WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-pregnant non-nursing adults

  1. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  3. Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, K L; Giussani, D A; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2007-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoids have an important role in the pre-partum maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival such as glucogenesis. Consequently, in clinical practice, synthetic glucocorticoids, like dexamethasone, are given routinely to pregnant women threatened with pre-term delivery to improve the viability of their infants. However, little is known about the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on the glucogenic capacity of either the fetus or mother. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment using a clinically relevant dose and regime on glycogen deposition and the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidney of pregnant ewes and their fetuses, and of non-pregnant ewes. Dexamethasone administration increased the glycogen content of both the fetal and adult liver within 36 h of beginning treatment. It also increased G6Pase activity in the liver and kidney of the fetuses but not of their mothers or the non-pregnant ewes. Neither hepatic nor renal PEPCK activity was affected by dexamethasone in any group of animals. These changes in glycogen content and G6Pase activity were accompanied by rises in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and by a fall in the plasma cortisol level in the fetus and both groups of adult animals. In addition, dexamethasone treatment raised fetal plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and reduced maternal levels of plasma T(3) and thyroxine, but had no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations in the non-pregnant ewes. These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth.

  4. Pica associated with iron deficiency or depletion: clinical and laboratory correlates in 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many descriptions of the association of pica with iron deficiency in adults, but there are few reports in which observations available at diagnosis of iron deficiency were analyzed using multivariable techniques to identify significant predictors of pica. We sought to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of pica in adults with iron deficiency or depletion using univariable and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses. Methods We reviewed charts of 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients (ages ≥18 y who required treatment with intravenous iron dextran. We tabulated their sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, symptoms and causes of iron deficiency or depletion, serum iron and complete blood count measures, and other conditions at diagnosis before intravenous iron dextran was administered. We excluded patients with serum creatinine >133 μmol/L or disorders that could affect erythrocyte or iron measures. Iron deficiency was defined as both SF Results There were 230 women (184 white, 46 black; ages 19-91 y and 32 men (31 white, 1 black; ages 24-81 y. 118 patients (45.0% reported pica; of these, 87.3% reported ice pica (pagophagia. In univariable analyses, patients with pica had lower mean age, black race/ethnicity, and higher prevalences of cardiopulmonary and epithelial manifestations. The prevalence of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, did not differ significantly between patients with and without pica reports. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were lower and mean red blood cell distribution width (RDW and platelet count were higher in patients with pica. Thrombocytosis occurred only in women and was more prevalent in those with pica (20.4% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.0050. Mean total iron-binding capacity was higher and mean serum ferritin was lower in patients with pica. Nineteen patients developed a second episode of iron deficiency or depletion; concordance of recurrent pica (or absence of

  5. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of recurrent group B streptococcal infection among non-pregnant adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsiang Wang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Recurrent GBS diseases were found to occur considerably more often than previously thought, mainly in adults with a high comorbid index. Relapse, not new acquisition, was found to be more common.

  6. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for U.S. non-pregnant adults and children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Korrick, Susan A; Fayad, Raja

    2015-04-01

    In animal studies obesity is associated with higher blood and tissue mercury concentrations; however human studies are lacking. Although the mechanism underlying this association is uncertain, obesity may alter the metabolism and distribution of methylmercury. We determined whether obesity influenced blood mercury levels, the majority of which was methylmercury, for U.S. non-pregnant adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years) after controlling for methylmercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption, and other confounders. We completed secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) for participants who consumed fish/shellfish within 24h of blood collection for mercury analysis. Weighted least squares regression models related blood mercury levels (the dependent variable) to methylmercury exposure (μg) from fish consumed in the previous 24h, body mass index (BMI) (for adults), BMI z-scores (for children), and other confounders. In adjusted models, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI for adults [β, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.54 (-0.90, -0.18)]. For children, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI z-scores but the trend was not significant [β (95% CI)=-0.016 (-0.066, 0.035)]. When obese adults or children were compared with those who were overweight/normal weight, blood mercury averaged 22% lower for obese adults (95% CI: -33%, -8.2%), while blood mercury did not differ significantly for obese children [β (95% CI)=-1.7% (-31%, +39%)]. After adjusting for the main, if not exclusive, exogenous source of methylmercury exposure (through fish/shellfish intake) and other confounders, our results support potential changes in the metabolism, distribution or excretion of methylmercury with increasing BMI (for adults). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  8. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  9. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state is associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong Seog

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state and the development of preeclampsia. We enrolled 212,463 Korean women who had their first delivery between January, 2011 and December, 2012 and had undergone a national health screening examination through the National Health Insurance during the 1-2 years before their first delivery. Women who had hypertension in the non-pregnant state were excluded. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant state was 1.2%. Preeclampsia developed in 3.1% and its prevalence among women with and without metabolic syndrome was 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. The pre-pregnancy prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women who developed preeclampsia compared to that in those who had a normal pregnancy (1.1% vs. 2.8%; ppreeclampsia (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.74) compared to that in those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The risk of preeclampsia increased with a rise in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state was associated with the development of preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether early intervention for metabolic syndrome before pregnancy can decrease the risk of developing preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Canine herpesvirus during pregnancy and non-pregnant luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, B; Hagberg Gustavsson, M; Grapperon-Mathis, M; Lilliehöök, I; Johannisson, A; Isaksson, M; Lindhe, A; Axnér, E

    2012-12-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a widespread infection among dogs that typically get latently infected after exposure and can reactivate the infection after stress. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of latent CHV infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome, and to study if there are signs of genital viral reactivation during pregnancy or during non-pregnant luteal phase. Twelve mated bitches and eight control bitches were followed and sampled regularly during pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Blood samples were taken for antibody analysis and vaginal swabs for real-time PCR analysis. Three of the pregnant bitches were vaccinated against CHV during pregnancy. All bitches had antibodies to CHV. Two pregnant bitches that were not vaccinated had a twofold or larger increase in CHV titre, with no negative effects detected on pregnancy. Higher titres were not associated with smaller litters or with vaccination. There was no consistent variation in antibody titres due to pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Vaginal excretion of CHV was not detected from any of the bitches.

  11. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  12. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  14. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  15. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  16. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  17. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  18. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  19. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  20. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  1. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk.

  2. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  3. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  4. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  5. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  7. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  8. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  9. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  10. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

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    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  11. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  12. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  13. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  14. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  15. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  16. Biomathematical pattern of EMG signal propagation in smooth muscle of the non-pregnant porcine uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2017-01-01

    Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system. It has been revealed that the EMG signal conduction in the uterine wall of the non-pregnant sow does not occur at random but it rather exhibits specific directions and speed. All detectable EMG signals moved along the uterine horn in both cervico-tubal and tubo-cervical directions. The signal migration speed could be divided into the three main types or categories: i. slow basic migration rhythm (SBMR); ii. rapid basic migration rhythm (RBMR); and iii. rapid accessory migration rhythm (RAMR). In conclusion, the EMG signal propagation in smooth muscles of the porcine uterus in vivo can be assessed using a linear synchronization model. Physiological pattern of the uterine contractile activity determined in this study provides a basis for future investigations of normal and pathologicall myogenic function of the uterus. PMID:28282410

  17. Changes in ectocervical surface area in women throughout pregnancy compared to non-pregnant and postpartum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p 75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.

  18. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  20. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

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    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  1. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  2. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  3. Transient osteoporosis of the hip in a non-pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Sareen, Atul; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Prakash, Jatin

    2015-06-04

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a rare, self-limiting condition, occurring most commonly in middle-aged men, but also sometimes in women, usually in late pregnancy. It is characterised by gradual onset of hip pain aggravated by weight bearing without any associated history of trauma and systemic illness. It is usually of unknown aetiology, but pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for women. Other conditions that can mimic transient osteoporosis of the hip on MRI are osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis and neoplasms. We present a case of a 38-year-old non-pregnant woman with transient osteoporosis of the hip, managed conservatively, leading to a full recovery. Treatment is conservative, including protected weight bearing, physical therapy and non-steroidal analgesics. The patient was completely painless and symptom free at 2-year follow-up. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Stress urinary incontinence among non pregnant female patients in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence has been defined by the international continence society as a condition in which involuntary loss of urine is a social or hygienic problem and is objectively demonstrable. Stress urinary incontinence is the most common form of transurethral urinary incontinence in women. Objective: To study the probable etiological factors in diagnosed cases of Stress urinary incontinence among non pregnant female patients attending outpatient department of Gynecology in SMIMER, Surat and to evaluate the cure rate of non-surgical and surgical treatment among them. Method:This study was conducted in the department of Obst amd Gynec, SMIMER, Surat from May2010 to december2012. Non pregnant patients demonstrating SUI with full bladder were included in the study. Total 40 patients were studied. Observation: Out of 40 cases 32 (80% cases belonged to the age group of 40 to 59 years, 22 (55% were in peri-menopausal age group and the median parity of the patients was 3. Other important observation was that 29(54.7% patients had associated utero-vaginal prolapse with SUI and maximum had third degree prolapsed. Both non-surgical and surgical treatment was offered to patients with good results. Conclusion: This study indicates that SUI is quite common in peri-menopausal age group, it has strong association with multi parity and UV prolapse. Non-surgical management is still the acceptable mode of treatment. The TVT-O appears to be safe and effective surgical treatment for SUI. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 73-76

  5. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  6. [Prevalence of malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Comparative study of the plasmodial indices in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Ndir, O; Dieng, Y; Ba, F D; Bah, I B; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Dieng, T

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of the prevalence of malaria in pregnant and non pregnant women living in Dakar has interested 1819 women among whom 950 pregnant and 869 non pregnant. For all the examined women, the global plasmoidic index was 2.6% and the gametocytic index 0.1%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only observed species. According to the obtained results, pregnant women, with a plasmoidic index of 4.5% are more often parasited than the non pregnant women, only affected in a proportion of 0.5% Whatever the age, the number of previous pregnancy, the place of residence, the duration of the stay in Dakar may be, the pregnant women are always more often parasited than the non pregnant women and the registered differences are statistically significant. That situation could come from a greater receptivity of the pregnant women what is admitted by some authors. But a more important proportion of natives from rural area was observed among the pregnant women, from where a difference in the exposure to the risk of impaludation between the two groups that could explain the registered results. The global plasmoidic index of 2.6% obtained in the examined women, reflects well the present situation of the malaria endemy in Dakar, a weak hypo-endemic area.

  7. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R; Schou, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response...

  8. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  9. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  10. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  11. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  12. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  13. Serotonin regulates contractile activity of the uterus in non-pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkova, Alla Edward; De Pasquale, Valeria; Avallone, Luigi; Puzikov, Alexander Michael; Pavone, Luigi Michele

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the cholinergic system of the uterus by indirect actions on the modulation of reflexes and a direct action on smooth muscles. We investigated the role of 5-HT in the regulation of the cholinergic activity in the uterine parts of non-pregnant rabbits. The right vagus or pelvic nerve and the left sympathetic trunk were stimulated by an electrical field, and the uterine contractile activity was evaluated by measuring the amplitude and frequency of slow wave electromyogram (EMG), with the surface of microelectrodes applied to the uterus bottom, body, and cervix, respectively. Double stimulation of the vagus or pelvic nerve and the sympathetic trunk increased the frequency and the amplitude of the slow wave EMG in all the uterine parts. Furthermore, the administration of exogenous 5-HT increased the vagus or pelvic induced EMG activity in all parts of the uterus. Overall our results demonstrate that 5-HT enhances the vagus contractile activity with a magnitude of the effect decreasing from the bottom to the cervix, whereas 5-HT enhances the pelvic nerve contractile functions with a magnitude of the response increasing from the bottom to the cervix. The administration of droperidol, a 5-HT3 and 4 receptor inhibitor, and spiperone, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect of the serotoninergic fibers of the sympathetic trunk to increase the vagus and pelvic nerve EMG activity. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves results in the induction of uterine contraction via the activation of 5-HT2, 3, and 4 receptor subfamilies.

  14. Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant women of South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagha, U I; Iyare, E E; Ejezie, F E; Ogbodo, S O; Dim, C C; Anyaehie, B U

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained. To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant Nigerian women. Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard methods. Results : The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P pregnant Nigerian women.

  15. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  16. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  17. Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleszczewski Tomasz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

  18. Localization of interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the pregnant and non-pregnant mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Eiichi; Kokubu, Keiji; Kato, Kahori; Kiso, Yasuo

    2005-12-01

    To understand roles of interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines for pregnancy in mice, localization of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA was investigated in non- and early pregnant uteri by in situ hybridization. IL-6R mRNA was expressed in all non-pregnant uteri and in pregnant uteri from the third day (Day 3) to the sixth day of pregnancy (Day 6; the day of plug = Day 1). IL-6R mRNA signals were detected in non-pregnant mice in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Signal strength varied according to the sexual cycle. There was no correlation between the signal strength of the IL-6R mRNA and the serum concentrations of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol, which show a monophasic rise in the non-pregnant sexual cycle. In pregnant mice, slight signals were detectable in the luminal and glandular epithelium on Day 3. IL-6R mRNA messages increased with progression towards Day 4, however, localization changed drastically on Day 5. Stromal cells abruptly expressed their mRNA on Day 5, and these cells strongly expressed it on Day 6. The function of IL-6R in the luminal and glandular epithelium might be different from that in the stroma during the implantation period. In addition, few signals were identified in the stromal cells adjacent to the luminal epithelium on Day 6. This suggests that there are two types of stromal cells on Day 6 in mice.

  19. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Teelkien R; Panerai, Ronney B; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P; Zeeman, Gerda G; Belfort, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min. The autoregulation index (ARI) was calculated. ARI values of 0 and 9 indicated absent and perfect autoregulation, respectively. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used, with ppregnant and 18 non-pregnant women were included. The ARI did not change during pregnancy, but pregnant women had a significantly higher ARI than non-pregnant controls (ARI 6.7±0.9 vs. 5.3±1.4, ppregnant fertile women, even after controlling for EtCO2. The autoregulation does not change with advancing gestational age. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  1. MULTILEVEL LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX AMONG BANGLADESHI MARRIED NON-PREGNANT WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Mamun, A S M A; Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Saw, Aik; Kamarul, T; Islam, Md Nurul; Hossain, Md Golam

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (pchildren was negatively related with women's BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband's education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.

  2. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  3. PP097. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in normal pregnancy and in control non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Goodyear, Gemma; Joseph, Ehizele; Khalil, Asma

    2012-07-01

    Changes in cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have been shown to precede the clinical onset of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. CO and SVR undergo major changes during normal pregnancy. However, assessment of these vascular parameters requires intensive training and expensive techniques, so currently can be performed only in specialised centres. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal cardiovascular function measured using an ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM), a simple non-invasive continuous wave Doppler device, in a cohort of pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. This was a cross sectional study including 185 women with normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40weeks of gestation and 49 non-pregnant controls. Stroke volume (SV), CO and SVR were measured using the USCOM device. All measurements were performed with the patients in supine position. All women with a gestational age of >20weeks were in a left lateral position by placing a wedge-shaped pillow under their right side to prevent vena cava compression. In a group of 25 pregnant women, each measurement was repeated three times to evaluate the reproducibility of this technique. Cardiac index (CI), SV index (SVI) and SVR index (SVRI) relate CO, SV and SVR to the body surface area. The data were normally distributed after logarithmic transformation. Comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women were performed using Studentt-test, Chi-Square test or multiple regression analysis, when adjustment for potential confounders was necessary. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. In the first trimester, all of the following vascular parameters were higher in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls: CO [median (IQR): 4.86 (4.45-5.57) vs 5.57 (4.76-6.52)L/min, PPregnant women had significantly lower SVR [median (IQR): 1458 (1261-1649) vs 1165 (1023-1406)sec/cm(-5), P<0.001] and SVRI [median (IQR): 2646 (2307

  4. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  5. [Facilitating cervix dilatation of the non-pregnant uterus by intracervical administration of gels containing prostaglandin and calcium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Hüther, G; Hilgers, R; Meyer, A; Kuhn, W; Neuhoff, V

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective, randomised study, 50 non-pregnant patients were treated intracervically with 3 ml 5% tylose, 50 micrograms sulprostone, 100 micrograms sulprostone gel, 3 ml 2.5 mM or 9.0 mM calcium chloride gel in order to soften the cervix 12-14 hours before diagnostic curettage. The gel was not used in a further 20 patients. To objectively demonstrate the priming effect, the force required for dilatation of the cervical canal was measured in Newtons, using a mechanical tonometer both before gel application and before the operation. In comparison with the administration of tylose only, the intracervical application of either sulprostone gel or calcium chloride gel led to a significant improvement in cervical dilatability. Tylose alone had a slight but measurable effect on the cervix. An increase in sulprostone from 50 micrograms to 100 micrograms or calcium molarity from 2.5 mM to 9.0 mM brought no further improvement in the dilatory effect. Dilatation-induced cervical lesions could be avoided by preoperative cervical ripening. After application of sulprostone, 3 out of 20 patients experienced doses-dependent uterine cramps, while all patients treated with calcium chloride gel were free of side effects. The intracervical administration of sulprostone and calcium chloride gel allowed gentle dilatation of the non-pregnant cervix, thus lowering the risk of uterine lesions. Under clinical aspects, cervical priming facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which, in exceptional cases, can be performed without anaesthesia.

  6. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  7. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  8. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  9. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  10. [Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity.

  11. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...... was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited...... and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals....

  12. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  13. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  14. Co-existence of Endometriotic Cyst of the Ovary and Arias-Stella Reaction in a Non-Pregnant Woman: Report of a Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Volga; Esaki, Muthuvel; Srinivasan, Chitra; Arockiasamy, Parimala; Ethirajan, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis is defined as presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. It can occur anywhere in the ovary. In the ovary it is usually presented as cyst, termed as endometriotic cyst or Chocolate cyst. Arias-Stella reaction is usually seen in gestational endometrium or in ectopic gestation site and rarely in non-pregnant uterus with hormonal intake. Co-existence of endometriosis and Arias-Stella reaction is very rare. We present a very rare case of endometriotic cyst of the ovary exhibiting Arias -Stella reaction which was seen in of non pregnant patient without any history of hormonal intake.

  15. [Non-pregnant women's nutrition and its impact in life quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, E

    1999-03-01

    Emphasis is made in the nutrition aspects related to women at reproductive age that are not pregnant or lactating and that includes the variations that happen throughout the menstrual cycle, fluctuations in energy expenditure, body composition and mood. Nutrition role in some premenstrual syndrome alterations as premenstrual stress (serotonin, magnesium, calcium and vitamin E), anemia, gynecological cancers (antioxidants, alcohol, folic acid, lipids, fiber and phytosterols) and osteoporosis (exercise and diet) are also described, as well as the impact on nutrition of the use of contraceptive methods (hormonal and intrauterine devices). Practical recommendations directed toward the evaluation and management of the main nutrition needs of adult women are included.

  16. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range 15

  17. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range

  18. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  19. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  20. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  1. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. METHODS: Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  2. Serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in non-pregnant women, during pregnancy, labour and abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vassiliadis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders. Microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, graft rejection have been correlated to over- or under-production of specific cytokines which are produced as responder molecules to the various immune stimuli. The sole naturally occurring immune reaction in the organism is developed during the gestational period where, despite the presence of a semi-allogeneic graft, maternal immunoreactivity is driven to support fetal growth. The successful embryo development has been attributed to the important intervention of cytokines where some have been characterized as indispensable and others deleterious to fetal growth. However, the physiological levels of many factors during the gestational process have not been determined. Thus, in the present study we have measured and established the values of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNF- α and IFN-γ during all phases of human pregnancy (first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, labour, abortions of the first trimester as well as in the non-pregnant control state. This is an attempt to assess serum protein concentrations and present the physiological levels of these cytokines at certain time intervals providing thus a diagnostic advantage in pregnancy cases where the mother cannot immunologically support the fetus. Exploitation of this knowledge and further research may be useful for therapeutic interventions in the future.

  3. Changes in ovaries and uterus after aglepristone administration in the third week of luteal phase of non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Kamil; Jurka, Piotr; Dolka, Izabella; Czopowicz, Michał; Ruszczak, Anna; Duszewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of aglepristone action in the placentation time in the bitch remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanism by which aglepristone influences ovaries and uterus and to measure the levels of steroid sex hormones in non-pregnant bitches. Fourteen bitches assigned to a study (n=9) and control (n=5) group were given aglepristone and saline solution, respectively, on the 19th and 20th day after LH peak. On the 26th day after LH peak an ovariohysterectomy was performed. Blood samples were screened for estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Ovaries and uterine horns and bodies were isolated for histological and morphometrical diagnosis and immunohistochemistry analysis of α-estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. A decrease of progesterone (pbody (pbody of study bitches were significantly thicker than in the control group (pbody was thicker than myometrium of horns (pbody (pbody within groups. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study, which describes the inflammatory effect developing in uterus in response to aglepristone administration, and attempts to elucidate its mechanisms.

  4. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Chandyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR (<2 μg/day. In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88% also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  5. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  6. Gene expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 in the uterus and oviduct of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshokraei, P; Hassanpour, H; Rahnama, A; Foster, W G

    2013-08-01

    To compare genes expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine and oviductal tissues of ewes, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed. BDNF, TrkB and p75 genes are normally expressed in the ovine uterus and oviduct. The relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were increased in the uterine segments of the pregnant samples with compared to non-pregnant samples. This increasing was only significant (Ppregnant samples. In contrast, the relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were decreased in the oviductal segments of the pregnant samples and were undetectable in the isthmus. Variations of the relative amounts of TrkB and p75 mRNAs between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples were not significant (P>0.05) although TrkB mRNA in the caruncle and cervix and p75 mRNA in the cervix of pregnant samples were too less to be detected by RT-PCR method. It is probably that these changes of BDNF/receptors genes expression are necessary for normal pregnancy, and abnormal variations in the expression of these genes may be involved in the pathophysiological conditions.

  7. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  8. von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in normal non-pregnant women, pregnant and post-delivery women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luceros, Analía; Farías, Cristina E; Amaral, María M; Kempfer, Ana C; Votta, Roberto; Marchese, Carlos; Salviú, María J; Woods, Adriana I; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, María A

    2004-12-01

    ADAMTS13 dysfunction has been involved in the pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. This disorder occurs more frequently in women and, in 13% of them, is associated with pregnancy. However, there is little information on the protease behaviour in normal pregnancy. We studied von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 activity changes in normal non-pregnant, pregnant and post-delivery women. Fifty-five non-pregnant women, normal blood bank donors, who were not taking contraceptive pills were included as controls. A prospective cross-sectional study of 270 normal pregnant and post-delivery women was carried out. ADAMTS13 activity decreased progressively as from the period of 12-16 weeks up to the end of early puerperium (mean 52%, range 22-89, p < 0.0001), to increase slightly thereafter. Nulliparous presented mildly lower levels of ADAMTS13 activity than parous women (65% vs. 83 %, p = 0.0003), and primigravidae than multigravidae between 6-11 weeks up to 17-23 weeks of pregnancy (69% vs. 80%, p = 0.005). Although in all women the protease levels were the same by blood groups, the O blood group non-pregnant women showed a higher mean of ADAMTS13 activity than those non-O (78% vs. 69%, p = 0.064). Our results suggest that the changing levels of protease activity during pregnancy and puerperium, induced by unidentified mechanisms, could render the peripartum time more vulnerable to developed thrombotic microangiopathies.

  9. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismali, Gorkem; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2012-05-01

    Environmental electromagnetic fields originate from man-made sources, such as mobile phones and base stations, and have led to increasing public concern about their possible adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from these devices on oversensitive animals, such as pregnant rabbits. In the present study, the effects of whole body 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like RFR exposure for 15 min/day for seven days on blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels in both non-pregnant and pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in the following four groups: Non-pregnant control, non-pregnant RFR-exposed, pregnant control and pregnant RFR-exposed. Lipid peroxidation, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, did not change after RFR exposure. However, blood chemistry parameters, such as cholesterol (CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), uric acid, creatinin and creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) changed due to both pregnancy and RFR exposure. Our investigations have been shown that no indication for oxidative stress was detected in the blood of pregnant rabbits upon RF exposure at specific conditions employed in the present study. Minor changes in some blood chemistry parameters were detected but CK-MB and CK increases were found remarkable. Studies on RFR exposure during pregnancy will help establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from environmental RFR.

  10. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    .... We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011...

  11. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, its binding protein and receptors in human cervical tissue at preterm and term labor in comparison to non-pregnant state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byström Birgitta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is still the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is known to be significantly elevated in the maternal plasma at preterm birth. Although, CRH, CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP, CRH-receptor 1 (CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 have been identified both at mRNA and protein level in human placenta, deciduas, fetal membranes, endometrium and myometrium, no corresponding information is yet available on cervix. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the levels of the mRNA species coding for CRH, CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in human cervical tissue and myometrium at preterm and term labor and not in labor as well as in the non-pregnant state, and to localize the corresponding proteins employing immunohistochemical analysis. Methods Cervical, isthmic and fundal (from non-pregnant subjects only biopsies were taken from 67 women. Subjects were divided in 5 groups: preterm labor (14, preterm not in labor (7, term labor (18, term not in labor (21 and non-pregnant (7. Real-time RT-PCR was employed for quantification of mRNA levels and the corresponding proteins were localized by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The levels of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA in the pregnant tissues were lower than those in non-pregnant subjects. No significant differences were observed between preterm and term groups. CRH-BP and CRH-R2 mRNA and the corresponding proteins were present at lower levels in the laboring cervix than in the non-laboring cervix, irrespective of gestational age. In most of the samples, with the exception of four myometrial biopsies the level of CRH mRNA was below the limit of detection. All of these proteins could be detected and localized in the cervix and the myometrium by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion Expression of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in uterine tissues is down-regulated during pregnancy. The most pronounced down-regulation of CRH-BP and CRH-R2

  13. Clinical use of misoprostol for cervical ripening before transcervical procedures in non pregnant women: a randomized comparison of vaginal and sublingual administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Udhayakumari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Even though we found sublingual route is an effective alternate to vaginal administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening before transcervical diagnostic procedures like endometrial biopsy, fractional curettage and dilatational curettage in non pregnant pre and post-menopausal women especially when women feel uncomfortable with vaginal route. However, the optimal dose and time interval remains to be identified. It needs larger randomized control trials are required to prove clinical significance if any. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 30-35

  14. Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-β expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-β expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-α expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (α and β) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus.

  15. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  16. Non-nurse college graduates: a new resource for future nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P L; Shoffner, D H

    1991-01-01

    Non-nurse college graduates are admitted to the master's of science in nursing (MSN) degree program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK). Over the years, a majority of these non-traditional students have chosen the family nurse practitioner clinical concentration. The purpose of this study was to compare non-traditional and traditional family nurse practitioner (FNP) graduates in terms of academic and career-development characteristics. The study population consisted of all 91 (48 non-traditional and 43 traditional) UTK FNP graduates from 1981 to 1986. Little difference was found between the two groups' academic success in the program, self-perceptions of clinical preparedness for practice, current participation in the workforce, and self-perceptions of acceptance from administrators, other nurses and physicians in current work settings. Several notable differences between the two groups were found. The non-traditional FNP graduates had higher Graduate Record Examination (GRE) mean scores. More non-traditional than traditional FNP graduates were employed initially as nurse practitioners. Similarly, more non-traditional FNP graduates were currently employed as nurse practitioners in primary health care settings. Fewer non-traditional FNP graduates expressed satisfaction with their initial or current nursing positions. In regard to career goals, however, more of the non-traditional FNP graduates stated their intent was to be functioning as nurse practitioners in the future. Non-nurse college graduates with an interest in health care are a rich resource from which to recruit practicing nurse practitioners for the future.

  17. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  18. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  19. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region o...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Apprehension and Loneliness for Elderly Nursing Home and Non-Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Valerie C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Utilizes the socio-environmental perspective to compare feelings of communication apprehension and perceived loneliness between nursing home and non-nursing home residents. Finds that communication apprehension consistently and significantly predicts perceived loneliness for non-nursing home residents, but fails to predict perceived loneliness for…

  1. [Knowledge, attitude, and behaviors related to sex among teenage girls: a comparison between nursing and non-nursing college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tesng, Li-Shu

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study was to explore differences in sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between teenage girls enrolled at a nursing school and those enrolled at a non-nursing school. A total of 792 students were recruited from one nursing school and one non-nursing school. Compared to non-nursing students, nursing students were more knowledgeable on sex-related issues, held more conservative attitudes toward sex, and had less sexual experience. We found also that the closer an intimate relationship was, the more liberal the sexual activities tended to be. Participants were prone to accept premarital sex, and cared less about the virginity of future spouses. Most perceived having a child before marriage unacceptable. About 23% (n = 179) of participants had intercourse experience, while only 30% of girls surveyed had used contraception every time they had sexual intercourse. Eleven students reported being pregnant, but none chose to take their pregnancy to term. The findings of this study show that nursing education may have a positive influence on teenage girl's sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to practicing safer sex. This study also suggests that a comprehensive sex-related curriculum, introducing safer sex practices and the health consequences of unprotected sex, should be reinforced in both non-nursing and nursing schools.

  2. Factors influencing the choice of a nursing or a non-nursing degree: a multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, Angelo; Graceffa, Giuseppina; Del Bello, Matteo; Rizzi, Lorena; Ianderca, Barbara; Battistella, Nadia; Bulfone, Teresa; Grando, Roberta; Zuliani, Stefania; Casetta, Anica; Palese, Alvisa

    2014-12-01

    Current literature has paid increasing attention to the factors influencing career decisions; nevertheless, few studies have compared candidates that have chosen a nursing versus a non-nursing degree. A multicenter, cross-sectional study design was performed to explore whether or not certain individual variables and having inaccurate data about nursing as a profession influenced the choice of a non-nursing degree. Six non-nursing and three nursing degree programs offered by two public Italian universities were involved. A total of 507 students who had just enrolled in non-nursing degree programs and 202 in nursing degree programs were invited to complete a questionnaire comprising 12 closed items. Overall, from 40.0% to 57.1% of the variation in choosing a degree other than nursing was explained by variables such as age, and having inaccurate data on the nursing profession. For each year over 19 years of age, the likelihood that the student would decide to enroll in a nursing degree program increases. For each wrong answer reported on the questionnaire evaluating knowledge on nursing profession, there was a reduction of approximately six times in the likelihood that the student would enroll in a nursing degree program. Information regarding the nursing profession should be offered in early stages of life; in addition, offering accurate data on the profession is a key factor in evaluating the congruence of the career with the individual's personal motivations, aspirations, and talents.

  3. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  4. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  5. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  6. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity.

  7. Comparison of four immunoassays to measure serum ferritin concentrations and iron deficiency prevalence among non-pregnant Cambodian women and Congolese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Rappaport, Aviva I; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; McLean, Judy; Hou, Kroeun; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Houghton, Lisa A; Bailey, Karl B; Boy, Erick; Green, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Global standardization of ferritin assays is lacking, which could have direct implications on the accurate measurement and comparability of ferritin concentration and iron deficiency (ID) prevalence rates in at-risk populations. We measured serum ferritin concentrations using four immunoassays: the s-ELISA and the AxSYM™ analyzer were compared among 420 non-pregnant Cambodian women; the Centaur® XP analyzer, s-ELISA, and AxSYM™ analyzer were compared among a subset of 100 Cambodian women; and the s-ELISA and the Elecsys® 2010 analyzer were compared among 226 Congolese children aged 6-59 months. Median ferritin concentrations (adjusted for inflammation) ranged between 48 and 91 μg/L among Cambodian women and between 54 and 55 μg/L among Congolese children. ID prevalence ranged from 2% to 10% among Cambodian women and 5% to 7% among Congolese children. Bias between methods varied widely (-9 to 45 μg/L) among women, and was 43 μg/L among children. Bias was lower when ferritin values outside of the s-ELISA measurement range (>250 μg/L) were excluded. The observed differences in ferritin concentrations likely reflect different ferritin isoforms, antibodies, and calibrators used across assays and by different laboratories. However, despite differences in ferritin concentrations, ID prevalence was relatively similar and low across all methods.

  8. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system.

  9. Frequency and types of human papillomavirus among pregnant and non-pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Recife determined by genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vírginia da Conceição Ribes Amorim Bezerra Brandão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection present a higher risk of infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer. To determine HPV genotypes and frequencies among HIV-positive women, an analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 147 women (51 were pregnant and HIV-positive, 45 pregnant and HIV-negative and 51 HIV-positive and not pregnant, who were attended at a maternity hospital in Recife between April 2006-May 2007. They answered a questionnaire and underwent a gynaecological examination, with samples collected for HPV investigation by PCR, hybrid capture II, oncotic colpocytology (Papanicolau and colposcopy. The frequency of HPV DNA was 85.3% (122/143, with a high proportion of HPV types that have been identified as high risk for cervical cancer. Among HIV-positive pregnant women, there was an HPV prevalence of 96% (48/50, of whom 60.4% (29/48 were high-risk. HPV 16, 58, 18, 66 and 31 were the most frequent types. Colpocytological abnormalities were observed in 35.3% (18/51 of HIV-positive non-pregnant women, 21.6% (11/51 of HIV-positive pregnant women and 13.3% (6/45 of HIV-negative pregnant women with a predominance of low-level lesions. A high prevalence of HPV infection was identified, especially with the high-risk types 16, 58, 18 and 66. This study identified high-risk HPV types in all three groups examined (HIV-positive pregnant women, HIV-negative pregnant women and HIV-positive not pregnant, characterising its distribution in this setting.

  10. Trends in serum lipids and hypertension prevalence among non-pregnant reproductive-age women: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death among reproductive-age women. In this study, we examine trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and related clinicians' advice among reproductive-age women. We conducted trend analysis of these factors among non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years (n = 5,768) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data obtained between 1999 and 2008. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine linear trends over a 10-year period after adjusting for covariates. A downward trend was observed for the proportion of women with abnormal levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL; P = 0.038) and high density lipoprotein (HDL; P = 0.008) cholesterol from 1999 to 2008. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in the prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol (P = 0.948) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.300), or hypertension (P = 0.632). Based on the self-reported data, upward trends were observed in the rates of cholesterol checking (P = 0.002), high cholesterol (P = 0.012), receiving clinicians' advice to use lipid-lowering agents (P < 0.001) and patients' compliance with their advice (P < 0.001). Although rates of self-reported hypertension did not change over time (P = 0.120), receiving clinicians' advice to use antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003) and patients' compliance with these medications (P = 0.015) also increased significantly. Overall improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol over this time period could be due to increases in related awareness, receiving advice to use medications, and patients' compliance with this advice. Use of antihypertensive medication has also increased among reproductive-age women in the US.

  11. Research progress on contractile modulation mechanism of non-pregnant uterine%非孕期子宫收缩调控机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宁; 程忠平

    2012-01-01

    Uterine contractile activity plays an important regulatory role in many aspects of women reproductive function, including transport of sperm and embryo and implantation, menstruation, gestation and parturition. Abnormal uterine contractility may lead to many common diseases such as infertility, implantation failure, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, spontaneous miscarriage or preterm birth. So it is very important to gain a comprehensive cognition of physiological pathways that underlie the contractile activity of uterine in non-pregnant state. This review summarized an overview of contractile apparatus of uterine myocytes, physiological pathways and the molecular mechanism by which uterine contractility might be regulated, aiming to provide deeper understanding of the mechanism of uterine contractility.%子宫收缩活动参与调控女性生殖系统许多方面的功能,如精子和胚胎的转运和着床、月经、妊娠和分娩等.子宫的异常收缩可导致许多常见疾病,如不孕、受精卵植入失败、痛经、子宫内膜异位、自然流产及早产等.因此,深入地认识非孕期子宫收缩及其调节的生理机制尤为重要.该文对子宫平滑肌细胞内收缩相关的结构、功能和调节作以综述,以期加深对参与子宫收缩调控的相关分子机制的理解.

  12. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114...

  13. 40 CFR 26.1123 - Early termination of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1123 Early termination of research. The Administrator may... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early termination of research....

  14. 40 CFR 26.1110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26... HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1110 Expedited review procedures for...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1109 - IRB review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 26.1109...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1117 - Documentation of informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation of informed consent. 26... HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1117 Documentation of informed consent....

  17. Treatable factors associated with severe anaemia in adults admitted to medical wards in Blantyre, Malawi, an area of high HIV seroprevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.K.; Whitty, C.J.; Walsh, A.L.; Epino, H.; Broek, N.R.; Letsky, E.A.; Munthali, C.; Mukiibi, J.M.; Boeree, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Severe anaemia is a common presentation in non-pregnant adults admitted to hospital in southern Africa. Standard syndromic treatment based on data from the pre-HIV era is for iron deficiency, worms and malaria. We prospectively investigated 105 adults admitted consecutively to medical wards with hae

  18. Active Lifestyles are Associated with Favorable Anthropometric Measures for US Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, Desiree L.; Magel, Rhonda C.; Strand, Bradford N.; Terbizan, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data was used to describe relationships between activity intensity and frequency and obesity for US adult men (n = 7428) and non-pregnant women (n = 8140). Compared with active men and women, inactive and partially active men and women are at increased risk of obesity (OR =…

  19. Funding an accelerated baccalaureate nursing track for non-nursing college graduates: an academic/practice collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Gail P; Oberleitner, Melinda G

    2011-01-01

    To expand nursing programs to better meet workforce demands, nursing education must offer nontraditional students more educational opportunities that are flexible, streamlined, and low cost. Accelerated programs, particularly programs tailored to attract individuals with degrees in other fields and looking for career changes, are great examples. The cost factors related to a successful accelerated degree program designed for non-nursing college graduates are described. Based on the experiences with a previously implemented accelerated BSN program offered from 1987-1994 at one university, a revised accelerated option model was developed that included ongoing involvement with four community hospitals, shared budget responsibilities, student stipends, and a 3-year work commitment by graduates at a sponsoring hospital. The investment of approximately $1.6 million over 7 years resulted in the education and graduation of 75 new registered nursing professionals to meet the health care needs of the citizens of the community.

  20. Differential involvement of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels, store-operated calcium channel (TRPC) and Rho-kinase signaling pathway(s) in PGF2α-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Jaitley, Pooja; Sharma, Vipin; Choudhury, Soumen; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-09-12

    This study unravels the differential involvement of calcium signaling pathway(s) in PGF2α-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes. Compared to the myometrium of pregnant animals, myometrium of non-pregnant buffaloes was more sensitive to PGF2α-induced contractile effect as manifested by the changes in mean integral tension (MIT) and tonicity. However, phasic contraction was significantly more in myometrium of pregnant animals. The uterotonic effect of PGF2α was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and its influx through nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channels both in non-pregnant and pregnant animals, but T-type Ca(2+) channels play an additional role during pregnancy. Entry of extracellular Ca(2+) is triggered by enhanced functional involvement of Pyr3-sensitive TRPC3 channels and Rho-kinase pathways to regulate uterotonic action of PGF2α in myometrium of non-pregnant buffaloes while these are down-regulated during pregnancy as there was significantly reduced expression of Rho-A proteins in myometrium of pregnant buffaloes and down-regulation of these pathways facilitate uterine quiescence. Intracellular Ca(2+) plays minor role in myometrium of both the non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verstraelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene.Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database.Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including

  2. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Desimpel, Fabian; Jauregui, Ruy; Vankeirsbilck, Nele; Weyers, Steven; Verhelst, Rita; De Sutter, Petra; Pieper, Dietmar H; Van De Wiele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database. Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including Prevotella spp

  3. 非妊娠期单核细胞增生李斯特菌败血症35例临床分析%Clinical characteristics of 35 non-pregnant patients with Listeria monocytogenes sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王澎; 陈颖茜; 王焕玲; 李太生; 徐英春

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过分析非妊娠期单核细胞增生李斯特菌(李斯特菌)败血症基础疾病特点和临床特征,提高对非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症的认识.方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院2002年1月至2014年12月诊治的35例经血培养确诊的非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症的临床特点.结果 (1)35例非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症患者发病年龄(49.1±17.0)岁,男性占40%;(2)33例(94.3%)患有基础疾病/状况,其中以自身免疫病(15例,42.9%)、恶性肿瘤(12例,34.3%)常见;(3)起病中位时间为3d,常见的临床表现为发热(34/35例,97.1%)、中枢神经系统(CNS)症状(17/35例,48.6%)、胃肠道症状(13/35例,37.1%)等;(4) 14例(40.0%)经过脑脊液(CSF)检查证实合并脑膜炎,其中11例CSF培养有李斯特菌生长;(5) 19例(54.3%)初始经验性抗微生物药物选用头孢菌素.25例(71.4%)在经血培养确诊李斯特菌败血症后,抗微生物药物方案进行了调整;(6)21例(60.0%)经过治疗后好转或痊愈,8例(22.9%)因病情危重放弃治疗或出院后死亡,6例(17.1%)在住院期间死亡.结论 非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症多累及原有自身免疫病、恶性肿瘤等基础疾病的患者,临床表现为发热、CNS症状及胃肠道症状,经验性选用抗微生物药物的李斯特菌有效覆盖率低,病死率高.提示应提高临床医生的认识,对于存在导致免疫功能低下疾病的高危人群出现急性发热、临床怀疑败血症时,经验性抗菌药物应包括有效覆盖李斯特菌的青霉素类.%Objective To better understand the clinical characteristics and predisposing factors in non-pregnant patients with Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) sepsis.Methods Clinical data were collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2002 and December 2014.A case with non-pregnant Listeria sepsis is defined as a non-pregnant person with clinically compatible illness and from whom Listeria was isolated from

  4. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pre-diabetes." It means you are at increased risk of developing diabetes over time. A glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher is used to diagnose diabetes. Serious stress to the body, such as from trauma, ... You may have some of the symptoms listed ...

  5. non-pregnant rural women of childbearing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum folate, ferritin, vitamin B12, red blood cell folate and full blood count. Results. The prevalence of low serum folate (<3ng/ml) in the study population was ... acid, iron and other nutrients has been implemented ... women, and those on chronic disease medication, ... the cut-off points before and after fortification were.

  6. Pyelonephritis (acute) in non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Ignacio; Moore, Philippa

    2011-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is usually caused by ascent of bacteria from the bladder, most often Escherichia coli, and is more likely in people with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities. The prognosis of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis is good if pyelonephritis is treated appropriately, but complications include renal abscess, renal impairment, and septic shock.

  7. Problemas de saúde mental entre jovens grávidas e não-grávidas Mental health problems among pregnant and non-pregnant youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Garcia Caputo

    2007-08-01

    pregnancy in adolescence. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, Mann Whitney's U and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents did not differ in the prevalence of total mental health problems (24.6% vs. 27.3%; p=0.50. Compared to the group of never pregnant adolescents, the group of primiparous presented higher prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms (24.2% vs. 15.3%; p=0.01 and withdrawn/depressed symptoms (13.0% vs., 4.5%; p<0.001 and there was a greater number of tobacco users (21.3% vs. 11.0%; p=0.002. These differences were confirmed by logistic regression models controlled for maternal education. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression symptoms and tobacco use were more frequent in pregnant adolescents in comparison to non-pregnant. These problems require special attention from prenatal care services in order to avoid potential damages for the health of mothers and their children.

  8. 妊娠早期女性与非妊娠女性饮食摄入比较研究%Comparative study on the dietary intake of pregnant women and non pregnant women in early pregnant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雯惠; 黄敏; 熊梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较湖北荆州地区早期妊娠女性和非妊娠女性饮食摄入差异情况。方法:纳入湖北荆州地区2013年9月~2014年3月在荆州市中心医院产检的226例妊娠早期女性及同期在中心医院体检的健康女性211例。所有受试者完成食物频率问卷调查,调查内容包括食物种类、份量、饮酒和吸烟情况。采用描述、比较统计及偏最小二乘法PLS)模型分析数据。结果:妊娠早期女性与非妊娠女性从饮食中摄入的叶酸和维生素D都偏低。妊娠早期女性组叶酸和维生素D补充剂的摄入量高于非妊娠女性组,导致妊娠组女性预计维生素D和叶酸摄入量更高。早期妊娠女性从饮食中摄取的铁元素低于非妊娠女性,但是从铁元素补充剂中摄入的铁元素弥补两组间差异。妊娠早期女性能量摄入略低于非妊娠女性,但是差异无统计学意义,妊娠早期组女性报告摄入米饭、肉类及蔬菜低于非妊娠组女性。结论:荆州地区妊娠早期女性蔬菜、米饭、肉类和酒精摄入量低于非妊娠女性,从饮食中摄入的叶酸、维生素D及铁元素也低于营养建议标准,这有可能导致部分妊娠女性及其胎儿在分娩时并发症风险升高。%ObjectiveTo compare diet intake in early pregnant women with non-pregnant women in Jingzhou area.Meth-ods Between September 2013 and March 2014, 226 women in early pregnancy were consecutively recruited in Jinzhou area. Referent women (n=211) were randomly selected from a current health screening project running in the same region. We col-lected diet data with a self-reported validated food frequency questionnaire with 66 food items/food aggregates, and informa-tion on portion size, alcohol consumption, and supplement intake. Data were analysed using descriptive, comparative statistics and multivariate partial least square modelling.Results Intake of folate and vitamin D from foods was generally

  9. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily ...

  10. Detection and Analysis on Gene Subtypes of Cervical Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women%妊娠及非妊娠妇女宫颈感染人乳头瘤病毒的基因亚型检测及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新忠; 赵俊红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the gene subtypes of cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in pregnant and non-pregnant women .Methods :From February 2012 to May 2013 ,cervical epithelial cells in 684 women of childbearing age (non-pregnant women) and 857 pregnant women in Jinshan Hospital ,Fudan University were collected .Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-chip technique were used to detect HPV gene subtype .Results :A total of 195 positive results were found in non-pregnant women with the HPV infection rate of 28 .5% .The predominant types of HPV infection were type 43 ,16 and 58 .A total of 102 positive results were found in pregnant women with the HPV infection rate of 11 .9% .The predominant types of HPV infection were type 43 ,16 and 58 .The infection rates of pregnant women in less than 30 years of age ,30 to 40 years old ,more than 40 year old were 10 .9% ,15 .1% and 30% ,respectively .The infection rates of non-pregnant women in less than 30 years ,30 to 40 years old ,more than 40 year old were 25 .3% ,25 .2% and 32 .2% ,respectively .Conclusions :The HPV infection rate of pregnant women was lower than that of non-pregnant women .The main HPV infection subtypes of the pregnant women and the non-pregnant women were the same .HPV43 ,16 and 58 were the predominant subtypes in this hospi-tal .The infection rate of non-pregnant women increased significantly in accordonce with age .%目的:探讨妊娠及非妊娠妇女宫颈感染人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus ,HPV )的基因分型情况。方法:收集2012年2月-2013年5月在复旦大学附属金山医院妇产科门诊就诊的684例育龄期女性(非妊娠妇女)和857例妊娠妇女的宫颈上皮细胞标本,采用基因扩增及基因芯片技术对宫颈上皮细胞进行H PV基因亚型检测。结果:非妊娠妇女检出 H PV感染195例(感染率28.5%),主要的感染类型为HPV43、16、58等。妊娠妇女检出HPV感染102例(感染率11.9%

  11. Optimal cutoff points for the detection of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults Puntos de corte óptimos para la detección de diabetes tipo 2, hipertensión y síndrome metabólico no diagnosticados en adultos mexicanos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalba Rojas-Martínez; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Aída Jiménez-Corona

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the waist circumference cutoff points established by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) with those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for the screening of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a subsample of the ENSANUT 2006. Subjects without diabetes and hypertension and non-pregnant women were included. Sensitivity, specificity, an...

  12. Efectividad de la funcionalidad familiar en familias con adolescentes gestantes y adolescentes no gestantes Efetividade da funcionalidade familiar no caso de famílias de adolescentes grávidas e adolescentes não grávidas Effectiveness of family functionality in families with pregnant and non pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra García Rueda

    2011-07-01

    Bucaramanga (ESSE Isabu, durante o primeiro semestre de 2009. Através de um levantamento comparativo, transversal, quantitativo, no qual participaram 77 famílias de adolescentes grávidas, e 104 famílias de adolescentes não grávidas. Os participantes que forneceram os dados do estudo foram: a adolescente grávida ou a não grávida, e um familiar que viesse do mesmo lar que a adolescente que participa do estudo. Para reunir os dados, foi utilizado o instrumento ASF-E de María Friedemann (1, que mede o nível de funcionalidade familiar através das dimensões: mudança, manutenção, individuação, coerência; e as metas: espiritualidade, crescimento, controle, estabilidade do sistema familiar. O resultado obtido foi que as famílias de adolescentes grávidas apresentam um alto nível de efetividade de funcionalidade familiar, segundo as próprias adolescentes (49,4% e familiares dela (54,5%; por outro lado as famílias de adolescentes não grávidas apresentam um nível intermédio de efetividade, segundo as próprias adolescentes não grávidas e os familiares dela, que obtiveram a mesma percentagem: 57,7%. Em conclusão, existem significativas diferenças estadísticas entre ambos os grupos de famílias no referente à efetividade da funcionalidade familiar, identificada na prova T com p: 0,012. Igualmente, existem diferenças nas metas de estabilidade (p 0,009 e de controle (p 0,007; e nas dimensões de coerência (p 0,013 e manutenção do sistema familiar (p 0,033.The purpose of the research is to compare the evaluation of the effectiveness of family functionality of families with pregnant and non pregnant adolescents attended in the Social State Company (Instituto de Salud in Bucaramanga (ESE Isabu, during the first semester of 2009. It is a comparative, cross-cutting, quantitative study carried out with the participation of77 families with pregnant adolescents and 104 families with non pregnant adolescents; being the informant in each family, either: the

  13. The Investigation of the Periodontal Health Status of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Kunming City%昆明市育龄期妊娠妇女及非妊娠妇女牙周健康调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周妮; 张明珠; 税艳青; 朱红; 吴剑花; 雷雅燕

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the periodontal health status of women of childbearing age in small area of Kunming city by investigating the periodontal diseases of pregnant women and non-pregnant.Methods 213 pregnant women and 255 non-pregnant women aged from 25 to 35 years old were randomly enrolled in a case-control study.Periodontal status was assessed through periodontal examinations.Results Of the pregnant women,91.0% were detected with debris,83.5% with calculus,the incidence of gingivitis was 98.0%,and 48% suffered from moderate or severe inflammation.DI-S in this group scored 1.44,CI-S scored 1.34,while GI scored 1.5,suggesting gingivitis in pregnant women was prevailing moderately.Of the non-pregnant women,90.4% were detected with debris,80.9% with calculus,the incidence of gingivitis was 42.0%,and 8.5% suffered from moderate or severe inflammation.DI-S in this group scored 1.41,CI-S scored 1.21,while GI scored 0.68,suggesting gingivitis in non-pregnant women was prevailing mildly.No significant differences were observed in the incidence of calculus and debris,the incidence of gingivalis in pregnant women was significant higher than non-pregnant women (P < 0.05).Conclusions The periodontal status of childbearing age women in Kunming city is not fair,and pregnant women are more vulnerable to periodontal disease.In order to improve maternal periodontal health of pregnant women in Yunnan Province,we need enhancing oral hygiene instruction.%目的 对昆明市育龄期妊娠妇女及非妊娠妇女进行小范围牙周状况调查,初步了解昆明市育龄期妇女牙周健康状况.方法 采用随机抽样的方法对25~35岁育龄期213例妊娠妇女和255名非妊娠妇女开展牙周健康调查,评估其牙周状况.结果 妊娠期妇女软垢检出率为91.0%,牙石检出率为83.5%,牙龈炎患病率高达98.0%,其中中重度牙龈炎占48%;群体软垢指数为1.44,群体牙石指数为1.34,群体牙龈指数为1.5,提示

  14. Cardiorespiratory responses during and after water exercise in pregnant and non-pregnant women Respostas cardiorrespiratórias durante e após exercício aquático em gestantes e não gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Finkelstein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to compare the blood pressure and oxygen consumption (VO2 responses between pregnant and non-pregnant women, during cycle ergometer exercise on land and in water. METHODS: ten pregnant (27 to 29 weeks of gestation and ten non-pregnant women were enrolled. Two cardiopulmonary tests were performed on a cycle ergometer (water and land at the heart rate corresponding to VO2, over a period of 30 minutes each. Exercise measurements consisted of recording blood pressure every five minutes, and heart rate and VO2 every 20 seconds. Two-way ANOVA was used and α=0.05 (SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: there was no difference in cardiovascular responses between pregnant and non-pregnant women during the exercise. The Pregnant Group demonstrated significant differences in systolic (131.6±8.2; 142.6±11.3 mmHg, diastolic (64.8±5.9; 74.5±5.3 mmHg, and mean blood pressure (87.0±4.1; 97.2±5.7 mmHg, during water and land exercise, respectively. The Non-pregnant women Group also had a significantly lower systolic (130.5±8.4; 135.9±8.7 mmHg, diastolic (67.4±5.7; 69.0±10.1 mmHg, and mean blood pressure (88.4±4.8; 91.3±7.8 mmHg during water exercise compared to the land one. There were no significant differences in VO2 values between water and land exercises or between pregnant and non-pregnant women. After the first five-minute recovery period, both blood pressure and VO2 were similar to pre-exercise values. CONCLUSIONS: for pregnant women with 27 to 29 weeks of gestation, water exercise at the heart rate corresponding to VO2 is physiologically appropriate. These women also present a lower blood pressure response to exercise in water than on land.OBJETIVO: comparar as respostas da pressão arterial e do consumo de oxigênio (VO2 no exercício em bicicleta ergométrica, realizado na terra e na água, por gestantes e não gestantes. MÉTODOS: dez gestantes (entre 27 e 29 semanas e dez não gestantes realizaram dois testes em cicloergômetro (um na água e um na

  15. Comprehensive reference ranges for hematology and clinical chemistry laboratory parameters derived from normal Nigerian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timzing Miri-Dashe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p =  .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.

  16. 非孕妇女口服米非司酮对宫颈软化作用的观察及其机制的探讨%Observation on the effect of oral administration of mifepristone on cervical softening of non-pregnant women and exploration on the mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈奕; 曹树军; 原玮; 祝亚平

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察服用米非司酮后的非孕妇女官颈扩张度的改变及MMP-9、MMP-2、IMP-1在宫颈组织中的表达,探讨米非司酮是否具有促非孕妇女宫颈成熟的作用及其相关机制.方法:①把90例要求行诊断性刮宫的非孕妇女随机分为A1,BI,CI三组各30例,分别为对照组、服用米非司酮组及服用米索组;所有患者均用扩宫棒先进行非用力宫颈最大扩张度的测定,48 h后行诊断性刮官术,并于手术前再次测定宫颈非用力最大扩张度,观察三组不用力宫颈最大扩张度的变化.(2)A1,B1,Cl组诊刮术前取部分宫颈组织作为标本(共56例),分别作为B2,C2,D2组,同时取17例非诊刮行全子宫切除患者A2组的部分宫颈组织作阴性对照,显微镜下观察四组宫颈的形态学变化,采用免疫组化Elivison二步法检测宫颈组织的MMP-9,MMP-2及TIMP-1的表达.结果:①C2组用药前后宫颈扩张的差异与A2,B2组相比有统计学意义,与D2组相比差异没有统计学意义;)C2组和D2组镜下显示组织水肿疏松,间隙增宽,毛细血管扩张,毛细血管中及周围可见较多的中性粒细胞及浆细胞浸润,A2组未观察到此改变,B2组可见轻度组织水肿改变,炎性细胞浸润不明显;C2组宫颈组织中的MMP-9的表达明显高于A2组及B2组,而与D2组无明显差异;MMP-2,TIMP-1在四组中的表达差异均不明显.结论:米非司酮有促进非孕妇女宫颈成熟的作用,MMP-9参与了此过程,而此药对MMP-2及TIMP-1的表达没有影响,米非司酮能促宫颈成熟可能与它的抗孕作用相关.%Objective: To observe the change of cervical dilatation degree of non - pregnant women after oral administration of mifepristone and the expression levels of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP- 1 in cervical tissues, explore the effect of mifepristone on cervical maturity of non - pregnant women and the related mechanism.Methods: 90 non - pregnant women demanding diagnostic curettage were divided into Al

  17. Intraocular Pressure in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Nigerian Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    hormones are steroids and steroids have an effect on salt and water ... antenatal clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology of the ... women were part of the study. One hundred .... Castro-Mesa C, Castilla-López-Madridejos F and.

  18. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  19. Effects on mortality of a nutritional intervention for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filteau, Suzanne; PrayGod, George; Kasonka, Lackson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnourished HIV-infected African adults are at high risk of early mortality after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that short-course, high-dose vitamin and mineral supplementation in lipid nutritional supplements would decrease mortality. METHODS: The study...... was an individually-randomised phase III trial conducted in ART clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Lusaka, Zambia. Participants were 1,815 ART-naïve non-pregnant adults with body mass index (BMI) ... was a lipid-based nutritional supplement either without (LNS) or with additional vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning prior to ART initiation; supplement amounts were 30 g/day (150 kcal) from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART and 250 g/day (1,400 kcal) from weeks 2 to 6 after starting ART...

  20. Ensaio clínico comparando três modalidades de crioterapia em mulheres não grávidas Ensayo clínico comparando tres tipos de crioterapia en mujeres no embarazadas Clinical trial comparing three types of cryotherapy in non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Coca Leventhal

    2010-06-01

    present study was to compare three methods of cryotherapy in healthy non-pregnant women. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial that was conducted by 32 undergraduates of a private nursing college in the city of Sao Paulo, divided into three groups (iced water, soft ice, ice gel. The temperatures were verified (axillary, thigh, of the three ice packs between zero and twenty minutes. The temperatures of the packs were the following: soft ice, from negative 9°C to 2°C; iced water, from 0°C to 8°C; and ice gel from negative 11°C to 2°C. There was a significant difference between the average thigh temperature values at 10 minutes (p=0.007, 15 minutes (p=0.003 and 20 minutes (p=0.005. The gel was the most efficient cooling method. The three cryotherapy methods achieved the recommended temperature for analgesia and may be tested in women with perineal pain after childbirth.

  1. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin modulate mammary gland morphogenesis in adult female plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Julia; Dorfman, Veronica B; Fraunhoffer, Nicolas; Vitullo, Alfredo D

    2013-06-01

    We studied for the first time the mammary gland morphogenesis and its hormonal modulation by immunolocalizing estradiol, progesterone and prolactin receptors (ER, PR and PRLR) in adult females of Lagostomus maximus, a caviomorph rodent which shows a pseudo-ovulatory process at mid-gestation. Mammary ductal system of non-pregnant females lacks expression of both ERα and ERβ. Yet throughout pregnancy, ERα and ERβ levels increase as well as the expression of PR. These increments are concomitant with ductal branching and alveolar differentiation. Even though mammary gland morphology is quite similar to that described for other rodents, alveolar proliferation and differentiation are accelerated towards the second half of pregnancy, once pseudo-ovulation had occurred. Moreover, this exponential growth correlates with an increment of both progesterone and estradiol serum-induced pseudo-ovulation. As expected, PR and PRLR are strongly expressed in the alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and lactation. Strikingly, PRLR is also present in ductal epithelia of cycling glands suggesting that prolactin function may not be restricted to its trophic effect on mammary glands of pregnant and lactating females, but it also regulates other physiological processes in mammary glands of non-pregnant animals. In conclusion, this report suggests that pseudo-ovulation at mid-gestation may be associated to L. maximus mammary gland growth and differentiation. The rise in P and E2-induced pseudo-ovulation as well as the increased expression of their receptors, all events that correlate with the development of a more elaborated and differentiated ductal network, pinpoint a possible relation between this peculiar physiological event and mammary gland morphogenesis.

  2. Adult Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause. Is eye straightening as an adult strictly cosmetic? No. Eye alignment surgery is performed in adults for several reasons. Adults ... this surgery? Eye muscle surgery is reconstructive (not cosmetic). In ... will cover strabismus surgery in adults, however, one should check with their ...

  3. Chemopreventive activity of phenylalanine against damage mutagenic prompted by the acute administration of cyclophosphamide in pregnant and non-pregnant mice using the micronucleus test Atividade quimiopreventiva da fenilalanina contra danos mutagênicos pela administração aguda de ciclofosfamida em ratas grávidas e não grávidas, utilizando o teste do micronúcleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Mauro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quimiopreventive ability of phenylalanine. We used pregnant and non-pregnant female mice divided into the following groups: G1-PBS, (0.1 mL/kg b.w; G2, cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg p.c.-i.p.; G3 and G4, phenylalanine (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w respectively-v.o. and G5 and G6, association between the two doses of phenylalanine and cyclophosphamide, respectively. The peripheral blood samples were taken at T0, before the administration of any drug test and / or vehicles, also at T24 and T48 where the collections were made 24 and 48 h after administration of cyclophosphamide, respectively. A general analysis has found that, for the group of non-pregnant female, the antimutagenic evaluation showed reduction percentages of damage of 57.24% and 31.64% for G5 and G6, respectively, at T24, and 29.32% and 24.13% for G5 and G6, respectively, at T48. Antimutagenic pregnant animals in the 24 h quimiopreventive efficiency shown only for the lower dose (G5 and the percentages of reduction were 43.25% in G5 and G6 at 18.47%. At T48 the harm-reduction percentages were 44.67% and 37.76% for G5 and G6, respectively.A presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a capacidade quimiopreventiva da fenilalanina. Utilizou-se um lote de fêmeas prenhes e não prenhes divididas nos seguintes grupos experimentais: G1, PBS (0,1 mL/kg p.c.; G2, ciclofosfamida (35 mg/kg p.c.-i.p.; G3, fenilalanina (150 mg/kg p.c.-v.o. e G4, fenilalanina (300 mg/kg p.c.-v.o. e G5 (150 mg/kg p.c. de fenilalanina e 35 mg/kg de ciclofosfamida; G6, (300 mg/kg p.c. de fenilalanina e 35 mg/kg de ciclofosfamida. As coletas de sangue periférico foram realizadas em T0, antes da administração de qualquer substância teste e/ou veículos, e igualmente em T24 e T48, onde as coletas foram realizadas respectivamente 24 e 48 h após a administração da ciclofosfamida. Em uma análise geral verificou-se que, para o grupo de fêmeas não prenhes, a avaliação da

  4. Adult Education and Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Knud

    Kort beskrivelse Bogen, 'Adult Education og Adult Learning', giver et fyldestgørende overblik over forståelsen af voksenuddannelse og læring. Abstract I "Adult Education and Adult Learning' ser Knud Illeris på voksenuddannelse fra to perspektiver. På den ene side beskrives de aktuelle udfordringer...

  5. Polymyositis - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash is a sign of a similar condition, dermatomyositis . Common symptoms include: Muscle weakness in the shoulders ... in the treatment of refractory adult and juvenile dermatomyositis and adult polymyositis: a randomized, placebo-phase trial. ...

  6. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS(®) for Windows(®) ver. 16). In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State.

  7. Total body fat as a possible indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Navarro Lechuga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The metabolic syndrome is a set of factors related to insulin resistance, which increases the likelihood of coronary events. It is important timely onset identifying to reduce its prevalence. Objective: To explore the percentage of total body fat as indicator of metabolic syndrome in adults from Soledad, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. n=99 adults (non-pregnant, nor subjects with psychomotor disturbances. Blood samples were taken: total cholesterol, HDL; triglycerides and glucose. Waist circumference, Body Mass Index and body fat by bioimpedance and skinfold thickness were measured. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to NHLBI/AHA, ATP III and IDF criteria. Subjects with and without metabolic syndrome according to total body fat averages were compared. Results: The average percentage of body fat was higher (p0.05 in the classification according to ATP III in women, where the average fat percentage was 39.31 % in those with metabolic syndrome and 37.7% in those not suffering. Conclusions: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher mean total body fat, significantly, compared with those who did not, so it could be considered the values of total body fat obtained by bioimpedance as future indicators of metabolic syndrome, both as screening and control.

  8. 某医科大学护理与非护理本科生职业价值取向调查分析%Orientation Survey of Professional Value Orientations of Nursing Students and Non-nursing Students of Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴立丽; 陈瑜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the differences of the professional value orientations by investigating the professional value orientations of nursing and non-nursing undergraduates in a medical university. Methods By convenience sampling,145 nursing undergraduate students and 158 non-nursing undergraduate students were surveyed using professional value orientation scale and a self-designed questionnaire of influence factors. Results Nursing undergraduates professional value orientation in each dimension scores are higher than the non-nursing undergraduate studentsi including economic orientation, labour protection stability orientation,personal development orientation,family orientation,individual interest orientation do significantly difference(P0. 05), nursing undergraduate each grade professional value orientation have differences(P<0. 05). Conclusion Undergraduate nursing students on career choices,career value requirements are higher than the non-nursing professional,but each grade differences in career values,and undergraduate nursing students pay more attention to apply their knowledge and career development.%目的 调查并分析某医科大学护理及非护理本科生的职业价值取向,了解这两类人群职业价值取向的差异.方法 按照便利抽样法选取某医科大学护理本科学生145名和非护理本科生158名,采用职业价值取向量表和自编影响因素问卷对进行调查.结果 护理本科生职业价值取向各维度的得分均高于非护理本科生,其中经济取向、劳保稳定取向、个人发展取向、家庭取向、个人兴趣取向维度的得分经比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);护理本科生与非护理本科生在工资收入高、福利好、有较高的社会地位、晋升机会多、交通便利、自主性大、学以致用、和家人在一起等8个条目的得分上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);非护理本科生各年级的职业价值取向差异无统计学意义(P>0

  9. Adult teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I examine the research into the process of adult teachers’ practice-based learning as a part of an on-going project titled “Competence development through practice-based learning – a study of adult teacher’s learning processes”. The project relies on the notion of the adult teacher...... as a 'reflective practitioner’, who develops 'the language of practice’, through experience and learns when she is exposed to 'disjuncture’. Research done on continuing professional development and the inquiries done in the field of teacher thinking and within this the research on novices becoming expert...

  10. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  11. Adult Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Adult Sinusitis Berrylin J. Ferguson, MD Sarah K. Wise, MD ... determine the best treatment for your condition. COMMON SINUSITIS SYMPTOMS Nasal obstruction or nasal congestion Thick & discolored ...

  12. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]. Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ³18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78 of which 7.48% (n = 401 patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186 were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher ( P 5.50 μIU/ml. Anti - TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171 patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Low Vitamin B6 Status in Healthy Young Adult Women in Metro Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low periconceptional vitamin B6 (B6 status has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and early pregnancy loss. Given many pregnancies are unplanned; it is important for women to maintain an adequate B6 status throughout reproductive years. There is limited data on B6 status in Canadian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of B6 deficiency and predictors of B6 status in young adult women in Metro Vancouver. We included a convenience sample of young adult non-pregnant women (19–35 years; n = 202. Vitamin B6 status was determined using fasting plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP. Mean (95% confidence interval plasma PLP concentration was 61.0 (55.2, 67.3 nmol/L. The prevalence of B6 deficiency (plasma PLP < 20 nmol/L was 1.5% and that of suboptimal B6 status (plasma PLP = 20–30 nmol/L was 10.9%. Body mass index, South Asian ethnicity, relative dietary B6 intake, and the use of supplemental B6 were significant predictors of plasma PLP. The combined 12.4% prevalence of B6 deficiency and suboptimal status was lower than data reported in US populations and might be due to the high socioeconomic status of our sample. More research is warranted to determine B6 status in the general Canadian population.

  14. Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwuja Emmanuel Ike

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (an essential trace element and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443 aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs, consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061. Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432, Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009. It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

  15. CPR: Adult

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Adult (2:03) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  16. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  18. Exfoliative cytology in pregnant and non-pregnant females of Lagostomus maximus

    OpenAIRE

    Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Barbeito, Claudio Gustavo; Portiansky, Enrique Leo

    2016-01-01

    La citología exfoliativa o colpocitograma es un método de laboratorio de uso frecuente para reconocer cambios cíclicos en el epitelio vaginal. Se describen los tipos de células del epitelio vaginal de la vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) y se establece un patrón de referencia de los cambios morfológicos que experimenta la vagina de estas hembras en sus diferentes estados fisiológicos. Los animales fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: no preñadas en anestro, no preñadas en fase folicular, con preñad...

  19. Lipid droplets in cultured luteal cells in non-pregnant sheep fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Thammasiri, Jiratti; Bass, Casie S; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Borowicz, Pawel; Redmer, Dale A; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) in luteal cells likely is important for energy storage and steroidogenesis in the highly metabolically active corpus luteum (CL). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on progesterone (P4) secretion, and lipid droplet number and size in cultured ovine luteal cells. Ewes were randomly assigned to one of three nutritional groups: control (C; 100% NRC requirements, n=9), overfed (O; 2×C, n=12), or underfed (U; 0.6×C, n=10). Superovulation was induced by follicle stimulating hormone injections. At the early and mid-luteal phases of the estrous cycle, CL were dissected from ovaries, and luteal cells isolated enzymatically. Luteal cells were incubated overnight in medium containing serum in chamber slides. Media were then changed to serum-free and after 24h incubation, media were collected for P4 analysis, and cells were fixed in formalin and stained with BODIPY followed by DAPI staining. Z-stacks of optical sections of large and small luteal cells (LLC and SLC, respectively) were obtained using a laser-scanning microscope. Rendered 3D images of individual LLC and SLC were analyzed for cell volume, and total and individual LD volume, number and percentage of cellular volume occupied by LD by using Imaris software. Concentrations of P4 in serum and media were greater (Pplane. LD total volume and number were greater (Pplane affect selected LD measurements and thus may affect luteal functions. Furthermore, these data confirm that LD dynamics differ among parenchymal steroidogenic luteal cell types.

  20. Experimental use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom in non-pregnant canine uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.E. Moraes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom in the healing process after canine hysterorrhaphy. Three groups of four animals were submitted to uterine hysterotomy followed by wound closure. In Group 1, double-layer suture was used, the first with Schimieden pattern, the second with Cushing pattern; in Group 2, only fibrin glue; and in Group 3, the same as for Group 1 but with fibrin glue as suture reinforcement. Results indicated that fibrin glue produced less inflammation in the exudative phase, and exacerbated deposition of connective tissue and angiogenesis in the proliferative and maturation phases of the healing process, favoring its evolution.

  1. Frequency of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Non-pregnant Women in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Okhli (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common causes of genital infection in men and women. Genital chlamydial infections in women are clinically asymptomatic in 70-80% of the cases; therefore, the lack of timely diagnosis and treatment leads to complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the Golestan province. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cervical swab samples obtained from 150 women referred to the clinic, after obtaining written consent and completion of questionnaires. The swab samples were transferred to laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline solution and DNA extraction was carried out using phenol-chloroform and boiling methods. The frequency of chlamydial infection was evaluated by PCR. Results: None of the tested samples were found as Chlamydia-positive. Conclusion: The findings require that some more extensive research with larger sample sizes and dispersed population be performed to determine the true prevalence. Considering the serious complications of chlamydial infections and its asymptomatic nature, a highly sensitive and specific method such as PCR should be used to detect Chlamydia. It is suggested that this method be used along with a complementary test to obtain the results that are more accurate. Furthermore, conducting simultaneous studies on other populations at risk will be very helpful in obtaining representable national data.

  2. Ultrasonography of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain in pre-menopausal non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dupuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute-onset pelvic pain is an extremely common symptom in premenopausal women presenting to the emergency department. After excluding pregnancy in reproductive-age women, ultrasonography plays a major role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis of adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain, such as hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, ovarian torsion, and tubo-ovarian abscess. Its availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation make ultrasonography an ideal imaging modality in women of reproductive age. The primary goal of imaging in these patients is to distinguish between adnexal causes of acute pelvic pain that may be managed conservatively or medically, and those requiring emergency/urgent surgical or percutaneous intervention.

  3. Vitamin D status and determinants of deficiency among non-pregnant Jordanian women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, E K; Khatib, I M D; Aburto, N J; Sullivan, K M; Scanlon, K S; Wirth, J P; Serdula, M K

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, a risk factor for osteomalacia and osteoporosis, is a re-emerging health problem globally. While sunlight is an important vitamin D source, previous investigations among women whose culture encourages skin covering have been small, not nationally representative, or both. We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D(3)) status and factors associated with deficiency in a nationally representative survey of 2013 Jordanian women of reproductive age in Spring 2010. We measured 25(OH)D(3) concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and calculated prevalence ratios for deficiency associated with skin covering and other factors. Results showed 60.3% (95% CI: 57.1-63.4%) deficiency (education, prevalence of deficiency was 1.30 times higher for urban women of the same education level (95% CI: 1.08-1.57, P = 0.006), 1.18 times higher for urban women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.98-1.43, P = 0.09), and 0.66 times lower for rural women completing less than secondary education (95% CI: 0.52-0.84, P = 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency pose significant public health problems in Jordanian women. Prevalence of deficiency is significantly higher among urban women and among women who cover with a scarf/hijab or niqab.

  4. Relationship TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in adult women by nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Belén

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ratio assessment TG/HDL-C is an indicator of LDL size, facilitating the detection of individuals with increased atherogenic risk. Estimating the size of the LDL becomes important, especially in patients with TG values near the upper limit of normal values of reference and HDL-C. The objective of the study is to estimate the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance (IR by nutritional status in adult women attending the Foundation for Endocrine Metabolic Diseases Research and Applied Clinical Research (FIEEM.Material and methods: Design Cross-sectional, non-pregnant adult women, apparently healthy, older than 30 years old, attending FIEEM in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Dependent variable: TG/HDL-C ≥ 3.0 considered high value. Independent variables: IR by homeostatic model index HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 categorizing the sample into two groups: with and without IR, and controlled by nutritional status using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (CC. SPSS Statistics 15.0, calculating X2 or Fisher exact test, OR with confidence intervals of 95% and establishing logistic regression p value < 0.05.Results: We evaluated a purposive sample of 104 women (31.4% and 26% IR with TG/HDL-C high. 84.6% were overweight or obese and 88.5% increased CC. Women with BMI had significantly increased 0.15-fold increased risk (95% CI = 0.01 to 1.26 for TG/HDL-C high (p = 0.04 than the control women. There was no significance with increased CC. The ratio TG/HDL-C high IR was significantly correlated (r = 0.30 p = 0.002.Conclusions: Body weight was significantly associated with IR and the ratio TG/HDL-C increased. This ratio correlated significantly with IR in apparently healthy women.

  5. The frequency and outcome of neuropathies among HIV/AIDS adults treated at a tertiary hospital in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiako, O R; Ogoina, D; Abubakar, S A; Muktar, H M; Sheikh, T L; Tabi-Ajayi, E; Kehinde, J A; Iwuozo, E U; Musa, B O P

    2014-12-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to reduce AIDS- defining illnesses, including neuropathies. However, it has been postulated that an increase in age -, HIV- and HAART- related neurological complications will occur as HIV-infected persons live longer. This study investigated the frequency and outcome of neuropathies in relation to CD4+ cell count and HAART status of hospitalised HIV/AIDS patients in Shika. Consecutive adult (e"15 years) non pregnant HIV- infected patients treated at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika-Zaria from January 2006 to May 2013 with neuropathies were studied. Non HIV-infected patients with neurological disorders and HIV-infected patients without neuropathies were excluded. Of 5240 HIV/AIDS patients seen , 11% (566) presented with neuropathy at median CD4+ cell counts of 200 cells / ul, with yearly reduction of the frequency of patients with neuropathy from 3.9% in 2006 to 0.06% in 2013. Male: female ratio was 2:1 and respective mean years were 41.9±10.1: 45.3±17.4 (pneuropathies. However, late presentation, low CD4+ cell counts and failure of patients to start HAART early were responsible for AIDS-related mortality thus highlighting the importance of early HIV screening and treatment.

  6. Feeding Pregnant and Lactating Mice Rhodiola kirilowii Extracts helps to Preserve Thymus Function of their Adult Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, K; Lewicki, S; Zdanowski, R; Skopinska-Różewska, E; Krzyżowska, M

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to Rhodiola kirilowii species, members of Rhodiola genus and Crassulaceae family, grow wildly in Tibet, Mongolia and China mountains and are traditionally used as adaptogens, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory remedies. Nowadays, R. kirilowii is cultivated in some countries, also in Poland. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in non-pregnant and pregnant mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding pregnant and further lactating mice these extracts on selected thymus function parameters in adult progeny. The counts of M-30+ apoptotic cells, in the thymuses obtained from progeny of mice fed during pregnancy and lactation water or 50% water-alcoholic extract of Rhodiola kirilowii, were significantly lower (p<0.05) than apoptotic cells counts observed in the control mice. No significant differences in the counts of IL-7-positive cells in the thymuses obtained from progeny of the control mice and mothers treated with water or hydro-alcohol extracts of Rhodiola kirilowii were observed.

  7. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  8. Adult flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, E

    2015-02-01

    Adult flatfoot is defined as a flattening of the medial arch of the foot in weight-bearing and lack of a propulsive gait. The 3 lesion levels are the talonavicular, tibiotarsal and midfoot joints. The subtalar joint is damaged by the consequent rotational defects. Clinical examination determines deformity and reducibility, and assesses any posterior tibialis muscle deficit, the posterior tibialis tendon and spring ligament being frequently subject to degenerative lesions. Radiographic examination in 3 incidences in weight-bearing is essential, to determine the principal level of deformity. Tendon (posterior tibialis tendon) and ligamentous lesions (spring ligament and interosseous ligament) are analyzed on MRI or ultrasound. In fixed deformities, CT explores for arthritic evolution or specific etiologies. 3D CT reconstruction can analyze bone and joint morphology and contribute to the planning of any osteotomy. Medical management associates insoles and physiotherapy. Acute painful flatfoot requires strict cast immobilization. Surgical treatment associates numerous combinations of procedures, currently under assessment for supple flatfoot: for the hindfoot: medial slide calcaneal osteotomy, calcaneal lengthening osteotomy, or arthroereisis; for the midfoot: arthrodesis on one or several rays, or first cuneiform or first metatarsal osteotomy; for the ankle: medial collateral ligament repair with tendon transfer. Fixed deformities require arthrodesis of one or several joint-lines in the hindfoot; for the ankle, total replacement after realignment of the foot, or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion or ankle and hindfoot fusion; and, for the midfoot, cuneonavicular or cuneometatarsal fusion. Tendinous procedures are often associated. Specific etiologies may need individualized procedures. In conclusion, adult flatfoot tends to be diagnosed and managed too late, with consequent impact on the ankle, the management of which is complex and poorly codified.

  9. Seasonal Epidemiology of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among Healthy Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Sabri; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Tselmen, Daria; Baylin, Ana; Houghton, Lisa A.; Baasanjav, Nachin; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu

    2016-01-01

    Many factors put Mongolians at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Despite low levels observed in Mongolian children and pregnant women, there are few data published on the vitamin D status of non-pregnant adults. Between summer 2011 and winter 2013, paired summer and winter blood samples were collected from 320 healthy men and women (20–58 years) living in eight Mongolian provinces. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 22.5 ng/mL (95% CI: 14.5, 32.5) in summer and 7.7 ng/mL (95% CI: 4.6, 10.8) in winter, with a distribution (<10/10–20/20–30/≥30 ng/mL) of 3.1%/39.3%/39.6%/17.9% in summer and 80.1%/19.5%/0.3%/0.0% in winter. Residents of the capital, Ulaanbaatar, had lower levels in both seasons than any other region, whereas residents of the Gobi desert had the highest. In summer, indoor workers had significantly lower levels than outdoor workers (−2.3 ng/mL; 95% CI: −4.1, −5.7) while levels in males exceeded those in females (4.0 ng/mL; 95% CI: 2.3, 5.7). Effects of region, occupation, and sex were also significant in multivariable regression. In conclusion, Mongolian adults had extremely low serum 25(OH)D, particularly in winter, when 80.1% had concentrations below 10 ng/mL. These results indicate a need for effective vitamin D interventions for the Mongolian adult population, particularly among women and residents of Ulaanbaatar. PMID:27669291

  10. Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Adult Vaccinations Adults Need Vaccines, Too! Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need? What vaccines do you need? All ...

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  13. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adult Neurogenesis in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Fernández-Hernández; Christa Rhiner; Eduardo Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been linked to several cognitive functions and neurological disorders. Description of adult neurogenesis in a model organism like Drosophila could facilitate the genetic study of normal and abnormal neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, formation of new neurons has not been detected in adult fly brains and hence has been thought to be absent in Drosophila. Here, we used an improved lineage-labeling method to show that, surprisingly, adult neurogenesis occurs in the m...

  15. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Angela M; Yeung, Lorraine F; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003-2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, and among them, we calculated the weighted percentage by sex, age, race/ethnicity, sources of folic acid intake, supplement use and median usual daily folic acid intakes. Overall, 2.7% (standard error 0.6%) of participants had usual daily intake exceeding the UL for folic acid; 62.2% were women; 86.3% were non-Hispanic whites; and 98.5% took supplements containing folic acid. When stratified by sex and age groups among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL, 20.8% were women aged 19-39 years. Those with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL were more likely to be female, non-Hispanic white, supplement users or to have at least one chronic medical condition compared to those not exceeding the folic acid UL. Among those with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL who also took supplements, 86.6% took on average >400 µg of folic acid/day from supplements. Everyone with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL consumed folic acid from multiple sources. No one in our study population had usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL through consumption of mandatorily-fortified enriched cereal grain products alone. Voluntary consumption of supplements containing folic acid is the main factor associated with usual daily intake exceeding the folic acid UL.

  16. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1997-01-01

    Presents a list of adult mystery titles for young adult readers. Includes first titles in a series (for reading in order); new and lesser-known mystery authors' works are the focus. Annotations include plot summary. The rest of each annotation is for professional use (includes date and name of award bestowed). (AEF)

  17. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  18. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    ) 0.81, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.94; 1 trial, 3418 participants), but the trial was stopped early due to increased adverse events (elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels) in the high dose group. Single or dual micronutrients None of the trials of single or dual micronutrient supplements were adequately powered to assess for effects on mortality or morbidity outcomes. No clinically significant changes in CD4 cell count (data not pooled, 14 trials, 2370 participants, very low or low certainty evidence) or viral load (data not pooled, seven studies, 1334 participants, very low or low certainty evidence), were reported. Supplementation probably does increase blood concentrations of vitamin D and zinc (data not pooled, vitamin D: 4 trials, 299 participants, zinc: 4 trials, 484 participants, moderate certainty evidence) and may also increase blood concentrations of vitamin A (data not pooled, 3 trials, 495 participants, low certainty evidence), especially in those who are deficient. Authors' conclusions The analyses of the available trials have not revealed consistent clinically important benefits with routine multiple micronutrient supplementation in people living with HIV. Larger trials might reveal small but important effects. These findings should not be interpreted as a reason to deny micronutrient supplements for people living with HIV where specific deficiencies are found or where the person's diet is insufficient to meet the recommended daily allowance of vitamins and minerals. Micronutrient supplements for non-pregnant adults with HIV infection Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of micronutrient supplements for people living with HIV. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. After searching for relevant trials up to 18 November 2016, the review authors included 33 trials. Thirteen of these trials included people not on HIV treatment and were conducted in Thailand, Peru, and eight African countries. Nineteen trials included

  19. Adults Living with OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults & Fractures Adult Health Dental Considerations Hearing Loss Pregnancy Surgical Considerations Social Security Talking with your Doctor Talking with your Orthopedist Vertebral Compression Fractures OI and Osteoporosis Can't find the information you're looking ...

  20. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  1. Dimensions of Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This broad introduction to adult and postcompulsory education offers an overview of the field for students, adult educators and workplace trainers. The book establishes an analytical framework to emphasize the nature of learning and agency of learners; examines the core knowledge and skills that adult educators need; discusses policy, research and…

  2. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  3. Adults Role in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  4. The Adult Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Janet

    The 14 chapters of this textbook chronicle adult development from youth through old age, emphasizing both research and interviews with adults at various stages in their lives. Topics covered include the following: (1) the academic field of adult development; (2) theories and research methods; (3) aging and disease prevention; (4) sexuality and…

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  7. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  8. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalijn I Conklin

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development.A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference.We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084], and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]. The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042] and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027].This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  9. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  10. Sustained effect of health insurance and facility quality improvement on blood pressure in adults with hypertension in Nigeria: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marleen E; Rosendaal, Nicole T A; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Kramer, Berber; Brals, Daniëlla; Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Adenusi, Peju; Brewster, Lizzy M; Osagbemi, Gordon K; Akande, Tanimola M; Schultsz, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading risk factor for death in sub-Saharan Africa. Quality treatment is often not available nor affordable. We assessed the effect of a voluntary health insurance program, including quality improvement of healthcare facilities, on blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive adults in rural Nigeria. We compared changes in outcomes from baseline (2009) to midline (2011) and endline (2013) between non-pregnant hypertensive adults in the insurance program area (PA) and a control area (CA), through household surveys. The primary outcome was the difference between the PA and CA in change in BP, using difference-in-differences analysis. Of 1500 eligible households, 1450 (96.7%) participated, including 559 (20.8%) hypertensive individuals, of which 332 (59.4%) had follow-up data. Insurance coverage increased from 0% at baseline to 41.8% at endline in the PA and remained under 1% in the CA. The PA showed a 4.97 mm Hg (95% CI: -0.76 to +10.71 mm Hg) greater decrease in systolic BP and a 1.81 mm Hg (-1.06 to +4.68 mm Hg) greater decrease in diastolic BP from baseline to endline compared to the CA. Respondents with stage 2 hypertension showed an 11.43 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.62 to 21.23 mm Hg) greater reduction in systolic BP and 3.15 mm Hg (-1.22 to +7.53 mm Hg) greater reduction in diastolic BP in the PA compared to the CA. Attrition did not affect the results. Access to improved quality healthcare through an insurance program in rural Nigeria was associated with a significant longer-term reduction in systolic BP in subjects with moderate or severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in nutritional status and nutrient intakes and correlates of overweight/obesity among rural adult women (≥18-60 years) in India: National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; Balakrishna, N; Sreeramakrishna, K; Rao, K Mallikharjun; Kumar, R Hari; Arlappa, N; Manohar, G; Reddy, Ch Gal; Ravindranath, M; Kumar, S Sharad; Brahmam, G N V; Laxmaiah, A

    2016-04-01

    To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18-60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity. Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975-79 to 2011-12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure. Ten NNMB states of India. Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18-60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975-79 to 34 % during 2011-12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (Pobesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.

  12. Participation in adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This entry presents an internationally comparative overview of adult learning patterns. Emphasis is placed on who is participating in adult learning and the observed unequal chances to participate. The entry covers three overarching questions that are central to participation research: a) What...

  13. Adult learning in modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the conditions for the growth of adult education in modern societies. It is argued that in modern adult life individual biographical reflection plays an increasing role, not only for educational and occupational choice but also in the process of identity formation and emotional...

  14. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  15. Phenylketonuria (PKU in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martínez-Pardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring phenylketonuria adult patients is an important subject which has created considerable interest in specialized metabolic clinics. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the experience with these patients in the Unit of Metabolic Diseases at the Hospital Ramon y Cajal; the use of sapropterin in adults is included.

  16. Toward Transpersonal Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    2016-01-01

    As a foundation for discussing transpersonal adult development, the author traces her trajectory, involvement in, and contribution to the modern transpersonal movement and her introduction of it to the adult learning literature, beginning during the early 1980s. Highlighted are the transpersonal domain and a differentiation between transpersonal…

  17. Tracking adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny.

  18. Adult and lifelong education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Holford, John; Mohorčič Špolar, Vida

    2014-01-01

    The contributions published in this special issue of Globalisation, Societies and Education draw from an international conference “Trans-nationalization of Educational Policy Making: Implications for Adult and Lifelong Learning”, held in Nottingham on 10-12 February 2012. The conference...... was organised by the Research Network on Policy Studies on Adult Education, established under the auspices of the European Society for the Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA). The aim of the conference was to explore how globalisation affects agency and policy processes in the area of adult and lifelong...... education, and the conditions or structures under which policy processes occur. The objective was to deepen understanding of how scientific inquiry – as a means of comprehending and interpreting current processes and their implications – can accompany and support contemporary developments in adult...

  19. Adult and lifelong education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Holford, John; Mohorčič Špolar, Vida

    2014-01-01

    The contributions published in this special issue of Globalisation, Societies and Education draw from an international conference “Trans-nationalization of Educational Policy Making: Implications for Adult and Lifelong Learning”, held in Nottingham on 10-12 February 2012. The conference...... and lifelong education. Accordingly, the focus was on on-going analysis and reflections on the implications for adult and lifelong education policies of globalization, and the trans-nationalization of decision-making that comes with it. This special issue brings together a first selection of papers presented...... was organised by the Research Network on Policy Studies on Adult Education, established under the auspices of the European Society for the Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA). The aim of the conference was to explore how globalisation affects agency and policy processes in the area of adult and lifelong...

  20. Schizophrenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth; Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2011-11-01

    Although the number of people older than 55 with schizophrenia is expected to double during the next 20 years, the research data on older adults with schizophrenia are limited. This appears to be because until the middle of the 20th century, it was assumed that mental illness in older adults was a part of the aging process and because older adults are often excluded from research investigations. Nursing research is needed to explore how people with schizophrenia learn to manage their problems as they age, as well as how those who are first diagnosed with schizophrenia in later life adapt to their illness. Mental health nurses need to be cautious in assigning premature labels to older adults with mental illness that may lead to unsubstantiated assumptions about levels of disability. Instead, nurses should realize individual potential regarding undiscovered strengths and should attempt to create interventions that recognize and foster personal development for older adults with schizophrenia.

  1. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Aug 29,2017 ... the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: Adults with ...

  2. The effect of resveratrol on contractility of non-pregnant rat uterus: the contribution of K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R; Ilic, B; Beleslin-Cokic, B; Radunovic, N; Heinle, H; Scepanovic, R; Gojkovic-Bukarica, L

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate resveratrol (1-100 μM) effect on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRC), oxytocin-induced (0.2 nM, POxC) phasic and tonic (20 nM, TOxC) contractions of isolated rat uterus. The SRC and POxC were more sensitive to resveratrol than TOxC (pD2 values: 4.53 and 4.66 versus 4.06). Different blockers of K(+) channels (glibenclamide, tetraethylamonium, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine) antagonized the response to resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions, but did not antagonize the effect of resveratrol on the TOxC. In order to compare the relaxant activities of resveratrol on the TOxC with that of potassium channel openers, a separate experiments with NS 1619, a highly specific big Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) (BKCa) channels opener and pinacidil, a predominant opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels were done. NS 1619 (10-100 μM) and pinacidil (10-100 μM) produced more potent inhibition of TOxC than resveratrol (pD2 values were 6.00 and 5.29). Iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa channels blocker, antagonized the response to NS 1619 and glibenclamide, a highly selective KATP channels blocker, antagonized the response to pinacidil on the TOxC. To test K(+)- and extracellular Ca(2+)- independent mechanism(s) of resveratrol on TOxC, a K(+)-rich, Ca(2+)-free solution was used. Under this condition, only high concentrations (≥30 μM) of resveratrol inhibited TOxC. Western blots analysis confirmed expression of Kir6.1, Kir6.2, KCa1.1, Kv2.1 and Kv4.2. channel proteins in myometrium. Thus, the effect of resveratrol is dependent on the types of contractions. The inhibitory response of resveratrol on the SRC and phasic contractions involves different myometrial K(+)- channels. When applied in high concentrations, resveratrol has an additional K(+)- channels independent mechanism(s) of action. As the effects of NS 1619, pinacidil and resveratrol on the TOxC are different, we can conclud that resveratrol does not behave as a classical potassium channel opener.

  3. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo.

  4. Oxytocic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Costus lucanusianus - family Costaceae on isolated non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Omonkhelini J; Omogbai, Eric K I; Falodun, Abiodun

    2010-04-01

    Costus lucanusianus J. Braun (Costaceae) is a climbing herb, found mainly in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This plant is locally used in situations of pains, inflammation, dysmenorrhoea and in pyrexia. The purpose of this study was to investigate this claim with view to validating scientifically the ethno-medicinal usage. The aqueous extract was subjected to pharmacological testing in vitro on a piece of isolated rat uterus previously pretreated with 1 mg/kg stilbestrol for 24 h. The dose response curves of oxytocin and that of the extract were first obtained. The effects of antagonists like atropine (1 mg) and salbutamol (2 microg) on the dose response curve of the extract were also investigated. Possible synergy was investigated via co-administration of the extract and oxytocin. Finally the proximate analysis of the extract was investigated. The aqueous extract of C. lucanusianus and oxytocin both produced a dose dependent contraction of the uterus. An effect of 0.63+/-0.06 g force of uterine contraction produced by 12.5 mg of the extract was increased to 1.37+/-0.09 g when 200 mg of the extract was administered. Oxytocin at 0.16 i.u was observed to produce a similar force of contraction with 200 mg of the aqueous extract. Synergy was established as co administration of the extract at 200 mg and oxytocin at 0.08 i.u, produced higher contractile effect, significantly higher (p<0.05) than when either the extract (200mg) or oxytocin (0.08 i.u) was administered alone. Both atropine and salbutamol significantly (p<0.0001) inhibited the contractile effect produced by the extract. The inhibitory effect showed by atropine on the contractile effect of the extract seems to suggest the involvement of muscarinic receptors. The proximate analysis carried out in this study is used to establish the identity of the crude drug sample. A moisture content of 10.047 % was obtained. The total ash is a measure of the non-volatile inorganic constituents remaining after ashing. The values of 3.42 % were obtained.

  5. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  6. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half

  7. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine and whole blood glutathione levels in healthy, non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Eva Maria; Raijmakers, Maarten T M; Peters, Wilbert H M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2002-05-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine supplementation in nine young healthy females induced a quick and highly significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels and an increase in whole blood concentration of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetylcysteine impresses as an efficient drug in lowering homocysteine concentration and might be beneficial for individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Estimation of prevalence of Anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among Non pregnant females of urban slum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Saroshe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anemia is a major public health problem worldwide particularly in developing countries among women of reproductive age. WHO Hemoglobin Color Scale is easy, quick and handy technique to estimate hemoglobin level at field. Objective: To find out prevalence of anemia using WHO hemoglobin color scale among the females of reproductive age group. To find out the most common signs and symptoms associated with anemia. To find out the causes associated with anemia among females. Material& Methods: A cross sectional study with written informed consent was conducted in 400 females of an urban slum area of Indore city. Females were selected using systematic random sampling method. All the females of reproductive age group were included in study. Level of hemoglobin was obtaining using WHO Hemoglobin color scale. A questionnaire was used during interpersonal interview of all the anemic females which was followed by clinical examination to assess signs and symptoms associated with anemia. The data was analyzed using Microsoft office excel sheet. Results: 61% of females of reproductive age group were found to be anemic by hemoglobin color scale. 54 % complained of frequent headache, 50 % of difficulty in breathing during normal work and 49.18% of reduced appetite. Conclusion: Anemia is found more in females of reproductive age group in urban slum. Most common

  9. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  10. Depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults, but it can have serious consequences. More than half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and are more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are depressed younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late-life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late-life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but are too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.

  11. English in Adult Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrowska, Katarzyna, 1985-

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of a specialized program to meet the needs of adults who have diverse English skills and use English as a Lingua Franca. The program was developed for Menntastoðir, an adult education program in Reykjanesbær. Menntastoðir is an adult education institution that provides opportunities for improving adults’ knowledge and competences. The purpose of the study is to map out the type and amount of English exposure among Menntastoðir ...

  12. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faderl, Stefan; O’Brien, Susan; Pui, Ching-Hon; Stock, Wendy; Wetzler, Meir; Hoelzer, Dieter; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a clonal expansion of hematopoietic blasts, is a highly heterogeneous disease comprising many entities for which distinct treatment strategies are pursued. Although ALL is a success story in pediatric oncology, results in adults lag behind those in children. An expansion of new drugs, more reliable immunologic and molecular techniques for the assessment of minimal residual disease, and efforts at more precise risk stratification are generating new aspects of adult ALL therapy. For this review, the authors summarized pertinent and recent literature on ALL biology and therapy, and they discuss current strategies and potential implications of novel approaches to the management of adult ALL. PMID:20101737

  13. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  14. Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  15. CPR - adult - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100219.htm CPR - adult - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics CPR A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  16. Adult Basic Education: Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    This book is designed to provide practical suggestions and teaching approaches for both administrators and instructors involved in teaching reading to adults. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Overview"; (2) "Diagnosing Learner Characteristics"; (3) "Goals and Objectives"; (4) "Planning…

  17. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Certain health problems are common in older adults. Heavy drinking can make these problems worse, including: Diabetes High blood pressure Congestive heart failure Liver problems Osteoporosis Memory problems Mood disorders Bad Interactions with Medications ...

  18. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  19. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000521.htm Urinary tract infection - adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary ...

  20. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Everyone: Easy-to-read Schedules Infants and Children Preteens and Teens Adults Display Immunization Schedules and Quiz ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  1. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  2. Adult Day Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Adult Day Services Association. 2. U.S. Health Care Costs: Background Brief , The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2008) (www.kaiseredu.org); excerpt from Nursing Homes and Assisted Living Industry Profile , First Research ( ...

  3. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  4. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  5. Motivation and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews theories of human motivation: Lewin's force field analysis, Skinner's operant reinforcement theory, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. He then extracts the implications of these theories for adult learning. SK)

  6. Sinusitis in adults - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000563.htm Sinusitis in adults - aftercare To use the sharing features ... Bending forward with your head down Allergies and Sinusitis Allergies that are not well-controlled can make ...

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain.

  8. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  9. Mosquito, adult (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  10. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  11. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs About Adult BMI ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  12. Falls and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Falls and Older Adults About Falls Risk Increases With Age Many people have a ... problems -- rises with age. Click for more information Falls Lead to Fractures, Trauma Each year, more than ...

  13. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  14. Cardiac imaging in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  15. Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal Sørensen, Kristine; Godballe, Christian; Ostergaard, Birthe;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present two cases of adult rhabdomyoma in the parapharyngeal space. They are rare benign tumors with a characteristic histologic appearance. METHODS: The tumors were studied by light and immunohistochemical analysis using stains characteristic of striated muscle fibers. RESULTS...... slight proliferation with incipient differentiation in an otherwise mature tumor. CONCLUSION: The head and neck area harbors 90% of adult rhabdomyomas and should be considered in a differential diagnosis in this region. Immunohistochemistry confirms that the tumors are almost totally mature neoplasms...

  16. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  17. The Effect of Long Term Starvation on Galanin, Leptin, Thyroid Hormones, Insulin, Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Ghrelin and Factors Involved in Energy Metabolism in Adult Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda ESKANDARZADE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some hormonal disturbances have been demonstrated in starvation, but in ruminants such as goats, the role of galanin in adaptation to starvation or endocrine functions is not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of long term starvation on galanin, leptin, thyroid hormones, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, ghrelin and factors involved in energy metabolism including HDL, Cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, NEFA, TG and VLDL concentrations in adult goats. Eight non-lactating non-pregnant goats aged 4-5 years and BCS 3 were randomly divided to control and test groups. The animals were trained to eat their daily forage ration during a 10 day period. The experimental procedure was applied for 20 days, during which control group received 120% of maintenance energy, while the test group was supplied with 80% of maintenance energy for the first 10 days and with 40% of maintenance energy for another 10 days. Blood samples were collected at day 10 of training and 2, 4, 10, 12, 14 and 20 days after beginning of starvation. Blood parameters were measured according to standard procedures. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of cholesterol, fT3, T4, T3, growth hormone, NEFA, insulin and ghrelin between control and test groups (P=0.05. There was significant difference in galanin, leptin, fT4, HDL, glucose, TG, VLDL and prolactin concentrations between control and test groups (P=0.05. Control of energy balance and the role of galanin in adaptation to long starvation or endocrine functions in goat are different from other species.

  18. Descriptive characteristics and health outcomes of the food by prescription nutrition supplementation program for adults living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Nagata

    Full Text Available The clinical effects and potential benefits of nutrition supplementation interventions for persons living with HIV remain largely unreported, despite awareness of the multifaceted relationship between HIV infection and nutrition. We therefore examined descriptive characteristics and nutritional outcomes of the Food by Prescription (FBP nutrition supplementation program in Nyanza Province, Kenya.Demographic, health, and anthropometric data were gathered from a retrospective cohort of 1,017 non-pregnant adult patients who enrolled into the FBP program at a Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES site in Nyanza Province between July 2009 and July 2011. Our primary outcome was FBP treatment success defined as attainment of BMI>20, and we used Cox proportional hazards to assess socio-demographic and clinical correlates of FBP treatment success.Mean body mass index was 16.4 upon enrollment into the FBP program. On average, FBP clients gained 2.01 kg in weight and 0.73 kg/m2 in BMI over follow-up (mean 100 days, with the greatest gains among the most severely undernourished (BMI 20, though 44.5% achieved a BMI increase ≥0.5. Greater BMI at baseline, younger age, male gender, and not requiring highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were associated with a higher rate of attainment of BMI>20.This study reports significant gains in weight and BMI among patients enrolled in the FBP program, though only a minority of patients achieved stated programmatic goals of BMI>20. Future research should include well-designed prospective studies that examine retention, exit reasons, mortality outcomes, and long-term sustainability of nutrition supplementation programs for persons living with HIV.

  19. Effects of a Low Dose of Fish Oil on Inflammatory Markers of Brazilian HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julicristie M. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected subjects have been limited by an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a low dose of marine omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory marker concentrations in HIV-infected subjects under antiretroviral therapy (ART. Methods: This was a randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial that investigated the effects of 3 g fish oil/day (540 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid—EPA plus 360 mg of docosahexaenoic acid—DHA or 3 g soy oil/day (placebo for 24 weeks in 83 male and non-pregnant female HIV-infected adults on ART. Results: There were no differences between groups for the measures at baseline. Multilevel analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship between the longitudinal changes in high sensitivity-C reactive protein (hs-CRP (Wald Chi2 = 0.17, p = 0.918, fibrinogen (Wald Chi2 = 3.82, p = 0.148, and factor VIII (Wald Chi2 = 5.25, p = 0.073 with fish oil. No significant changes in interleukin-6 (IL6, interleukin-1 beta (IL1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha serum concentrations were observed with fish oil supplements for 12 weeks. Conclusions: Compared to placebo, a low dose of 900 mg omega-3 fatty acids (EPA plus DHA in fish oil capsules did not change hs-CRP, fibrinogen, factor VIII, IL6, IL1-beta and TNF-alpha serum concentrations in HIV-infected subjects on ART. Further investigations should consider the assessment of more sensitive inflammatory markers or higher doses to evaluate the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids in this population. Registered at the Nederlands Trial Register, Identifier no. NTR1798.

  20. China's Successful Adult Literacy Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Dorothy

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Chinese effort to eliminate adult illiteracy. The author discusses purposes of adult education, history of adult literacy education, adult illiteracy statistics, the design of literacy education, curriculum construction, teaching methods, evaluation of the literacy education process, impact of literacy education, and implications of…

  1. Empathy in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vrečer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is an important part of emotional intelligence and the latter is crucial for human relations, whether they be interpersonal relations, relations among people at work, or in a wider community. Therefore, empathy is important for adult education, for guidance counsellors, and for other adult educators. Adult educators must be empathic in order to understand the perspectives and needs of the participants in the educational process and empathy is a precondition for understanding. The development of empathy as a competence is a lifelong learning process. Namely, despite some biological predispositions for empathy, the latter can be learnt. It is the contention of the article that empathy is one of the most important intercultural competencies, because if a person is not empathic, other intercultural competencies vary rarely cannot develop to their full extent. Thus empathy is a precondition for successful intercultural dialogue.

  2. Electroporation of adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Madhusudhana; Rambabu, K Murali; Rao, S Harinarayana

    2008-01-01

    We generated transient transgenic zebrafish by applying electrical pulses subsequent to injection of DNA into muscle tissue of 3-6-month old adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters, such as number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA, were optimized and found that 6 pulses of 40 V/cm at 15 mug/fish increased the luciferase expression by 10-fold compared with those in controls. By measuring the expression of luciferase, in vivo by electroporation in adult zebrafish and in vitro using fish cell line (Xiphophorus xiphidium A2 cells), the strength of three promoters (CMV, human EF-1alpha, and Xenopus EF-1alpha) was compared. Subsequent to electroporation after injecting DNA in the mid region of zebrafish, expression of green fluorescent protein was found far away from the site of injection in the head and the tail sections. Thus, electroporation in adult zebrafish provides a rapid way of testing the behavior of gene sequences in the whole organism.

  3. Hypertension in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  4. Back pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.

  5. Obesity in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-03-01

    The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Migration and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  7. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  8. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  9. Adult intergenerational relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Treas, J.; Scott, J.; Richards, M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of research on the relationships between parents and their adult, grown-up children. Interest in intergenerational ties has increased again as a result of the aging of Western societies. The chapter discusses the following topics in the literature: (i) the degree to wh

  10. Adult issues in phenylketonuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, M.P.; Heijer, M. den; Janssen, M.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a classical example of an inherited metabolic disease, in which mental retardation can be prevented successfully by using a diet. However, in adult PKU new problems occur, such as vitamin deficiencies, osteoporosis and the maternal PKU syndrome. The aim of this review articl

  11. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  12. Adult onset Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh syndrome is a rare progressive mitochondrial disorder of oxidative metabolism. Though it has been reported in infancy and childhood, it is rarely described in adults. The authors describe a patient who had clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features diagnostic of Leigh syndrome, with supportive biochemical and muscle histochemistry evidence.

  13. Police and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Vic

    The literature on adult education for police is reviewed and criticized. Among the publications that have been influential in debating the need for police education are Charles B. Saunder's "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society" (1976), which endorses the Presidential Commission on Law Enforcement's recommendations regarding the vital…

  14. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  15. Dealing with Adult Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of a recent study, "Adult Illiteracy in the United States: A Report to the Ford Foundation." Incidence of reading difficulties, effectiveness of literacy programs, and the relationship of reading ability to poverty are some of the topics discussed. New community-based literacy initiatives are recommended. (SJL)

  16. Adult issues in phenylketonuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, M.P.; Heijer, M. den; Janssen, M.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a classical example of an inherited metabolic disease, in which mental retardation can be prevented successfully by using a diet. However, in adult PKU new problems occur, such as vitamin deficiencies, osteoporosis and the maternal PKU syndrome. The aim of this review

  17. More Adults Are Walking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  18. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  19. Depression - older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...

  20. Inguinal Herniography in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. T.; Park, K. J. [57th Evacuation Hospital, Korea Army, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    Inguinal hernia in children is easily diagnosed in most cases: however, it is sometimes different or impossible to detect by physical examination. The some is true of a contralateral asymptomatic hernia. White have reported that herniography is easy to perform and has a high degree of accuracy and minimal morbidity. The diagnostic accuracy of herniography in detection of patent process vaginalis is 95-98% by white. Rowe found 40% of children over age of of 2 years and adults with a unilateral congenital hernia had an open process vaginalis in contralateral normal site and concluded that 20% of patients with a unilateral hernia will develop a contralateral hernia sometimes during life. It is necessary to check the condition of the normal site before surgery in unilateral hernia by herniogram. But in adults, the hernigraphy was not performed due to some reason. We found that the herniography in adults is also easy ro perform and high degree of accuracy. The results are: 1. Total number of studies are 25 patient of unilateral inguinal hernia. 2. We found 32% of adults male with unilateral hernia had an open process viginalis in contralateral normal site. 3. Slight more abdominal disconfort than children is noted during injection of Hypaque. 4. Prominent lateral recess of Douglaspouch and poor coating of contrast media to peritoneum are different radiologic finding from children.

  1. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  2. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  3. Adult Education in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese University of Science and Technology, Management and Administration, run by the local people, has achieved great success in adult edu cation. Jiang Shuyun (3rd L), head of the university, won the title of advanced industrialist from the State Science and Technology Commission.

  4. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  5. Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    As the USA experiences rapid growth of nontraditional adult students in higher education, educators and institutions will increasingly need to look beyond the traditional youth-centric educational models to better address adult learning needs. To date, no research has been conducted examining the learning experiences of adult students enrolled in…

  6. Stages of Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  7. Finding Your Adult Vaccination Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Is Your Adult Vaccination Record Up-To-Date? Language: English Español (Spanish) ... your medical history. Staying Up-To-Date on Vaccination is Important Every year thousands of adults in ...

  8. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  9. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  10. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  11. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  12. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge ... You had surgery to remove your spleen. This operation is called splenectomy . The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the middle of your belly or on the left side ...

  13. Adult Education for Social Mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Luis

    1981-01-01

    Suggests some ideas that could stimulate and be incentives for defining programs of adult education in the future. These involve changing priorities, developing a framework which allows adult education programs to be established, and managing decision-making processes. (CT)

  14. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  15. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Sorted by ... > OlderAdults Older Adults and Oral Health Main Content ​ Is dry mouth a natural part ... from fiction by reading this web page about oral health and growing older. Having the right information can ...

  16. Adult Literacy Programs: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the broad array of adult literacy program alternatives currently available. These include government-funded adult education programs, such as Adult Basic Education and Even Start, volunteer programs such as Laubach Literacy Action and Literacy Volunteers of America, business and industry sponsored programs, community-based…

  17. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  18. Becoming adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Søgaard Lund, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of identity-construction processes among adult educators in Denmark and we address the question how adult educators develop professionalism, not least by taking advantage of existing opportunity structures for current and prospective adult educators. A between...

  19. Adult Learning and HRD. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This symposium on adult learning and human resource development consists of three presentations. "Adult Learning Principles and Concepts in the Workplace: Implications for Training in HRD" (Margot B. Weinstein) reports on findings from interviews with restaurant employees who reported that training practices using adult learning…

  20. Backtalk: Adult Services in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblon, Della L.; Henke, Esther Mae

    1980-01-01

    Describes projects of Oklahoma libraries designed to combat the problem of illiteracy among adults and explains Oklahoma Image, a humanities effort aimed at attracting out-of-school adults to public libraries by focusing on the state's multicultural heritage. Column also reports adult service news from other states. (JD)

  1. Adult Learning Center Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, Bronx. Herbert H. Lehman Coll. Inst. for Literacy Studies.

    These curriculum materials were collected from teachers in the Lehman College Adult Learning Center (New York). They include various activities and resources, such as a series of questions about the aims of teaching adults, a list of sources for adult basic education (ABE) materials, poems, and autobiographical materials. Teaching suggestions and…

  2. Adult Diapause in Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hodek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies dealing with adult (reproductive diapause in the Coleoptera are reviewed, as a kind of supplement to the classic compendia. In the first two sections, the general characteristics of adult diapause are described and principal terms explained. Original articles dealing with 19 species from nine coleopteran families (Coccinellidae, Chrysomelidae, Bruchidae, Curculionidae, Carabidae, Silphidae, Scolytidae, Scarabaeidae, and Endomychidae are reviewed. Finally attempts are made at generalisations from the papers reviewed, and hypotheses on diapause evolution are inferred. A polyphenic character of diapause is a prominent feature in C. septempunctata and L. decemlineata, but has been found also in other Coleoptera and in insects generally and often generates voltinism heterogeneity within populations.

  3. Spatially regulated adult neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Zenonos, Georgios; Tariq, Sadaf; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been the center of attention for decades. Neuroscientists hope to understand the mechanism underlying this phenomenon that might provide a unique perception of brain repair in future. Neurogenesis is referred to the process in which neuronal stem cells and progenitors generate new neurons in non-pathologic setting. Although there are some similarities between two neurogenetic regions including hippocampus and olfactory bulb, however there are some important differences....

  4. Cochlear Implant in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Samadi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is the result of a great combination and collaboration of engineering and medicine. It is mainly because it has the most conflict with the human nervous system among all prosthesis. Cochlear implant helps a child with profound hearing loss to understand and articulate speech and let an adult person with hearing loss communicate with people by phone. Although these wonderful results could not be seen in all patients, will let us know about the great scientific findings.

  5. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  6. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Subjects/Methods Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011–2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. Results The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men’s SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40–49 (men) or 60–69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. Conclusions These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral

  7. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  8. Bochdalek hernia in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Daniel Riccioppo C.F. de; Aldo Junqueira Rodrigues Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Bochdalek´s hernia is a congenital malformation of the posterolateral diaphragm region. It is more common on the left and more frequently seen in newborns and rare in adults, with over a few 100 reported cases. We present a case of Bochdalek´s hernia in a 49-year-old patient with long term dyspeptic symptoms. The upper endoscopy showed a gastric fundus herniation sliding into the chest through the diaphragmatic defect. The patient also presented with a rare pulmonary malformation ...

  9. Population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD from a representative sample of US adults: comparison of SAD, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying dysglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD's distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia.In the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured ("abdominal height" between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥ 20; response rate 88% we used sample weights to estimate SAD's population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD's population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2-22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6-22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 5.7%. For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1 and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1 remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001 and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001.Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.

  10. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  11. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult

  12. Adult autoimmune enteropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that autoimmune enteropathy involving the small bowel may occur in adults as well as in children. Apparently, the endoscopic and histological changes are similar to celiac disease before treatment, but these are not altered by any form of dietary restriction, including a gluten-free diet. As in celiac disease, histologic changes in gastric and colonic biopsies have also been recorded. Anti enterocyte antibodies detected with immunofluorescent methods have been reported by a few laboratories, but these antibodies appear not to be specific and may simply represent epiphenomena. A widely available, reproducible and quantitative anti-enterocyte antibody assay is needed that could be applied in small bowel disorders that have the histological appearance of celiac disease, but fail to respond to a gluten-free diet.

  13. Communication in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Časar

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In their paper the authors point to the importance of communication in adult education, seeing man as a relational creature. They stress the importance verbal as well as non-verbal communication, which discloses the speaker's attitude to both what is being said and the students. The authors detail the components of non-verbal communication, which the group leaders can use as guide­ lines in their educational work. They define constructive and destructive, content-related and relationship-related types of communication, concluding that communication is at its best when it is relaxed and involves all members of the group as well as the tutor-organiser. Only then can feedback be generated, resulting in a closer connectedness and enhanced quality of the process of education.

  14. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance.

  15. Adult foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Balarin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy is a rare pathology. Less than 1% of the reported cases display perifoveal capillary permeability. The three-year follow-up period of the case revealed a rare form, which had not yet been documented. The patient was a 40-year-old female with normal visual acuity, and a minor complaint of metamorphopsia on the left eye. Retinography showed a perifoveal yellowish subretinal area OS.Angiography showed perifoveal leakage OS. Follow up showed that, over 3 years, capillary incompetence disappeared and the yellow area underwent alterations, becoming atrophic OS. Angiography also showed hyperfluorescence (windows defect. Towards the end, it resembled the appearance of late stage of Best's Disease.

  16. [Vesicoureteral reflux in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollino, Cristiana; D'Urso, Leonardo; Beltrame, Giulietta; Ferro, Michela; Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Quarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be congenital or acquired. The most frequent form of congenital VUR is primary VUR. Its prevalence in adults is not exactly known, but it is higher in women, whose greater propensity for urinary tract infections increases the likelihood of an instrumental examination leading to the diagnosis of less severe cases. In men, even severe VUR may go undiagnosed for a long time. Primary VUR is due to a defect in the valve mechanism of the ureterovesical junction. In physiological conditions, the terminal ureter enters the bladder wall obliquely and bladder contraction leads to compression of this intravesical portion. Abnormal length of the intravesical portion of the ureter due to a genetic mutation (whose location is yet to be established) leads to VUR. In its less severe forms VUR may be asymptomatic, but in 50-70% of cases it manifests with recurrent cystitis or pyelonephritis. The manifestations leading to a diagnosis of VUR in adults, besides urinary tract infections, are proteinuria, renal failure and hypertension. The gold-standard diagnostic examination is a micturating cystourethrogram. Reflux nephropathy develops as a result of a pathogenetic mechanism unrelated to high cavity pressure or urinary tract infections but due to reduced formation of the normal renal parenchyma (hypoplasia or dysplasia). Abnormal renal parenchyma development is attributable to the same genes that control the development of the ureters and ureterovesical junction. VUR is considered only a marker of this abnormal development, playing no role in scar formation. There is no conclusive evidence regarding the indications for VUR correction. However, the risk that VUR leads to recurrent pyelonephritis and reflux nephropathy must be kept in mind. VUR certainly has to be corrected in women who contemplate pregnancy.

  17. Adult Literacy. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Columbus, OH.

    This document begins with an overview of trends and issues in the area of adult literacy. This overview briefly addresses: the number of adult illiterates, the costs of adult illiteracy, adult illiteracy as a barrier to increasing U.S. competitiveness, efforts that have focused on adult illiteracy, the issues that have surfaced, and…

  18. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  20. Adult Literacy: Contexts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel Powell; Beverstock, Caroline

    Reporting recent and significant studies across the spectrum of the literacy movement to help plan the United States' literacy future, this book discusses the history of the adult literacy movement, especially in the United States, and the emergent definitions of adult literacy. The book also reports on the scholarship about, practice of, and…

  1. Understanding Adult Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Griff, Ed.

    This book introduces readers to issues, debates and literatures related to a number of central areas of practice in adult education and training, especially in Australia. It is intended as a first attempt to define the field of adult education in Australia in an analytical and theoretical, as opposed to a theoretical and practical sense. Written…

  2. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  3. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  4. Teachers of adults as learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    This poster is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address. Some of the competencies that teachers...

  5. Adult Learning Opportunities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna; Regmi, Sharada

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings from a study of education system in Nepal. This paper examines the adult learning opportunities within the educational and cultural contexts by reviewing available literature relevant to Nepal. Findings show that there are wider opportunities for adult learning than those considered from education and…

  6. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  7. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  8. The Politics of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Art

    2016-01-01

    Art Ellison is longtime advocate for adult education, having managed numerous advocacy campaigns over the past forty years on the state and national levels. Prior to his employment in 1980 as the NH State Director of Adult Education he worked for many years as a high school teacher and as a community organizer. In this article, Ellison offers some…

  9. Work, Experience and Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt.......A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt....

  10. Adult-onset tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, [No Value; Lees, AJ; Lakke, JPWF; Trimble, MR; Robertson, MM

    2002-01-01

    We report on 8 patients with adult-onset motor tics and vocalisations. Three had compulsive tendencies in childhood and 3 had a family history of tics or obsessive-compulsive behaviour. In comparison with DSM-classified, younger-onset Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, adult-onset tic disorders are mor

  11. Professionalisation processes among adult educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Larson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increased interest in adult education and training (AET) in the EU as well as in national policy, the article looks into policy and practice when it comes to the professionalisation of those responsible for providing the AET – the adult educators. The article takes its theoretical...

  12. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  13. The Principal as Adult Developer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah L.

    1989-01-01

    Restructuring of the principalship must include the principal's role as an adult developer aware of the inextricable link between teacher growth and student development. Principal and teacher should work together to learn how adults develop, to discover conditions fostering growth, and to encourage each other to face new challenges. (MLH)

  14. Leisure Styles and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jack; Wenkert, Robert

    1969-01-01

    People with broad and diverse leisure activities are more likely to participate in adult education than people with a passive leisure style. This finding conflicts with a prevailing view that adult education competes with other leisure pursuits for the interest and attention of a potential audience. (SE)

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  16. Adult Learning, Economy and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2010-01-01

    The article relates the different types of adult education, continuing education and training to an overall societal context of socio-economic modernization by focussing on the multiple functions of adult learning. Each of well known empirical categories is seen in its historical relation to mode...

  17. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  18. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  19. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs.

  20. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in ...

  1. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rat...

  2. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  3. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  4. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... Fund for Young Adults Vital Options Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teens Living with Cancer ...

  5. Transition from Pediatric to Adult OI Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving from Pediatric to Adult Care Introduction Teen and young adult years are a critical time for major life changes. An ... for youth who have OI is moving from pediatric care into the adult care system. Children’s hospitals ...

  6. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  7. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  8. Coaching as a Strategy for Helping Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Dorothy M.; Wertheim, Judith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the use of coaching for adult learners, the specific characteristics adults bring to the learning environment, and strategies for dealing with the obstacles adult learners may face.

  9. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning.

  10. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ismail Yasawy; Ulrich Richard Folsch; Wolfgang Eckhard Schmidt; Michael Schwend

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an underrecognized,preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting,abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to Ⅳ fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  11. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasawy, Mohamed Ismail; Folsch, Ulrich Richard; Schmidt, Wolfgang Eckhard; Schwend, Michael

    2009-05-21

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an under-recognized, preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to IV fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  12. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  13. Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shortfall Questionnaire Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Down Syndrome in Adults: Staying Healthy Family HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying ...

  14. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  15. Chronic disease in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Adriana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Valderrama, Laura; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Uribe, Ana Fernanda; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; González, Angélica; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Máximo Molina, Juan; Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias de Andalucía (AETSA)

    2016-01-01

    Methodology: A sample of 500 older adults was selected, between 60 and 96 years of age. A questionnaire of psychosocial factors in older adults designed by Baca, Gonzalez, and Uribe was used. Results: Hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis were the most frequent diseases in older adults, although the greater percentage of this population did not refer any pathology. Married and widowers individuals presented more diseases as compared to unmarried, separated and people who live together.Concl...

  16. Adult education for democratic citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The research literature review was designed as the foundation for the investigation of what is know about how adults can achieve competencies relevant for democratic citizenship in various European countries, what type of educational interventions have proven effective in this regards and how educational......The report presents, in brief, the findings from the study of research literature on Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship, which was carried out in the nine EU member states represented by the project: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Spain and United Kingdom...... policy intervene in the field of Adult Education for Democratic Citizenship....

  17. Comparison of Mental Health Characteristics and Stress Between Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Non-Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michelle L; Taylor, Heidi; Nelson, J Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Nurses consistently report the highest levels of job stress among all health professionals. To best prepare students for such a high-stress profession, insights into the onset of stress is warranted, especially with the literature supporting that nursing students experience significant stress during their education. This study sought to explore the sources of stress among nursing students and to compare stress levels and selected mental health indicators between nursing students and the general student body using the paper-and-pencil version of the National College Health Assessment II. Nursing students were found to have significantly more stress, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and stress-related illnesses than the general student body. The findings highlight the importance of self-care and stress management skills education in nurse preparatory programs for use in both academic preparation and in future careers. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities: nursing students and non-nursing peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, ten Peter M.; Dannenberg, Jan-Willem; Taal, Erik; Burger, Gerard; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study of the attitudes of Dutch nursing students towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities. - Background: Attitudes of healthcare professionals are a major factor in the rehabilitation and self-acceptance of persons with disabilities. Consequently, i

  19. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  20. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  1. Childhood intelligence and adult obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. Design and Methods: A population ( n = 17,419...

  2. Childhood obesity and adult morbidities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biro, Frank M; Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    .... The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity include earlier puberty and menarche in girls, type 2 diabetes and increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome in youth and adults, and obesity in adulthood...

  3. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to complications too. These include malnutrition, falls, osteoporosis (“thinning bones”), bone fractures, frailty, sleep problems, anxiety, agitation, delirium, and disturbed behavior. Caring for an older adult with dementia and other health problems can be ...

  4. Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with Diabetes The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  5. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy in Adults with TSC Individuals with tuberous sclerosis ... being well controlled for long periods of time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that ...

  6. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment......It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  7. Backtalk: Adult Services in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblon, Della L.

    1979-01-01

    Initiates a new state emphasis for the column by highlighting recent public library programs and services for adults in Florida. Music, photography, and women's programs offered by the Leon County Public Library are described in more detail. (JD)

  8. Teachers of adults as learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    need can be taught in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/-teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address......This poster is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address. Some of the competencies that teachers...... (cf. Knowles, Brookfield, Illeris, Lawler, King, Wahlgreen). If we study adult teachers as learners in practice, we may be able to identify what the teachers’ practice requires, and thereby qualify the efforts of teacher educators....

  9. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  10. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  11. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  12. Facts about Mumps for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendation: MMR About Mumps Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Mumps for Adults What is Mumps? Mumps ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Mumps can be prevented with a safe ...

  13. Facts about Rubella for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Rubella (German Measles) Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Facts about Rubella for Adults What is rubella? Rubella, ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Rubella can be prevented with a safe ...

  14. Facts about Measles for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Adolescent Vaccination Recommendation: MMR About Measles Facts about Measles for Adults What is measles? Measles ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Measles can be prevented with a safe ...

  15. Paediatric and adult malignant glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Chris; Perryman, Lara; Hargrave, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Gliomas in children differ from their adult counterparts by their distribution of histological grade, site of presentation and rate of malignant transformation. Although rare in the paediatric population, patients with high-grade gliomas have, for the most part, a comparably dismal clinical outcome...... to older patients with morphologically similar lesions. Molecular profiling data have begun to reveal the major genetic alterations underpinning these malignant tumours in children. Indeed, the accumulation of large datasets on adult high-grade glioma has revealed key biological differences between...... the adult and paediatric disease. Furthermore, subclassifications within the childhood age group can be made depending on age at diagnosis and tumour site. However, challenges remain on how to reconcile clinical data from adult patients to tailor novel treatment strategies specifically for paediatric...

  16. Professionalisation processes among adult educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Larson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increased interest in adult education and training (AET) in the EU as well as in national policy, the article looks into policy and practice when it comes to the professionalisation of those responsible for providing the AET – the adult educators. The article takes its theoretical...... as well as legal regulations from year 2000 and until today. Based on the analysis, the article concludes that in spite of differences in history and AET traditions between especially Denmark/Sweden on the one hand and Estonia on the other, a number of similarities in recent policy can be found. The first...... is an increase in the provision of AET. A second is a tendency for official requirements for teaching adults to be higher in general and vocational AET than in liberal AE. Also, in spite of the huge interest in AET, qualification of adult educators seems to be a non-issue in the analysed policy papers...

  17. Delirium: Issues for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Delirium Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... of life. Overview of this section: Differences between Delirium and Dementia Other Neurologic Disorders Some Important Causes ...

  18. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved EPILEPSY IN ADULTS WITH TSC Download a PDF of ... age, including either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. Recent studies indicate that more than 80% of ...

  19. The human adult cardiomyocyte phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bird, SD; Doevendans, PA; van Rooijen, MA; de la Riviere, AB; Hassink, RJ; Passier, R; Mummery, CL

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Determination of the phenotype of adult human atrial and ventricular myocytes based on gene expression and morphology. Methods: Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery using a modified isolation procedure. Myocytes were isolated and cultured

  20. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Osteoporosis Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... and widely-prescribed medications for the treatment of osteoporosis. Some serious side effects of these medication have ...

  1. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  2. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nutrition Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... teeth that are needed for grinding up food, nutrition suffers. If you are unable to chew and ...

  3. Researching participation in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    It is a widespread perception that the challenge of increasing participation in adult education and training has intensified due to the transformation from industrial to knowledge based societies and the transformation implies that it becomes pivotal to increase the supply of highly qualified...... labour. This has fostered an interest in examining why and how people engage in adult education, how participation and especially non-participation in adult education can be explained and how participation rates can be increased. In this paper I outline different traditions within research on recruitment...... to and participation in adult education and training focusing primarily on unskilled and low skilled workers. I present how the traditions contribute to the perception of what effects participation and argue that the existing traditions must be extended and a new framework must be applied in order to understand how...

  4. Sustainability, Ecojustice, and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Adult education has a significant role to play in creating a just and sustainable world. This chapter explores a continuum of perspectives related to the environment and education and highlights sustainability and ecojustice education theory and practices in this volume.

  5. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Celik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available       Morgagni hernia is a congenital anterior diaphragma hernias. Although it generally seen in childhood and on the right side, rarely seen bilaterally and adult. Computarize tomography is helpful in diagnosis for this lesions asymptomatic in adult. In this article, bilaterally morgagni hernia diagnosed a sixty-five year old male patient looked for due to dyspne was presented.

  6. Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Robert

    The Adult Learning Program Service (ALPS) aims to reach eight and a half million adults between ages 25 and 44 and teach them reading and math skills they can use at home and on the job. ALPS proposes to reach those who have never finished high school but do have at least a sixth-grade reading level. They could use their new skills to prepare for…

  7. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  8. What Does It Take to Be an Adult in Austria? Views of Adulthood in Austrian Adolescents, Emerging Adults, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsch, Ulrike; Dreher, Eva; Mayr, Eva; Willinger, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the defining features of emerging adulthood, subjects' conceptions of the transition to adulthood, and the perceived adult status in Austria. The sample consisted of 775 subjects (226 adolescents, 317 emerging adults, 232 adults). Results showed that most Austrian emerging adults feel themselves to be between adolescence…

  9. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes.

  10. LGBT Adult Immigrants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    There are approximately 267,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult undocumented immigrant population and an estimated 637,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult documented immigrant population. The report finds that approximately 71 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Hispanic and 15 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Asian or Pacific Islander.

  11. LGBT Adult Immigrants in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    GATES, GARY J.

    2013-01-01

    There are approximately 267,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult undocumented immigrant population and an estimated 637,000 LGBT-identified individuals among the adult documented immigrant population. The report finds that approximately 71 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Hispanic and 15 percent of undocumented LGBT adults are Asian or Pacific Islander.

  12. Training of adult education teachers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The article presents the Danish adult educational system, the extend of adult learning and the objectives of the adult education program. It presents the teacher training institutions and programs and the programs for continuing education in practice. Further on the article presents and discus...... the pedagogical principles and theories behind the training of teachers in adult education....

  13. Dealing with Disruptive Behavior of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobmeier, Robert; Moran, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The adult education literature on disruptive behavior of adult learners was reviewed and a survey on disruptive behavior of adult learners was conducted with adult educators. The findings are synthesized in a conceptual framework for understanding the types and causes of disruptive behavior, which fall into the categories of inattention,…

  14. 38 CFR 18.438 - Adult education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult education. 18.438 Section 18.438 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Adult Education § 18.438 Adult education. A recipient that provides adult education may not, on the...

  15. Imaging of adult brainstem gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Bela, E-mail: purohitbela@yahoo.co.in; Kamli, Ali A.; Kollias, Spyros S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •BSG are classified on MRI into diffuse low-grade, malignant, focal tectal and exophytic subtypes. •Their prognosis and treatment is variable and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. •This article illustrates the imaging of adult BSGs on MRI and FET-PET. •We also describe prognostic factors and the treatment options of these tumours. -- Abstract: Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are uncommon in adults accounting for about 2% of all intracranial neoplasms. They are often phenotypically low-grade as compared to their more common paediatric counterparts. Since brainstem biopsies are rarely performed, these tumours are commonly classified according to their MR imaging characteristics into 4 subgroups: (a) diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas, (b) enhancing malignant gliomas, (c) focal tectal gliomas and (d) exophytic gliomas/other subtypes. The prognosis and treatment is variable for the different types and is almost similar to adult supratentorial gliomas. Radiotherapy (RT) with adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment of diffuse low-grade and malignant BSGs, whereas, surgical resection is limited to the exophytic subtypes. Review of previous literature shows that the detailed imaging of adult BSGs has not received significant attention. This review illustrates in detail the imaging features of adult BSGs using conventional and advanced MR techniques like diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), MR spectroscopy (MRS), as well as {sup 18}F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FET/PET). We have discussed the pertinent differences between childhood and adult BSGs, imaging mimics, prognostic factors and briefly reviewed the treatment options of these tumours.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Young-tae; Shin, Sang-hyun; Suk, Se-Il

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase of elderly population has resulted in increased prevalence of adult scoliosis. Adult scoliosis is divided into adult idiopathic scoliosis and adult degenerative scoliosis. These two types of scoliosis vary in patient age, curve pattern and clinical symptoms, which necessitate different surgical indications and options. Back pain and deformity are major indications for surgery in adult idiopathic scoliosis, whereas radiating pain to the legs due to foraminal stenosis is what...

  17. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  18. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  19. Weight Management in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lydia E.; Bartels, Stephen J.; Batsis, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality is lost), the increase risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults, the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population, and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  20. Regenerative Endodontics for Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Kim, Sahng G; Gong, Qimei; Zhong, Juan; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ye, Ling; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The goal of endodontics is to save teeth. Since inception, endodontic treatments are performed to obturate disinfected root canals with inert materials such as gutta-percha. Although teeth can be saved after successful endodontic treatments, they are devitalized and therefore susceptible to reinfections and fractures. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) has made a tremendous effort to revitalize disinfected immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents with diagnoses including pulp necrosis or apical periodontitis. The American Dental Association (ADA) in 2011 issued several clinical codes for regenerative endodontic procedures or apical revascularization in necrotic immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents. These AAE and ADA initiatives have stimulated robust interest in devising a multitude of tissue engineering approaches for dental pulp and dentin regeneration. Can the concept of regenerative endodontics be extended to revitalize mature permanent teeth with diagnoses including irreversible pulpitis and/or pulp necrosis in adults? The present article was written not only to summarize emerging findings to revitalize mature permanent teeth in adult patients but also to identify challenges and strategies that focus on realizing the goal of regenerative endodontics in adults. We further present clinical cases and describe the biological basis of potential regenerative endodontic procedures in adults. This article explores the frequently asked question if regenerative endodontic therapies should be developed for dental pulp and/or dentin regeneration in adults, who consist of the great majority of endodontic patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MRI of medulloblastoma in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malheiros, S.M.F.; Santos, A.J.; Borges, L.R.R.; Guimaraes, I.F.; Franco, C.M.R.; Gabbai, A.A. [Department of Neurology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo Rua Botucatu 740, SP 04023-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Carrete, H. [Department of Radiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo Rua Botucatu 740, SP 04023-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Stavale, J.N.; Pelaez, M.P. [Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo Rua Botucatu 740, SP 04023-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Medulloblastoma has variable appearances on MRI in both children and adults. Adults are more likely to have heterogeneous cerebellar hemisphere tumours, and this is thought to be related to the greater prevalence of desmoplastic tumours in adulthood. Few studies have addressed the MRI features of adult medulloblastoma and the specific characteristics of desmoplastic and classic tumours have not been analysed. Our aim was to analyse the imaging characteristics of desmoplastic (DM) and classic (CM) medulloblastomas in adult. We retrospectively studied preoperative MRI of six men and three women, median age 33 years, range 23-53 years, with pathologically proved medulloblastomas. There were six (67%) with DM. The tumour was in the cerebellar hemisphere in eight patients (89%), including the three with CM, one of which was bilateral. All tumours were heterogeneous, giving predominantly low or isointense signal on T1- and isointense signal on T2-weighted images. Cystic or necrotic areas in all patients were particularly visible on T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement was absent in one DM and varied from slight to intense in eight (three CM), homogeneous in one DM and patchy in seven. All tumours extended to the surface of the cerebellum and two had well-defined margins. MRI does not allow a clear distinction between DM and CM in adults. (orig.)

  2. Adult onset pityriasis rubra pilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Virendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP has always been an intriguing topic ever since its inception. It is a group of chronic disorders characterized by reddish orange plaques with pityriasiform scaling showing follicular keratoses, palmoplantar keratoderma, and sometimes, erythroderma. It occurs all over the world but with racial variations. Its incidence might vary and the age at onset, behavior, clinical appearance, and prognosis are considered to be very important for its classification. It may manifest either as Type I classical adult onset PRP, Type II atypical adult (onset PRP, or Type VI PRP (HIV-associated PRP pityriasis rubra pilaris in contrast to classical juvenile (Type III and circumscribed juvenile (Type IV encountered among children. Its diagnosis is largely clinical with microscopic pathology being a useful supplement, but it continues to be a therapeutic dilemma. We review the epidemiology of adult onset PRP here and take stock of the prevalent treatment options.

  3. Facial cystic lymphangioma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasotto, Matteo; Clozza, Emanuele; Tirelli, Giancarlo

    2012-07-01

    Lymphangiomas are uncommon congenital malformations of the lymphatic system, generally diagnosed during childhood. These malformations are rarely seen in adults, and the literature provides poor guidelines for treatment options that must be carefully applied to the facial region. Diagnosis in adult subjects is difficult to achieve, and also management of these conditions is still challenging because they tend to infiltrate adjacent tissues, causing frequent relapses. Radical surgery is the main form of treatment, avoiding the sacrifice of function or aesthetics of the patient. Two cases of cystic lymphangioma of the facial region found in adults are described from a clinical and pathologic point of view. The aim of this article was to point out that an early recognition of cystic lymphangioma is a crucial goal to initiate a prompt treatment avoiding serious complication.

  4. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K. Chesser PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults.

  5. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  6. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shmuel

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  7. Imaging Biomarkers for Adult Medulloblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, V C; Warmuth-Metz, M; Reh, C

    2017-01-01

    in MR imaging biomarkers identified in pediatric medulloblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible preoperative MRIs from 28 patients (11 women; 22-53 years of age) of the Multicenter Pilot-study for the Therapy of Medulloblastoma of Adults (NOA-7) cohort were assessed by 3 experienced neuroradiologists......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occurrence of medulloblastomas in adults is rare; nevertheless, these tumors can be subdivided into genetic and histologic entities each having distinct prognoses. This study aimed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to classify these entities and to uncover differences......-WNT/non-SHH medulloblastomas (in adults, Group 4), and histologic entities were correlated with the imaging criteria. These MR imaging biomarkers were compared with corresponding data from a pediatric study. RESULTS: There were 19 SHH TP53 wild type (69%), 4 WNT-activated (14%), and 5 Group 4 (17%) medulloblastomas. Six...

  8. Adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Sola, J.; Casademont, J.; Grau, J. M.; Graus, F.; Cardellach, F.; Pedrol, E.; Urbano-Marquez, A.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are polymorphic entities which may affect many organs and systems. Skeletal muscle involvement is frequent in the context of systemic mitochondrial disease, but adult-onset pure mitochondrial myopathy appears to be rare. We report 3 patients with progressive skeletal mitochondrial myopathy starting in adult age. In all cases, the proximal myopathy was the only clinical feature. Mitochondrial pathology was confirmed by evidence of ragged-red fibres in muscle histochemistry, an abnormal mitochondrial morphology in electron microscopy and by exclusion of other underlying diseases. No deletions of mitochondrial DNA were found. We emphasize the need to look for a mitochondrial disorder in some non-specific myopathies starting in adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1589382

  9. Urinary tract infections in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Tan, Chee; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with...

  10. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  11. Adult Onset Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH is a group of diseases of unknown cause resulting from abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-originated dendritic cells called histiocytes. The incidence is between 0.5-5.4 per million. More common in childhood, it is extremely rare in adults. In adults, pulmonary involvement with Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis usually occurs as a single-system disease. In this article, the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings of a 51-year-old male patient with both skin, bone and pulmonary involvement were presented and discussed with recent literature.

  12. Intravitreal live adult Brugian filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nageswar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human ocular infestation by live filarial worm is a rare occurrence and has been reported mostly form South-East Asia. It involves the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber and uvea. No case of intravitreal Brugian microfilaria / adult worm has been found by Medline search. Here we report a case of live intravitreal adult Brugian filaria, where the parasite was successfully removed by pars plana vitrectomy. Identification of the worm was done by light microscopy and confirmed by immuno chromatographic test.

  13. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  14. Clueless? Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annual list of adult mystery titles (in print as of September 1999) to recommend to teenagers, as well as recently published mystery readers advisory sources or nonfiction mystery-related titles that school and public libraries may want for their collections. (AEF)

  15. Are Adult Businesses Crime Hotspots? Comparing Adult Businesses to Other Locations in Three Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Seaman; Daniel Linz

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses three questions pertinent to the debate concerning the secondary crime effects of adult businesses. (1) Are adult businesses hotspots for crime? (2) How do adult businesses compare with controls with regard to crime? (3) What subclasses of adult business are most likely to be associated with crime? A study of three cities reveals that adult businesses tended to fall outside the heaviest concentrations of criminal activity. Further, adult bookstores were less related to cr...

  16. 米索前列醇在非孕期子宫的应用%The use of misoprostol to the uterus of non-pregnant period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红玉

    2007-01-01

    目的 探索米索对非孕期子宫的作用,探讨避免/减轻困难置入/取出宫内节育器妇女(尤其绝经后妇女)的痛苦的方法.方法 术前给予米索2片口服或阴道给药.结果 84例手术均顺利,手术时间短,痛苦小.结论 值得临床上进一步推广.

  17. A SURVEY AMONG NUTRITIONAL ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN IN A RURAL DISTRICT OF WESTERN-JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekartijah Martoatmodjo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyelidikan ini dilakukan didaerah pegunungan di Jawa Timur pada masyarakat dengan penghasilannya rendah, untuk mengetahui sampai berapa jauh anemia terdapat pada ibu hamil maupun pada wanita dewasa normal. Ternyata 60 - 85 per cent dari seluruh wanita yang hamil maupun tidak hamil menderita nutritional anemia ringan maupun sedang. Sedangkan bagimereka yang mempunyai nilai haemoglobin rendah tidak harus selalu diikuti dengan rendahnya kadar protein serum, Packed Cell Volume, maupun serum iron. Hal ini mungkin dapat diterangkan karena adanya beberapa makanan yang dipantang sewaktu hamil dan juga oleh karena 80 percent dari total calori yang didapat adalah berasal dari beras dan 6-7 percent calori lainnya berasal dari ikan asin. Satu-satunya sumber protein mereka adalah juga dari ikan asin. Dari hasil penyelidikan Tjiat dan Soedarmo di Rumah Sakit Umum Jakarta didapat juga hasil bahwa 50 per cent dari ibu-ibu hamil menderita anemia ringan, 40.0 percent anemia sedang, dan 9.0 percent anemia berat yang kesemuanya itu disebabkan oleh karena nilai gizi makanan mereka yang kurang.

  18. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Baarveld, Frank; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Ursum, Jennie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of

  19. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women...

  20. PECULIARITIES OF NK CELLS DIFFERENTIATION: CD56dim AND CD56bright NK CELLS AT PREGNANCY AND IN NON-PREGNANT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mikhailova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells represent a lymphocyte subpopulation which is capable of contact cytolysis of virus-infected cells and tumor cells, being a source of cytokines which stimulate other immune cells and promote immune response. NK cell differentiation is connected with a consequent acquisition of specific NK cell receptors by stem cells and formation of functional characteristics inherent to natural killer cells. The aim of this review was to describe the CD56dim and CD56bright populations of NK cells in the course of their differentiation. The authors describe NK surface receptors and expression of transcription factors at various steps of the NK differentiation. We present comparative characteristics of data concerning cytokines and cellular microenvironment influence upon NK cell differentiation, and examine a phenomenon of existing memory-like NK cells. Uterine NK cell differentiation is of special interest, since these cells represent a special NK cell population which prevails among decidual lymphocytes during pregnancy and participates in the process of placental formation and development. This review considers some features of uterine NK cell differentiation, taking into account a possibility of formation of this NK cell population from both peripheral blood NK pool, and in situ proliferation. Moreover, functional studies of the uterine NK cells allow to get closer to understanding the role of NK cells during pregnancy and abnormality of utero-placental bed regulation by NK cells in cases of pregnancy failure.

  1. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  2. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Baarveld, Frank; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Ursum, Jennie; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of p

  3. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Baarveld, F.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Ursum, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP) during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of p

  4. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 is not involved in the induction of non-pregnant guinea pig uterine contractions associated with terminal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Wes; Riccardi, Keith; Grasser, W A; Terry, Ketti; Thompson, David; Paralkar, V M

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its biological effects through 4 different receptor subtypes, EP-1, EP-2, EP-3, and EP-4. Recently we have demonstrated the importance of the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 in the healing of bone defects and fractures. This discovery led to the identification of CP-533,536, an EP-2 selective agonist, a promising therapeutic alternative for the enhancement of bone healing and the treatment of fractures (J Bone Miner Res 18 (2003) 2033). PGE2 has a myriad of effects throughout the body including the induction of uterine contractions, which results in termination of pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to determine the role of the EP-2 receptor and specifically that of CP-533,536, an EP-2 specific agonist, to induce uterine contractions and terminate pregnancy in guinea pigs, an animal model of human pregnancy. Preliminary experiments confirmed earlier reports that the guinea pig uterus was more sensitive than that of the rat. The guinea pig uterus contains the four PGE2 receptor subtypes, and ex vivo treatment of the uterus with PGE2 as expected causes profound uterine contractions. However, using receptor selective prostaglandin agonists including CP-533,536 we showed that the EP-1 and 3 receptors not the EP-2 receptor is responsible for the induction of uterine contractions of PGE2. Further, CP-533,536 did not antagonize the ability of PGE2 to induce uterine contractions in this model.

  5. Clinicopathological correlation of infective vaginal discharges in non pregnant sexually active women of reproductive age group in a tertiary care centre of Western UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the etiology of infective vaginal discharges prevalent in our area and to study its association with PID. Methods: A total of 500 patients were recruited for study attending Gynae OPD and presenting with vaginal discharge. After detailed history taking and physical examination three sterile vaginal swabs were taken from the posterior fornix and sent for culture of Candida and Trichomonas on Saborauds Dextrose Agar and Kufperberg media respectively and one was used for smear for gram’s staining to diagnose Bacterial vaginosis by Nugent’s scoring. Results: In this study, prevalence of BV, Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis was found to be 146 (29.2%, 106 (21.2% and 15(3% respectively out of 24 cases had mixed infections while no organism was found in 257 cases (51.4%. Candida infection was found to be significantly associated with presence of other complaints such as itching, burning micturition, dyspareunia etc (p1 abortions(p=0.015, presence of urogenital complaints (p5 (p5 (p=0.004. Conclusions: Bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis are the most common causes of infective vaginal discharges in our community than trichomoniasis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 349-354

  6. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  7. Wider benefits of adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuller, Tom; Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of the social outcomes of learning. It extends the discussion beyond employment and labor market outcomes to consider the impact of adult learning on social domains, with particular focus on health and civic engagement. It emphasizes the distinction between...

  8. Adult Vaccination--A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been associated with childhood. Historically, many of the most-feared communicable diseases attacked infants and toddlers, and those who survived were generally protected from those diseases as adults. During the past century tremendous advances in vaccination spared millions the morbidity and mortality associated with…

  9. Oral endotoxin in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanSaene, JJM; vanSaene, HKF; Martin, MV; Leenstra, T.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a study that measured oral endotoxin levels in healthy persons with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate microassay. Only young nonsmoking adults with a healthy dentition measured with the plaque index and a good level of oral hygiene based on a twice-daily (morning and evening)

  10. YOUNG ADULTS (20 - 35 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, disfiguring or ... The cause is unknown, and unlikely to result from repeated shaving or short hair cutting. It ... It is important to exclude drug causes such as lithium .... occur within the hair follicles covering most of the ..... especially in children.

  11. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  12. Communication Technology for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, S.

    1979-01-01

    The author draws attention to the quantitative and qualitative targets set for achievement by the National Adult Education Programme in India. She recommends a thorough and extensive use of educational media, not merely for motivational purposes, but for raising awareness and training the large numbers of instructors required to run the program.…

  13. Septic arthritis in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M

    2010-01-01

    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  14. Walking Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most ppular form of exercise among older adults and it's a great choice. What can walking do for you? strengthen muscles help prevent weight gain lower risks of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and osteoporosis improve balance lower the likelihood of falling If ...

  15. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  16. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  17. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  18. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  19. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  20. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  1. Flexible provisioning for adult learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In adult education there is a continuous, growing demand for learning opportunities that fit the specific characteristics and preferences of particular learner groups or individual learners. This requires educational institutions to rethink their business and educational models, and develop more fle

  2. Intelligence Differentiation in Adult Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Francisco J.; Colom, Robert; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel; Garcia, Luis F.

    2003-01-01

    Results for 3,340 participants taking a battery of cognitive tests and an analysis of the Spanish standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III support the differentiation of intelligence across the range of ability, with WAIS-III results more supportive of the differentiation theory. (SLD)

  3. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  4. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  5. Flexible provisioning for adult learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In adult education there is a continuous, growing demand for learning opportunities that fit the specific characteristics and preferences of particular learner groups or individual learners. This requires educational institutions to rethink their business and educational models, and develop more fle

  6. Motivational Profiles of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothes, Ana; Lemos, Marina S.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of autonomous and controlled motivation and their effects in a sample of 188 adult learners from two Portuguese urban areas. Using a person-centered approach, results of cluster analysis and multivariate analysis of covariance revealed four motivational groups with different effects in self-efficacy, engagement,…

  7. Young Adults' Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

  8. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections in adults are frequent and can induce several septic situations. Their economic cost (drugs, microbiologic samples, consultations and/or hospitalizations and stop working) and ecologic cost (second reasons of antibiotic prescription in winter and first in the rest of the year) are important. A better respect of recommendations can improve the outcome of this different infections and decrease their cost.

  9. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  10. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy.

  11. Where Now for Adult Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart; Rogers, David; Hunt, Sally; Walden, Christopher; Fryer, Bob; Gorard, Stephen; Williams, Ceri; Jones, Wendy; Hartley, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    With 6 billion British pounds of public spending reductions already on the table, and far deeper cuts inevitable, what are the prospects for adult learning in the new Parliament? Some of the regular contributors of this journal were asked what they expected and what they would like to see. Ewart Keep warns that the coalition parties' commitments…

  12. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  13. ADULT EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CLASS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONDON, JACK; AND OTHERS

    IDENTIFICATION OF SOME OF THE VARIABLES THAT ENCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION AMONG MIDDLE-CLASS AND WORKING-CLASS MEN WAS THE BASIS FOR THIS STUDY. A COMMUNITY SURVEY WAS USED TO LOCATE A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS AND NONPARTICIPANTS, AS WELL AS TO PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE DATA ABOUT THE RATES OF PARTICIPATION. A MATCHED SAMPLE…

  14. Assessing Adult Literacy by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht, Thomas G.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hofstetter, Carolyn H.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the construct and action validity of the use of simple checklists to assess the declarative knowledge component of adult's literacy by telephone. Finds significant relationships among knowledge when assessed either by listening (telephone) or by reading (mailed questionnaire) modality. Concludes that the telephone method may provide a…

  15. [Polypharmacy issues in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Tan, Jung-Ying; Chiang, Ling-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Polypharmacy is a major concern in the care of older adults. People over 65 years of age frequently have multiple medical conditions and may have cancer, which requires multiple medications for treatment. The use of multiple medications increases the risk of drug-drug interactions, non-adherence, and adverse drug reactions. Polypharmacy is a term that refers to a high number of prescribed medications, usually five and above, or the use of more medications than is clinically justified. Although medications are an important factor in improving and maintaining the quality of life of older adults, polypharmacy increases the risks of morbidity and mortality, loss of functional independence, and a multiplicity of cognitive and physical problems in this population. This article examines issues related to polypharmacy in older adults and identifies nursing strategies and interventions to detect and prevent polypharmacy. Nursing strategies discussed include: (1) increasing patient knowledge of pharmacological issues, (2) increasing patient medication management competency, (3) promoting safe patient medication practices, and (4) enhancing patient education. Nurses must be familiar with medicine regimens, understand the primary factors that affect adherence, and participate in continuing education to enhance their ability to safeguard older adult patients.

  16. Social Environment and Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.; Conti, Gary J., Ed.

    This monograph contains papers from an institute on the theme of adult learning in the social environment. "Bill Moyers' Journal: An Interview with Myles Horton" provides excerpts from a televised interview that discusses Myles Horton's life, work, and association with the Highlander Folk School. "Myles Horton's Views on Learning in…

  17. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  18. College-Age & Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this age group, as well as the students themselves and their parents. Check out our list of more than 400 addiction specialty study programs at colleges and universities around the country. Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 Infographic ...

  19. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  20. Adult Education Research in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Jelenc

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We found in the 'state of the art' study on adult education research in Slovenia  that in the period 1989-1993 in Slovenia there was quite extensive and intensive research activity on ad uit education. Here are some figures to confirm this statement: 33 research projects were carried out in 11 institutions, and 23 researchers were involved in researches. The research projects were analysed and presented in detail by: kind of providers, research themes and priorities, sources and ways of financing, development of research infrastructure (publicizing, bibliographical resources, training and professional associations of researchers and extension and ways of international cooperation. Comparing the present sitation with the findings mentioned above we assess that the relatively favourable situation from the period approx five years ago is deteriorating getting worser. There are fewer research conductors, the extent of financial funds is declining, the criteria for approvement of aplicative and fundamental research at the Ministry for Science and Technology are higher, the interest of the Ministry of Education and Sport in research themes is getting narrower and therefore adult education is not treated as a priority; in the structure of researches at present, developmental research prevails, but even here the restrictive financing policy of the Ministry for Education and Sport is not supporting developmental researches as much as before. The development of research infrastructure is stili following the general positive trend of the development of adult education. We condude that special support and measures (special criteria for approvement of research, development of institutions, research staff development and training, development of infrastructure and international cooperation should be adopted for the more prosperous development of research on adult education; adult education in Slovenia is stili a very young field of activity, and andragogy is

  1. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  2. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - adult; Rescue breathing and chest compressions - adult; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - adult; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child 9 years and older; Rescue breathing ...

  3. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  4. General Information about Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  6. The Dynamic Mandala of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines basic assumptions and principles underlying adult education and describes today's challenges: maintaining democracy, technological changes, explosion of information, global competition/cooperation, environment, and universal human rights. Advocates a holistic world view of adult education. (SK)

  7. Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Healthcare Professionals Weakened Immune System and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... up to age 26 years Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  8. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  9. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  10. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  11. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  12. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These are adults with serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs; hearing; seeing; or concentrating, remembering, or making decisions. ... Adults with mobility limitations (serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs) are the least likely to get any aerobic ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute ... bleeding and forming blood clots. Smoking, previous chemotherapy treatment, and exposure to radiation may affect the risk ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  16. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  17. Professionalisation of adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Milana, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Increasing interest in lifelong learning has led to increasing interest in adult education and training and, at European level, increasing interest in the qualification of those who are going to teach the growing number of adults expected to take part in adult education and training. The article......, which is based on the Danish results of a European project on the qualification of (prospective) adult educators, shows that in spite of a long tradition of adult education, this increased interest in the qualification of adult educators is only vaguely mirrored in Danish plans and strategies for adult...... education, where quality is mainly defined in terms of usefulness for the labour market. The study is carried out as a combination of document analysis of relevant policy papers and narrative interviews with participants in qualification programmes for adult educators....

  18. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... evidence to make a recommendation for or against screening all older adults for cognitive impairment. The Task Force recognizes that ... there was not enough evidence to determine whether screening all older adults would be beneficial. It therefore could not recommend ...

  19. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  20. Choking - adult or child over 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal thrusts - adult or child over 1 year; Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year: Choking - back ... back blows, or both. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver): Stand behind the person and wrap your arms ...

  1. Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meningococcal Disease Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults Facts about Meningococcal Disease for Adults What is meningococcal ... risks associated with the vaccines. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, and ...

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  3. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to ... acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Enlarge Anatomy of the bone. The bone is made up ...

  4. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute ... bleeding and forming blood clots. Smoking, previous chemotherapy treatment, and exposure to radiation may affect the risk ...

  5. The Dynamic Mandala of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines basic assumptions and principles underlying adult education and describes today's challenges: maintaining democracy, technological changes, explosion of information, global competition/cooperation, environment, and universal human rights. Advocates a holistic world view of adult education. (SK)

  6. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy c

  7. Adult learning and naval leadership training

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Adult learning embraces andragogy, constructivism, Transformative Learning Theory, praxis, and the understanding that not all adults are prepared initially for complete learning autonomy. The concept of andragogy can be traced to the Nineteenth Century, and the volume of follow-on research has reinforced the basic tenants of adult learning. It is, therefore, valid to expect that adherence to adult learning will indicate one measure of ...

  8. Ideas on Reform of Adult English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁桂春

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the situation of adult English teaching and proves that adult English teaching is time-consuming with low efficiency. To meet the need of the future society in China and the economic globalization in 21st century and the features of adult English learners, we should use practical English teaching materials and communication approach to improve the quality of adult English teaching.

  9. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally affected by hearing loss and may be mitigated by CI.

  10. CT evaluation of acetabular dysplasta in adults.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methods of measurement by CT and their clinical significance for acetabular dysplasia(AD) in adults. Methods: CT imaging was examined and measured in 33 adult patients with AD, compared with the normal control group of 210 adults. Results: This study showed the results of AD patients

  11. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  12. Suggestions for a Realistic Adult Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Philip H.

    1985-01-01

    Five sets of implementation problems of adult education are examined: (1) diffusion of organizational responsibility, (2) lack of an integrated approach, (3) aims and priorities of adult education and the lack of learner motivation, (4) resource requirements, and (5) the imposition by formal education of constraints upon adult education. (RM)

  13. A Public View of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Mike; Newsom, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of 228 magazine articles indexed by adult education in "Reader's Guide" (1970-87) indicated that, although accurately portraying the field for the most part, articles largely ignore self-directed learning, adult education as a field of university study, and the existence of professional adult educators. (SK)

  14. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  15. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  16. Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeren, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

  17. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  18. Mentoring during Adolescence and Adult Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Pola Christina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant relationship between mentoring and adult resilience, specifically adults that were mentored as adolescents. The study sample comprised of 657 adults from various locations across the country. For this quantitative study, they completed a two-part questionnaire made up of the…

  19. Technology and Innovation in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathy P.

    2017-01-01

    "Technology and Innovation in Adult Learning" introduces educators and students to the intersection of adult learning and the growing technological revolution. Written by an internationally recognized expert in the field, this book explores the theory, research, and practice driving innovation in both adult learning and learning…

  20. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  1. Recognition and Adult Education: An Incongruent Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Building on narratives of students in adult education in Sweden, where the majority of the students are young adults, this paper argues that adult education has both negative and positive aspects in helping individuals to be recognised as valuable. Students, often part of the precariat class, have not always been able to survive in the job market…

  2. A Public View of Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Mike; Newsom, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of 228 magazine articles indexed by adult education in "Reader's Guide" (1970-87) indicated that, although accurately portraying the field for the most part, articles largely ignore self-directed learning, adult education as a field of university study, and the existence of professional adult educators. (SK)

  3. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  4. Children Grow Up: Autism in Adolescents & Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kathleen; Griesman, Brenda

    The booklet examines issues associated with autism in adolescents and adults. Teenagers with autism exhibit behaviors not unlike their nondisabled peers, and standard definitions of the syndrome may not be relevant at that age. Brief articles explore the range of emotions families may encounter with a young adult or adult who has autism, typical…

  5. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB48 TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,...

  6. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  7. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  8. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  9. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  10. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  11. Adult Learners, Learning and Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Ten articles focusing on adult learning services in public libraries highlight global trends, support for intentional change, counseling and information needs of adult learners, adult learner services at Pratt Library and North York (Ontario) library, process of learning, administrative considerations, political factors, and implications for…

  12. Empowering the Older Adult through Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Dorothy Anne

    2006-01-01

    An opportunity exists for those working with older adults in nursing homes to significantly encourage independence in the older adult using a creative approach. The use of folklore is suggested as a means for assisting the older adult toward a reconnection with the individuation process.

  13. An adult intussusception mimicking early appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Chun Tseng; Cheng-Ting Hsiao; Yu-Cheng Hung

    2012-01-01

    Adult intussusception is rare with variable clinical presentation. We reported a case of adult intussusception presenting with symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. The patient presented as an abdominal pain from epigastric area with shifting gradually to RLQ. The atypical presentation of adult intussusception remains a diagnostic challenge to the emergency physician.

  14. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  15. Effective Literacy Instruction for Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications for Adult Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Adults with learning disabilities (LD) attending adult basic education, GED programs, or community colleges are among the lowest performers on measures of literacy. For example, on multiple measures of reading comprehension, adults with LD had a mean reading score at the third grade level, whereas adults without LD read at the fifth grade level.…

  16. Why Teach mathematics to Adults?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Lene Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    an analysis of the development of this new mathematics course. I have focused on reasons given by three different groups of active partners in the curriculum development process. I have focused on: (1) Politicians and Officials (2) The Curriculum Planners of PAE-mathematics (3) A selected group of mathematics...... a framework or a tool for my analysis of the three discourses, which consists of three elements. I identify the explicit reasons asking the question "Why teach mathematics to adults?" to the texts of each discourse. To identify the implicit reasons, I assume that it is necessary to construct a need...... a construction of need for education or implicit reasons in the Mathematics Teachers Discourse.    Even that there are common explicit reasons for providing adults with mathematics education my analysis has shown that there are conflicting implicit reasons, and that these are based on different understandings...

  17. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A;

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc......INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  18. Ageing adults and digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    of the elderly, three dominant discourses are identified. These are concerned with a generational digital divide, maintenance of health and general wellbeing as well as the ageing adults as an attractive marked. Notions of economical productivity inform most of the available work, often explicitly and at other......On the basis of Foucauldian notions of power, discipline and discourse it is here examined how ageing adults are constituted in relation to digital games within the existing research. Reviewing the available literature with a focus on justifications for research, aims and the portrayal...... times more implicitly. On this basis, the analysed research tends to offer digital games as disciplinary means to maintain, correct or tame the aging citizens. Either as technologies of the self, used in the individual’s self shaping, or as ways to contain and maintain the “disobedient” bodies and minds...

  19. Participation patterns in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    of investment in the development and maintenance of skills over the lifespan of individuals is to a large extent interconnected with a high-level of non-market coordination via institutional arrangements and/or specific public policy measures. Such arrangements and measures are seen to alleviate coordination......This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels...... problems that otherwise lead to underinvestment in skills and/or inequity in the distribution of access to education and training and hence skills. Hence, it is argued that institutional contexts and public policy measures condition participation patterns in adult education, and are thus worthwhile...

  20. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224