  1. Syringe Injectable Electronics: Precise Targeted Delivery with Quantitative Input/Output Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-10-14

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics with tissue-like mechanical properties and open macroporous structures is an emerging powerful paradigm for mapping and modulating brain activity. Indeed, the ultraflexible macroporous structure has exhibited unprecedented minimal/noninvasiveness and the promotion of attractive interactions with neurons in chronic studies. These same structural features also pose new challenges and opportunities for precise targeted delivery in specific brain regions and quantitative input/output (I/O) connectivity needed for reliable electrical measurements. Here, we describe new results that address in a flexible manner both of these points. First, we have developed a controlled injection approach that maintains the extended mesh structure during the "blind" injection process, while also achieving targeted delivery with ca. 20 μm spatial precision. Optical and microcomputed tomography results from injections into tissue-like hydrogel, ex vivo brain tissue, and in vivo brains validate our basic approach and demonstrate its generality. Second, we present a general strategy to achieve up to 100% multichannel I/O connectivity using an automated conductive ink printing methodology to connect the mesh electronics and a flexible flat cable, which serves as the standard "plug-in" interface to measurement electronics. Studies of resistance versus printed line width were used to identify optimal conditions, and moreover, frequency-dependent noise measurements show that the flexible printing process yields values comparable to commercial flip-chip bonding technology. Our results address two key challenges faced by syringe-injectable electronics and thereby pave the way for facile in vivo applications of injectable mesh electronics as a general and powerful tool for long-term mapping and modulation of brain activity in fundamental neuroscience through therapeutic biomedical studies.

  2. Anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block for anesthesia of maxillary teeth using conventional syringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Velasco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental procedures in the maxilla typically require multiple injections and may inadvertently anesthetize facial structures and affect the smile line. To minimize these inconveniences and reduce the number of total injections, a relatively new injection technique has been proposed for maxillary procedures, the anterior and middle superior alveolar (AMSA nerve block, which achieves pulpal anesthesia from the central incisor to second premolar through palatal approach with a single injection. The purpose of this article is to provide background information on the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block and demonstrate its success rates of pulpal anesthesia using the conventional syringe. Materials and Methods: Thirty Caucasian patients (16 men and 14 women with an average age of 22 years-old, belonging to the School of Dentistry of Los Andes University, were selected. All the patients received an AMSA nerve block on one side of the maxilla using the conventional syringe, 1 ml of lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100.000 was injected to all the patients. Results: The AMSA nerve block obtained a 66% anesthetic success in the second premolar, 40% in the first premolar, 60% in the canine, 23.3% in the lateral incisor, and 16.7% in the central incisor. Conclusions: Because of the unpredictable anesthetic success of the experimental teeth and variable anesthesia duration, the technique is disadvantageous for clinical application as the first choice, counting with other techniques that have greater efficacy in the maxilla. Although, anesthetizing the teeth without numbing the facial muscles may be useful in restorative dentistry.

  3. Syringeal specialization of frequency control during song production in the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secora, Kristen R; Peterson, Jennifer R; Urbano, Catherine M; Chung, Boah; Okanoya, Kazuo; Cooper, Brenton G

    2012-01-01

    Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx) has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production) and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control). Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in Bengalese finches may enhance acoustic complexity of song

  4. Syringe-Injectable Electronics with a Plug-and-Play Input/Output Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Thomas G; Yao, Jun; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-09-13

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics represent a new paradigm for brain science and neural prosthetics by virtue of the stable seamless integration of the electronics with neural tissues, a consequence of the macroporous mesh electronics structure with all size features similar to or less than individual neurons and tissue-like flexibility. These same properties, however, make input/output (I/O) connection to measurement electronics challenging, and work to-date has required methods that could be difficult to implement by the life sciences community. Here we present a new syringe-injectable mesh electronics design with plug-and-play I/O interfacing that is rapid, scalable, and user-friendly to nonexperts. The basic design tapers the ultraflexible mesh electronics to a narrow stem that routes all of the device/electrode interconnects to I/O pads that are inserted into a standard zero insertion force (ZIF) connector. Studies show that the entire plug-and-play mesh electronics can be delivered through capillary needles with precise targeting using microliter-scale injection volumes similar to the standard mesh electronics design. Electrical characterization of mesh electronics containing platinum (Pt) electrodes and silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) demonstrates the ability to interface arbitrary devices with a contact resistance of only 3 Ω. Finally, in vivo injection into mice required only minutes for I/O connection and yielded expected local field potential (LFP) recordings from a compact head-stage compatible with chronic studies. Our results substantially lower barriers for use by new investigators and open the door for increasingly sophisticated and multifunctional mesh electronics designs for both basic and translational studies.

  5. Syringeal specialization of frequency control during song production in the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Secora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Singing in songbirds is a complex, learned behavior which shares many parallels with human speech. The avian vocal organ (syrinx has two potential sound sources, and each sound generator is under unilateral, ipsilateral neural control. Different songbird species vary in their use of bilateral or unilateral phonation (lateralized sound production and rapid switching between left and right sound generation (interhemispheric switching of motor control. Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica have received considerable attention, because they rapidly modify their song in response to manipulations of auditory feedback. However, how the left and right sides of the syrinx contribute to acoustic control of song has not been studied. METHODOLOGY: Three manipulations of lateralized syringeal control of sound production were conducted. First, unilateral syringeal muscular control was eliminated by resection of the left or right tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve, which provides neuromuscular innervation of the syrinx. Spectral and temporal features of song were compared before and after lateralized nerve injury. In a second experiment, either the left or right sound source was devoiced to confirm the role of each sound generator in the control of acoustic phonology. Third, air pressure was recorded before and after unilateral denervation to enable quantification of acoustic change within individual syllables following lateralized nerve resection. SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments demonstrate that the left sound source produces louder, higher frequency, lower entropy sounds, and the right sound generator produces lower amplitude, lower frequency, higher entropy sounds. The bilateral division of labor is complex and the frequency specialization is the opposite pattern observed in most songbirds. Further, there is evidence for rapid interhemispheric switching during song production. Lateralized control of song production in

  6. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  7. The Impact of Foreclosures on Neighboring Housing Sales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William H Rogers; William Winter

    2009-01-01

    .... Louis County, Missouri. Results show an expected decline in the sales price of neighboring sales but the marginal impact of foreclosures seems to decline with an increase in the number of foreclosures...

  8. 78 FR 22850 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... ability to operate with coalition forces in bilateral and multilateral exercises and potential air defense... agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale. Implementation of this proposed sale will not...

  9. Effects of syringe type and storage conditions on results of equine blood gas and acid-base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sarah A; Constable, Peter D; Sen, Ismail; Couëtil, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    To determine effects of syringe type and storage conditions on blood gas and acid-base values for equine blood samples. Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy horses. Heparinized jugular venous blood was equilibrated via a tonometer at 37°C with 12% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Aliquots (3 mL) of tonometer-equilibrated blood were collected in random order by use of a glass syringe (GS), general-purpose polypropylene syringe (GPPS), or polypropylene syringe designed for blood gas analysis (PSBGA) and stored in ice water (0°C) or at room temperature (22°C) for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. Blood pH was measured, and blood gas analysis was performed; data were analyzed by use of multivariable regression analysis. Blood Po(2) remained constant for the reference method (GS stored at 0°C) but decreased linearly at a rate of 7.3 mm Hg/h when stored in a GS at 22°C. In contrast, Po(2) increased when blood was stored at 0°C in a GPPS and PSBGA or at 22°C in a GPPS; however, Po(2) did not change when blood was stored at 22°C in a PSBGA. Calculated values for plasma concentration of HCO(3) and total CO(2) concentration remained constant in the 3 syringe types when blood was stored at 22°C for 2 hours but increased when blood was stored in a GS or GPPS at 0°C. Blood samples for blood gas and acid-base analysis should be collected into a GS and stored at 0°C or collected into a PSBGA and stored at room temperature.

  10. CONSUMERSíATTITUDES TOWARD SALES PROMOTIONS ANDPERCEIVED BENEFITS

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Oyman

    2004-01-01

    While sales promotion has been around for a long time, its role and importance in marketing communications programs have increased in recent years. A number of factors have led to the increase in sales promotion. Among them are the growing power of retailers, declining brand loyalty, fragmentation of consumer market, short-term focus, competition and advertising clutter. Sales promotions may be targeted at any or all of consumers, distribution channel members and sales force. The target audie...

  11. On the Importance of Sales for Aggregate Price Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvtsov, Oleksiy; Vincent, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Macroeconomists have traditionally ignored the behavior of temporary price markdowns ("sales") by retailers. Although sales are common in the micro price data, they are assumed to be unrelated to macroeconomic phenomena and generally filtered out. We challenge this view. First, using the 1996 - 2012 data set of the U.K. CPI monthly price quotes, we document a roughly twofold increase in the frequency of sales during the Great Recession. We also present evidence of countercyclical sales in the...

  12. 25 CFR 163.15 - Advertisement of sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sales. 163.15 Section 163.15 Indians... Management and Operations § 163.15 Advertisement of sales. Except as provided in §§ 163.13, 163.14, 163.16... advertisement shall be approved by the officer who will approve the instrument of sale. Advertised sales...

  13. Are Sale Signs Less Effective When More Products Have Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2001-01-01

    We analyze data from a variety of sources, including historical data from a women's clothing catalog, a field study in that catalog, survey responses to catalog stimuli, and grocery store data for frozen juice, toothpaste, and tuna. The analysis yields three conclusions. First, sale signs are less effective at increasing demand when more items have them. Second, total category sales are maximized when some but not all products have sale signs. Third, placing a sale sign on a product reduces t...

  14. Sales compensation governance: the last frontier of corporate reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.

  15. Driving Beer Sales Through Focused Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2011-01-01

    To mirror the success of wine in recent years draught and bottled beers have been strategically aligned with the meal experience. Bar owners can also host tasting and themed evenings, increase the variety of flavoured beers and ciders and incorporate a wider selection of appropriate beer glassware to stimulate consumer interest and drive beer sales in bars.

  16. SALE: Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.J.; Bush, W.J.; Dolan, C.A.

    1976-09-01

    The Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program implements an industry-wide quality control and evaluation system aimed at identifying and reducing analytical chemical measurement errors. Samples of well-characterized materials are distributed to laboratory participants at periodic intervals for determination of uranium or plutonium concentration and isotopic distributions. The results of these determinations are statistically-evaluated, and each participant is informed of the accuracy and precision of his results in a timely manner. The SALE computer code which produces the report is designed to facilitate rapid transmission of this information in order that meaningful quality control will be provided. Various statistical techniques comprise the output of the SALE computer code. Assuming an unbalanced nested design, an analysis of variance is performed in subroutine NEST resulting in a test of significance for time and analyst effects. A trend test is performed in subroutine TREND. Microfilm plots are obtained from subroutine CUMPLT. Within-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in the main program or subroutine VAREST, and between-laboratory standard deviations are calculated in SBLV. Other statistical tests are also performed. Up to 1,500 pieces of data for each nuclear material sampled by 75 (or fewer) laboratories may be analyzed with this code. The input deck necessary to run the program is shown, and input parameters are discussed in detail. Printed output and microfilm plot output are described. Output from a typical SALE run is included as a sample problem.

  17. 77 FR 37823 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... the quantity of the sale transaction, the type and class of commodity, the marketing year of shipment.... Required reportable information includes the quantity, destination, and marketing year of all pork and DDG... issued pursuant to Sec. 20.5 such as class(es) of wheat and rice, or staple length(s) of cotton. Mixed...

  18. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...School of Business & Public Policy - i - Naval Postgraduate School ABSTRACT This project identifies current sources of cost savings and cost ... Cost Savings Implications to Budgeting and Programming......................................................................60 d. Negotiating Win

  19. The Economic Impact of Tourism Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study of the contribution to local income from tourist spending in six tourist industries combines primary data and the U.S.D.A Forest Service's IMPLAN system. Statistics show that businesses are seldom dependent upon tourists. Sales by restaurants, lodging places, amusements, and charter/marine services generate the most local income per…

  20. FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICEMAN. TEACHERS COPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIGGS, J.T.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT IS TO PROVIDE A STUDY GUIDE FOR STUDENTS PREPARING TO BE FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICEMEN IN A COOPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAM. IT WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS ON THE BASIS OF RECOMMENDATIONS BY A STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE, TESTED IN OPERATIONAL PROGRAMS, AND REFINED BY A VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHER. UNITS…

  1. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cubic yards must be advertised on the same day once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the material is located, and in a trade or industrial newspaper when... other access to the sale area which is available to anyone qualified to bid. (b) Advertising—(1)...

  2. An Analysis of the Automobile Sales Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohac, Robert D.; Vernon, Robert C.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the auto sales occupation. The analysis follows the salesperson through the essential everyday performance of the tasks in the occupation. The duties involve the process of obtaining the prospects and…

  3. The Duty to Cooperate in International Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is the first ever comprehensive analysis of the scope and role of the exemption clause in Article 80 of the International Sales Convention (CISG). The book accounts for the historical background of Article 80, the relation to other provisions (Articles 77 and 79), the underlying...

  4. Shanghai Nov.Apparel Retail Sales Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai Nov. -According to Shanghai Apparel Association, retail sales of apparel products in Shanghai top 10 department stores fell by 24.1% year-on-year in Nov. to CNY440 million. Economists hope that the shoppers’ spend- ing is beginning to increase after the holiday season.

  5. Shanghai apparel sales value and sales volume both declined in June (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the online periodic statistics statement of Shanghai Apparel Association,Shanghai apparel sales volume in 10 major department stores in June was 849,000 pieces,reduced 116,000 pieces from the previous month

  6. 19 CFR 127.27 - Conduct of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of sale. 127.27 Section 127.27 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Conduct of sale. Sales may be conducted by the port director, any employee designated by him or by...

  7. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April...

  8. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  9. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  10. 25 CFR 163.16 - Forest product sales without advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest product sales without advertisement. 163.16... FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.16 Forest product sales without advertisement. (a) Sales of forest products may be made without advertisement to Indians or non-Indians with...

  11. 26 CFR 52.4682-2 - Qualifying sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and § 52.4682-1(g) (relating to ODCs used as medical sterilants), ODCs sold in qualifying sales are... as medical sterilants. A sale of ODCs is a qualifying sale for purposes of § 52.4682-1(g) if the... its supplier if such purchaser uses the ODCs to which its certificate applies other than for...

  12. 27 CFR 72.68 - Sale on sealed, competitive bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale on sealed, competitive bids. 72.68 Section 72.68 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.68 Sale on sealed, competitive...

  13. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  14. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The Net

  15. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use...

  16. 25 CFR 141.39 - Sale and redemption of pawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON... given. The sale shall be a public sale, with notice of the time, place, and manner to be given in a tribal newspaper of general circulation not less than fourteen (14) days prior to the sale, or in the...

  17. 19 CFR 127.25 - Advertisement of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 127.25 Advertisement of sale. (a) Regular advertising. Except as prescribed in § 127.28 (c), (d), and... given for three successive weeks, immediately preceding the sale, in one newspaper of extensive circulation published at the port where the sale is to be held. The newspaper is to be selected by the...

  18. 27 CFR 10.24 - Sales promotion contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales promotion contests..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.24 Sales promotion contests. Sales contests sponsored by an industry member which offer prizes directly or indirectly to trade...

  19. The determination of Institutional sales person’s sales skills and added values

    OpenAIRE

    Levo, Harri

    2015-01-01

    This research was commissioned by Commissioner X who wanted the author to create intro-duction material for new employees. The introduction material will help the new employees to get knowledge about the salesman who will contact them from the first work day onwards. There are two research objectives: First is to determine what kind of institutional sales person is appealing to the Commissioner X’s needs. Second is to determine the added value these sales persons can offer for the represe...

  20. The Impact Of Local Option Sales Taxes On Retail Sales, Employment, Payrolls, And Establishments: The Case For Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    John D. Wong

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of local option sales tax differentials in the State of Kansas on retail sales, retail employment, retail payrolls, and the number of retail establishments. It was found that (I) the county tax rate is inversely and significantly related to retail sales per capita, retail sales per vendor, and retail employment per vendor; (2) the city tax rate is inversely and significantly related to the number of retail establishment per capita only; (3) there is a significan...

  1. Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” means the actual selling price of an article determined in the same manner as sale price is determined... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(b)-3 Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's...

  3. A novel approach to Lab-In-Syringe Head-Space Single-Drop Microextraction and on-drop sensing of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámková, Ivana; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-08-31

    A novel approach to the automation technique Lab-In-Syringe, also known as In-Syringe Analysis, is proposed which utilizes a secondary inlet into the syringe void, used as a size-adaptable reaction chamber, via a channel passing through the syringe piston. This innovative approach allows straightforward automation of head-space single-drop microextraction, involving accurately controlled drop formation and handling, and the possibility of on-drop analyte quantification. The syringe was used in upside-down orientation and in-syringe magnetic stirring was carried out, which allowed homogenous mixing of solutions, promotion of head-space analyte enrichment, and efficient syringe cleaning. The superior performance of the newly developed system was illustrated with the development of a sensitive method for total ammonia determination in surface waters. It is based on head-space extraction of ammonia into a single drop of bromothymol blue indicator created inside the syringe at the orifice of the syringe piston channel and on-drop sensing of the color change via fiber optics. The slope of the linear relationship between absorbance and time was used as the analytical signal. Drop formation and performance of on-drop monitoring was further studied with rhodamine B solution to give a better understanding of the system's performance. A repeatability of 6% RSD at 10 μmol L(-1) NH3, a linear range of up to 25 μmol L(-1) NH3, and a limit of detection of 1.8 μmol L(-1) NH3 were achieved. Study of interferences proved the high robustness of the method towards humic acids, high sample salinity, and the presence of detergents, thus demonstrating the method superiority compared to the state-of-the-art gas-diffusion methods. A mean analyte recovery of 101.8% was found in analyzing spiked environmental water samples.

  4. Drivers of Sales Innovation in Business-To-Business Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the term sales innovation, offers an operationalization of the concept, and discusses antecedents of sales innovation in terms of important internal and external drivers. An empirical analysis of 409 B2B firms identifies the internal drivers of sales innovation as increased top...... management focus and increased resource allocation as well as increasing customer and competitor dynamics as external drivers. Despite the suggested positive impact of the degree of competitive pressure on sales innovation, the empirical results suggest a significant negative impact, i.e. competitive...... pressure leads to less innovation in sales. Finally the paper suggests managerial implications as well as avenues of further research in this area....

  5. EKSPLOITASI PADA PEREMPUAN SALES PROMOTION GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afta Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Terjadi perubahan posisi perempuan yang semula hanya berada di sektor domestik, kini beralih ke sektor publik. Kondisi di perkotaan yang relatif lebih heterogen membuka peluang perempuan untuk bekerja di berbagai bidang, salah satunya adalah sales promotion girls (SPG. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengeksplorasi bagaimana profil SPG dan eksploitasi yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi dalam pengambilan datanya. Penampilan cantik dan menarik menjadi modal utama dalam pekerjaan ini. Sales Promotion Girls pada industri rokok dan minuman  berumur sekitar 21-30 tahun dengan jam kerja sekitar 5-7 jam perhari. Alasan bekerja di bidang ini adalah bahwa bidang ini merupakan pekerjaan ringan dan tidak memerlukan pendidikan yang tinggi, walaupun di sisi lain mereka hanya mendapatkan upah yang rendah. Perempuan dalam pekerjaan ini seringkali mengalami eksploitasi fisik berupa pelecehan seksual dan eksploitasi ekonomi berupa waktu kerja yang sampai malam hari dan tidak terpenuhinya hak-hak pekerja perempuan seperti faktor keselamatan dan hak untuk cuti. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, maka perlindungan terhadap perempuan bekerja pada umumnya dan sales promotion girls pada khususnya menjadi hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.A change in economic condition in Indonesia brings about a change of woman position, from formerly domestic sector to recently public sector. Urban areas that is relatively more heterogeneous than rural ones open opportunities for women to work in various fields, one of which is sales promotion girls (SPG. In this study, the author seeks to explore the SPG profile and the exploitation they experienced. The method used in this study are qualitative approach, with observation, interviews, and documentation. The research uncovered the following facts. Beautiful and attractive appearance becomes a priority in this work. Sales promotion girls on cigarettes

  6. Match your sales force structure to your business life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltners, Andris A; Sinha, Prabhakant; Lorimer, Sally E

    2006-01-01

    Although companies devote considerable time and money to managing their sales forces, few focus much thought on how the structure of the sales force needs to change over the life cycle of a product or a business. However, the organization and goals of a sales operation have to evolve as businesses start up, grow, mature, and decline if a company wants to keep winning the race for customers. Specifically, firms must consider and alter four factors over time: the differing roles that internal salespeople and external selling partners should play, the size of the sales force, its degree of specialization, and how salespeople apportion their efforts among different customers, products, and activities. These variables are critical because they determine how quickly sales forces respond to market opportunities, they influence sales reps' performance, and they affect companies' revenues, costs, and profitability. In this article, the authors use timeseries data and cases to explain how, at each stage, firms can best tackle the relevant issues and get the most out of their sales forces. During start-up, smart companies focus on how big their sales staff should be and on whether they can depend upon selling partners. In the growth phase, they concentrate on getting the sales force's degree of specialization and size right. When businesses hit maturity, companies should better allocate existing resources and hire more general-purpose salespeople. Finally, as organizations go into decline, wise sales leaders reduce sales force size and use partners to keep the business afloat for as long as possible.

  7. Understanding what your sales manager is up against.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailer, Barry; Dickie, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Every year, the research firm CSO Insights publishes the results of its Sales Performance Optimization survey, an online questionnaire given to more than 1,000 sales executives worldwide that seeks to examine the effectiveness of key sales practices and metrics. In this article, two partners from CSO provide the 2005 and 2006 survey highlights, which describe the challenges today's sales organizations face and how they're responding. An overall theme is the degree to which the buy cycle has gotten out of sync with the sell cycle. Buyers have always had a buy cycle, starting at the point they perceive a need. Sellers have always had a sales cycle, starting at the point they spot a prospect. Traditionally, the two have dovetailed--either because the seller created the buyer's perception of need or because the buyer pursued a need by contacting a salesperson (often for product information). Now the buy cycle is often well under way before the seller is even aware there is a cycle--in part because of the information asymmetry created by the Internet. The implications for managing a sales organization are profound in that sales training must now address how reps handle an environment in which buyers have more knowledge than they do. The authors offer evidence that sales executives are taking--and should take--aggressive action to train and retain sales talent, manage the sales process, and use sales support technologies to meet the challenges of this new environment.

  8. RANCANG BANGUN SALES FORCE AUTOMATION BERBASIS ANDROID DI PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Sogo Fanrensen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing system of PT. X used to insert sales data manually. While in field, Sales Force noted of the order from dealer/customer manually, then later insert it into company’s database. The repetitive data copying causes bigger risk of mistyping and unreliability, because Sales Force travels for weeks. Other problem is that too many paper wasted on Sales Order and Invoice. Furthermore, PT. X needs comprehensive document support for Sales Force to fulfill customer’s need of information. In this research, Sales Force Automation (SFA software that works online is chosen to meet the expectations. For document supply, due to the amount of documents needed, business taxonomy is made. Because the software is demanded to be easily accessed from wherever and whenever, Android is chosen as the hardware. The results obtained are various features for sales data management, such as view, add, edit, delete, and verification. The admin program supports the Sales Force work appraisal, notification, calculating Sales Force’s earnings per target ratio, Sales Force’s commission, et cetera. The SFA program supports the making of Sales Order, which is to be verified through SMS Gateway before inserted into company’s database, scheduling, et cetera.

  9. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....

  10. Comparing antimicrobial exposure based on sales data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondt, Nico; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Puister-Jansen, Linda F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of making meaningful comparisons of the veterinary use of antimicrobial agents among countries, based on national total sales data. Veterinary antimicrobial sales data on country level and animal census data in both Denmark and the Netherlands were combined...... production and dairy and other cattle (excluding veal and young beef) was estimated, assuming zero use in the dairy and other cattle, and thirdly by assuming respectively 100% oral and 100% parenteral administration. Subsequently, the outcomes of these model calculations were compared with treatment...... incidences calculated from detailed use data per animal species from the national surveillance programmes in these two countries, to assess their accuracy and relevancy.In Denmark and in the Netherlands, although the computed antimicrobial exposure would seem to be a reasonable estimation of the exposure...

  11. Optimizing sales areas of combined transport chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Michalk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined transport chains (such as intermodal transport, have certain advantages. The main advantage from customer points of view is the possibility to bundle freight and thereby decrease transport costs. On the other hand, a combined transport chain can cause longer transport times, due to the necessary transshipment processes. Methods: The area around a terminal, in which a combined service has favourable properties to a customer in comparison to a direct transport, can be understood as a sales-area, in which a combined transport product is marketable. The aim of this paper was to find a method to determine the best shape and size of this area. Results and conclusions: The paper at hand lined out a method in order to calculate such a sales area and determine which geographical points around a terminal have an advantage in comparison to a direct transport service.

  12. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  13. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...... promotional delivery mechanisms including the internet. Despite growing use of such promotions by manufacturers and retailers there is still limited knowledge of the factors that cause a consumer to be prone to such offers (Prendergast, Poon, Tsang, and Fan, 2008)....... is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...

  14. Magazine sales promotion : a dynamic response analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban-Bravo, Mercedes; Múgica, Jose M.; Vidal-Sanz, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of a type of nonprice promotion often used in the European magazines industry to diminish the decline rate of periodical sales, in which a value pack is sold containing the magazine issue plus another product. Magazines are sold simultaneously with and without promotion at different prices, and promotions are serialized by fractioning the additional product across different issues of the magazine. Although promoting magazines contemporarily may cannibalize...

  15. Crisis And Opportunities Of The Sales Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    There have been disputes on the financial crisis upon the auto market in 2009.An expert held that the growth rate could stay at 5 percent. We do not have to argue whether the judgment is correct.There has been phi- losophy between crisis and opportunities. And if we adopt the logic in analyzing the sales networks,some detailed coun- termeasures can be worked out.

  16. Shanghai:Clothes Sales Rebound in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the regular statistics release of Shanghai Garment Industry Association,the top 10 department stores of Shanghai sold 1.3 million sets/pieces clothes in October,rising 161,000 sets/pieces from previous month,or up by 14.1% month over month,and up by 5.7% year over year.The sales value were 579 million yuan,rising 19 million yuan from previous month.

  17. Ergonomic assessment of porridge roaming sale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J; Cardoso, V; Abreu, A; Didoné, L; Evangelista, M; Serra, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes suggestions for the realization of an ergonomic intervention, guided by the method of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2009), in the system of street vending of porridge, to improve the working conditions of this sales segment. Specifics are given about this practice and its problems, from ergonomic analysis comes to suggestions for improvements to be applied to a new system.

  18. A two-stage procedure for determining unsaturated hydraulic characteristics using a syringe pump and outflow observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Hollenbeck, Karl-Josef;

    1997-01-01

    A fast two-stage methodology for determining unsaturated flow characteristics is presented. The procedure builds on direct measurement of the retention characteristic using a syringe pump technique, combined with inverse estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristic based on one......-step outflow experiments. The direct measurements are obtained with a commercial syringe pump, which continuously withdraws fluid from a soil sample at a very low and accurate how rate, thus providing the water content in the soil sample. The retention curve is then established by simultaneously monitoring......-step outflow data and the independently measured retention data are included in the objective function of a traditional least-squares minimization routine, providing unique estimates of the unsaturated hydraulic characteristics by means of numerical inversion of Richards equation. As opposed to what is often...

  19. A novel and innovative technique of using a disposable syringe and mesh for harvesting fat for structural fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B C Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful restoration of structure and function using autologous free fat grafts has remained elusive. Review of literature shows that various harvesting and preparation techniques have been suggested. The goal of these techniques is to obtain greater adipocyte cell survival and consequently more reliable clinical results. Materials and Methods: In our technique, a piece of mesh is kept at one end of the lipoaspiration syringe, which is then connected to the Suction pump. As one syringe fills, it is replaced by another one until the required amount of fat is obtained. Results: By using a polypropylene mesh in our technique, we can separate the transfusate from the harvested fat graft during harvesting itself. The fat graft thus obtained is dense and concentrated, with fewer impurities. Conclusion: Hence, we recommend our technique as a reliable method for extracting sterile emulsified fat in an economical way.

  20. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.

  1. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  2. Methyl syringate: a chemical marker of asphodel (Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) monofloral honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Jerković, Igor; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2009-05-13

    During the liquid chromatographic study of the phenolic fraction of monofloral honeys was detected in the asphodel honey ( Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv.) chromatogram a distinctive peak not detected in other monofloral honeys such as Arbutus unedo L., Hedysarum coronarium , Eucalyptus spp., and Galactites tomentosa . After thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification and characterization by NMR and LC-MS/MS, the compound was identified as methyl syringate (MSYR) and confirmed against an original standard. Levels of MSYR were measured in honeys of 2005, 2006, and 2007 by HPLC-DAD analysis. Level determination of MSYR was repeated in 2008 for 2006 and 2007 honeys to evaluate chemical stability of this phenolic compound. Levels of MSYR measured 1 year after the sampling did not show significant statistical differences (p flowers and the content of MSYR was measured. Levels of MSYR in honeys are originated from the nectar with an average contribution of the nectar to the honey of 80%. Melissopalinological analysis did not allow the attribution of the honey monofloral origin because levels of asphodel pollen were dandelion, sunflower, thyme, manuka, and fir honeys were <5 mg/kg. For this reason, a minimum level of 122.6 mg/kg for MSYR in asphodel honeys can be considered as a chemical marker and, unlike the melissopalynological analysis, can be used for the origin attribution and to evaluate the percent of asphodel nectar in the honey.

  3. Syringe filtration methods for examining dissolved and colloidal trace element distributions in remote field locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well-established that sampling and sample processing can easily introduce contamination into dissolved trace element samples if precautions are not taken. However, work in remote locations sometimes precludes bringing bulky clean lab equipment into the field and likewise may make timely transport of samples to the lab for processing impossible. Straightforward syringe filtration methods are described here for collecting small quantities (15 mL) of 0.45- and 0.02-microm filtered river water in an uncontaminated manner. These filtration methods take advantage of recent advances in analytical capabilities that require only small amounts of waterfor analysis of a suite of dissolved trace elements. Filter clogging and solute rejection artifacts appear to be minimal, although some adsorption of metals and organics does affect the first approximately 10 mL of water passing through the filters. Overall the methods are clean, easy to use, and provide reproducible representations of the dissolved and colloidal fractions of trace elements in river waters. Furthermore, sample processing materials can be prepared well in advance in a clean lab and transported cleanly and compactly to the field. Application of these methods is illustrated with data from remote locations in the Rocky Mountains and along the Yukon River. Evidence from field flow fractionation suggests that the 0.02-microm filters may provide a practical cutoff to distinguish metals associated with small inorganic and organic complexes from those associated with silicate and oxide colloids.

  4. Organic Extractives from Mentha spp. Honey and the Bee-Stomach: Methyl Syringate, Vomifoliol, Terpenediol I, Hotrienol and Other Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jerković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The GC and GC/MS analyses of the solvent organic extractive from the stomach of the bees, having collected Mentha spp. nectar, revealed the presence of methyl syringate (6.6%, terpendiol I (5.0% and vomifoliol (3.0% that can be attributed to the plant origin. Other major compounds from the bee-stomach were related to the composition of cuticular waxes and less to pheromones. Organic extractivesfrom Mentha spp. honey were obtained by solvent-free headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major honey headspace compounds were hotrienol (31.1%–38.5%, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (0.5–6.0%, cis- and trans-linalool oxides (0.9–2.8%, linalool (1.0–3.1% and neroloxide (0.9–1.9%. Methyl syringate was the most abundant compound (38.3-56.2% in the honey solvent extractives followed by vomifoliol (7.0–26.6%. Comparison of the honey organic extractives with the corresponding bee-stomach extractive indicated that methyl syringate and vomofoliol were transferred to the honey while terpendiol I was partially transformed to hotrienol in ripened honey.

  5. Treatment of herniated lumbar disc by percutaneous laser disc decompression combined with synchronous suction technique through syringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhir B. Gurung; Gaojian Tao; Hongyi Lin; Yanning Qian; Jian Lin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and PLDD with synchronous suction through syringe in the patients with herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods: Forty-two patients with HLD on MRI and those who did not respond to conservative treatment for 6 weeks were randomly divided into group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with PLDD and those in group B with PLDD and synchronous suction through syringe. GaAIAS diode laser at 810 nm was used for the ablation in both groups. The treatment effect was evaluated by modified MacNab's criteria on the 7th, 30th and 90th day. Results: Evaluated by modified MacNab's criteria, the percentages of the excellent and good cases in total patients treated for group B and A were 80.95% and 57.14% on the 7th follow-up day, 85.71% and 66.67% on the 30th follow-up day, and 95.24% and 71.43% on the 90th follow-up day, respectively. Conclusion: Synchronous suction technique through syringe during PLDD improves the overall outcome in the treatment of herniated lumbar disc.

  6. Syringing method as an alternative to Śṛṇga therapy in Vātakaṇṭaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to "Vātakaṇṭaka" (pricking sensation in the foot-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University′s Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy, bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS and tenderness and swelling relived completely.

  7. Analysis of event logs from syringe pumps: a retrospective pilot study to assess possible effects of syringe pumps on safety in a university hospital critical care unit in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marc; Balzer, Felix; Volk, Thomas; Spies, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Medication errors occur in approximately one out of five doses in a typical hospital setting. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are particularly susceptible to errors during the application of intravenous drugs as they receive numerous potent drugs applied by syringe pumps. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects on potential harmful medication errors and to address factors that have potential for improving medication safety after the introduction of a standardized drug library into syringe pumps with integrated decision support systems. A team of physicians and nurses developed a dataset that defined standardized drug concentrations, application rates and alert limits to prevent accidental overdosing of intravenous medications. This dataset was implemented in 100 syringe pumps with the ability to log programming errors, alerts, reprogramming events and overrides ('smart pumps'). In this retrospective pilot study, all pump-related transaction data were obtained from the pump logs, by downloading the data from the pumps, covering 20 months of use between 1 April 2008 and 30 November 2009. Patient data were gathered from the electronic patient charts. The study was performed in a cardiothoracic ICU of the Charité University Hospital, Berlin, Germany. A total of 7884 patient treatment days and 133,601 infusion starts were evaluated. The drug library with the features of the dose rate was used in 92.8% of the syringe pump starts, in 1.5% of the starts a manual dosing mode without the use of the drug library was used and in 5.7% of the starts the mode 'mL/h', without any calculation features, was used. The most frequently used drugs were vasoactive drugs, followed by sedation medication. The user was alerted for a potentially harmful overdosing in 717 cases and in 66 cases the pumps were reprogrammed after the alert. During the early morning hours a higher rate of alarms was generated by the pumps, compared with the rest of the day. Syringe pumps with

  8. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN INSURANCE SALES SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stofor Ovidiu-Ilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Insurance system in Romania is carried out with a constant natural activity, evolving quite honorably these times. This is largely due to the difficulty with which insurance is sold in normal economic conditions when it comes to prosperity. Although psychologists, led by Maslow believes that the protection needs are basic needs, along with the physiological one, on the priority list regarding procurement, insurance needs are for some Romanians, of minimum or no importance, so that they are either pushed to the bottom of the list, or even, as it most often happens, they are non existent. Current economic conditions and climate, urges caution on most fields, especially in terms of individual properties, including, how somewhat forced, life and physical integrity which are still considered property, if this aspect is not debated in terms of Christian or other religious dogma. In other words, many Romanians see insurance as a product that “is not up their alley” including it in the luxury category. Furthermore, the media shows, sometimes amplify certain cases of doubt in relations between insurance company - customer. Appropriate marketing, allied with the information technology can improve the complete relationship between the two entities - the offeror and the consumer. Through this study we aim to identify important issues that facilitate the sale of insurance, using information technology, given that the sales of these financial products through the "ancestral" methods are effective but not very efficient. We will follow, byanchoring to the current reality, the insurance utility and how to use information technologies in support of marketing (sales. The study itself was done by observing the results in practical work, from an insurance agency, but also related to what the literature offers. Because this study is currently underway, there are certainly some limitations of accuracy of results, which are adjusted "on the fly". Realizing

  9. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  10. A simple device to convert a small-animal PET scanner into a multi-sample tissue and injection syringe counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    We describe a simple fixture that can be added to the imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner that allows for automated counting of multiple organ or tissue samples from mouse-sized animals and counting of injection syringes prior to administration of the radiotracer. The combination of imaging and counting capabilities in the same machine offers advantages in certain experimental settings. A polyethylene block of plastic, sculpted to mate with the animal imaging bed of a small-animal PET scanner, is machined to receive twelve 5-ml containers, each capable of holding an entire organ from a mouse-sized animal. In addition, a triangular cross-section slot is machined down the centerline of the block to secure injection syringes from 1-ml to 3-ml in size. The sample holder is scanned in PET whole-body mode to image all samples or in one bed position to image a filled injection syringe. Total radioactivity in each sample or syringe is determined from the reconstructed images of these objects using volume re-projection of the coronal images and a single region-of-interest for each. We tested the accuracy of this method by comparing PET estimates of sample and syringe activity with well counter and dose calibrator estimates of these same activities. PET and well counting of the same samples gave near identical results (in MBq, R(2)=0.99, slope=0.99, intercept=0.00-MBq). PET syringe and dose calibrator measurements of syringe activity in MBq were also similar (R(2)=0.99, slope=0.99, intercept=- 0.22-MBq). A small-animal PET scanner can be easily converted into a multi-sample and syringe counting device by the addition of a sample block constructed for that purpose. This capability, combined with live animal imaging, can improve efficiency and flexibility in certain experimental settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Case Study Concerning Sales Prediction Using Sales Quantitative Prediction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena Dragomirescu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The sales condition the entire activity of a enterprise, its variation being considered the main risk factor on the performances and financial position of the enterprise. The importance of elaboration of such budget is given by: (a on long term: the establishing of the investments and financing plans; (b on medium term: the establishing of publicity and promotion expenses budget; and (c on short term: the determination of the production level, of supply program, the optimization of labor force. In planning the sales volume, there exist several methods, from which we remind: causal method, non-causal method, direct method, indirect method, judgment and statistic methods. All these methods have advantages and disadvantages. Quantitative methods are the methods that in predictions’ realization start from numbered statistic data. The linear adjustment, correlation may be applied for the general tendencies of sales evolution research, when the tendency is linear.

  12. [Safe injection rooms and police crackdowns in areas with heavy drug dealing. Evaluation by counting discarded syringes collected from the public space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Carmen; Villalbí, Joan R; Guitart, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Bartroli, Montserrat; Castellano, Yolanda; Brugal, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of drug injection in public places is analysed using as indicator the number of syringes collected from public spaces, evaluating as well the influence of public health harm reduction interventions and of police actions, with a before and after quasi experimental study. Monthly syringe counts on the semester before and after each intervention were compared both in the involved district and in the city as a whole, using the U and z tests with a 95% confidence level. The average number of collected syringes drops from 13.132 in 2004 to 3.190 in 2012. Comparing indicators before and after health and police interventions, the opening of a facility with a supervised drug consumption room in the inner city was associated with a huge reduction in the number of abandoned syringes in the city, while its number did not rise in the district where the facility was located. The subsequent opening of another drug consumption room did not have a significant impact in collected syringes in the area. Some police interventions in 2005-2006 and 2011 had a significant impact in the indicators of the involved districts, while others did not. Harm reduction programs might have a favourable impact on drug injection in public spaces and related syringe presence. Some police interventions appear to have an impact while others do not or just have a modest local and temporary effect.

  13. Infant acceptance of a bitter-tasting liquid medication: a randomized controlled trial comparing the Rx Medibottle with an oral syringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, Murli U; Radhakrishnan, Jolly; Irfan, Khudsia R; Walter-Glickman, Cynthia; Hagmann, Stefan; Neugebauer, Richard

    2009-02-01

    The calibrated oral syringe is considered the standard system for administering liquid formulations of medications to infants. Medication acceptance using the syringe may not always be favorable, particularly with unpleasant-tasting liquids. The Rx Medibottle (The Medicine Bottle Co, Hinsdale, Illinois), an alternate drug-delivery device, is an infant-feeding bottle that contains a central sleeve within its body into which a syringe is inserted. Depressing the syringe's plunger in quick, short squirts synchronized with an infant's sucking allows drug ingestion, preventing dilution of the drug in the formula within the bottle's nipple. The Rx Medibottle costs $14.95 retail. Kraus et al demonstrated that it was more efficacious, with a higher level of infant acceptance compared with the syringe, when used to administer a 1-time dose of a pleasant-tasting liquid (acetaminophen, Tempra Syrup; Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Evansville, Indiana). Our study tests the efficacy of this bottle in administering a single dose of generic prednisolone liquid, a bitter-tasting drug, with an oral syringe serving as the control method of delivery.

  14. Significance and Differences of Marketing and Sales Controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Havlicek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies usually perceive controlling in connection with financial management. However, it is a serious mistake which may have very unpleasant consequences for businesses. Such consequences are usually connected with a failure to achieve operational and strategic aims in the area of sales, production, innovation or marketing. For companies, a failure of marketing and sales controlling means that achieving the aims in the area of customer relations management is threatened, which subsequently results in the company´s sales not being fulfilled. This may result in a failure of the corporate strategy in the medium-term, which tends to be followed by a failure of sales and a threat to liquidity. Absence of marketing and sales controlling is usually the most frequent cause of a crisis. Therefore, the aim of the article is to describe the main areas of marketing and sales controlling and its relation to risk management.

  15. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    sales agent’s work practice and collaborative conceptual design work, i.e. innovation design work. This perception provides a means to understand the value that the use of conceptual design tools could possibly provide for sales negotiation work. We also use the notion of boundary object to elaborate......This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery...

  16. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    with international sales contracts and sales contract disputes will obtain an excellent overview of the Convention, as well as valuable information as to all its 101 Articles, compromising key topic areas such as the following: • Determining when the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 85 Contracting States accounts for more than three-fourths of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported decisions where the CISG has been held to apply, thus evidencing the conduct...

  17. A Sales Execution Strategy Guide for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gilbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of startups fail to consider sales execution as part of their overall strategy. This article demonstrates how a sales execution strategy can help a company take a product or service to market more efficiently and effectively by focusing on the customers that are key to generating revenue. Combined with techniques for recruiting effectively and measuring sales outcomes, a sales execution strategy helps technology startups exceed growth aspirations and potentially reduce or even eliminate the requirement for external investment. In this article, we first describe the focus of assistance currently given to startups and the reasons why sales execution strategies are often overlooked. Next, we outline recommendations for developing, implementing, and supporting a sales execution strategy. Finally, we summarize the key points presented in the article.

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of sales promotion on organic products

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Ulrich; Wild, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on basis data for point of sale marketing on organic products. The research on promotions to date has been directed only towards conventional products. Therefore, the main issue of the study is to offer an overview of sales promotion instruments as well as evaluating different kinds of sales promotions and improving their effectiveness for organic products. The research addresses the optimal design of a series of promotions, which especially approach non-custo...

  19. A benefit congruency framework of sales promotion effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Gilles; Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Are monetary savings the only explanation for consumer response to a sales promotion ? If not, how do the different consumer benefits of a sales promotion influence its effectiveness ? To address the first question, this research builds a framework of the multiple consumer benefits of a sales promotion. Through a series of measurement studies, we find that monetary and non-monetary promotions provide consumers with different levels of three hedonic benefits (opportunities for value-expression...

  20. An empirical analysis of after sales service and customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Nazim; Waheed Akbar BHATTI; Azhar JILANI

    2011-01-01

    In today’s ever changing competitive environment, business cannot survive unless they satisfy their customers. The delivery of after sales service by a company is critical in satisfying customer needs and perceptions. In order to have quality after sales service a proper delivery system has to be in place. This is an empirical study on after sales quality of Pakistan’s automotive battery manufacturer. The research measured the quality of service in Atlas Battery, selling product with the bran...

  1. STRATEGY FOR THE DESTINATIONAL E-MARKETING & SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Sehanovic; Giorgio Cadum; Igor Sehanovic

    2010-01-01

    Every tourist destination should make and implement a destination’s marketing and sales strategy. A very important part of destination’s sales and marketing strategy is the e-marketing and sales strategy. The cooperation of specialized regional development agencies, regional tourist board, local (city and county) tourist boards, hoteliers, tourist agencies, conservators, entertainment and cultural program developers, private accommodation owners and others involved in creation of destination’...

  2. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF STRATEGIC SALES MANAGEMENT OF ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Hurzhiy, N.

    2014-01-01

    In the article existing approaches to strategic management are analyzed, features and a concept of strategic sales management are defined. Also in the article there is encouraged to use processdesign approach in the implementation of strategic management. Also the principles which should be carried out by strategic management of sales activities are identified in relation to the elements of the systemsales activities, as consumers, state infrastructure software sales, competition and enterprise.

  3. New forms of sale – a manifestation of perfect services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Milostná

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods of sale of a selected assortment of food products outside shops by means of itinerart trade. It analyses results of sales of the company Family Frost in the whole territory of the Czech Republic within the period of 2002–2004. Special attention is paid to sales of ice cream, food products, pastry and advertisement gits and souvenirs. Seales of ice cream represent the bearing programme of this company.

  4. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu; Shuyun Ren; Tsan-Ming Choi; Chi-Leung Hui; Sau-Fun Ng

    2013-01-01

    Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective f...

  5. Housing instability among people who inject drugs: results from the Australian needle and syringe program survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Iversen, Jenny; Baldry, Eileen; Maher, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    High rates of substance dependence are consistently documented among homeless people, and are associated with a broad range of negative outcomes among this population. Investigations of homelessness among drug users are less readily available. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of housing instability among clients of needle syringe programs (NSPs) via the Australian NSP Survey, annual cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among NSP attendees. Following self-completion of a brief, anonymous survey and provision of a capillary blood sample by 2,396 NSP clients, multivariate logistic regressions identified the variables independently associated with housing instability. Nineteen percent of ANSPS participants reported current unstable housing, with primary ('sleeping rough'; 5 %), secondary (staying with friends/relatives or in specialist homelessness services; 8 %), and tertiary (residential arrangements involving neither secure lease nor private facilities; 6 %) homelessness all evident. Extensive histories of housing instability were apparent among the sample: 66 % reported at least one period of sleeping rough, while 77 % had shifted between friends/relatives (73 %) and/or resided in crisis accommodation (52 %). Participants with a history of homelessness had cycled in and out of homelessness over an average of 10 years; and one third reported first being homeless before age 15. Compared to their stably housed counterparts, unstably housed participants were younger, more likely to be male, of Indigenous Australian descent, and to report previous incarceration; they also reported higher rates of key risk behaviors including public injecting and receptive sharing of injecting equipment. The high prevalence of both historical and current housing instability among this group, particularly when considered in the light of other research documenting the many adverse outcomes associated with this particular form of disadvantage, highlights the need

  6. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.

  7. Needle and syringe programs in Yunnan, China yield health and financial return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a harm reduction strategy in response to HIV epidemics needle and syringes programs (NSPs were initiated throughout China in 2002. The effectiveness of NSPs in reducing the spread of infection in such an established epidemic is unknown. In this study we use data from Yunnan province, the province most affected by HIV in China, to (1 estimate the population benefits in terms of infections prevented due to the programs; (2 calculate the cost-effectiveness of NSPs. Methods We developed a mathematical transmission model, informed by detailed behavioral and program data, which accurately reflected the unique HIV epidemiology among Yunnan injecting drug users (IDUs in the presence of NSPs. We then used the model to estimate the likely epidemiological and clinical outcomes without NSPs and conducted a health economics analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of the program. Results It is estimated that NSPs in Yunnan have averted approximately 16-20% (5,200-7,500 infections of the expected HIV cases since 2002 and led to gains of 1,300-1,900 DALYs. The total $1.04 million spending on NSPs from 2002 to 2008 has resulted in an estimated cost-saving over this period of $1.38-$1.97 million due to the prevention of HIV and the associated costs of care and management. Conclusion NSPs are not only cost-effective but cost-saving in Yunnan. Significant scale-up of NSPs interventions across China and removal of the societal and political barriers that compromise the effects of NSPs should be a health priority of the Chinese government.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of irrigant extrusion using passive ultrasonic irrigation, EndoActivator, or syringe irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, Carolina; McClanahan, Scott B; Bowles, Walter R

    2014-10-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation is critical to endodontic success, and several new methods have been developed to improve irrigation efficacy (eg, passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI] and EndoActivator [EA]). Using a novel spectrophotometric method, this study evaluated NaOCl irrigant extrusion during canal irrigation. One hundred fourteen single-rooted extracted teeth were decoronated to leave 15 mm of the root length for each tooth. Cleaning and shaping of the teeth were completed using standardized hand and rotary instrumentation to an apical file size #40/0.04 taper. Roots were sealed (not apex), and 54 straight roots (n = 18/group) and 60 curved roots (>20° curvature, n = 20/group) were included. Teeth were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl by 1 of 3 methods: passive irrigation with needle, PUI, or EA irrigation. Extrusion of NaOCl was evaluated using a pH indicator and a spectrophotometer. Standard curves were prepared with known amounts of irrigant to quantify amounts in unknown samples. Irrigant extrusion was minimal with all methods, with most teeth showing no NaOCl extrusion in straight or curved roots. Minor NaOCl extrusion (1-3 μL) in straight roots or curved roots occurred in 10%-11% of teeth in all 3 irrigant methods. Two teeth in both the syringe irrigation and the EA group extruded 3-10 μL of NaOCl. The spectrophotometric method used in this study proved to be very sensitive while providing quantification of the irrigant levels extruded. Using the PUI or EA tip to within 1 mm of the working length appears to be fairly safe, but apical anatomy can vary in teeth to allow extrusion of irrigant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social-structural contexts of needle and syringe sharing behaviours of HIV-positive injecting drug users in Manipur, India: a mixed methods investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunmugam Murali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have assessed risk behaviours and social-structural contexts of risk among injecting drug users (IDUs in Northeast India, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. Investigations of risk environments are needed to inform development of effective risk reduction interventions. Methods This mixed methods study of HIV-positive IDUs in Manipur included a structured survey (n = 75, two focus groups (n = 17, seven in-depth interviews, and two key informant interviews. Results One-third of survey participants reported having shared a needle/syringe in the past 30 days; among these, all the men and about one-third of the women did so with persons of unknown HIV serostatus. A variety of social-structural contextual factors influenced individual risk behaviours: barriers to carrying sterile needles/syringes due to fear of harassment by police and "anti-drug" organizations; lack of sterile needles/syringes in drug dealers' locales; limited access to pharmacy-sold needles/syringes; inadequate coverage by needle and syringe programmes (NSPs; non-availability of sterile needles/syringes in prisons; and withdrawal symptoms superseding concern for health. Some HIV-positive IDUs who shared needles/syringes reported adopting risk reduction strategies: being the 'last receiver' of needles/syringes and not a 'giver;' sharing only with other IDUs they knew to be HIV-positive; and, when a 'giver,' asking other IDUs to wash used needles/syringes with bleach before using. Conclusions Effective HIV prevention and care programmes for IDUs in Northeast India may hinge on several enabling contexts: supportive government policy on harm reduction programmes, including in prisons; an end to harassment by the police, army, and anti-drug groups, with education of these entities regarding harm reduction, creation of partnerships with the public health sector, and accountability to government policies that protect IDUs

  10. Considering lost sale in inventory routing problems for perishable goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    , the average optimality gaps are less than 10.9% and 13.4% using linear and exponential lost sale functions, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the optimality gaps found by CPLEX grow exponentially with the problem size while those obtained by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm increase linearly....... is considered as lost sale. The proposed model balances the transportation cost, the cost of inventory holding and lost sale. In addition to the usual inventory routing constraints, we consider the cost of lost sale as a linear or an exponential function of the inventory age. The proposed model is solved...

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF DIRECT SALES IN SICILIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many farmers today adopt direct sales as an entrepreneurial strategy in order to achieve a competitive advantage. The aim of this study has been to analyze the role that direct sales play in Sicilian farms and how the short food supply chain is able to valorize the endogenous resources of rural areas and increase the net income of farmer. Our results showed that direct sales, in conjunction with conventional sales, can represent a growing opportunity for farmers and lead to an improvement in the economic performances of agricultural businesses, an increase in farm investments and the creation of new job opportunities.

  12. 78 FR 22848 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... with coalition forces in bilateral and multilateral exercises and potential air defense operations... no known offset agreements proposed in connection with this potential sale. Implementation of this...

  13. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  14. On the Concept of Culture Goods Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong

    The article on the consumer psychology, consumer behavior, cultural concepts of the market so their products relating to the concept of corporate culture and business aspects of the image was further explained that the merchandise sold is a commercial act, a cultural transmission consumers to make consumption choices in the same time, he believed that the use of such products with their values and way of life is consistent, for the maintenance of their social status and self-recognition of the need for a sales role in the cultural concept of human group psychology, and affect people's consumption behavior.

  15. Evaluating Educational Practices for Positively Affecting Student Perceptions of a Sales Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Pomirleanu, Nadia; Cross, James; Simon, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Despite demand for new graduates seeking a sales position, student reticence toward pursuing a sales career remains. While all students will not choose a sales career, diminishing the existence of sales-related misconceptions among the student population should establish sales as a viable career path for a larger number of students. We test six…

  16. 41 CFR 102-38.130 - Must we publicly advertise sales of Federal personal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertise sales of Federal personal property? 102-38.130 Section 102-38.130 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Advertising § 102-38.130 Must we publicly advertise sales of Federal personal property? Yes, you must provide public notice of your sale of personal...

  17. FERTILIZERS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICE.…

  18. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Sales Strategies and Skills Used by Excellent U. S. Army Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring information on the communication...kills -Linguistic pattern~ Sales cycle, Communica tion s trategies Mode-H.R-g. Sales skills, {:( ~Expert kn0\\vlc dge1 ’ Neurolinguist ic~ Sales...describe s a program of r esearch on the communicat ion st rate - gies a nd skills use d by excellen t Army r ecrui t e rs. Information to be used to

  19. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors anre closely related to number of products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per......BACKGROUND: Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. METHODS: We...

  20. Christmas Sale on 11 and 12 December

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    CERN Shop Are you short of ideas for Christmas presents? If so, come and have a look at the stall the CERN shop will be setting up outside Restaurant No. 1 in the Main Building on the Meyrin site on Thursday 11 and Friday 12 December from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Various new items will be on sale, including a new LHC booklet for the general public. In the style of a travel log, it recounts the fabulous voyage of a proton inside the accelerator. The text is complemented by eye-catching photos and illustrations and is available in English or French. The 2009 calendar, based on the same theme, will also be on sale at 10 CHF. Special reductions will be available on certain items. So come and stock up on your Christmas presents at the CERN shop. Bookshop If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, ...

  1. How you slice it: smarter segmentation for your sales force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaser, Ernest; Dahneke, Marshall; Pekkarinen, Michael; Weissel, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Three years ago, 70-year-old Hill-Rom Incorporated was in a position familiar to many mature businesses: The company was strong but needed to be stronger. It was a top producer of hospital beds and specialty mattresses, its core product lines. It also had competitive complementary lines of stretchers, furniture, and architectural equipment. It had an extensive customer base, a respected sales force, and solid profit margins. But by the time Ernest Waaser took over as chief executive in early 2001, revenue growth had been slowing, and competition was on the rise. To secure Hill-Rom's place in the market, Waaser decided to focus first on the sales organization--partly because the cost of sales had risen gradually over the past five years and partly because acquisitions and other initiatives had made the sales organization more complex. The CEO took several steps to restructure the sales force. First, the company changed its customer segments to better reflect customers' demands and financial status, ultimately targeting two main groups: key and prime customers. It then changed the overall structure of the sales organization so it could tailor its approach to these two segments; key customers received more specialized service than prime customers. Finally, Hill-Rom adjusted the sales force after the company took an in-depth look at historical data on products and services and sales completed. Reasons for staffing changes were carefully communicated to the sales force. Because of Hill-Rom's initiatives, the cost of sales is down, short-term revenue growth is up, the outlook for long-term revenue growth looks bright, sales and profit margins are up, and customer satisfaction has increased. Best practice, indeed.

  2. Low Leachable Container System Consisting of a Polymer-Based Syringe with Chlorinated Isoprene Isobutene Rubber Plunger Stopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminami, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Koji; Abe, Yoshihiko; Lauwers, Philippe; Dierick, William; Yoshino, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A 36 month leachable study on water for injection in direct contact within a polymer-based prefillable syringe consisting of a cyclo olefin polymer barrel, a chlorinated isoprene isobutene rubber plunger stopper, a polymer label attached on the barrel, and a secondary packaging was conducted at 25 ± 2 °C and 60 ± 5% relative humidity. Through the various comparison studies, no difference in the leachable amounts was observed between this polymer-based prefilled syringe and a glass bottle as a blank sample reference by 36 months. No influence on the leachables study outcome was noted from the printed label and/or label adhesive or from the secondary packaging. In an additional study, no acrylic acid used as the label adhesive leachable was detected by an extended storage for 45 months at 25 ± 2 °C and 60 ± 5% relative humidity as a worst case. To obtain more details, a comparison extractable study was conducted between a cyclo olefin polymer barrel and a glass barrel. In addition, chlorinated isoprene isobutene rubber and bromo isoprene isobutene rubber were compared. As a result, no remarkable difference was found in the organic extractables for syringe barrels. On the other hand, in the case of element extractable analysis, the values for the cyclo olefin polymer barrel were lower than that for the glass barrel. For the plunger stoppers, the chlorinated isoprene isobutene rubber applied in this study was showing a lower extractable profile as compared to the bromo isoprene isobutene rubber, both for organic and element extractables. In conclusion, the proposed polymer-based prefillable syringe system has great potential and represents a novel alternative that can achieve very low level extractable profiles and can bring additional value to the highly sensitive biotech drug market. A 36 month leachable study on water for injection in direct contact within a cyclo olefin polymer barrel and chlorinated isoprene isobutene rubber plunger stopper that has a

  3. Comparison of drug delivery with autoinjector versus manual prefilled syringe and between three different autoinjector devices administered in pig thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert L; Wilmot, John G; Belluscio, Beth A; Cleary, Kevin; Lindisch, David; Tucker, Robin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Shukla, Rajesh B

    2016-01-01

    Parenteral routes of drug administration are often selected to optimize actual dose of drug delivered, assure high bioavailability, bypass first-pass metabolism or harsh gastrointestinal environments, as well as maximize the speed of onset. Intramuscular (IM) delivery can be preferred to intravenous delivery when initiating intravenous access is difficult or impossible. Drugs can be injected intramuscularly using a syringe or an automated delivery device (autoinjector). Investigation into the IM delivery dynamics of these methods may guide further improvements in the performance of injection technologies. Two porcine model studies were conducted to compare differences in dispersion of injectate volume for different methods of IM drug administration. The first study compared the differences in the degree of dispersion and uptake of injectate following the use of a manual syringe and an autoinjector. The second study compared the spatial spread of the injected formulation, or dispersion volume, and uptake of injectate following the use of five different autoinjectors (EpiPen(®) [0.3 mL], EpiPen(®) Jr [0.3 mL], Twinject(®) [0.15 mL, 0.3 mL], and Anapen(®) 300 [0.3 mL]) with varying needle length, needle gauge, and force applied to the plunger. In the first study, the autoinjector provided higher peak volumes of injectate, indicating a greater degree of dispersion, compared with manual syringe delivery. In the second study, EpiPen autoinjectors resulted in larger dispersion volumes and higher initial dispersion ratios, which decreased rapidly over time, suggesting a greater rate of uptake of injectate than the other autoinjectors. The differences in dispersion and uptake of injectate are likely the result of different functional characteristics of the delivery systems. Both studies demonstrate that the functional characteristics of the method for delivering IM injections impact the dispersion and uptake of the material injected, which could significantly affect the

  4. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions or...

  5. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  6. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  7. 19 CFR 127.21 - Time of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of sale. 127.21 Section 127.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... director. Regular sales shall be made once every year or more often at the discretion of the port director....

  8. 78 FR 31902 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Government of the Republic of Korea (ROK) has requested a possible sale of F-35 aircraft weapons. These... JUSTIFICATION Republic of Korea--F-35 Aircraft Weapons The Government of the Republic of Korea (ROK) has requested a possible sale of F-35 aircraft weapons. These aircraft weapons include the following: 274...

  9. 14 CFR 201.5 - Advertising and sales by applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising and sales by applicants. 201.5... CODE- Application Procedures § 201.5 Advertising and sales by applicants. (a) An applicant for new or amended certificate or commuter air carrier authority shall not: (1) Advertise, list schedules, or...

  10. Dynamics of an advertising competition model with sales promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Feng, Zhaosheng; Jiang, Guirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an advertising competition model with sales promotion is constructed and investigated. Conditions of the existence and stability of period-T solutions are obtained by means of the discrete map. Flip bifurcation is analyzed by using the center manifold theory and three sales promotion strategies are discussed. Example and numerical simulations are illustrated which agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  11. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... friendly forces on an easy-to-understand relative position display. This proposed system will increase... this additional capability into its Air Force. The proposed sale of this weapon system will not alter... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security...

  12. Lost-sales inventory systems with a service level criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive retail environments are characterized by service levels and lost sales in case of excess demand. We contribute to research on lost-sales models with a service level criterion in multiple ways. First, we study the optimal replenishment policy for this type of inventory system as well as

  13. Can Nutrition Information Increase Sales of Healthful Vended Snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon Marshall; Louden, Victoria Ann

    1993-01-01

    A study was made of snack selections from unrefrigerated vending machines in relation to increased availabilty of nutrient-dense snack options and provision of nutrient information at four college sites. When snack options included more nutrient-dense choices, sales dropped. When nutrition information was posted on the machines, sales increased…

  14. 47 CFR 32.6611 - Product management and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service identification and specification, test market planning, demand forecasting, product life cycle... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product management and sales. 32.6611 Section... Product management and sales. This account shall include: (a) Costs incurred in performing administrative...

  15. 76 FR 69709 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... important partner and to strengthen the U.S.-India strategic relationship. The proposed sale will provide.... There will be no adverse impact on U.S. defense readiness as a result of this proposed sale. Annex--Item... and automatically provide countermeasures, as well as audio and visual- sector warning messages to...

  16. 25 CFR 215.7 - Advertisement of sale of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertisement of sale of leases. 215.7 Section 215.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.7 Advertisement of sale of leases. Upon authority being granted...

  17. Early detection of influenza like illness through medication sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, Maja; Erculj, Vanja; Lajovic, Jaro

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring sales of medications is a potential candidate for an early signal of a seasonal influenza epidemic. To test this theory, the data from a traditional, consultation-oriented influenza surveillance system were compared to medication sales and a predictive model was developed. Weekly influenza-like incidence rates from the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System were compared to sales of seven groups of medications (nasal decongestants, medicines for sore throat (MST), antitussives, mucolytics, analgo-antipyretics, non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), betalactam antibiotics, and macrolide antibiotics) to determine the correlation of medication sales with the sentinel surveillance system - and therefore their predictive power. Poisson regression and regression tree approaches were used in the statistical analyses. The fact that NSAIDs do not exhibit any seasonality and that prescription of antibiotics requires a visit to the doctor's office makes the two medication groups inappropriate for predictive purposes. The influenza-like illness (ILI) curve is the best matched by the mucolytics and antitussives sales curves. Distinct seasonality is also observed with MST and decongestants. The model including these four medication groups performed best in prediction of ILI incidence rate using the Poisson regression model. Sales of antitussives proved to be the best single predictive variable for regression tree model. Sales of medication groups included in the model were demonstrated to have a predictive potential for early detection of influenza season. The quantitative information on medication sales proves to be a useful supplementary system, complementing the traditional consultation-oriented surveillance system.

  18. 7 CFR 1402.2 - Sales of inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales of inventory. 1402.2 Section 1402.2 Agriculture... of inventory. CCC will entertain offers from prospective buyers for the purchase of any commodities... commodity sales to the Director, Warehouse and Inventory Division, Stop 0553, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  19. 13 CFR 120.546 - Loan asset sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan asset sales. 120.546 Section 120.546 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Servicing... a defaulted 504 loan in an asset sale conducted or overseen by SBA. Homestead Protection for Farmers...

  20. The importance of non-financial motivators to pharmaceutical sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-03

    May 3, 2013 ... power over other people' was a more important motivator for sales ... productivity and performance, excessive staff turnover, increased .... was primarily present when feelings of unhappiness or bad attitude were evident; .... sales managers will need to exercise their individual judgement in deciding which.

  1. Combining SKU-level sales forecasts from models and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the performance of SKU-level sales forecasts which linearly combine statistical model forecasts and expert forecasts. Using a large and unique database containing model forecasts for monthly sales of various pharmaceutical products and forecasts given by about fifty experts, we

  2. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forest products. 163.14 Section 163.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives...

  3. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  4. 77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m. on Thursday, June 28, 2012. Sealed bids must be...

  5. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing...

  6. 76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  7. 77 FR 3790 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m. on Wednesday, February 29, 2012. Sealed bids must...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an... “lease” means a contract or agreement, written or verbal, which gives the lessee an exclusive,...

  9. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  10. 76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land... lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., on Wednesday, July 13, 2011. Sealed bids must...

  11. 76 FR 63951 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that that certain... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  12. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  13. 76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  14. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease considered as sale... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a...

  15. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  16. Building best practice automotive after sales network : The Volkswagen case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikolik, Gerlinde

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze the service operations and networks in the automotive industry as research into the automotive After Sales service network lacks the necessary fine details and industrial feedback. Its purpose is to present the insights and lessons learned from studying the After Sales se

  17. Creating value added to customers: Marketing and sales role

    OpenAIRE

    Damnjanović Vesna; Filipović Vinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the new trends in sales and marketing areas which reshaping markets and changing the way business is done. Marketing and sales management need a well-defined strategy for added value exploration, creation and delivery. The holistic marketing process involves all stakeholders and required them to participate in the value added creation process.

  18. The influence of the clothing sales assistant on the female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    consumers' emotions as influenced by the clothing sales assistant ... a direct impact on the consumer's emotions, which may influence the ... Four factors regarding the clothing sales assistant's influence on the ... store behaviour (De Klerk et al, 1998), purchase satis- ..... such as patience, self-respect, and respect for other.

  19. Building best practice automotive after sales network : The Volkswagen case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikolik, Gerlinde

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze the service operations and networks in the automotive industry as research into the automotive After Sales service network lacks the necessary fine details and industrial feedback. Its purpose is to present the insights and lessons learned from studying the After Sales

  20. PLANNING METHODOLOGY SALES STAFF IN RETAIL TRADE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduk V. I.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method of optimizing the number of members of the sales staff in retail organizations, which enables a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the manpower of the enterprise, evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the sales staff and offer based on it the optimal number of employees in each structural unit

  1. Collective vs Individual Sale of TV Rights in League Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconieri, S.; Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2002-01-01

    In many countries, the collective sale of TV rights by sports leagues has been challenged by the antitrust authorities.In several cases, however, leagues won in court, on the ground that sport cannot be considered a standard good.In this paper, we investigate the conditions under which the sale of

  2. Personality and Situational Factors Influencing the Advertising Sales Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfo, Lauranell; Rogus, Mary T.

    Focusing on situational and personality factors as predictors of two common types of sales behavior (the customer-oriented/marketing approach, and the adversarial/bottom-line approach), a study conducted a national survey of advertising sales people and media buyers in the summer and fall of 1987. A total of 3669 questionnaires were sent to…

  3. 36 CFR 228.65 - Payment for sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.65 Payment for sales. (a) Conditions. Mineral materials may not be removed from the sale area until all conditions of payment in the contract... materials as billed by the authorized officer. The total amount of the purchase price must be paid at...

  4. 27 CFR 53.97 - Constructive sale price; affiliated corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; affiliated corporations. 53.97 Section 53.97 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...; affiliated corporations. (a) In general. Sections 4216(b) (3) and (4) of the Code establish procedures for determining a constructive sale price under section 4216(b)(1)(C) of the Code for sales between...

  5. A Critical Review of the Literature for Sales Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Shannon; Peltier, James W.; Erffmeyer, Robert; Whalen, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The "Journal of Marketing Education" is publishing a special issue on Sales Education and Training in August 2014. In this article, we review the sales education literature from four primary journals and the business literature at large. The four primary journals are the "Journal of Marketing Education," "Marketing Education Review," "Journal of…

  6. 26 CFR 1.1002-1 - Sales or exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales or exchanges. 1.1002-1 Section 1.1002-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1002-1 Sales or exchanges....

  7. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  8. 77 FR 52698 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...: 18 AGM-65K2 MAVERICK All-Up- Round Missiles, 36 TGM-65K2 Captive Air Training Missiles, 3...

  9. 31 CFR 309.1 - Authority for issue and sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF TREASURY BILLS § 309.1... Treasury, Bureau of the Public Debt. The Treasury bills so offered, and the tenders made, will be subject... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority for issue and sale....

  10. Women's club - Christmas Sale - Solidarité Femmes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday, 25 November from 9am to 3pm Main Building 60, Ground floor All proceeds from the sale will be given to the charity Solidarité Femmes Numerous items for sale: Christmas wreaths, Cakes and Biscuits, Coffee, Preserves, Paintings, Books, Embroidery, Patchwork, Painting on porcelain... Tombola! Win a patchwork quilt, handmade by CWC members. All are welcome!

  11. 19 CFR 148.46 - Sale of exempted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of exempted articles. 148.46 Section 148.46... exempted articles. (a) Sale resulting in forfeiture. The following articles or their value (to be recovered... paragraph (b) of this section is followed: (1) Any jewelry or similar articles of personal adornment...

  12. Sales Course Design Using Experiential Learning Principles and Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, William J.; Taran, Zinaida; Betts, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioner concerns and the changing educational marketplace are pressuring colleges to provide more skills based learning. Among the newer skill based areas of study that is greatly in demand is professional sales. In this paper, two courses in a successful professional sales program are examined through the lenses of experiential learning…

  13. Sung Solecisms: Hip Hop as Non-Prescriptive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Cynthia D.

    2011-01-01

    Does the music idiom commonly known as rap music have educational merit? With its harshest critics lambasting it with connotations that equate it with stupidity, gun culture, jail culture, or non-intellectual culture, could there be a pedagogical link after all? Dr. Marc Lamont Hill, Associate Professor of English Education and Anthropology at…

  14. Effects of an Intensive Street-Level Police Intervention on Syringe Exchange Program Use in Philadelphia, Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S.; Burris, Scott; Kraut-Becher, Julie; Lynch, Kevin G.; Metzger, David

    2005-01-01

    Repeated measurements and mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of an intensive long-term street-level police intervention on syringe exchange program use. Utilization data for 9 months before and after the beginning of the intervention were analyzed. Use fell across all categories and time periods studied, with significant declines in use among total participants, male participants, and Black participants. Declines in use among Black and male participants were much more pronounced than decreases among White and female participants. PMID:15671455

  15. The effectiveness of syringe irrigation and ultrasonics to remove debris from simulated irregularities within prepared root canal walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-J; Wu, M-K; Wesselink, P R

    2004-10-01

    To compare the ability of syringe irrigation and ultrasonic irrigation to remove artificially placed dentine debris from simulated canal irregularities within prepared root canals. After canal enlargement, twelve canines were split longitudinally into two halves. On the wall of one half of each root canal a standard groove of 4 mm in length, 0.2 mm in width and 0.5 mm in depth was cut, 2-6 mm from the apex, to simulate uninstrumented canal extensions. On the wall of the other half, three standard saucer-shaped depressions of 0.3 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in depth were cut at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex to simulate uninstrumented canal irregularities. Each groove and depression were filled with dentine debris mixed with 2% NaOCl to simulate a situation when dentine debris accumulates in uninstrumented canal extensions and irregularities during canal preparation. Each tooth was re-assembled by reconnecting the two halves, using wire and an impression putty material. Two per cent NaOCl was then delivered into each canal either using syringe irrigation (n = 8) or using ultrasonic irrigation (n = 8). Before and after irrigation, images of the two halves of the canal wall were taken, using a microscope and a digital camera, after which they were scanned into a PC as TIFF images. The amount of remaining dentine debris in the grooves and depressions was evaluated by using a scoring system between 0-3: the higher the score, the more the debris. The data were analysed by means of the Mann-Whitney U-test. Both forms of irrigation reduced the debris score significantly. The debris score was statistically significantly lower after ultrasonic irrigation than after syringe irrigation (P = 0.002 for grooves, P = 0.047 for depressions). Ultrasonic irrigation ex vivo is more effective than syringe irrigation in removing artificially created dentine debris placed in simulated uninstrumented extensions and irregularities in straight, wide root canals.

  16. [A comparison of the rates of hemolysis and repeated blood sampling using syringe needles versus vacuum tube needles in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young Hee; Hwang, Moon Sook; Lee, Jee Hyang; Park, Hyung Doo; Ryu, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Myung Sook; Yi, Young Hee; Song, S

    2012-06-01

    This study was done to compare the rates of hemolysis and repeated sampling in blood samples obtained by a syringe needle versus a vacuum tube needle. A randomized, prospective study was used to evaluate the differences between the two blood sampling methods. The study group consisted of patients seen in the emergency department (ED) for blood sampling to determine electrolyte level. ED patients were randomly assigned to either the syringe group or the vacuum tube group. All blood samples were collected by experienced ED nurses and hemolysis was determined by experienced laboratory technologists. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression. One hundred forty-five valid samples were collected (74 in the syringe group versus 71 in the vacuum tube group). 5 of 74 (6.8%) blood samples in the syringe group and 8 of 71 (11.3%) in the vacuum tube group hemolyzed. Repeated blood sampling occurred for 2 of 74 (2.7%) and 3 of 71 (4.2%) in each group respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of hemolysis and repeated sampling between two groups (B=1.97, p=.204; B=2.36, p=.345). Venipuncture with syringe needles can be recommended for ED nurses to obtain blood samples.

  17. Investigation of a secondary syringe exchange program for homeless young adult injection drug users in San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, C; Guydish, J R; Weltzien, E K; Lum, P J

    2001-06-01

    This study investigated an HIV prevention program for homeless young adult injection drug users (IDUs) that combined a secondary syringe exchange program (SEP) with community-level activities. Homeless young IDUs were recruited from street-based settings in San Francisco, and a structured questionnaire was administered. The secondary SEP operated in a circumscribed geographic area, and for analytic purposes respondents were assigned to the intervention site group if they primarily spent time in this area (n = 67), or the comparison site group if they primarily spent time elsewhere (n = 55). Almost all (96%) intervention site youth had used the secondary SEP in the past 30 days and were significantly more likely to regularly use SEP. In bivariate analysis, comparison site IDUs were more likely to share syringes, reuse syringes, share the cotton used to filter drugs, and use condoms with casual sex partners only inconsistently. In multivariate analysis, comparison site remained positively associated with sharing syringes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.748; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.406-9.988), reusing syringes (AOR, 2.769; 95% CI,1.120-6.847), and inconsistent condom use with casual sex partners (AOR, 4.825; 95% CI, 1.392- 16.721). This suggests that the intervention was effective in delivering SEP services to homeless young adult IDUs, and that IDUs who frequented the intervention site had a lower HIV risk than comparison group IDUs.

  18. Automated in-syringe single-drop head-space micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srámková, Ivana; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Solich, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana

    2014-05-30

    A novel approach of head-space single-drop micro-extraction applied to the determination of ethanol in wine is presented. For the first time, the syringe of an automated syringe pump was used as an extraction chamber of adaptable size for a volatile analyte. This approach enabled to apply negative pressure during the enrichment step, which favored the evaporation of the analyte. Placing a slowly spinning magnetic stirring bar inside the syringe, effective syringe cleaning as well as mixing of the sample with buffer solution to suppress the interference of acetic acid was achieved. Ethanol determination was based on the reduction of a single drop of 3mmol L(-1) potassium dichromate dissolved in 8mol L(-1) sulfuric acid. The drop was positioned in the syringe inlet in the head-space above the sample with posterior spectrophotometric quantification. The entire procedure was carried out automatically using a simple sequential injection analyzer system. One analysis required less than 5min including the washing step. A limit of detection of 0.025% (v/v) of ethanol and an average repeatability of less than 5.0% RSD were achieved. The consumption of dichromate reagent, buffer, and sample per analysis were only 20μL, 200μL, and 1mL, respectively. The results of real samples analysis did not differ significantly from those obtained with the references gas chromatography method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermnak, Usuma; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Tsuyuki, Rie; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2012-02-15

    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0.8 mM, respectively, without significantly inhibiting fungal growth. Methyl syringate reduced mRNA levels of genes (aflR, pksA, and omtB) [corrected] encoding proteins required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Methyl gallate, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, and methyl 3-O-methylgallate inhibited both aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. However, their acids and syringic acid did not inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. parasiticus significantly, although gallic acid inhibited aflatoxin production of A. flavus with selectivity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of methyl syringate was much weaker than that of gallic acid. These results showed that methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production with a different mode of action from that of gallic acid.

  20. PERSONAL SALES FACTORS AND THEIR QUANTIFICATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF A B-H LEASING COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa Vujic; Slobodan Vujic; Mesud Ajanovic

    2013-01-01

    The paper is aimed at analyzing and quantifying personal sales elements in order to increase the volume of leasing service sales and achieve higher quality in satisfying customers’ needs. In their service sales, leasing companies typically use the personal sales method. Its basic characteristic is personal contact between the sales representative and the customer. Personal sales is to a lesser degree quantifi ed through quantitative elements of plan fulfi llment; however, all the other qualit...

  1. Applying conceptual design to B2B sales negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illi, Mikko; Ylirisku, Salu

    This paper addresses the challenge of perceiving B2B sales negotiation in a manner that would open up new possibilities for the improvement of the practice. B2B sales agents work under high pressure in developing relevant and appealing proposals when negotiating for a deal with a customer. The key...... problem that will be addressed is the building of understanding of a customer’s current needs and requirements, and then trying to devise an appropriate proposal to match these. The work of the sales agents in B2B sales negotiations is highly complex, as they need to understand both the modular machinery......, service, configuration and customisation of the products in their company as well as to develop an apposite understanding of the key values and characteristics of the client organisation. Based on a design-ethnographical study of real sales practice in lift truck business the paper draws parallels between...

  2. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  3. Rethinking the extraverted sales ideal: the ambivert advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2013-06-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that extraverts are the most productive salespeople, research has shown weak and conflicting relationships between extraversion and sales performance. In light of these puzzling results, I propose that the relationship between extraversion and sales performance is not linear but curvilinear: Ambiverts achieve greater sales productivity than extraverts or introverts do. Because they naturally engage in a flexible pattern of talking and listening, ambiverts are likely to express sufficient assertiveness and enthusiasm to persuade and close a sale but are more inclined to listen to customers' interests and less vulnerable to appearing too excited or overconfident. A study of 340 outbound-call-center representatives supported the predicted inverted-U-shaped relationship between extraversion and sales revenue. This research presents a fresh perspective on the personality traits that facilitate successful influence and offers novel insights for people in choosing jobs and for organizations in hiring and training employees.

  4. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    the CISG applies; • Freedom of contract under Article 6; • Interpretation of the Convention and of CISG contracts; • Sales contract formation, validity, defenses to enforcement; • Obligations of the parties, including conforming delivery & notice of non-conformity; • Liability and remedies for breach......Also sometimes referred to as the Vienna Sales Convention, the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) regulates the rights of buyers and sellers in international sales. The Convention, which first entered into effect in 1988, is the first sales law treaty to win...... acceptance on a worldwide scale. The current list of some 77 Contracting States includes 11 of the G-12 Group, as well as China and Russia. These CISG States account for more than two-thirds of all world trade. The importance of the CISG in the international arena is underlined by thousands of reported...

  5. Simultaneous extraction and determination of albendazole and triclabendazole by a novel syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad

    2016-08-17

    A syringe to syringe dispersive liquid phase microextraction-solidified floating organic drop was introduced and used for the simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of albendazole and triclabendazole from different matrices. The extracted analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography along with fluorescence detection. The analytical parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including the nature and volume of the extraction solvent, sample volume, sample pH, ionic strength and the cycles of extraction were optimized. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.1-30.0 μg L(-1) and 0.2-30.0 μg L(-1) with determination coefficients of 0.9999 and 0.9998 for albendazole and triclabendazole respectively. The detection limits defined as three folds of the signal to noise ratio were found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) for albendazole and 0.06 μg L(-1) for triclabendazole. The inter-day and intra-day precision (RSD%) for both analytes at three concentration levels (0.5, 2.0 and 10.0 μg L(-1)) were in the range of 6.3-10.1% and 5.0-7.5% respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine albendazole and triclabendazole in water, cow milk, honey, and urine samples.

  6. The ultimately accountable job: leading today's sales organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Jerome A; Fiss, Mary S

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, sales leaders have had to devote considerable time and energy to establishing and maintaining disciplined processes. The thing is, many of them stop there--and they can't afford to, because the business environment has changed. Customers have gained power and gone global, channels have proliferated, more product companies are selling services, and many suppliers have begun providing a single point of contact for customers. Such changes require today's sales leaders to fill various new roles: Company leader. The best sales chiefs actively help formulate and execute company strategy, and they collaborate with all functions of the business to deliver value to customers. Customer champion. Customers want C-level relationships with suppliers in order to understand product strategy, look at offerings in advance, and participate in decisions made about future products--and sales leaders are in the best position to offer that kind of contact. Process guru. Although sales chiefs must look beyond the sales and customer processes they have honed over the past decade, they can't abandon them. The focus on process has become only more important as many organizations have begun bundling products and services to meet important customers' individual needs. Organization architect. Good sales leaders spend a lot of time evaluating and occasionally redesigning the sales organization's structure to ensure that it supports corporate strategy. Often, this involves finding the right balance between specialized and generalized sales roles. Course corrector. Sales leaders must watch the horizon, but they can't take their hands off the levers or forget about the dials. If they do, they might fail to respond when quick adjustments in priorities are needed.

  7. 30 CFR 285.216 - What information will MMS publish in the Proposed Sale Notice and Final Sale Notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information will MMS publish in the Proposed Sale Notice and Final Sale Notice? 285.216 Section 285.216 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... lease form to be used or a reference to that form. (e) Criteria MMS will use to evaluate competing...

  8. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price......), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than...

  9. CNOOC Sales Revenues Rise Significantly in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC),the country's third largest oil and gas producer,saw its full year sales revenues of 2008 rose 22.4 percent from a year ago to 98.3 billion yuan (US$14.37 billion).By the end of 2008,the total assets of the company were 428.5 billion yuan,up 267 percent from five years earlier.The company's listed ann CNOOC Ltd.said in mid-January it planed to lift its 2009 crude and gas production by 16 percent to 18 percent,as some significant projects are expected to come online this year.Total production will be 225 million to 231 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE),compared with the estimated production of 194 million to 196 million BOE for 2008.

  10. Perceived discrimination and injecting risk among people who inject drugs attending Needle and Syringe Programmes in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Mao, Limin; Treloar, Carla

    2014-11-01

    Previous research indicates that stigma and discrimination have negative consequences for both healthcare delivery and for health outcomes of people who inject drugs (PWID). Also important but not as well researched is the association between perceived discrimination and increased engagement in risky behaviours. This research aimed to explore whether perceived discrimination from workers in Needle and Syringe programmes (NSPs) is associated with increased engagement in injecting risk practices such as the sharing of injecting equipment. Convenience sampling was used across eight NSP sites within Western Sydney, Australia. All clients who attended one of the NSPs were eligible to participate. A total of 236 clients completed the survey. Perceived discrimination from NSP staff was found to be significantly associated with some injecting risk practices. Respondents who reported greater perceived discrimination from NSP staff were significantly more likely to report being injected by someone else after they had injected themselves (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.3) and reusing a needle or syringe (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.0-1.3) in the last month. Although clients reported perceiving more discrimination from general health workers than from NSP workers (12.8 vs. 10.2, t=7.739, df=226, pjudgemental, their clients may still have a heightened sensitivity to discrimination which can then have consequences for on-going engagement in risk practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatographic determination of synthetic pyrethroids in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed S. Albaseer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An indigenously fabricated in laboratory glass syringe was used for in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (is-DLLME and preconcentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs from surface waters suitable for their determination by high performance liquid chromatography. In contrast to classical DLLME, is-DLLME allows the use of lighter-than-water organic solvents and the analysis of environmental contaminants’ samples without prior filtration, which is of great importance due to the high affinity of pyrethroids to adsorb to solid particulates present in environmental samples. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized systemically using one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT and statistically using full factorial design (24. Three SPs (viz.; cypermethrin, resmethrin and permethrin were analyzed. The method showed good accuracy with RSD% in the range of of 4.8–6.9%. The method detection limits of the three pesticides ranged from 0.14 to 0.16 ng mL-1. The proposed method was applied for the determination of synthetic pyrethroids in lake water

  12. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40 µg L(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogens determination in wastewater samples by automatic in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior silylation and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alba; Avivar, Jessica; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-09-25

    A new procedure for the extraction, preconcentration and simultaneous determination of the estrogens most used in contraception pharmaceuticals (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol), cataloged as Contaminants of Emergent Concern by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (US-EPA), is proposed. The developed system performs an in-syringe magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in-syringe-MSA-DLLME) prior derivatization and gas chromatography (GC-MS). Different extraction (carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, chloroform and trichloroethylene) and disperser solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol) were tested. Chloroform and acetone were chosen as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively, as they provided the best extraction efficiency. Then, a multivariate optimization of the extraction conditions was carried out. Derivatization conditions were also studied to ensure the conversion of the estrogens to their respective trimethylsilyl derivatives. Low LODs and LOQs were achieved, i.e. between 11 and 82ngL(-1), and 37 and 272ngL(-1), respectively. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs≤7.06% and RSD≤7.11%, respectively). The method was successfully applied to wastewater samples.

  14. High dead-space syringes and the risk of HIV and HCV infection among injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Bobashev, Georgiy

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the association between using and sharing high dead-space syringes (HDSSs)--which retain over 1000 times more blood after rinsing than low dead-space syringes (LDSSs)--and prevalent HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting drug users (IDUs). A sample of 851 out-of-treatment IDUs was recruited in Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, between 2003 and 2005. Participants were tested for HIV and HCV antibodies. Demographic, drug use, and injection practice data were collected via interviews. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Participants had a mean age of 40 years and 74% are male, 63% are African American, 29% are non-Hispanic white, and 8% are of other race/ethnicity. Overall, 42% of participants had ever used an HDSS and 12% had shared one. HIV prevalence was 5% among IDUs who had never used an HDSS compared with 16% among IDUs who had shared one. The HIV model used a propensity score approach to adjust for differences between IDUs who had used an HDSS and those who had never used one. The HCV models included all potential confounders as covariates. A history of sharing HDSSs was associated with prevalent HIV (odds ratio=2.50; 95% confidence interval=1.01, 6.15). Use and sharing of HDSSs were also associated with increased odds of HCV infection. Prospective studies are needed to determine if sharing HDSSs is associated with increased HIV and HCV incidence among IDUs.

  15. 77 FR 67394 - Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231, Oil and Gas Lease Sales... Supplemental EIS for oil and gas lease sales tentatively scheduled in 2013 and 2014 in the WPA and CPA offshore... environmental and socioeconomic analyses for proposed WPA Lease Sale 233 and proposed CPA Lease Sale 231,...

  16. The Prison Economy of Needles and Syringes: What Opportunities Exist for Blood Borne Virus Risk Reduction When Prices Are so High?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. Method The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. Results A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the ‘inside’ prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) “quiet”, stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. Conclusions The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices. PMID:27611849

  17. The Prison Economy of Needles and Syringes: What Opportunities Exist for Blood Borne Virus Risk Reduction When Prices Are so High?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.

  18. Sales Application Online of Design Furniture on Mitra Karya Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the business world characterized by the increasing number of established companies, both of which are engaged in industry, trade and services. The role of computers use in a company or organization is not a layman anymore but is a must. With the computerized system in the company or organization, all the processes ranging from data processing to making reports and another important documents can be neatly arranged so that can facilitate the process of data storage and retrieval. The sales processing system are running still manually. They are still using flyers to find consumers so that ineffective and inefficient. The sales program is the design research proposed of information systems. By utilizing the technology of computer and internet in order word is to try making the facility of sales better. By creating an online sales system to make the working process does not spread the time so that the sale can run well and be good service. The designs created by using Dreamweaver CS5 and using the MySQL for database so the database stored neatly. The main function of the online sales system is to assist in facilitating the resources to get the latest product sales at MitraKarsa Furniture, so that the customer can buy the latest products easily, anytime and anywhere they want to.

  19. Media-fill simulation tests in manual and robotic aseptic preparation of injection solutions in syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Irene; Federici, Matteo; Kaiser, Vanessa; Thiesen, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of media-fill products either prepared automated with a robotic system (APOTECAchemo™) or prepared manually at cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom environment and by experienced operators. Media fills were completed by microbiological environmental control in the critical zones and used to validate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the robotic system. The aseptic preparation of patient individual ready-to-use injection solutions was simulated by using double concentrated tryptic soy broth as growth medium, water for injection and plastic syringes as primary packaging materials. Media fills were either prepared automated (500 units) in the robot or manually (500 units) in cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom over a period of 18 working days. The test solutions were incubated at room temperature (22℃) over 4 weeks. Products were visually inspected for turbidity after a 2-week and 4-week period. Following incubation, growth promotion tests were performed with Staphylococcus epidermidis. During the media-fill procedures, passive air monitoring was performed with settle plates and surface monitoring with contact plates on predefined locations as well as fingerprints. The plates got incubated for 5-7 days at room temperature, followed by 2-3 days at 30-35℃ and the colony forming units (cfu) counted after both periods. The robot was cleaned and disinfected according to the established standard operating procedure on two working days prior to the media-fill session, while on six other working days only six critical components were sanitized at the end of the media-fill sessions. Every day UV irradiation was operated for 4 h after finishing work. None of the 1000 media-fill products prepared in the two different settings showed turbidity after the incubation period thereby indicating no contamination with microorganisms. All products remained uniform, clear, and light

  20. Impact of income management on store sales in the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Julie K; McDonnell, Joseph; Barnes, Adam; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Thomas, David P; Bailie, Ross S

    2010-05-17

    To examine the impact of a government income management program on store sales. An interrupted time series analysis of sales data in 10 stores in 10 remote Northern Territory communities during 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2009, which included an 18-month period before income management; a 4-6-month period after the introduction of income management; a 3-month period that coincided with a government stimulus payment; and the remaining income-management period. Trends in (i) total store sales; (ii) total food and beverage sales; (iii) fruit and vegetables sales; (iv) soft drink sales; and v) tobacco sales. Modest monthly increases indicative of inflation were found for all outcome measures before the introduction of income management, except for soft drink sales, which remained constant. No change from the increasing rate of monthly sales before income management was seen in the first 4-6 months of income management or for the income-management period thereafter for total store sales, food and beverage sales, fruit and vegetable sales and tobacco sales. The rate of soft drink sales declined significantly with the introduction of income management and then increased significantly thereafter. The 3-month government stimulus payment period (during the period of income management) was associated with a significant increase in the rate of sales for all outcome measures. Income management independent of the government stimulus payment appears to have had no beneficial effect on tobacco and cigarette sales, soft drink or fruit and vegetable sales.

  1. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers...... on the Internet.To reach the decliners, retailers could focus on the possibilities of the Internet, but to stop the trend of escalating numbers of decliners, retailers will have to address the perceived inconvenience and uselessness of sales flyers....

  2. DIRECT SALES IN THE CONTEXT OF ROMANIA'S UE INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available More recently, direct sales business is stimulated by the difficult market conditions. While retailers hardly bear fixed costs such as rent, administrative costs and tend to raise prices, customers fall back to products offered by direct sale. In addition, labour market conditions made more and more Romanians (who were left without incomes to move towards this system. On the other hand, the direct sales field doesnt concern only those who remained without a job, but rather those who want to round their incomes.

  3. Transferring PACE Assessments Upon Home Sale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Coughlin, Jason; Fuller, Merrian; Zimring, Mark

    2010-04-12

    A significant barrier to investing in renewable energy and comprehensive energy efficiency improvements to homes across the country is the initial capital cost. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing this upfront cost issue. Recently, the White House cited PACE programs as an important element of its 'Recovery through Retrofit' plan. The residential PACE model involves the creation of a special clean energy financing district that homeowners elect to opt into. Once opted in, the local government (usually at the city or county level) finances the upfront investment of the renewable energy installation and/or energy efficiency improvements. A special lien is attached to the property and the assessment is paid back as a line item on the property tax bill. As of April 2010, 17 states have passed legislation to allow their local governments to create PACE programs, two already have the authority to set up PACE programs, and over 10 additional states are actively developing enabling legislation. This policy brief analyzes one of the advantages of PACE, which is the transferability of the special assessment from one homeowner to the next when the home is sold. This analysis focuses on the potential for the outstanding lien to impact the sales negotiation process, rather than the legal nature of the lien transfer itself. The goal of this paper is to consider what implications a PACE lien may have on the home sales negotiation process so that it can be addressed upfront rather than risk a future backlash to PACE programs. If PACE programs do expand at a rapid rate, the chances are high that there will be other cases where prospective buyers uses PACE liens to negotiate lower home prices or require repayment of the lien as a condition of sale. As a result, PACE programs should highlight this issue as a potential risk factor for the sake of full disclosure. A good example

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SALES PERFORMANCE OF PT SKP (A CASE STUDY OF SALES FORCE OF MOORLIFE INDONESIA IN JABODETABEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Djoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the factors that affect the performance of sales in the direct selling business in PT Srirara Kanaka Pratama (PT SKP. Direct selling is part of a growing sector of small and medium businesses, especially in creating alternative jobs. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the main factors that affect the performance of sales in PT SKP in Jabodetabek area and formulate its managerial implications. This study used a descriptive analysis to look at the characteristics of the respondent and a multiple linear regression analysis to identify factors that affect the sales performance in PT SKP. The number of respondents in this study is 60 active members. The study results showed that the factors affecting the sales performance in PT SKP are incentives and rewards from sold products. For the managerial implementation in order to improve the sales performance of its members, PT SKP will provide more interesting incentives or bonuses and increase the number of members who receive bonuses as well as the amount of bonuses by creating programs and activities supporting such a condition. It will also create more attractive products of higher selling power as a reward to increase the motivation of members in order to increase sales.Keywords: direct selling, sales performance, multiple linear regression, PT SKP

  5. Comparison of drug delivery with autoinjector versus manual prefilled syringe and between three different autoinjector devices administered in pig thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill RL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert L Hill,1,* John G Wilmot,1,* Beth A Belluscio,1 Kevin Cleary,2 David Lindisch,3 Robin Tucker,4 Emmanuel Wilson,2 Rajesh B Shukla11Meridian Medical Technologies Inc., Columbia, MD, 2Children’s National Medical Center, 3Washington DC VA Medical Center, 4Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Parenteral routes of drug administration are often selected to optimize actual dose of drug delivered, assure high bioavailability, bypass first-pass metabolism or harsh gastrointestinal environments, as well as maximize the speed of onset. Intramuscular (IM delivery can be preferred to intravenous delivery when initiating intravenous access is difficult or impossible. Drugs can be injected intramuscularly using a syringe or an automated delivery device (autoinjector. Investigation into the IM delivery dynamics of these methods may guide further improvements in the performance of injection technologies. Two porcine model studies were conducted to compare differences in dispersion of injectate volume for different methods of IM drug administration. The first study compared the differences in the degree of dispersion and uptake of injectate following the use of a manual syringe and an autoinjector. The second study compared the spatial spread of the injected formulation, or dispersion volume, and uptake of injectate following the use of five different autoinjectors (EpiPen® [0.3 mL], EpiPen® Jr [0.3 mL], Twinject® [0.15 mL, 0.3 mL], and Anapen® 300 [0.3 mL] with varying needle length, needle gauge, and force applied to the plunger. In the first study, the autoinjector provided higher peak volumes of injectate, indicating a greater degree of dispersion, compared with manual syringe delivery. In the second study, EpiPen autoinjectors resulted in larger dispersion volumes and higher initial dispersion ratios, which decreased rapidly over time, suggesting a greater

  6. When Theory Meets Practice: A New Approach for Teaching Undergraduate Sales Management Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Most sales management undergraduate courses teach students about sales management rather than how to successfully manage a sales team. A desire to change this paradigm resulted in a newly designed hands-on, skill-based sales management course that uses business case studies in combination with students developing, practicing, and performing the…

  7. Creating Thoughtful Salespeople: Experiential Learning to Improve Critical Thinking Skills in Traditional and Online Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cecilia M. O.; Taylor, Kimberly A.; Rauseo, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate marketing majors will spend at least some time in a sales role, and employers are requiring greater professionalism and more varied skill sets from their sales hires. In addition, there is an increasing demand for online and higher order learning in sales education. In response, this article proposes that sales courses using…

  8. 78 FR 2280 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) First Look Sales Method Under the Neighborhood Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Stabilization Program (NSP): Increased Discount on Sales Price for Certain Properties and Clarification of... of any applicable listing and sales commission. This notice announces an increase in the discount to... Sales Method. II. This Notice--Increased Discount on Sales Price for Certain REO Properties Purchased...

  9. Using Sales Management Students to Manage Professional Selling Students in an Innovative Active Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joyce A.; Hawes, Jon M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an application of active learning within two different courses: professional selling and sales management. Students assumed the roles of sales representatives and sales managers for an actual fund-raiser--a golf outing--sponsored by a student chapter of the American Marketing Association. The sales project encompassed an…

  10. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale: Revisions and Expansions for Teaching Sales Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The field of sales draws a large number of marketing graduates. Sales curricula used within today's marketing programs should include rigorous discussions of sales ethics. The Personal Selling Ethics Scale (PSE) provides an analytical tool for assessing and discussing students' ethical sales sensitivities. However, since the scale fails to address…

  11. 75 FR 71143 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land in Blaine County, ID AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described public land is being proposed for direct sale to the Animal... Animal Shelter. Regulations contained in 43 CFR 2711.3-3 permit direct sales when a competitive sale...

  12. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  13. ANALISA DAN PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI PENJUALAN (POINT OF SALES PADA KOPERASI KARYAWAN BINA NUSANTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkas Udiono

    2010-11-01

    characteristic feature of each item. Cash register machines are not able to gradually overcome the kinds of sales that various kinds, and happens due to the emergence of the sales transaction itself such as the purchase or cancel the presentation of consolidated sales. So the point of sales aims to cover all the deficiencies that existed at the machine registers cash

  14. The effect of sales promotions characteristics on brand equity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahram Jabarzadeh Karbasi; Ali Jafari Rad

    2014-01-01

    .... One of the influential factors in this field is brand equity. Concerning this issue, the aim of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of sale promotions on the brand equity of ETKA chain stores...

  15. The Influence of Compensation on Performance of Sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employees do not see a strong connection between pay and performance and ... performance is not particularly influenced by the company's incentive plan. ... and the types of rewards that elicit greater performance among sales people.

  16. The Influence of Compensation on Performance of Sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    ... should be a plank to determine their compensation and salary should be emphasized ... effective in encouraging greater sales effort. To build a .... managers, today individual incentive plans also pay people based on output or even quality.

  17. Medicare Part B Drug Average Sales Pricing Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Manufacturer reporting of Average Sales Price (ASP) data - A manufacturers ASP must be calculated by the manufacturer every calendar quarter and submitted to CMS...

  18. Rising gasoline prices increase new motorcycle sales and fatalities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P; Hilsenrath, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    ...) and new motorcycle fatalities (r = 0.92). ARIMA analysis estimated that a US$1 increase in gasoline prices would result in 295,000 new motorcycle sales and, consequently, 233 new motorcycle fatalities...

  19. 78 FR 49482 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... assistance, engineering and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support. (iv... contractor representatives' technical assistance, engineering and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics support. The estimated cost is $885 million. This proposed sale...

  20. Forecasting Nike’s Sales using Facebook Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Linda Camilla; Vinayagamoorthy, Vinothan; Winder, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This paper tests whether accurate sales forecasts for Nike are possible from Facebook data and how events related to Nike affect the activity on Nike’s Facebook pages. The paper draws from the AIDA sales framework (Awareness, Interest, Desire,and Action) from the domain of marketing and employs...... the method of social set analysis from the domain of computational social science to model sales from Big Social Data. The dataset consists of (a) selection of Nike’s Facebook pages with the number of likes, comments, posts etc. that have been registered for each page per day and (b) business data in terms...... of quarterly global sales figures published in Nike’s financial reports. An event study is also conducted using the Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi). The findings suggest that Facebook data does have informational value. Some of the simple regression models have a high forecasting accuracy. The multiple...