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Sample records for non-pregnant dairy cows

  1. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  2. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...... was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited...... and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals....

  3. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Meyer, Ulrich; Winkler, Janine; Ulrich, Sebastian; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Rehage, Jürgen; Häussler, Susanne; Sauerwein, Helga; Locher, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Diet change and fatness are supposed to challenge the immune system of the cow. Therefore, immunological and haematological consequences of adaptation to and continued feeding of a high-energy diet were studied in eight non-pregnant, non-lactating Holstein cows over 16 weeks. Blood haptoglobin concentration remained unaltered, suggesting that an acute phase reaction was not induced. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated oxidative burst capacity of granulocytes increased significantly in the course of the experiment after an initial drop. While total leucocyte counts increased, the proportion of granulocytes increased and that of lymphocytes decreased at the same time as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) lymphocytes did. Capability of rumen microbes to detoxify the immune-modulating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was not compromised as indicated by the exclusive presence of de-DON as the detoxified DON metabolite in blood. In conclusion, both diet change and prolonged positive energy balance influenced the bovine immune system.

  4. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  5. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.;

    2007-01-01

    Finishing feeding was evaluated as a way to improve carcass-, meat- and eating quality of culled dairy cows. In total, 125 Danish Friesian cows were purchased from commercial dairy herds. Cows were culled for various typical reasons at different stages of lactation, were non-pregnant and had milk...... and better technological as well as sensory quality characteristics....

  6. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  7. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  8. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  9. Coping strategies in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.In Chapter 1, current concepts of adaptation and stress a

  10. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    1998-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current concept

  11. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan

    2009-01-01

    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  12. Dry period length of dairy cows :

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative ene

  13. Dry period length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ruben

    2017-01-01

    A dry period of dairy cows is historically seen as a period during which the cow can restore its body condition and regenerate its mammary epithelium in order to be high yielding in the successive lactation. Recent work has indicated that high yielding cows generally experience a severe negative

  14. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  15. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various conditions,

  16. Effects of body weight loss on serum progesterone concentrations of non-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R O; Trevisanuto, C; Cooke, R F; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), cortisol, insulin, and progesterone (P4) of dairy cows maintaining or mobilizing body weight (BW). Eleven non-lactating, non-pregnant, and ovariectomized Gir × Holstein cows were stratified by BW and body condition score (BCS), and randomly assigned to: 1) BW loss (six cows; LOSS) and 2) BW maintenance (five cows; MAINT). Treatments were achieved through a grazing schedule using three pastures. From Days -7 to 1 of the study, all cows were maintained in Pasture A (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). From Days 2 to 30, LOSS cows were maintained in Pasture B (less than 1.0 kg of dry matter/cow daily), whereas MAINT cows were maintained in Pasture C (12 kg of dry matter/cow daily). However, from Days 3 to 30 of the study, cows from both treatments were regrouped daily into Pasture A from 0600 to 1200 h to allow LOSS cows to consume, on average, 4.5 kg/d of forage dry matter. On Day -66 of the study, all cows received an intravaginal drug releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (replaced every 14 d and removed on Day 3). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on Day 0 and 30 and blood samples were collected daily from Days 0 to 30 at 0600 and 1200 h. Changes in BW and BCS were greater (P ≤ 0.05) in LOSS cows compared to MAINT cows. Within samples collected at 0600 h, serum NEFA concentrations were often greater (P adipose tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin L Sciascia; David Pacheco; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solut...

  18. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  19. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2008-01-01

    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  20. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  1. Massive vulvar edema in 2 prepartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert O

    2014-05-01

    Two late gestation Holstein cows about to begin the third lactation developed massive vulvar edema. These were the only affected animals in the herd of 500 milking cows. The vulvar edema spontaneously regressed postpartum for both cows. Massive vulvar swelling is seldom observed in dairy cows in advanced pregnancy and is not described in the literature.

  2. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    concentrations of alcohols like propanol and alcohol related esters will increase. If the rumen capacity for alcohol metabolism inadequate this will lead to high portal uptakes of alcohols and as a mammalian hepati alcohol dehydrogenase in general is saturated at relative low alcohol concentrations high portal...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  3. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  4. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  5. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics, alter

  6. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  7. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  8. Loser cows in Danish dairy herds: definition, prevalence and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans

    2007-05-16

    During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.

  9. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnis, M R N; Hogeveen, H; Stassen, E N

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out the importance of reducing the amount and severity of foot disorders, advice to farmers should include information about the scale of the problem and the consequences in terms of economics and animal welfare. To provide support in making decisions on implementing intervention measures, insight into costs and benefits of different measures should be available. The objective of this study, therefore, is to provide more insight into the costs and benefits, for farmer and cow, of different intervention measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Intervention measures were modeled when they were applicable on a dairy farm with cubicle housing and when sufficient information was available in literature. Net costs were calculated as the difference between the costs of the measure and the economic benefits resulting from the measure. Welfare benefits were calculated as well. Cost-effective measures are: improving lying surface (mattress and bedding, €7 and €1/cow per year, respectively), reducing stocking density (break even) and performing additional foot trimming (€1/cow per year). Simultaneously, these measures have a relative high welfare benefit. Labor costs play an important role in the cost-effectiveness of labor-intensive measures. More insight into cost-effectiveness and welfare benefits of intervention measures can help to prioritize when choosing between intervention measures.

  10. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, de, Rudi

    2000-01-01

    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows, that need the farmer's attention, because of a possible case of oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables, wh...

  11. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  12. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Branka M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  13. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  14. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  15. Comparison of Bone Resorption Markers During Hypocalcemia in Dairy Cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liesegang, A; Sassi, M.-L; Risteli, J; Eicher, R; Wanner, M; Riond, J.-L

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, or the carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen could be used as markers to provide evidence of bone resorption during hypocalcemia of dairy cows...

  16. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2011-01-01

    within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...... going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward......Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...

  17. Dairy cow performance on silage from semi-natural grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Struik, P.C.; Valk, H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of including forage from semi-natural grassland in the diet of dairy cows were studied in a feeding trial with cows in mid-lactation. Diets were compared in which part of the silage from intensively managed grassland was replaced with 0% (100IM), 20% (20SPP), 40% (40SPP) or 60% (60SPP)

  18. Effect of flooring system on locomotion comfort in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhenko, Evgenij

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study influence of different flooring systems on several aspects of locomotion of dairy cows. To assess the gait on different floors, trackway analysis was used. Cows walking on a hard, slippery surface had shorter strides, wider posture and asymmetric steps. A hard, slippery surface resulted in stride shortening, wider posture and asymmetric gait. Using soft rubber mats made gait patterns more similar to those on a natural yielding surface such as sand. When cows...

  19. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R W; Athanasiou, V N

    1978-06-01

    Plasma concentration stability of glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, growth hormone, insulin were determined in lactating dairy cows. Concentrations of these metabolites and hormones were measured during a 36- to 48-hour period in 3 normal, mature dairy cows in the 2nd month of lactation. Samples were taken at 30-minute intervals; also, intensive sampling (every 10 minutes) was done at varying times in relation to feeding and milking. Of the 5 components measured, glucose concentration was the most stable, easiest to assay, and most reliable for use as a diagnostic aid in assessing metabolic carbohydrate disturbances in dairy cattle.

  20. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  1. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  2. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    milking on d 0, each cow received an intramammary infusion with 20 to 40 cfu of E. coli in 1 healthy front quarter. Paraclinical and bacteriological examinations were conducted to confirm infection. Half of the cows were subjected to liver and udder biopsies twice during the trial. Behavior was video......). The cows subjected to biopsies showed an overall decreased lying time during the entire observation period (36.3 ± 1.5 vs. 46.1 ± 2.2% of time) but not directly related to the period after the biopsies. Dairy cows show classic signs of illness behavior in the hours after intramammary challenge with E. coli...

  3. Verschillen tussen bedrijven in levensduur van melkkoeien = Differences between dairy farms in longevity of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Zijlstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Binnen dit onderzoek zijn verschillen onderzocht tussen melkveebedrijven met een hoge en een lage levensduur van melkkoeien.In this research project differences between Dutch dairy farms with high and low cow longevity were investigated.

  4. Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality ® assessment protocol for cattle (2009 was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.

  5. Recording and analysis of locomotion in dairy cows with 3D accelerometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Lammers, R.J.H.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hogewerf, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    An automated method for lameness detection can be an alternative for detection by regular observations. Accelerometers attached to a leg of the dairy cow can be used to record the locomotion of a dairy cow. In an experiment the 3D acceleration of the right hind leg during walking of three dairy cows

  6. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  7. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  8. Mammary transcriptome analysis of lactating dairy cows following administration of bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoard, S A; Hayashi, A A; Sciascia, Q; Rounce, J; Sinclair, B; McNabb, W C; Roy, N C

    2016-12-01

    The galactopoietic effect of growth hormone (GH) in lactating ruminants is well established; however the mechanisms that mediate these effects are not well understood. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of GH on the synthesis of the major casein and whey proteins. The second objective was to identify the genes and pathways that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk synthesis. A single subcutaneous injection of a commercially available slow release formulation of GH (Lactatropin®), or physiological saline solution (control) was administered to non-pregnant dairy cows (n=4/group) in mid-late lactation. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis and mammary lobulo-alveolar tissue was collected postmortem 6 days post injection. Gene expression profiles were evaluated using either a 22 000 bovine complementary DNA microarray or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and microarrays were validated by qPCR. The yield of all the major casein and whey proteins was increased 32% to 41% in GH-treated cows, with the exception of α-lactalbumin yield which was elevated by 70% relative to controls. Treatment with GH treatment tended to increase the concentration of α-lactalbumin but had no effect on the concentration of any of the major milk proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the major whey and casein genes, with the exception of α-s2-casein, was increased in response to GH compared with controls, which is consistent with the positive effect of GH on milk production. Treatment with GH treatment influenced the mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional and translational regulation, actin cytoskeleton signalling, lipid metabolism and cell death. This study has provided new insights into the cell signalling that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk production in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.

  9. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  10. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  11. Examining the occurrence of residues of flunixin meglumine in cull dairy cows by use of the flunixin cull cow survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Cynthia L; Southern, Kristal J; Cornett, Julie A; Shultz, Craig E; Cera, Deborah A

    2012-07-15

    To determine whether cull dairy cows with signs of certain clinical conditions, termed suspect, are more likely than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows to have violative concentrations of flunixin meglumine in their tissues at slaughter. Cross-sectional study. 961 cull dairy cows. Suspect cull dairy cows were selected from 21 beef slaughter establishments with a high production volume of dairy cows, and kidney and liver tissues were collected for screening. Kidney tissues were screened for antibiotics and sulfonamides with the fast antimicrobial screening test (FAST). Liver tissues were screened for flunixin meglumine with an ELISA, and quantitative analysis of ELISA-positive samples was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the same time period, liver tissues from 251 healthy-appearing cull dairy cows were collected for the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program Scheduled Sampling Plan, but were screened only for flunixin meglumine. Of 710 suspect cull dairy cows, 50 (7.04%) had liver tissue flunixin concentrations higher than the flunixin tolerance concentration (0.125 ppm). Thirty-one of 168 (18.45%) FAST-positive and 19 of 542 (3.51%) FAST-negative suspect cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Two of the 251 (0.80%) healthy-appearing cull dairy cows had violative tissue flunixin concentrations. Suspect cull dairy cows, especially those that were also FAST positive, had a significantly higher incidence of violative tissue flunixin concentrations than healthy-appearing cull dairy cows at slaughter. Targeted sampling plans for flunixin meglumine in suspect dairy cows can help to support more efficient use of resources and further safeguard the nation's food supply.

  12. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  13. Reduction of Slaughter Value of Paratuberculosis-Infected Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2009-01-01

    ) recordings from 36,455 cows from herds participating in the Danish MAP control program. Carcass weight and meat quality data were obtained from all cows and the effect of stage of MAP infection was assessed by analysis of variance. MAP infection stage was based on repeated milk antibody ELISA in both...... negative cows only had reduced slaughter results if they were ELISA-positive in the last two tests. Losses at slaughter caused by MAP were much more severe than has previously been estimated, and these losses could be predicted by repeated milk-ELISA tests with or without confirmation with fecal culture.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on slaughter weight and slaughter value of dairy cows. Two datasets were analyzed: 1) recordings from 1,031 cows in herds in a pilot-study to control MAP infections; and 2...

  14. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md;

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly t...

  15. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  16. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it investiga

  17. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  18. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  19. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown t

  20. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  1. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  2. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen f

  3. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  4. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  5. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic facto

  6. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  7. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases, subfe

  8. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open.

  9. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from a questionn...

  10. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  11. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  12. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  13. The body weight of the dairy cow. 1. Introductory study into the body weight changes in dairy cows as a management aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltz, E.; Devir, S.; Metz, J.H.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities to use the dairy cows' body weight (BW) and its changes for diagnostic and management purposes were studied. BW data of dairy cows were obtained during the day from visiting computer-controlled feeding stations. These data were analyzed on a daily and weekly basis in relation to ot

  14. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2014-01-01

    indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...... associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing...

  15. Behaviour of dairy cows subjected to an aversive veterinary procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On small dairy farms that lack appropriate handling facilities, cows can be restrained and subjected to veterinary inspection or treatment in their milking environment, which in turn might influence the behaviour of the animals, disrupting routine management. A group of seven dairy cows kept on an intensive rotational pasture system and machine milked twice a day by two familiar handlers were exposed to a thorough clinical examination for three consecutive days. Behavioural data before and after the procedure were analyzed by ANOVA. The behaviour of all the cows during the procedure indicated strong aversiveness. Treatment did not influence the flight distance (metres kept from the veterinarian or from a person unknown by the cows, assessed before and after the procedure (veterinarian: before = 1.2 ± 0.1; after 0.8 ± 0.2; unknown: 1.0 ± 0.2 after 1.2 ± 0.2; p=0.3, nor did it affect the number of agonistic interactions within the group observed before (7.1 ± 2 and after (11.5 ± 3 the procedure (p=0.3, or reactivity score (p=0.2. These results do not support the conclusion that the repeated application of unavoidable aversive veterinary procedures in the milking environment will influence the behaviour of cows during milking or their reactivity to humans.

  16. Response of Dairy Cows to Protein Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEY, Mehtap; KARSLI, M. Akif

    2014-01-01

     Proteins are the most important factors affecting microbial growth and milk production at ruminant animals. The continuation of reproduction, growth and milk production in dairy cattle are possible with existence of amino acids that is the monomers of protein in diet. The importance of protein fraction to determine the protein requirements of ruminant animals, the utilization of nitrogenous sources consumed by dairy cattle with feedstuffs and their effects on milk production has been explain...

  17. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying-balance...

  18. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing cow

  19. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their dairy cows during summer. During grazing, the limited herbage intake is the main limitation of the dairy cows' production. This study examined opportunities for grass breeders to influence the quality of perennial ry...

  20. Stability of plasma metabolites and hormones in parturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, V N; Phillips, R W

    1978-06-01

    Metabolic changes that accompany the transition from parturition to lactation in dairy cows were studied. To measure these changes, plasma samples were obtained from 20 mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows 10 days before through 10 days after parturition. They were analyzed for glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), lactic acid, ketone bodies, glucocorticoids, insulin, and growth hormone concentration. Lactic acid and glucocorticoids remained constant during the experiment, except for the day of parturition itself. In the prepartum period, changes were not detected in concentrations of hormones (glucocorticoids, insulin, and growth hormone), whereas, plasma metabolites began changing prior to parturition. Most evident were prepartum increased in FFA, ketones, and glucose. Postpartum plasma glucose concentration rapidly returned to prepartum concentrations. Plasma concentration of FFA and ketone bodies remained elevated for longer periods.

  1. Incidence and risk factors of milk fever among cross-bred dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cross-bred dairy cows in different dairy herds in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period from March 2003 to ... The disease was studied based on clinical signs and laboratory examinations of serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.

  2. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, comi...

  3. Assessment of skin damages in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, E.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Skin damages were assessed at 48 conventional and organic farms with mainly cubicle houses. Scores from 1 – 9 were given depending on type and size of the damaged skin at 9 locations of the cow: outer hock, inner hock, knee and body all left and right hand side and the neck. Only the highest score p

  4. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Imhasly, S; Naegeli, H; Baumann, S.; von Bergen, M.; Luch, A; Jungnickel, H; Potratz, S; Gerspach, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  5. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Radiša; Kirovski Danijela; Vujanac Ivan; Nešić Ksenija; Janevski Aleksandar; Marić Jovan; Kukrić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving), puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving) and late lactation (200 to 300 days af...

  6. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, Aico

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland managemen...

  7. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, MR; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen fermentation and digestion will be used which represents the effect of detailed dietary characteristics on methane production

  8. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, van, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a high proportion of ingested nitrogen is excreted in urine and faeces. This reports the effects of grassland ...

  9. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.

  10. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  11. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.

  12. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  13. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Yusuf Abba; Lawan Adamu; Konto Mohammed; Aisyah Munira Mohammed Amir; Mohammad Abubakar Sadiq; Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20) and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=1...

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was...

  15. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  16. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...

  17. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Laar, van H.; Pellikaan, W.F.; St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 b

  18. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are

  19. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  20. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  1. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Newbold, J.R.; Hulshof, R.B.A.; Perdok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based; forag

  2. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  3. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  4. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  5. [Automated detection of estrus and mastitis in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, R M

    2001-02-15

    The development and test of detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows is described in a PhD thesis that was defended in Wageningen on June 5, 2000. These models were based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, and cow activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The models alert farmers to cows that need attention, because of possible oestrus or mastitis. A first detection model for cows, milked twice a day, was based on time series models for the sensor variables. A time series model describes the dependence between successive observations. The parameters of the time series models were fitted on-line for each cow after each milking by means of a Kalman filter, a mathematical method to estimate the state of a system on-line. The Kalman filter gives the best estimate of the current state of a system based on all preceding observations. This model was tested for 2 years on two experimental farms, and under field conditions on four farms over several years. A second detection model, for cow milked in an automatic milking system (AMS), was based on a generalization of the first model. Two data sets (one small, one large) were used for testing. The results for oestrus detection were good for both models. The results for mastitis detection were varying (in some cases good, in other cases moderate). Fuzzy logic was used to classify mastitis and oestrus alerts with both detection models, to reduce the number of false positive alerts. Fuzzy logic makes approximate reasoning possible, where statements can be partly true or false. Input for the fuzzy logic model were alerts from the detection models and additional information. The number of false positive alerts decreased considerably, while the number of detected cases remained at the same level. These models make automated detection possible in practice.

  6. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  7. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stülpner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  8. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  9. Social interactions of dairy cows introduced postpartally to a separated barn section - pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis of reduced social activity of early lactating dairy cows when transferred postpartally to a separated barn section (S, group size 9.3 SD 2.1) vs. to a barn section of the main lactating herd (H, group size 130.1 SD 57.9) was tested. Social interactions of 12 cows in S and 14 cows i...

  10. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  11. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-05

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm.

  12. Sensor data on cow activity, rumination, and ear temperature improve prediction of the start of calving in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Kamphuis, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Steeneveld, W.

    2017-01-01

    Management during calving is important for the health and survival of dairy cows and their calves. Although the expected calving date is known, this information is imprecise and farmers still have to check a cow regularly to identify when it starts calving. A sensor system that predicts the momen

  13. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    throughout the periparturient period. However, the immediate post partum increment in liver release of glucose is not followed by an equivalent increment in propionate uptake, because of the lower rate of increment in feed intake compared with the rate of increment in requirements for milk synthesis......-organ transfer of nitrogen from catabolised AA. AAs seem to be prioritised for anabolic purposes, indicating the relevance of investigating effects of supplying additional protein to post partum dairy cows. Combining data from quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques on L-lactate metabolism point...

  14. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  15. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  16. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  17. Variation on DNA microsatellite of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in Baturaden Dairy Cattle Breeding Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sumantri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight microsatellite loci of which the locations were three on chromosome 6 (BTA6 namely CSN 3, BM 143 and BM 415; two on chromosome 9 (BTA9 namely ETH 225 and BM 4208; and three on chromosome 10 (BTA10 namely BP 31, BM 1237 and BM 888 were used to investigate genotypic variation of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cows in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. Research activities were carried out through some steps involving blood collection, DNA isolation, amplification on DNA fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and separation by electrophoresis with silver staining. Frequency and heterozygosity of genes under consideration were calculated. The results showed that the eight microsatellite loci exhibited a total number of 33 alleles. Locations of those alleles were five in BM 143 and BM 4208 loci; four in BM 415, CSN 3, ETH 225, BM 1237, BM 888 loci; and three in BP 31 locus. A number of 14 out of 33 alleles might be specific alleles for HF dairy cattle in Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre. The lowest heterozygosity per locus (ĥ was 0.6151 for BM 415 whilst the highest one was 0.7301 for BM 888. Additionally, the average heterozygosity for all loci (Ĥ detected in this study was 0.6768. The genotype BB on locus BM 143 and AC on locus CSN-3 significantly affected (P<0.05 the estimated breeding value of milk yield of HF cows in this location.

  18. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  19. Contrasting effects of progesterone on fertility of dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Lamb, G C

    2016-07-01

    The role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy is well known in the bovine. Subtle differences exist between dairy and beef cows because of differing concentrations of progesterone during recrudescence of postpartum estrous cycles, rate of follicular growth and maturation, proportions of 2- and 3-follicular wave cycles, and other effects on pregnancy outcomes per artificial insemination (P/AI). Because proportions of anovulatory cows before the onset of the artificial insemination (AI) period are greater and more variable in beef (usually ranging from 30 to 70%) than dairy (25%) cows, AI programs were developed to accommodate anovulatory and cycling beef cows enrolled therein. Incorporating a progestin as part of an AI program in beef cows improved P/AI by reducing the proportion of cows having premature luteal regression and short post-AI luteal phases. In both genotypes, prolonged dominant follicle growth in a reduced progesterone milieu resulted in increased (1) LH pulses, (2) preovulatory follicle diameter, and (3) concentrations of estradiol and a subsequently larger corpora lutea (CL). In contrast, the progesterone milieu during growth of the ovulatory follicle in an ovulation control program does not seem to affect subsequent P/AI in beef cows, whereas in dairy cows follicle development in an elevated compared with a low progesterone environment increases P/AI. Progesterone status in beef cows at the onset of ovulation synchronization is not related to P/AI in multiparous cows, whereas P/AI was suppressed in primiparous cows that began a timed AI program in a low-progesterone environment. In timed AI programs, elevated concentrations of progesterone just before PGF2α and reduced concentrations at AI are critical to maximizing subsequent P/AI in dairy cows, but seemingly much less important in beef cows. By inducing ancillary CL and increasing concentrations of progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin may increase P/AI when administered to beef cows 7d

  20. Dairy cow culling strategies: making economical culling decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenbauer, T W; Oltjen, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine important economic elements of culling decisions, to review progress in development of culling decision support systems, and to discern some of the potentially rewarding areas for future research on culling models. Culling decisions have an important influence on the economic performance of the dairy but are often made in a nonprogrammed fashion and based partly on the intuition of the decision maker. The computer technology that is available for dairy herd management has made feasible the use of economic models to support culling decisions. Financial components--including profit, cash flow, and risk--are major economic factors affecting culling decisions. Culling strategies are further influenced by short-term fluctuations in cow numbers as well as by planned herd expansion. Changes in herd size affect the opportunity cost for postponed replacement and may alter the relevance of optimization strategies that assume a fixed herd size. Improvements in model components related to biological factors affecting future cow performance, including milk production, reproductive status, and mastitis, appear to offer the greatest economic potential for enhancing culling decision support systems. The ultimate value of any culling decision support system for developing economic culling strategies will be determined by its results under field conditions.

  1. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production.

  2. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows.

  3. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  4. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  5. Tithonia diversifolia as a Supplementary Feed for Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Sandin; Terry, Stephanie Amelia; Sacramento, João Paulo; Silveira, Sylvia Rocha e; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; da Silva, Elsa Fernandes; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Tomich, Thierry Ribeiro; Maurício, Rogério Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T. diversifolia (6.5 and 15.4%, DM basis) which partially replaced both sugarcane and concentrates. Methane production was measured using the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) technique from d 16 to d 21 of each experimental period. Analysis of the gas samples was performed by gas chromatography. The inclusion of T. diversifolia at 15.4% DM had no effects on DM intake, milk production, nitrogen balance or methane production. There was no effect on the concentrations of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk fat (P ≥ 0.28), though individual milk fatty acids were affected. Serum concentrations of glucose, urea nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and cholesterol were unaffected by the dietary treatments (P ≥ 0.13). There was a time (2 and 6 h post-feeding) and dietary treatment effect (P < 0.01) on the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the archaeal community showed distinct clustering of the archaea populations for control and treatment diets. Taken together, our results indicate the potential of T. diversifolia as a supplementary forage for dairy cattle in the tropics. PMID:27906983

  6. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees......The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  10. Serum Calcium Response Following Oral Zinc Oxide Administrations in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen RJ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12–24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth of the hypocalcaemic response decreased with the number of zinc oxide dosings. This effect was explained as a response from the stimulation of the calcium homeostatic mechanisms. In the Zn dosed non-lactating cows responses were similar but less clear. The perspective of these findings is discussed in relation to resistance towards parturient hypocalcaemia.

  11. Increased serum serotonin improves parturient calcium homeostasis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Weaver, Samantha; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-02-01

    Hypocalcemia in dairy cows is caused by the sudden increase in calcium demand by the mammary gland for milk production at the onset of lactation. Serotonin (5-HT) is a key factor for calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. Therefore, it is hypothesized that administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, can increase 5-HT concentrations in blood and, in turn, induce an increase in blood calcium concentration. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (C group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before the estimated parturition and ceased the day of parturition, resulting in at least 4 d of infusion (8.37 ± 0.74 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected every morning before the infusions, after parturition samples were taken daily until d 7, and a final sample was collected on d 30. Milk yield was recorded during this period. No differences between groups were observed for blood glucose, magnesium, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows receiving the 5-HTP infusion showed an increase in fatty acid concentrations from d -3 to -1 before parturition. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased at d -4 related to parturition until d 5 postpartum in the 5-HTP group compared with the C group. In addition, cows from the 5-HTP group had increased 5-HT concentrations in colostrum, but not in mature milk, on d 7 postpartum. Serum calcium concentrations decreased in both groups around parturition; however, calcium remained higher in the 5-HTP group than in controls, with a significant difference between groups on d 1 (1.62 ± 0.08 vs. 1.93 ± 0.09 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively) and d 2 (1.83 ± 0.06 vs. 2.07 ± 0.07 mmol/L in control and 5-HTP groups, respectively). Additionally, colostrum yield (first milking) was lower in the

  12. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  13. Modeling milk urea of Walloon dairy cows in management perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Laloux, L; Gillon, A; Miglior, F; Soyeurt, H; Hammami, H; Bertozzi, C; Gengler, N

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an adapted random regression test-day model for milk urea (MU) and to study the possibility of using predictions and solutions given by the model for management purposes. Data included 607,416 MU test-day records of first-lactation cows from 632 dairy herds in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Several advanced features were used. First, to detect the herd influence, the classical herd x test-day effect was split into 3 new effects: a fixed herd x year effect, a fixed herd x month-period effect, and a random herd test-day effect. A fixed time period regression was added in the model to take into account the yearly oscillations of MU on a population scale. Moreover, first autoregressive processes were introduced and allowed us to consider the link between successive test-day records. The variance component estimation indicated that large variance was associated with the random herd x test-day effect (48% of the total variance), suggesting the strong influence of herd management on the MU level. The heritability estimate was 0.13. By comparing observed and predicted MU levels at both the individual and herd levels, target ranges for MU concentrations were defined to take into account features of each cow and each herd. At the cow level, an MU record was considered as deviant if it was 400 mg/L (target range used in the field) and if the prediction error was >50 mg/L (indicating a significant deviation from the expected level). Approximately 7.5% of the MU records collected between June 2007 and May 2008 were beyond these thresholds. This combination allowed for the detection of potentially suspicious cows. At the herd level, the expected MU level was considered as the sum of the solutions for specific herd effects. A herd was considered as deviant from its target range when the prediction error was greater than the standard deviation of MU averaged by herd test day. Results showed that 6.7% of the herd test-day MU levels between June

  14. Anti-inflammatory treatments in calving dairy cows: effects on haematological and metabolic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High yielding dairy cows are particularly vulnerable during the transition period to any event able to stimulate immune system. In contrast, response to these events is easily controlled in other stages of lactation.

  15. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  16. WASmith The genetic potential of dairy cows has increased to such ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbohydrates) may allow increased energy consumption .... supplemented diets for dairy cows should be 0,8 to 1,0% of diet DM and that the Ca should originate from more rumen- soluble calcium sources like calcium chloride (palmquist.

  17. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simin Poorkasegaran Asadollah Teimouri Yansari

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg...

  18. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Namulonge Agricultural and Animal Production Research lnstitule, P.O. Box, 7084, Kampala, Uganda. 21-'acult)' of ..... dairy cows could be improved by supplementing with small quantities, up to 3 kg ... Selected Topics in animal. Nutrition.

  19. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  20. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows...

  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period...

  2. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: Effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. G.; Nielsen, M. O.; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  3. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    the possibility to house a sick or injured cow away from her normal pen. Hospital areas typicallyinvolved pen housing (89% of farms), and bedded pack was the most common flooring used (88%). Com-promised cows were frequently housed in the same enclosure as fresh cows (45%), calving cows (36%),close up cows......Compromised dairy cows, such as those suffering from illness or injury, are likely to have different behav-ioral priorities and needs compared to healthy cows. Although hospital pens are typically required inanimal welfare standards and assessment programs, there is surprisingly little information...... management of hospital pens, as well as decisions concerning humane endpoints when euthanasiais considered. The survey was sent to 300 Iowa dairy farmers including organic, large (>500 cows) andordinary (≤500 cows) dairy farms, with overall response rate of 41%. Eighty-two percent of respondentshad...

  4. Grazing increases the concentration of CLA in dairy cow milka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, M N; Kanneganti, R; Massingill, L J; Broderick, G A; Park, Y; Pariza, M W; Ferguson, J D; Wu, Z

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether increased CLA in milk of dairy cows fed fresh pasture compared with alfalfa and corn silages was because of ruminal or endogenous synthesis. Eight Holsteins were fed a total mixed ration using alfalfa and corn silages as the forage source in confinement or grazed in a replicated crossover design. The proportion of total fatty acids as CLA (primarily c9, t11-18:2) in g/100 g was 0.44 v. 0.28 in ruminal digesta, 0.89 v. 0.53 in omasal digesta and 0.71 v. 1.06 in milk during confinement feeding and grazing, respectively. Blood plasma CLA was 0.54 v. 1.05 mg/l for the two treatments, respectively. The increased concentration of CLA in milk with grazing likely resulted from increased synthesis through desaturation of t11-18:1 in the mammary gland.

  5. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thiangtum, W; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T; C. Yuangklang; M.W.A. Verstegen; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requirement of lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions by measuring Na levels in saliva, milk and faeces. RESULTS: The concentrations of Na and potassium (K) in milk, faeces and serum were not affecte...

  6. Production performance of dairy cows after the dietary addition of clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Casini; Davide Creston; Paolo Bosi

    2010-01-01

    Clays are frequently proposed for the addition to dairy cattle diets to reduce the transfer of mycotoxins in milk. This study  examined the effect of the addition of Clinoptilolite to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk com-  position. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows (average lactation length: 142 d) were blocked according to milk production,  parity, and days of lactation for assignment to one of two dietary treatments: control diet; control diet + ...

  7. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taweel, H.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive value. However, perennial ryegrass suffers from two main disadvantages: firstly, its unbalanced nutrient content in terms of crude protein (CP) and energy availability at rumen level and secondly, its low dry matter...

  8. Serum calcium response following oral zinc oxide administrations in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    Six non-pregnant cows were allocated into 3 groups. Group 1 comprised a pair of lactating cows, whereas groups 2 and 3 each comprised a pair of non-lactating cows. The cows in groups 1 and 2 were dosed intraruminally by stomach tube with zinc oxide at 120 mg Zn per kg of bodyweight at weekly...... intervals for a period of 33 days. Each cow received a total of 4 doses of zinc oxide. Group 3 served as non-treated control group. Blood samples were collected from all 6 cows daily. Serum was analysed for concentration of calcium. Within 12-24 h of each zinc oxide administration the serum calcium...... of the lactating cows dropped dramatically indicating the existence of an antagonistic effect between Zn and Ca. The first Zn induced hypocalcaemic episode in the lactating cows was followed by a rise in serum calcium to a level above the pre-dosing level and above the mean value of the control group. The depth...

  9. Risk factors for digital dermatitis in dairy cows kept in cubicle houses in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2005-09-30

    The presence of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows has increased considerably over the last 10 years in The Netherlands, resulting in a current prevalence of approximately 30% in cows kept in cubicle houses. Our objective was to evaluate a diversified sample of cow- and herd-related risk factors for DD in dairy cows housed in cubicle houses with different flooring systems. Associations were analysed in random-effects logistic-regression models using 2,134 cows (37 herds) and 2,892 cows (47 herds) in the pasture and housing studies, respectively. At cow-level, the odds of having DD were increased in the case of lower parity and lactation. Important risk factors at herd-level were: restricted grazing time, fast rise in concentrate amount after calving, feeding by-products, herd trimming only at long intervals, and introduction of dry cows into the lactating herd before calving. The odds for DD were lower if cows were housed on a slatted floor with manure scraper and provided long and wide cubicles, and if calves were reared in the dairy cows' accommodation.

  10. Metabolic responses and "omics" technologies for elucidating the effects of heat stress in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhao, Shengguo; Tian, He; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Yang, Hongjian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-11-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows. Analysis of metabolic changes and "omics" data demonstrated that HS is characterized by reduced lipolysis, increased glycolysis, and catabolism of amino acids in dairy cows. Here, analysis of the impairment of immune function during HS and of the inflammation that arises after long-term HS might suggest new strategies to ameliorate the effects of HS in dairy production.

  11. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  12. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  13. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  14. The effect of thermal environment on daily milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metodija Trajchev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of environmental air temperatures on the milk production of dairy cows. Therefore, the experiment was carried out at the height of summer (from 15th of June to 15th of September in three small family dairy farms and one commercial dairy farm. In total, 51 dairy cows from the black-white breed were subjected to the study. The season of research was divided into three periods: the period before the hot season, the period of the hot season and the period after the hot season. In each period there were three test days selected that were used for recording the air temperature inside and outside the barns and cow’s daily milk yield. Unvaried associations between the test day milk yield of cows and independent environmental and cow factors were done using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements. The statistical model showed that the farm management system and the hot season of the year had significant infl uence on daily milk yield per cow at the level of p<0.001. The test day per periods of the season when milk control was performed and the average test day environmental temperature showed statistically significant influence on daily milk yield per cow at level p<0.01. The present results revealed that environmental air temperatures contributes to considerable loss in the milk production of dairy cows.

  15. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  16. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J

    2013-09-01

    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (P0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds.

  17. THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thalib

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cowproductivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairycows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Controlfed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%,Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet +probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurementswere conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methaneproduction. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improvedFCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and totalsolid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%;11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination ofCRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combinationof CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. ProbioticNoterae improved milk quality.

  18. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.

    2008-07-01

    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  19. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  20. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P subtilis natto improves milk production and milk components yield, decreases SCC and promotes the growth of total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria, which indicate that B. subtilis natto has potential to be applied as a probiotic for dairy cows.

  1. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  2. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be predicted as ear

  3. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a mixt

  4. Improved knowledge about Conception Rates Influences the Decision to Stop Insemination in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Vries, de A.; Jorritsma, R.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    The conception rate in dairy cows is dependent on a number of cow factors such as days in milk and insemination number. Unfortunately, some of these factors were not accounted for in optimal insemination and replacement decision models. By using wrong estimates of the conception rate, the calculated

  5. Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

    1997-05-01

    The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support.

  6. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  7. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic optimization of decisions with respect to dairy cow health management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed towards decision support in dairy cow health management. Attention was focused on clinical mastitis, in many countries considered to be the most important dairy health problem. First a statistical analysis was carried out to obtain biological and ec

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature during heat stress experience lower milk yield and fertility. Given that rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable in dairy cattle, genetic selection for regulation of body temperature should reduce effects of heat stress on production. One goal...

  10. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with

  11. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the effect

  12. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Strong adaptive changes occur in the peri-parturient dairy cow related to a marked rise in dry matter intake and alteration in diet composition after calving. Early lactation dairy cattle are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired rumen function during the transition period, with detrimenta

  13. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  14. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraguha, Blaise; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Mushonga, Borden

    2015-07-14

    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5%) were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  15. New surgical technique to correct urovagina improves the fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, J V; Astiz, S; Elvira, L; López-Gatius, F

    2008-02-01

    Several surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of urovagina as a major cause of infertility in cows. However, so far no technique seems to be successful in all cases. Given that an incompetent or damaged constrictor vestibuli muscle is a feature of cows with urovagina, we hypothesized that surgical correction of urovagina by cerclage of the vestibulovaginal junction under the vaginal wall cranial to the urethral opening would prevent cranial flow of urine and improve fertility. Our study was performed on 39 non-pregnant lactating Holstein-Friesian cows suffering urovagina, with a vaginal content of urine exceeding 100mL and with evident incompetence of the constrictor vestibuli muscle. Cows were randomly assigned to a Control (untreated cows, n=20) or Experimental (n=19) group. An encircling polydioxanone suture was placed in the vaginal wall at the vestibulovaginal junction to create a vestibulovaginal cerclage in the Experimental cows. Surgery was observed to resolve urovagina in 17 (89.5%) of the 19 treated cows. Pregnancy was recorded in 7/20 (35%) and 14/19 (74%) cows in the Control and Experimental groups, respectively. Using logistic regression procedures and based on the odds ratio, we determined that cows undergoing surgical correction of urovagina were 5.2 times more likely to become pregnant than untreated cows (P=0.015). Our results suggest that vestibulovaginal junction cerclage prevents the cranial flow of urine and improves the function of the constrictor vestibuli muscle in cows suffering urovagina. They also indicate that, under these conditions, urovagina correction may dramatically increase fertility.

  16. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows with experimental hypocalcemia and milk fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasaki, K; Yamagishi, N; Kizaki, K; Sasaki, K; Devkota, B; Hashizume, K

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dairy cows with experimentally induced hypocalcemia or spontaneous milk fever were subjected to oligo-microarray analysis to identify specific biomarker genes...

  17. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, substantial improvements can be obtained by developing models that are specific to a given site....

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  19. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  20. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms.

  1. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows from Activity and Lying Data using on-line Individual Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2011-01-01

    Automated monitoring and detection of oestrus in dairy cows is attractive for reasons of economy in dairy farming. While high performance detection has been shown possible using high-priced progesterone measurements, detection results were less reliable when only low-cost sensor data were available......-line from data to cope with behaviours of individuals. Performance is validated on 18 sequences of data where definite proof of prior oestrus was available in form of subsequent pregnancy. These data were extracted from data sequences from 44 dairy cows over an 8 months period. The results show sensitivity...

  2. Problems in the Development of China’s Dairy Cow Breeding and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the development of dairy cow breeding in China,and analyzes the problems in the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:the breeding scale is small;the pasture grass production cannot meet demand;the proportion of fine breed is not high and the dairy cow yield per unit is low;it lacks epidemic prevention and quarantine mechanism;economic benefits of large-scale breeding are not high.These problems have become bottleneck in the development of the dairy cow breeding.Finally countermeasures are put forward for the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:developing large-scale breeding,and increasing subsidies;supporting the development of grass industry,and ensuring the supply of good feed;strengthening cultivation and promotion of fine breed,and promoting the quality of fresh milk;improving the accountability system of dairy products,and giving play to supervisory role of the news media.

  3. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow......Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43) and 32.6% (14/43), respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD) and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34...

  4. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical cases included 15 E. coli five Klebsiella pneumoniae, three K. oxytoca, three K. ozaenae, five Enterobacter aerogenes, three Serratia marcescens and one Serratia spp. Four control cows were culled, three of them because of chronic coliform mastitis and one because of postcoliform infection agalactia. Incidence rate of clinical gram-negative mastitis was 2.57% in vaccinated cows and 12.77% in unvaccinated cows. The estimated risk ratio, the measure of risk of having clinical gram-negative mastitis for vaccinated cows to unvaccinated cows, was 0.20 (p less than 0.005), indicating a strong relationship between vaccination and lack of clinical gram-negative mastitis. The results of this trial indicate that the administration of the E. coli J5 vaccine is protective against natural challenge to gram-negative bacteria, and reduces the incidence of clinical gram-negative mastitis in dairy cows during the first three months of lactation. PMID:2670166

  5. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternman, Emma; Pastell, Matti; Agenäs, Sigrid;

    2014-01-01

    , so this study examined whether these behavioural estimates also apply for adult cows.Behaviour observations and electrophysiological readings were recorded for a total of 13 cows during one recording session per cow lasting on average 4. h 22. min. Recording started when the cow was fully awake...... that the behavioural estimates for assessing total sleep time in calves could not be applied to adult cows as they markedly overestimated NREM and REM sleep time. Behavioural estimates for NREM and REM sleep time were on average 124 ± 17 and 14 ± 4. min per cow, respectively, while the electrophysiological estimate......Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i.e. agreement between behavioural indicators of sleep and corresponding electrophysiological measures. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed...

  6. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  7. Passage of feed in dairy cows : use of stable isotopes to estimate passage kinetics through the digestive tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cows possess a unique digestive system to digest fibre-rich diets. Ingested feed is retained and degraded in the rumen by the enteric microbial population and is passed from the rumen to the following segments of the digestive tract. Passage of feed determines energy and protein supply to the

  8. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanshi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs by time (week interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and −4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  9. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2007-02-01

    The effects of grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating dairy cows on free ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and indicators of inflammation were determined. Four mid lactation dairy cows were divided into 2 groups of 2 cows and used in a repeated switchover design. During each period, SARA was induced in 2 animals for 5 subsequent days by replacing 25% of their total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with a concentrate made of 50% wheat and 50% barley. The other 2 cows acted as controls and were fed a total mixed ration diet in which 44% of dry matter was concentrate. On average, inducing SARA did not affect milk composition, increased the duration of rumen pH below 5.6 from 187 to 309 min/d, and increased free ruminal LPS concentration from 24,547 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 128,825 EU/mL. Averaged across treatments, milk fat yield and milk protein yield were 0.66 and 1.00 kg/d, respectively. Rumen pH and milk fat data suggest that control cows also experienced ruminal acidosis, albeit a milder form of this disease than SARA cows. Serum LPS concentration in both control and SARA cows was less than the detection limit of inflammation including haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum copper, or white blood cells. These results suggest that grain-induced SARA in mid lactation dairy cows increases the lysis of gram-negative bacteria and activates an inflammatory response.

  10. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  11. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Andrew, Sheila; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-04-22

    Application of manure from antibiotic-treated animals to crops facilitates the dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants into the environment. However, our knowledge of the identity, diversity, and patterns of distribution of these antibiotic resistance determinants remains limited. We used a new combination of methods to examine the resistome of dairy cow manure, a common soil amendment. Metagenomic libraries constructed with DNA extracted from manure were screened for resistance to beta-lactams, phenicols, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. Functional screening of fosmid and small-insert libraries identified 80 different antibiotic resistance genes whose deduced protein sequences were on average 50 to 60% identical to sequences deposited in GenBank. The resistance genes were frequently found in clusters and originated from a taxonomically diverse set of species, suggesting that some microorganisms in manure harbor multiple resistance genes. Furthermore, amid the great genetic diversity in manure, we discovered a novel clade of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. Our study combined functional metagenomics with third-generation PacBio sequencing to significantly extend the roster of functional antibiotic resistance genes found in animal gut bacteria, providing a particularly broad resource for understanding the origins and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes in agriculture and clinical settings. IMPORTANCE The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. The origins of resistance are complex, and a better understanding of the impacts of antibiotics used on farms would produce a more robust platform for public policy. Microbiomes of farm animals are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which may affect distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens. Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance genes in manures of animals subjected

  12. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    H. D. Nugroho; I.G. Permana; Despal

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF) in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum), corn silage, and concentrate (R0), and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum), corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1). This research used eight dairy cows with...

  13. A simulation model "CTR Dairy" to predict the supply of nutrients in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding patterns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilibroste, P.; Dijkstra, J.; Robinson, P.H.; Tamminga, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation rumen model has been developed to function under non-steady state conditions in order to allow prediction of nutrient availability in dairy cows managed under discontinuous feeding systems. The model simulates availability of glycogenic, aminogenic and lipogenic nutrients to lactating d

  14. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  15. The effect of the housing system on the welfare quality of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the housing systems (loose vs tie-stall on the welfare of dairy cows and to test the hypothesis that dairy cows in loose housing systems have a better welfare quality than those kept in tie-stalls. Sixty commercial dairy farms (30 with loose and 30 with tie-stall housing system were selected for evaluation, using mainly animal-based measures, as the applied Welfare Quality® protocol allows it. A total number of 2624 milking cows were assessed in the winter period. There were significant differences between the two housing systems for the majority of the parameters within the four welfare principles. Significant differences were also found in terms of the mean scores of the welfare criteria and principles, with the majority pointing out the loose system as better. Based on the scores of the four principles, most of the farms with loose housing were classified as enhanced, while the majority of the tie-stall farms were acceptable. The results show that the welfare quality of dairy cows is greatly influenced by the housing system, and that the loose system is more advantageous when it comes to the feeding, housing and behaviour of the dairy cow.

  16. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H; Dick, C Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-07-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements included individual cow daily feed intakes, daily milk production, body weights, and monensin residues in composite milk samples from each cow. There were no detectable monensin residues (cows receiving a dose of 72 ppm monensin exhibited up to a 20% reduction in dry matter intake, and a 5% to 15% drop in milk production from the pre-challenge period. Cows receiving doses of 144 and 240 ppm monensin exhibited rapid decreases in feed intake of up to 50% by the 2nd d and milk production losses of up to 20% and 30%, respectively, within 4 d. Lactating cows receiving up to 4865 mg monensin per day had no detectable monensin residues (dairy cattle receiving monensin at recommended levels are safe for human consumption.

  17. Seroprevalence of Babesia infections of dairy cows in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lijia; Kim, Chulmin; Inpankaew, Tawin; Sununta, Chainirun; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2010-06-24

    The present study was conducted to demonstrate the epidemiological distribution of bovine babesiosis in the northern regions of Thailand. A total of 700 serum samples of dairy cows in the northern provinces (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lumpang, and Mae Hong Sorn) were tested for antibodies against Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Species-specific enzyme-linked (rRAP-1/CTs) were performed. According to the results, 517 (73.8%) and 484 (69.1%) were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. In addition, 370 (52.9%) were positive for mixed infections by both ELISAs. On the other hand, all samples were also examined by the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) with B. bovis- and B. bigemina-infected blood smears. According to the IFAT, 482 (68.8%) and 531 (75.8%) were positive for these infections, respectively. The overall concordances between the ELISA and IFAT techniques were 93.6% and 90.7% for B. bovis and B. bigemina infections, respectively. These results indicated that babesia infections are widespread in the northern parts of Thailand. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the epidemiology of Babesia infections using rRAP-1/CT-based ELISAs in these areas.

  18. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. Animals A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Methods Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Results Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices (“Homeostasis Model Assessment” HOMA, “Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index” RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Conclusion and clinical importance Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin. PMID:28107442

  19. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  20. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  1. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F

    2014-01-01

    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield.

  2. Soyhulls as an alternative feed for lactating dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipharraguerre, I R; Clark, J H

    2003-04-01

    Dairy producers use soyhulls, a byproduct of soybean processing, to replace either grain or forage in diets of lactating dairy cows. In view of the nutritional and economical value of soyhulls it is anticipated that this practice will continue to increase in popularity among nutritionists and producers of ruminant animals. This paper reviews information regarding the nutritional value of soyhulls and the effects of feeding this alternative feed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and utilization, and performance of dairy cows. Soyhulls can replace corn grain to supply about 30% of the dry matter (DM) in high-grain diets without negatively affecting either the fermentation or digestion of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract or the performance of dairy cows. Additionally, data suggest that soyhulls might successfully replace forage to supply feeding soyhulls appears to be largely affected by the type of carbohydrate being replaced by soyhulls; the amount, type, and physical form of the dietary forage; and the incidence of either negative or positive associative effects before and after the addition of soyhulls to the original diet. Unfortunately, the paucity of data from experiments in which soyhulls constituted more than 25 to 30% of the dietary DM restricts the ability to identify the maximum amount of soyhulls that can be used in diets of dairy cows. Information from studies in which > or = 25 to 30% of dietary DM supplied as either cereal grains or forages are replaced with soyhulls is needed to better understand and predict the production of dairy cows fed diets containing the hulls. This knowledge is essential for maximizing the use of soyhulls in diets for dairy cows.

  3. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  4. Central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, H; van der Lende, T; Kommadath, A; te Pas, M F W; Smits, M A; Kaal, L M T E

    2014-05-01

    The expression of oestrous behaviour in Holstein Friesian dairy cows has progressively decreased over the past 50 years. Reduced oestrus expression is one of the factors contributing to the current suboptimal reproductive efficiency in dairy farming. Variation between and within cows in the expression of oestrous behaviour is associated with variation in peripheral blood oestradiol concentrations during oestrus. In addition, there is evidence for a priming role of progesterone for the full display of oestrous behaviour. A higher rate of metabolic clearance of ovarian steroids could be one of the factors leading to lower peripheral blood concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in high-producing dairy cows. Oestradiol acts on the brain by genomic, non-genomic and growth factor-dependent mechanisms. A firm base of understanding of the ovarian steroid-driven central genomic regulation of female sexual behaviour has been obtained from studies on rodents. These studies have resulted in the definition of five modules of oestradiol-activated genes in the brain, referred to as the GAPPS modules. In a recent series of studies, gene expression in the anterior pituitary and four brain areas (amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal hypothalamus and ventral hypothalamus) in oestrous and luteal phase cows, respectively, has been measured, and the relation with oestrous behaviour of these cows was analysed. These studies identified a number of genes of which the expression was associated with the intensity of oestrous behaviour. These genes could be grouped according to the GAPPS modules, suggesting close similarity of the regulation of oestrous behaviour in cows and female sexual behaviour in rodents. A better understanding of the central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows may in due time contribute to improved (genomic) selection strategies for appropriate oestrus expression in high-producing dairy cows.

  5. Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is associated with release of free radicals, increased total oxidant capacity and decreased total antioxidants capacity in milk. Antioxidant vitamins and minerals protect the body from free radicals either by directly scavenging free radicals or by inhibiting the activity of oxidizing enzymes. The supplementation of mastitic dairy cows with antioxidant vitamins as vitamin A (VA and β-carotene (BC, vitamin C (VC, vitamin E (VE, and antioxidant minerals as selenium (Se, Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu is very important to help the animal recover early. The aim of this review was to discuss the oxidative stress in dairy cows’ mastitis, and the roles of VA and BC, VC, VE, Se, Zn, and Cu in mastitis of dairy cows. Before deciding to supplement dairy cow rations with the levels of vitamins and minerals, dairy farmers should have their animal feeds tested and their rations evaluated by a competent dairy cow nutritionist and a trustworthy laboratory to be sure what levels of supplementation may be warranted. While inadequate intake and absorption of certain nutrients may result in a weakened immune system and perhaps more mastitis during the lactation period, unjustified supplementation can be expensive and lead to other animal health problems.

  6. Perceived physical and psychosocial exposure and health symptoms of dairy farm staff and possible associations with dairy cow health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, C Lunner; Hultgren, J

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of work-related physical and psychosocial exposure and health symptoms of farm staff working in indoor loose-housing dairy systems in Sweden, and to examine possible associations between exposure and health symptoms of farm staff and disease incidence in their dairy herds. A sample of 41 farm owners or managers and 20 directly employed farm workers participated, each from a Swedish dairy farm with loose-housed cows. Mailed questionnaires comprising 29 questions were used to create four separate indices representing physical exposure, psychosocial exposure, physical symptoms, and psychosocial symptoms. Cow herd incidence rates of common veterinary-reported clinical diseases were calculated based on official records. Partial Spearman rank correlation was used to analyze associations. The study confirmed that physical and psychosocial exposure and health symptoms are not uncommon among owners/managers and employed workers. The study also found that farm owners/managers experience more physical symptoms in dairy herds with lower cow disease incidence rates, while more frequent or intensive exposure to negative psychosocial work environment factors among employed dairy workers is associated with a high herd disease incidence rate.

  7. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input var

  8. A note on eating behaviour of dairy cows at different stocking systems - diurnal rhythm and effects of ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was aimed at studying the diurnal rhythm of dairy cows eating behaviour at different stocking systems, and quantifying the effect of daily ambient temperature on this diurnal rhythm. In two experiments carried out in the summer of 2003 in The Netherlands, eight dairy cows were offere

  9. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period len

  10. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input

  11. Relationship between proteolysis in the silo and efficiency of utilization of dietary protein by lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is used widely to conserve forages for feeding to dairy cows. However, the protein in hay-crop silages is particularly susceptible to microbial breakdown in the rumen, and utilization of protein in alfalfa and grass silages by dairy cows is particularly poor. Dependent on maturity, hay-crop...

  12. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  13. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  14. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. Milk composition and gene expression in the mammary gland tissue were evaluated in grazing dairy cows suppl

  15. Alteration of gene expression in mammary gland tissue of dairy cows in response to dietary unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Kruijt, L.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing unprotected dietary unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) from different plant oils on gene expression in the mammary gland of grazing dairy cows. A total of 28 Holstein–Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to parity

  16. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the fut...

  17. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Innocent, Giles T; Mihm, Monika; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Grove-White, Dai

    2007-08-01

    A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control.

  18. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency.

  19. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  20. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  1. Variation in the interservice intervals of dairy cows in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, J G; Green, M J; Huxley, J N; Hudson, C D

    2015-02-01

    An understanding of the normal estrous-cycle length of the cow is important when managing and monitoring dairy-herd fertility. Although the normal interovulatory interval is widely considered to be 21 d, some studies have found alternative intervals to be more prevalent; previously, most of the variation in interval length was expected to be between cows. The aim of this study was to assess the time between inseminations (interservice interval, ISI) in a large number of dairy cows and to explore possible associations between cow factors and estrous-cycle length. The study used ISI data from 42,252 cows in 159 herds across England and Wales. Univariate analysis of the subset of 114,572 intervals between 15 and 30 d (a range covering the increased frequency of ISI occurring at the expected time of the first return to estrus) following an insemination revealed a modal ISI of 22d. Primiparous heifers had a modal ISI of 21 d. Significant differences existed between the distribution of ISI for different yield groups, parity numbers, and the number of inseminations. Multilevel regression modeling was used to evaluate the associations between cow factors and ISI, while accounting for clustering at the herd and cow level. This revealed significant associations between predicted ISI and insemination number, days in milk, lactation 305-d milk yield, and month and year of insemination. Variance partition coefficients indicated that only 1% of variation in ISI was at the herd level, 12% at the animal level, and 87% at the insemination level, indicating that cycle length varies substantially more between cycles within a cow than between cows or herds. These findings suggest the normal range of ISI for modern UK dairy cows is longer than expected and cycle length has a large amount of unexplained variation within individual animals over time.

  2. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way......This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways...... for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1)

  3. Adding cows to the reference population makes a small dairy population competitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2014-01-01

    of scenarios for maintaining and updating the reference population over a period of 15 yr were investigated: a turbo scheme exclusively using genotyped young bulls and a hybrid scheme with mixed use of genotyped young bulls and progeny-tested bulls. Two types of modifications were investigated: (1) number......Small dairy breeds are challenged by low reliabilities of genomic prediction. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of including cows in the reference population for small dairy cattle populations with a limited number of sires in the reference population. Using detailed simulations, 2 types...... of progeny-tested bulls per year was tested at 6 levels: 15, 40, 60, 100, 250, and 500; and (2) each year, 2,000 firstlactation cows were randomly selected from the cow population for genotyping or, alternatively, an additional 2,000 first-lactation cows were randomly selected and typed in the first 2 yr...

  4. Automatic registration of grazing behaviour in dairy cows using 3D activity loggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Peetz

    2013-01-01

    Automated systems for monitoring behaviour of cows within dairy production are increasing and developments in technology provide new opportunities in this area. This study aimed to validate the use of a 3D activity logger (HOBO® Pendant G Data Logger), that registers the cow's head positions during...... grazing, to distinguish grazing behaviour from non-grazing behaviour.20 lactating dairy cows of the breed Swedish Red were included in the trial. All cows were observed for 30. min each day either in the morning or afternoon. The behavioural observations were conducted by two trained observers during 5. h...... discrimination between grazing and non-grazing registrations and the 3D activity sensor was validated with 5. s, 5. min and 10. min logging intervals between observations points against the visual observation of grazing behaviour. The 5 and 10. min logging point was taken from the 5. s logging point occurring...

  5. The influence of dietary Ascophyllum nodosum on haematologic parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Ascophyllum nodosum, an edible brown macroalga, on some haematologic parameters of dairy cows. Nineteen clinically healthy Holstein cows, an average 4.3 years old, were divided into two groups for 49 days. Ten cows received control diet (roughages and concentrate while the concentrate of 9 cows was additionally supplemented with 80 g A. nodosum/cow/day. Average daily milk production (controls 39.6 kg/cow; A. nodosum 40.2 kg/cow, milk protein and fat were not affected by the alga supplementation. Glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, haemoglobin, haematocrit and white/red blood cells were evaluated in weekly blood samples. It was seen that A. nodosum increased blood glucose and decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase compared to controls, without any adverse effects on the other examined parameters. Consequently, A. nodosum may be suggested as a functional ingredient in dairy cow nutrition, improving energy utilization and expressing hepatoprotective effect.

  6. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M

    2008-02-15

    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (pmastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (pmastitis in dairy cows.

  7. [Life-threatening injuries of the subcutaneous ventral abdominal veins in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B; Muggli, E; Schmid, T; Nuss, K

    2011-05-01

    Injuries of the superficial veins on the ventral abdomen of dairy cows can result in life-threatening haemorrhage. Treatment of these injuries can be difficult because of the characteristics of the veins. Five cows aged 6.5 to 12 years were referred to the Animal Hospitale Zurich, because of intermittent haemorrhage from a ventral abdominal vein. Four of the cows were near term and one had calved two weeks before referral. Intermittent bleeding was seen from the highly convoluted and dilated subcutaneous tributaries to the cranial superficial epigastric vein (milk vein). The haematocrit of 2 cows was markedly lower than normal. Emergency slaughter of one of the cows was carried out because of advanced age. The other 4 cows were sedated and after application of local anaesthetic, the wounds were debrided and sutured. Two of the cows required a blood transfusion before being operated. There were no postoperative complications. This type of injury seems to occur predominantly in pluriparous dairy cows close to term, in which the tributaries to the milk vein have undergone varicose changes. Treatment should consist of surgical resection of the injured tissue and suturing of the venous wall, subcutaneous tissues and skin.

  8. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  9. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realize...

  10. Some characteristics of primary and secondary oestrous signs in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C; Nakao, T

    2005-04-01

    Shortened and weakened oestrous signs in dairy cows may cause a failure of oestrus detection and artificial insemination timing error leading to poor reproductive performance. The aims of this study were to investigate the duration of standing oestrus in high-producing dairy cows under a free stall system, to determine the duration of expression of secondary oestrous signs before and after standing oestrus (Expt 1) and to compare the duration and intensity of oestrus between cows and heifers (Expt 2). Cattle were checked for primary and secondary oestrous signs at an interval of 4 h. Heat detection aids were also used. In Expt 1, of 56 cows which were detected in oestrus, 36 cows (64.3%) showed standing oestrus and other 20 cows (36.6%) showed secondary oestrous signs only. Duration of the standing oestrus was 6.6 +/- 6.3 h on average (+/-SD), ranging between 2 and 32 h. The cows in standing oestrus showed secondary oestrous signs during a period from 9.6 +/- 8.1 h before onset of standing to 18.4 +/- 18.8 h after the end of standing oestrus. In the cows that did not show standing oestrus, expression of secondary oestrous signs were observed for 25.7 +/- 20.5 h, which was 7.5 h shorter than the average duration of oestrus in cows showing standing oestrus. In Expt 2, nine (82%) of the 11 lactating cows in oestrus showed standing, while all the 10 heifers exhibited standing oestrus. Average duration of standing oestrus was 6.4 +/- 4.3 h in cows and 6.2 +/- 3.9 h in heifers, respectively. It may be concluded that the duration of standing oestrus is substantially shortened in lactating dairy cows, and more than one-third of cows did not show standing oestrus. In cows showing standing oestrus, duration of expression of secondary oestrous signs before and after standing is not shortened. Duration of standing oestrus in heifers was as short as that in cows.

  11. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  12. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating c...

  13. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  14. Dairy cow grazing selection on upland pasture affects milk fatty acid concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Coppa, Mauro; Farruggia, Anne; Ravaglia, Pieter; Pomies, Dominique; Borreani, Giorgio; Le Morvan, Aline; Ferlay, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the variations in milk FA concentration according to the rate of pasture utilisation and the cows grazing selection. Two equivalent groups of nine dairy cows were assigned to a long duration (LD) of paddock utilisation (17 days) on heterogeneous pasture, common on extensive rotational grazing systems, or to a medium duration (MD) of paddock utilisation (7-10 days) on a more intensively managed pasture, usual on intensive rotational grazing systems. Grazing ...

  15. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  16. A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  17. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  18. Short communication: Behavioral evaluation of the analgesic effect of flunixin meglumine in lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S A; Young, J M; Tena, J K; Manning, B H

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine treatment on lameness pain in dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were enrolled in the study based on visual observation of abnormal locomotion. The primary measurement endpoint was weight-shifting between the rear limbs. Weight-shifting was calculated as the standard deviation of the weight borne on the rear limbs over a 15 min period; this value correlates directly with lameness pain in dairy cows. After collecting baseline weight-bearing data, we randomly assigned cows to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2.2 mg/kg body weight flunixin meglumine (2 mL/45 kg) or an equivalent volume of isotonic sterile saline solution. Weight-bearing data were collected from each cow at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after a single intravenous drug treatment. Mean locomotion scores over the 2 d before treatment were 2.38/5 in the flunixin-treated group and 2.43/5 in the saline-treated control group; these values were not significantly different. Weight-shifting values were also not significantly different on either pretreatment day. Cows treated with flunixin meglumine showed significantly less weight-shifting between the rear limbs at 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment compared with saline-treated controls, providing evidence that flunixin meglumine alleviates lameness-associated pain. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of a model for the prediction of feed intake and energy partitioning in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing the supply of on-farm grown forages with the production targets of the dairy herd is a crucial aspect of the management of a dairy farm. Models which provides a rapid insight of the impact of the ration, feed quality and feeding management on feed intake and performance of dairy cows are

  20. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P; Reynolds, James P; Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Juchem, Sérgio O; Overton, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Objectives were to determine factors associated with conception rate (CR) and pregnancy loss (PL) in high producing lactating Holstein cows. In Study 1, CR was evaluated in 7633 artificial inseminations (AI) of 3161 dairy cows in two dairy farms. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by palpation per rectum 39+/-3 days after AI. Environmental temperature was recorded at different intervals prior to and after AI. In Study 2, 1465 pregnancies from 1393 cows diagnosed at 31+/-3 days after AI by ultrasonography on three dairy farms were re-examined 14 days later to determine PL. Temperature > or =29 degrees C was considered to be heat stress (HS). Exposure to HS was defined as following: NH, no heat stress; HS1, exposure to at least 1 day of maximum temperature > or =29 degrees C and average daily maximum temperature (ADMT) or =29 degrees C. In Study 1, exposure of cows to HS1 and HS2 from 50 to 20 prior to AI was associated with reduced CR compared to cows not exposed to HS (28.8, 23.0, and 31.3%, respectively). Post-AI HS was not associated with CR. Cows inseminated following estrus detection or timed AI had similar CR. As the number of AI increased, CR decreased. Multiparous cows had lower CR than primiparous cows, and occurrence of milk fever and retained placenta was associated with decreased CR. In Study 2, PL was not associated with exposure to HS either prior to or after AI. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis experienced increased PL, but parity, number of AI, AI protocol, milk production, and days postpartum at AI were not associated with PL. In conclusion, CR was affected by HS prior to AI, parity, number of AI, and postparturient diseases, whereas PL was affected by clinical mastitis.

  1. A proteomic-based characterization of liver metabolism in dairy cows and young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik

    liver fat content and suggest potential blood-based biomarkers for early detection of fatty liver to substantiate prevention strategies. Our results show that several proteins in liver metabolic pathways are affected by liver fat content and that blood aspartate aminotransferase, ß......This thesis deals with studies on liver metabolism in cows and pigs. Proteome analysis was used to quantify a large number of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. In cows, the objective was to characterize differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with low or high...

  2. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed whole cottonseed coated with gelatinized cornstarch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K

    1999-06-01

    The handling characteristics of whole cottonseed are improved by coating with gelatinized cornstarch, but limited information is available on the effects of feeding the coated cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six lactating Jersey cows were used in a crossover design trial with 4-wk experimental periods to evaluate the influence of coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch on dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. Cows were fed diets containing 10.2% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay, 45.2% corn silage, 15.0% coated or uncoated whole cottonseed, and 29.6% concentrate for ad libitum consumption. Coating whole cottonseed with gelatinized cornstarch tended to reduce dry matter intake, which averaged 16.2 and 15.9 kg/d for uncoated and coated cottonseed, respectively. Milk yield and composition were similar for uncoated and coated cottonseed. The yield of energy-corrected milk per unit of dry matter consumed was greater with coated cottonseed. Cows fed coated cottonseed gained body weight, but cows fed uncoated cottonseed lost weight. Concentrations of plasma urea were similar among treatments; however, NEFA concentrations were lower for cows fed coated whole cottonseed. Results of this trial indicate that coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch does not alter its feeding value for lactating dairy cows.

  3. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  4. Feeding behavior of lactating dairy cows as measured by time-lapse photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatos, R; Wangsness, P J

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of feeding behavior of ad libitum-fed lactating dairy cows by time-lapse photography revealed 68% of the total feeding activity occurred between the daylight hours of 0600 and 1800. Cows consumed an average of 12.1 meals/day, each 20.9 min in duration. Only 58% of the total defined meal time actually was spent eating, or 253.6 min/cow per day. Estimated meal size and rate of eating, as well as total daily time spent eating, were greater for cows as compared to animals with lower energy demand. Certain feeding characteristics, such as meal frequency and duration, were variable among animals, suggesting that these behaviors may be characteristics of individual cows. Results by time-lapse photography compared well with direct measurement by weigh-cell apparatus.

  5. Effect of moving dairy cows at different stages of labor on behavior during parturition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proudfoot, K. L.; Jensen, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2013-01-01

    Cows are often moved from a group to an individual maternity pen just before calving. However, it is unclear whether moving cows during labor may alter their behavior or affect the progress of labor. The aim of this study was to determine if moving cows to a maternity pen at different stages...... of labor would influence calving behavior or the length of the second stage of labor. Seventy-nine multiparous Holstein dairy cows were moved from 1 of 2 group pens to 1 of 10 maternity pens adjacent to each group pen either 3 d before expected calving date or when one or more behavioral or physical signs...... of labor were observed. These signs were noted, and were used to retrospectively categorize cows into 1 of 3 movement categories: (1) moved before labor, (2) moved during early stage I labor (signs of suddenly tense and enlarged udder, raised tail or relaxed pelvic ligaments; could also be immediately...

  6. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment......, this difference persisted until at least 10 d after diagnosis. Sick cows spent less time lying in the initial days after treatment, reversing to the level of the control cows within the 10 d posttreatment period. In the 48 h before antibiotic treatment, the mastitic cows showed increased restlessness during...

  7. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaai, Walid; Gad, Medhat; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (≥3). Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher’s exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43) and 32.6% (14/43), respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD) and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43) and 58% (25/43), respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43). The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43) and 11.6% (5/43) in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (pCMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating that the infectious types of claw affections may influence the udder health. PMID:28435201

  8. High grain diets perturb rumen and plasma metabolites and induce inflammatory responses in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Ametaj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after parturition dairy cows are fed diets containing high proportions of grain which are associated with high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the reason behind these effects is not clear. The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic and immune responses of early postpartum dairy cows to feeding increasing proportions of barley grain in the diet. Rumen endotoxin content increased several fold and rumen fluid pH was lower in cows fed the highest amount of barley grain. Results indicate that feeding high proportions of barley grain in early lactation dairy cows was associated with induction of an acute phase response and changes in multiple plasma metabolites. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism(s by which feeding of barley grain causes disturbances in plasma metabolites and stimulates an inflammatory response in dairy cows.

  9. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, A M; McCormick, M E; Fernandez, J M; French, D D; Ward, J D; Beatty, J F

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high CP [22.8% of dry matter (DM)], moderate CP (16.6%), or moderate CP (16.2%)] supplemented with RUP from blood meal and corn gluten meal. Postpartum condition loss was greater and first-service pregnancy rate was lower for partum-group cows receiving high CP grain supplements compared with control cows receiving moderate CP supplements. The RUP supplements reduced grain consumption, increased days to first estrus, and reduced first-service pregnancy rate of partum-group cows. The reproduction of postpartum group cows was unaffected by protein supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen was higher for cows fed high CP diets, but plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydoxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar to cows fed moderate CP. Excess postpartum condition loss, coupled with inconsistent protein supplement effects on days to first service and first-service pregnancy rate, suggest that energy deprivation may have contributed to the low fertility experienced by grazing cows in this study.

  10. Daily grazing time as a risk factor for alterations at the hock joint integument in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes lead to increasing sizes of dairy herds and a reduction in grazing use. Thus, cows spend more time in the barn and become more exposed to the barn environment. The cubicle surface can result in damages of the cows’ hock joint integument. Pasture is generally seen as a beneficial...... environment for cows. We hypothesized that a higher number of daily grazing hours reduce the probability of hock joint alterations in dairy cows from large herds. In total, 3148 lactating cows from 36 grazing and 20 zero-grazing dairy herds, with an average herd size of 173 cows, were assessed individually...... on one randomly selected body side for alterations in hock integument (score 0 for no alterations or hairless areas ,2 cm, 1 for at least one hairless area of >2 cm, 2 for lesion or swelling). The cows were further assessed for lameness and cleanliness. Information on breed, parity and days in milk per...

  11. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion ("HC" with 60:40% or "LC" with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear.

  12. Performance and welfare of dairy cows in an alternative housing system in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberg, A E; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Reneau, J K

    2007-03-01

    The compost bedded pack dairy barn is an alternative housing system for lactating cows that has received increased attention in the last 2 yr. No descriptive data were available about this housing system. Therefore, a study of 12 compost dairy barns in Minnesota was conducted between late June 2005 and September 2005. The objectives of this study were to describe the housing system, identify management practices used in these herds, observe cow welfare, analyze herd performance and udder health prior to and following the change in housing system, and measure producer satisfaction with the system. Producers were interviewed on various aspects related to the housing system and herd management, samples of milk were collected, and cows were scored for locomotion, body condition, hygiene, and hock lesions. In addition, historical bulk tank information and Dairy Herd Improvement Association data were collected when available. At the time of the visit, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) was 325,000 +/- 172,000 cells/mL, rolling herd average was 10,457 +/- 1,138 kg per cow, and herd size was 73 +/- 35.5 lactating cows. The body condition score was 3.04 +/- 0.11, the cow hygiene score was 2.66 +/- 0.19, and 7.8% of all cows were clinically lame (locomotion score > or = 3 on a 1 to 5 scale). No hock lesions were present on 74.9% of the cows; 24.1% of cows had a mild lesion (hair loss), and 1.0% had a severe lesion (swollen hock). Historical analysis of the bulk tank SCC showed that 3 out of the 7 herds analyzed had a significant reduction in bulk tank SCC when compared with the previous housing system. Mastitis infection rates decreased significantly by 12% on 6 of the 9 farms analyzed. Reproductive performance significantly improved for 4 out of the 7 herds analyzed, with 25.9 and 34.5% improvement in heat detection rates and pregnancy rates, respectively. The main reasons producers reported for building this type of housing system were for

  13. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C

    2007-08-01

    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  14. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  15. The effect of farming system on dairy cow cleanliness in the UK and implications to udder health

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, K A; Mihm, M; Innocent, G.; Cripps, P.; McClean, W G; Howard, C. V; Grove-White, D.

    2006-01-01

    The cleanliness of dairy cows was assessed using a 20 point hygiene score system at different times in the year on 14 organic and 14 conventional farms in the UK. Overall, cows were dirtier during winter housing compared to summer grazing. Farming system had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, but when housed in the winter, organic cows were more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow hygiene scores and milk hygiene, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell...

  16. A Bayesian approach to analyze energy balance data from lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strathe, A.B.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Lopez, S.; Yan, T.; Kebreab, E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to develop a Bayesian framework for updating and integrating covariate information into key parameters of metabolizable energy (ME) systems for dairy cows. The study addressed specifically the effects of genetic improvements and feed quality on key para

  17. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their d

  18. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requiremen

  19. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergren, Robin; Orata, Francis; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2013-11-01

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMFenvironments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios.

  20. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  1. Changes in thermal nociceptive responses in dairy cows following experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte B; Jensen, Katrine Fogsgaard; Røntved, Christine M.;

    2011-01-01

    Mastitis is a high incidence disease in dairy cows. The acute stage is considered painful and inflammation can lead to hyperalgesia and thereby contribute to decreased welfare. The aim of this study was to examine changes in nociceptive responses toward cutaneous nociceptive laser stimulation (NLS...

  2. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating time index (RI) values. The EI values...

  3. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and sev

  4. Fate of fatty acids during ensiling: relationship with milk fat composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Transition of dairy cows from grazing to silage based rations significantly increases the saturated: unsaturated fatty acids (FA) ratio and decreases the content of beneficial C18:1 cis-9, C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat. This is partly related to a lower

  5. Influence of feeding a low-phosphorus diet on leucocyte function in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Ravesloot, L.; Koets, A.P.; Grünberg, W.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus depletion and hypophosphatemia have been described to interfere with immune function in rats and humans. In dairy cows, hypophosphatemia has been associated with muscle weakness and recumbency as well as with intravascular hemolysis resulting from increased osmotic fragility of erythrocyt

  6. Effects of different intervention strategies on the incidence of papillomatous digital dermatitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Doepfer, D.; Boer, de J.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of four different intervention strategies on the incidence of severe lesions of digital dermatitis in an experimental dairy herd were compared with the effects of a control strategy consisting of walking the cows twice through a footbath containing 4 per cent formaldehyde on one day a we

  7. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  8. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Yu, P.; Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  9. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  10. Natural Ventilation of Commercial Dairy Cow Houses: Simulating the Effect of Roof Shape Using CFD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapounas, A.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In livestock buildings the ventilation rate influences both the pollutant emission rates and animal¿s welfare. In the present study a 3D simulation model was used to simulate 7 commercial dairy cow houses with different roof types and side ventilators. The simulations have been carried out

  11. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  12. On the influence of the alternation of two different cooling systems on dairy cow daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes that influence cow welfare, heat stress induced by microclimatic conditions is one of the most relevant and many studies have investigated the efficacy of different cooling systems on animal health status. Nevertheless, the direct influence of the cooling systems on possible modifications of dairy cow behaviour has been addressed in a few studies and the related results were affected by the presence of a paddock, which gave a refuge from hot temperature. Since an alteration of the daily time budget spent by dairy cows in their usual activities can be associated with changes in their health status, this study investigated the effects of the alternation of two different cooling systems on lying, standing, and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy cows bred in a free-stall dairy house where animals had no access to a paddock. The barn was equipped with a fogging system associated with forced ventilation installed in the resting area and a sprinkler system associated with forced ventilation installed in the feeding area. The two systems were activated alternately. The results demonstrated that the management of the two cooling systems affected the analysed behaviours. Though the activation of the cooling system installed in the resting area encouraged the decubitus of animals in the stalls, the activation of that one of the feeding alley could not be able to influence the standing behaviour and had only a moderate positive influence on the feeding activity.

  13. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  14. Cellular Mechanisms in Regulating Mammary Cell Turnover During Lactation and Dry Period in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Theil, P K; Sørensen, M T

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in regulating mammary cell turnover during the pregnancy-lactaion cycle in dairy cows are unclear. The objective of present experiment was to describe expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in pathways regulating mammary cell proliferation, apoptosis......, differentiation, cell survival, and tissue remodeling....

  15. Intake Regulation and Grazing Behavior of Dairy Cows Under Continuous Stocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the behavioral strategies grazing dairy cows use to satisfy their nutritional needs as the day progresses and the possible role of rumen fill in controlling these behavioral strategies. The day was divided into 3 main periods (0600 to 1200 h, 1200 to 1800 h, and 180

  16. Relationship of Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Walking Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adewuyi, A.A.; Roelofs, J.B.; Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Eerdenburg, van F.J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be

  17. Gene-based mapping and pathway analysis of metabolic traits in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Thuy Ha

    Full Text Available The metabolic adaptation of dairy cows during the transition period has been studied intensively in the last decades. However, until now, only few studies have paid attention to the genetic aspects of this process. Here, we present the results of a gene-based mapping and pathway analysis with the measurements of three key metabolites, (1 non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, (2 beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA and (3 glucose, characterizing the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows before and after calving. In contrast to the conventional single-marker approach, we identify 99 significant and biologically sensible genes associated with at least one of the considered phenotypes and thus giving evidence for a genetic basis of the metabolic adaptability. Moreover, our results strongly suggest three pathways involved in the metabolism of steroids and lipids are potential candidates for the adaptive regulation of dairy cows in their early lactation. From our perspective, a closer investigation of our findings will lead to a step forward in understanding the variability in the metabolic adaptability of dairy cows in their early lactation.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Daily Maximum Milking Speed by a Random Walk Model in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    Data were obtained from dairy cows stationed at research farm ETH Zurich for maximum milking speed. The main aims of this paper are a) to evaluate if the Wood curve is suitable to model mean lactation curve b) to predict longitudinal breeding values by random regression and random walk models...

  19. The effect of fenceline bull exposure on expression of oestrus in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.B.; Soede, N.M.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy cows visit and interact with a fenceline-housed bull more during oestrus than outside oestrus and whether fenceline bull contact affects expression of oestrus. At one end of a free stall a fence with vertical open bars was placed behind wh

  20. Dietary Energy Source in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation: Energy Partitioning and Milk Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic problems related to negative energy balance suggest a role for the balance in supply of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients. To test the effect of lipogenic and glucogenic nutrients on energy partitioning, energy balance and nitrogen balance of 16 lactating dairy cows were determined by ind

  1. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Dijkstra, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators

  2. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M) ...

  3. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  4. Utilisation of N in perennial ryegrass cultivars by stall-fed lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the summers of 2000 and 2001, the effect of six diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the N utilisation by 12 high productive dairy cows was determined. Experiments were conducted according to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design; within each Latin square, three cultivars were

  5. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in dairy cows, 1990-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch protocol for the national inventory estimates the methane emission of the average Dutch dairy cow based on a Tier 3 approach. A dynamic, mechanistic model is used to represent the enteric fermentation processes, using annual national statistics on feed intake and feed composition as model

  6. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Hilkens, A.; Zoche-Golob, V.; Krömker, V.; Buddiger, M.; Jansen, J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatmen

  7. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment i

  8. Bio-economic modeling to support insemination decisions in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve the optimal economic profit, the effort to increase milk production in a dairy cow has been generated. As a consequence of an increased milk production, it appears that the conception rate has been reported to decline during the last decade worldwide. For the optimal economics and to avoi

  9. Sensitivity analysis of mechanistic models for estimating ammonia emission from dairy cow urine puddles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission can cause acidification and eutrophication of the environment, is an indirect source of nitrous oxide, and is a precursor of fine dust. The current mechanistic NH3 emission base model for explaining and predicting NH3 emissions from dairy cow houses with cubicles, a floor and

  10. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J.M.; Hilkens, A.; Zoche-Golob, V.; Krömker, V.; Buddiger, M.; Jansen, J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatmen

  11. Social influences on the duration of antibiotic treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J M; Hilkens, A; Zoche-Golob, V; Krömker, V; Buddiger, M; Jansen, J; Lam, T J G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14686820X

    2015-01-01

    Clinical mastitis of dairy cows is a visible inflammation of the udder, which is usually caused by bacteria and treated with antibiotics. Although pressure is increasing to reduce antibiotic usage in livestock in the European Union, feedback from the field suggests that clinical mastitis treatment i

  12. Association of leptin gene polymorphisms with serum leptin concentration in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Chilliard, C.; Delavaud, C.; Gerritsen, R.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes, and its expression is regulated by body fatness and energy balance. This study describes the association of four leptin gene polymorphisms in dairy cows (R4C, A59V, RFLP1, and BM1500) with circulating leptin concentrations during the periparturient period.

  13. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Houweling, M.; Schonewille, J. T.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirt

  14. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: effects of cultivar on herbage intake during grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne , sward morphology, sward cutting, n-alkanes, herbage intake, selection, preference.Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) is the most important species for feeding dairy cows. The majority of the farmers in the Netherlands graze their

  15. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeHaar, M.J.; Armentano, L.E.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.M.; Tempelman, R.J.; Veerkamp, R.

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and

  16. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  17. Association of leptin gene polymorphisms with serum leptin concentration in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Chilliard, C.; Delavaud, C.; Gerritsen, R.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes, and its expression is regulated by body fatness and energy balance. This study describes the association of four leptin gene polymorphisms in dairy cows (R4C, A59V, RFLP1, and BM1500) with circulating leptin concentrations during the periparturient period.

  18. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion processes in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the introduction of a milk quota system in 1984 and the subsequent decrease of the number of dairy cows with some 25%, an increasing number of farms in the Netherlands has a surplus of grass and grass silage, which makes it interesting to increase the roughage proportion in the

  19. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Baal, van J.; Kruijt, L.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of

  20. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burd, N.A.; Hamer, H.M.; Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One

  1. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Stegeman, J. A.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L beta-hydroxyb

  2. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  3. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ghazaei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  4. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas

    2014-01-30

    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases.

  5. Practices for Alleviating Heat Stress of Dairy Cows in Humid Continental Climates: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournel, Sébastien; Ouellet, Véronique; Charbonneau, Édith

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The severity of heat stress issues on dairy cows will increase as global warming progresses. Fortunately, major advances in environmental management, including fans, misters, sprinklers, and cooled waterbeds, can attenuate the effects of thermal stress on cow health, production, and reproduction. These cooling systems were, however, tested in subtropical areas and their efficiency in northern regions is uncertain. This article assesses the potential of existing technologies to cool cows in humid continental climates through calculation of heat stress indices. Abstract Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings. However, these systems have been mainly tested in subtropical areas and thus their efficiency in humid continental climates, such as in the province of Québec, Canada, is unclear. Therefore, this study reviewed the available cooling applications and assessed their potential for northern regions. Thermal stress indices such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) were used to evaluate the different cooling strategies. PMID:28468329

  6. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of pre- and postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Wangsness, P J

    1980-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in elderly lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum and 60% corn silage:40% concentrate postpartum. On day 4 postpartum, cows were switched abruptly to the postpartum ration for 9 wk. Buffered rations contained .6% sodium bicarbonate prepartum and .7% postpartum. Daily dry matter intake as a percent of body weight for cows fed buffer postpartum (3.51%) was greater than for cows fed no buffer (3.04%) of buffer pre- and postpartum (3.14%). Average production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed buffer postpartum and buffer pre- and postpartum (31.9 kg/day and 31.7 kg/day) than for cows fed no buffer (28.9 kg/day). Milk fat tests were not different. Cows fed the buffered rations lost body weight between wk 1 and 9 as compared to a net gain for cows fed no buffer. Cows fed buffers consumed more dry matter during wk 1 than did cows fed no buffer. Samples of rumen fluid, feces, and serum showed few differences that could be attributed to treatments. Compared to controls, cows fed sodium bicarbonate adapted to rations more rapidly postpartum as indicated by increased feed intake during the first 2 wk and by increased milk production during the first 4 wk of the trial.

  7. Metabolic profiles in ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous dairy cows during the first follicular wave postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2007-02-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood samples for the profiles of metabolites (glucose; non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA; ketone body; total cholesterol; and aspartate aminotransferase), metabolic hormones (growth hormone, GH; insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-1; and insulin), and progesterone every other day from 1 to 21 days postpartum. In addition, all ovaries were observed using ultrasound. Dairy milk yield was recorded during the experimental period. In all cows, the first follicular wave postpartum was observed and 6 of the cows ovulated. The plasma glucose (Pketone bodies (P<0.0001) concentrations and daily milk yield (P<0.0001) were higher in the anovulatory cows compared to the ovulatory cows. However, the GH levels, which enhance lipolysis for milk production, insulin and other metabolites did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, the present study suggests that anovulation of the dominant follicle during the first follicular wave postpartum in primiparous cows is induced by low IGF-1 levels that are similar to those of multiparous cows. In addition, anovulatory cows are likely to mobilize body fat stores for milk production more easily than ovulatory cows.

  8. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  9. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at

  10. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding time and rumination and on decrease of idle time with the inclusion of crude glycerin levels (p 0.05. Crude glycerin did not drastically affect the feeding behavior of dairy cows.

  11. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic...... metabolism were assessed to evaluate purine and pyrimidine N in dairy cows. Blood was sampled simultaneously from four veins with eight hourly samples from four multi-catheterised Holstein cows. Quantification of twenty purines and pyrimidines was performed with HPLC–MS/MS, and net fluxes were estimated...... across the PDV, hepatic tissue and total splanchnic tissue (TSP). Concentration differences between veins of fifteen purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (NS), bases (BS) and degradation products (DP) were different from zero (P≤ 0·05), resulting in the net PDV releases of purine NS (0·33–1·3 mmol...

  12. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut...

  13. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p soya beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balicka-Ramisz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine selenium (Se concentration in the blood serum of dairy cows and to establish its influence on the level of production and reproduction traits. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on the farm located in Western Pomerania - Poland and involved 120 cows, which were selected using the analog method on the basis of their physiological state, lactation number, milk yield, age, and genotype. The following indices were analyzed in individual groups: Calving interval, gestation interval, insemination index, standstill of placenta. Se concentration in the blood serum was determined with the spectrofluorometric method. Results: The mean serum Se concentration was in cows 0.038 μg/ml. The use of Se preparations has raised fertility, which was documented statistically. Conclusion: The study revealed that the problem of Se deficiency is still present in some dairy cattle herds in Western Pomerania - Poland.

  15. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  16. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  17. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  18. Effects of Increased Vigilance for Locomotion Disorders on Lameness and Production in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hoedemaker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of weekly locomotion scoring and, thus, early detection and treatment of lame cows by a veterinarian on lameness prevalence, incidence, duration of lameness, fertility and milk yield on one dairy farm in Northern Germany. Cows were distributed to two groups. Cows in Group A (n = 99 with a locomotion score (LS > 1 were examined and treated. In Group B (n = 99, it was solely in the hands of the farmer to detect lame cows and to decide which cows received treatment. Four weeks after the beginning of the experimental period, the prevalence of cows with LS = 1 was higher in Group A compared with Group B. Prevalence of lame cows (LS > 1 increased in Group B (47.6% in Week 2 to 84.0% in Week 40 and decreased in Group A from Week 2 to Week 40 (50% to 14.4%; P < 0.05. Within groups, the monthly lameness incidence did not differ. The average duration of lameness for newly lame cows was 3.7 weeks in Group A and 10.4 weeks in Group B (P < 0.001. There was no effect on fertility and incidence of puerperal disorders. The 100-day milk yield was calculated from cows having their first four Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI test day results during the experimental period. The mean 100-day milk yield tended to be higher in Group A compared with Group B (3,386 kg vs. 3,359 kg; P = 0.084.

  19. Crude Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen Content in Dairy Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruska Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition is of prime economic importance for farmers. Milk total proteins are composed of casein, whey proteins and non-protein nitrogen. The objective of this work was to establish milk crude protein, non-protein nitrogen (NPN and urea content in dairy cow milk produced in different farms in Latvia. Cow milk samples (n=30 were collected in September 2012 from four different farms breeding diverse cow breeds. Average crude protein, casein and urea content in milk varied significantly among farms. NPN content in cow milk varies among farms - from 0.194% to 0.232%. Average crude protein and casein content was significantly higher (p<0.05 for Latvia Brown breed cows, while NPN content did not differ significantly among breeds. Regression between NPN and urea content in milk was R² = 0.458. Correlation between NPN and urea content was significant (r = 0.677. This study allowed establishing that crude protein and NPN content in milk varied significantly (p<0.05 in farms with differing dairy cow housing and feeding technologies

  20. Factors of a noninfectious nature affecting fertility after artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F

    2012-04-01

    After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive tract site at the appropriate time of estrus. The metabolic clearance of steroid hormones and pregnancy associated glycoproteins and the negative effects of different types of stress related to high milk production makes the high-producing dairy cow a good animal model for addressing factors affecting fertility. Nevertheless, extensive studies have shown a positive link between high milk production in an individual cow and high fertility. When a cow becomes pregnant, the effect of pregnancy loss on its reproductive cycle is also a topic of interest. This paper reviews the factors of a noninfectious nature that affect the fertility of lactating dairy cows following AI. Special attention is paid to factors related to the cow and its environment and to estrus confirmation at insemination. Pregnancy maintenance during the late embryonic/early fetal period is discussed as a critical step. Finally, the use of Doppler ultrasonography is described as an available research tool for improving our current understanding of the health of the genital structures and conceptus.

  1. Detection of bacterial biofilm in uterine of repeat breeder dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the possibility of presence of bacterial biofilm in the uterus of repeat breeder cows and to evaluate the effect of mucolytic agent in cleanup of uterus from biofilm. Methods: Twenty repeat breeder cows were selected from a large commercial dairy farm near Shiraz, Fars province, southern Iran. Uterine secretion samples were collected before and after uterine lavage with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO 10% solution and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining was used to detect bacterial biofilm in uterine samples. After sampling, all cows were treated with two doses of PGF2α and intrauterine infusion of Cefquinome sulphate. Artificial insemination (AI was performed after that. Results: Bacterial biofilms were found in 12 out of 20 animals (60% in the first sampling with sterile saline lavage (before DMSO and in 7 cows (35% after DMSO lavage. Fourteen cows (70% became pregnant after AI. This evidence showed the presence of bacterial biofilm in the uterus of dairy cows for the first time. Although non significant, decrease in biofilm detection after DMSO lavage may suggest the potential ability of mucolytic agent for cleaning the uterus from bacterial biofilm. Also, high pregnancy rate after antibiotic treatment in the present study might be attributed to improved effect of antibiotic following lavage of uterine by DMSO. Conclusions: These findings should be investigated in future researches with more sample size.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  3. Relationships between transition period diet, metabolic parameters and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpakumara, P G A; Gardner, N H; Reynolds, C K; Beever, D E; Wathes, D C

    2003-10-01

    Cows in severe negative energy balance after calving have reduced fertility, mediated by metabolic signals influencing the reproductive system. We hypothesised that transition diet could alter metabolic status after calving, and thus influence fertility. Multiparous dairy cows were assigned to four transition groups 6 weeks pre-calving and fed: (a) basal control diet (n = 10); (b) basal diet plus barley (STARCH, n = 10); (c) basal diet plus Soypass (high protein, HiPROT, n = 11); or (d) no transition management (NoTRANS, n = 9). All cows received the same lactational diet. Blood samples, body weights and condition scores (BCS) were collected weekly. Fertility parameters were monitored using milk progesterone profiles and were not affected by transition diet. Data from all cows were then combined and analysed according to the pattern of post-partum ovarian activity. Cows with low progesterone profiles had significantly lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin concentrations accompanied by reduced dry matter intakes (DMIs), BCS and body weight. Cows with prolonged luteal activity (PLA) were older and tended to have lower IGF-I. Analysis based on the calving to conception interval revealed that cows which failed to conceive (9/40) also had reduced IGF-I, BCS and body weight. Fertility was, therefore, decreased in cows which were in poor metabolic status following calving. This was reflected in reduced circulating IGF-I concentrations and compromised both ovarian activity and conception. There was little effect of the transition diets on these parameters.

  4. Baker's yeast effluent as a liquid feed for dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwiekel, R; Loney, K A; Riley, R E

    1995-02-01

    Liquid effluent from baker's yeast production was fed to dairy cows to determine whether effluent is an acceptable feed and whether it affects milk yield or composition. Effluent averaged 5.4% DM and 6.1% N (DM basis). In experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows were offered effluent free choice or no effluent for 8 wk. Milk yield, composition, and group feed intake were measured. In Experiment 2, 20 cows were fed effluent blended into the TMR (11.3 L/d per cow) or no effluent for 4 wk. In Experiment 3, six groups of 6 heifers were offered free choice or no effluent. Free choice intake of effluent peaked at 15 L/d per cow at wk 3 but declined to 5.3 L/d per cow by wk 6. Milk and 3.5% FCM yields were not affected by effluent regardless of feeding system. Milk protein and fat percentages were higher for cows offered effluent free choice. Milk protein percentage and yield were lower with effluent in the TMR. Intake of effluent by heifers was 1.05 L/d, and effluent did not affect DMI or weight gain. Acceptability of yeast effluent fed free choice is poor, but when yeast is blended into the TMR, cows consume effluent without adverse effects on milk yield or DMI.

  5. Quarter, cow, and farm risk factors for intramammary infections with major pathogens relative to minor pathogens in Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahapongsathon, Kansuda; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Suriyasathaporn, Witaya

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from May to September 2011 on 35 smallholder dairy farms in Chiang Mai, Thailand, to identify the quarter, cow, and farm factors that relate to intramammary infections (IMI) from major specified pathogens, compared to infections from minor pathogens. Data on general farm management, milking management, and dry cow management were recorded for each herd. Quarter milk samples were collected from either clinical or subclinical mastitis quarters. Dependent variables were binary data defining the specified major pathogens, including Streptococcus agalactiae (7.1 %), Streptococcus uberis (9.4 %), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (4.0 %), and other streptococci (16.7 %), as a case, and all minor pathogens as a control, in each dependent variable. The occurrence of S. agalactiae IMI was lower in first-parity cows and cows with short milking time. Cows with body condition score (BCS) quarters with California mastitis test (CMT) score 2, score 3, and having clinical mastitis and in farms with increasing age of vacuum system. Quarters with CMT score 3, having clinical mastitis, cow with manual milking after detaching milking cluster, and farms with high bulk milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC >500,000 cells/ml) had higher occurrence of S. dysgalactiae IMI. For other streptococci, quarters having clinical mastitis, BCS <2.5, and pulling down of milking cluster while milking increased occurrence of other streptococci IMI relative to minor pathogen IMI. These results highlight the importance of individual cow factors, milking characteristics, and BMSCC in determining the risk of IMI from major pathogens.

  6. Evaporative tunnel cooling of dairy cows in the southeast. II: impact on lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T R; Chapa, A; Willard, S; Herndon, C; Williams, R J; Crouch, J; Riley, T; Pogue, D

    2006-10-01

    Heat stress has a dramatic impact on the dairy industry, reducing production and profitability throughout the southeastern United States. In many regions, management techniques can be used to mitigate the effects of heat stress, but available cooling technologies are often overwhelmed by the conditions of chronic heat stress present in southeastern United States. Although combining tunnel ventilation and evaporative cooling (evaporative tunnel cooling) seems to provide superior cooling for dairy cows, there is a dearth of reports on the impact of this technology on milk production. A model evaporative tunnel cooling facility in northern Mississippi was studied using 2 groups of 10 lactating Holstein cows housed in the tunnel barn and 2 groups of 10 matched herdmates housed in an adjacent naturally ventilated free-stall barn. Two 10-wk trials were performed in 2 yr beginning June 25, 2001, and May 26, 2003, in which cows housed outside were cooled by traditional fans and shade alone (2003) or with sprinklers (2001). In both years, the use of evaporative tunnel cooling decreased exposure to conditions of moderate heat stress by 84%. Cows cooled by evaporative tunnel ventilation increased feed intake by 12 and 11% over cows housed outside in 2001 and 2003, respectively. Evaporative tunnel cooling had no effect on milk composition, but increased milk yield over the 10-wk trial by 2.6 +/- 0.27 and 2.8 +/- 0.19 kg/cow per day in 2001 and 2003, respectively. In addition, somatic cell count was decreased 27 to 49% by evaporative tunnel cooling. Thus, under the range of environmental conditions present, evaporative tunnel cooling reliably reduced exposure to conditions of heat stress and improved milk production of lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

  7. Effects of Rumen-Protected Methionine on Dairy Performance and Amino Acid Metabolism in Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Free Met as one of the most limiting AA in dairy cows would be mostly degraded in the rumen. This study was to determine the effect of different levels of Rumen-Protected Met (RPMet on dairy performance and serum amino acid metabolism. Approach: Thirty-six Holstein cows in similar condition were randomly assigned to six experimental treatments with six replicates each. Levels of RPMet in six treatments were 0(control, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 g day-1 per cow, respectively. Results: Treatment had no effect on percentage of milk protein, lactose and SNF. However, milk yield of cows fed 42 g day-1 RPMet was significantly higher than that of the control group and milk fat percentage was significantly increased with 56 g day-1 RPMet supplementation. There was the trend to decrease the concentration of serum amino acids except Met and Arg with the supplementation of RPMet. Serum EAA contents of the group supplementation of 42 g day-1 RPMet were lowest although there were no significant differences among all treatments. Serum BCAA concentrations of cows fed 28 g RPMet were significantly lower than that of the control group. Supplementation of 42 g RPMet could significantly decrease the concentration of NEAA and TAA compared to the control group. Conclusion/Recommendations: Supplementation of rumen-protected methionine improved dairy performance and promoted amino acid utilization in lactating cows in the present experiment. The optimal level of RPMet in the diet was 42 g per cow day-1.

  8. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  9. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  10. The miRNAome of the postpartum dairy cow liver in negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Attia; Lynn, David J; O'Boyle, Padraic; Seoighe, Cathal; Morris, Dermot

    2014-04-12

    Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic genes have previously been reported in a study of NEB in postpartum dairy cows. miRNAs (microRNA) are known to mediate many alterations in gene expression post transcriptionally. To study the hepatic miRNA content of postpartum dairy cows, including their overall abundance and differential expression, in mild NEB (MNEB) and severe NEB (SNEB), short read RNA sequencing was carried out. To identify putative targets of differentially expressed miRNAs among differentially expressed hepatic genes reported previously in dairy cows in SNEB computational target identification was employed. Our results indicate that the dairy cow liver expresses 53 miRNAs at a lower threshold of 10 reads per million. Of these, 10 miRNAs accounted for greater than 95% of the miRNAome (miRNA content). Of the highly expressed miRNAs, miR-122 constitutes 75% followed by miR-192 and miR-3596. Five out of thirteen let-7 miRNA family members are also among the highly expressed miRNAs. miR-143, down-regulated in SNEB, was found to have 4 putative up-regulated gene targets associated with SNEB including LRP2 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2), involved in lipid metabolism and up-regulated in SNEB. This is the first liver miRNA-seq profiling study of moderate yielding dairy cows in the early postpartum period. Tissue specific miR-122 and liver enriched miR-192 are two of the most abundant miRNAs in the postpartum dairy cow liver. miR-143 is significantly down-regulated in SNEB and putative targets of miRNA-143 which are up-regulated in SNEB, include a gene involved in lipid metabolism.

  11. Influence of lactation on metabolic characteristics and embryo development in postpartum Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillo, V; Rizos, D; Besenfelder, U; Havlicek, V; Kelly, A K; Garrett, M; Lonergan, P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct effect of lactation on the ability of the reproductive tract of postpartum dairy cows to support early embryo development. Twenty-one primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Immediately after calving, half of the cows were dried off (i.e., never milked), and the other half entered the milking herd and were milked twice daily. Jugular blood samples were taken twice per week from 15 d before calving to approximately 100 d postpartum to measure nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I. At the same time, body weight and body condition score were recorded for each cow. At approximately 60 d postpartum (experiment 1), approximately 65 two- to four-cell embryos, produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization, were endoscopically transferred to the oviduct ipsilateral to the corpus luteum of all cows on d 2 of the estrous cycle. Five days later (d 7), the oviduct and uterus were flushed nonsurgically and the number of embryos developing to the blastocyst stage was recorded. At approximately 90 d postpartum (experiment 2), the estrous cycles of the same cows were resynchronized and 15 to 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to the uterus of each recipient on d 7. All cows were slaughtered on d 14 to assess embryo survival and dimensions. Body weight and body condition score were significantly different between groups for the entire postpartum period of the study. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher and concentrations of glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I were lower in lactating compared with nonlactating cows. Embryo recovery rates from lactating and dry cows were similar. In experiment 1, fewer embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in the lactating cows compared with the nonlactating cows. In experiment 2, embryo survival and conceptus dimensions were not different between lactating and

  12. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  13. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  14. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  15. Starch Digestion and Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, Autumn Deanne

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starch and phosphorus (P) source on P partitioning and ruminal phytase activity were evaluated in eight lactating cows (113 DIM). Four cows were ruminaly cannulated. Cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a duplicated 4x4 Latin square with four, 18-d periods. Diets included dry ground corn (DG) or steam flaked corn (SF), with a no supplemental P (low P diet; 0.34% P) or supplemental purified phytic acid (PA; 0.45% P) to provide additional P from an organic source. Total c...

  16. Fertility parameters of dairy cows with cystic ovarian disease after treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijer, G A; van Oijen, M A; Frankena, K; Valks, M M

    2001-09-29

    Fertility data were collected every four weeks for 10 years from 40 herds of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The data collected during 925 lactations from cows with cystic ovarian disease which were treated with 500 microg gonadorelin were compared with data from a control group of 13,869 normal lactations. The intervals between parturition and first insemination and between parturition and conception were significantly shorter (P<0.001) in the normal cows, but the interval between first insemination and conception was not. The overall conception rate tended to be higher (P<0.10) in the normal cows, but the conception rate after the first insemination was significantly higher (P<0.001) and the number of services per conception was significantly lower (P=0.008) in the normal cows.

  17. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... of an unchanged milk production per feeding day (days lactating plus days dry) when changing from lactations of traditional length to extended lactations. Thus, milk yield per feeding day becomes a primary determinant of the success of using extended lactations at farm level. Cows undergoing an extended lactation...

  18. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Biswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ, crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test, milk (Ross test, and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760 entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0% in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8% in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6% in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management

  19. Ovulatory Follicular Dynamics After Estrus Synchronization using Prostaglandin F2a in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Purwono Putro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow development of ovulatory follicular dynamics as well as plasma progesterone profile after estrus synchronization using PGF2 and GnRH.   A total of 15 non-pregnant dairy cows, 4-5 years of age, healthy and reproductively sound were used in the present study.     Treatment 1, given intramuscular injection of PGF2 25 mg (PGF2, treatment 2 PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g 2 days later (PGF2-GnRH, and treatment 3 with GnRH 250 g (7 days prior to injection of PGF2, PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g (2 days after injection of PGF2  (GnRH-PGF2a-GnRH (the Ovsynch method.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz tranducer was performed everyday for 12 days to follow ovulatory follicular and luteal dynamics.   Blood plasma was taken every day for progesterone determination using EIA technique.   Data of follicular, luteal development and progesterone levels were tested using analysis of variance and correlation analysis.   The animals showed estrus within 70.70 + 01.90 hours following PGF2 injection.   Prostaglandin F2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased  in progesterone plasma levels, followed by ovulatory follicular development and eventually underwent ovulation.   Administration of first GnRH increased corpus luteum size, enhanced its regression and decreased plasma progesterone levels, while  the second administration induce  better ovulatory follicular development.   Rate of the corpus luteum regression, progesterone decrease and ovulatory follicular development following PGF2 injection for respective treatments 1, 2 and 3 were 2.53 + 0.24a, 2.73 + 0.36a and 3.53 + 0.28b mm/day; 1.39 + 0.14a,  1.35 + 0.18a dan 1.57 + 0.12b ng/ml/day; and 1.33 + 0.15a,  1.63 + 0.19b and 1.67 + 0.23b mm/day, respectively (P < 0.05.   It can be concluded that PGF2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased in  progesterone plasma

  20. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  1. Milk yield and composition, body condition, rumen characteristics, and blood metabolites of dairy cows fed diet supplemented with palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirovski, Danijela; Blond, Bojan; Katić, Marko; Marković, Radmila; Šefer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplement of palm oil on milk production, milk composition, rumen characteristics, and metabolic variables of early lactating dairy cows...

  2. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction...... of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists...... presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status....

  3. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conditions of highland, mid altitude and lowland AEZ using Friesian Jersey and ... Cows were inseminated using pure Holstein from NAIC (Kaliti) and WWS .... condition and clinical and sub clinical mastitis are among the factors that could ...

  4. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets.

  5. Influence of corn silage particle length on the performance of lactating dairy cows fed supplemental tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment.

  6. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  7. The use of test day information to predict energy intake of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to validate a previously developed model for the estimation of energy balance in high producing dairy cows from test day information during the first 12 wk of lactation. Monensin (an ionophor) increases the energy status of dairy cows. Gold standard for the validation was a higher energy status, indicated by lower blood ketone body concentrations, lower percent milk fat, and higher milk-yield of monensin-supplemented than control cows in 8 randomized block design feeding trials. Estimated energy intake (eE(intake)) was calculated as estimated energy balance (eEB) plus energy in actual milk produced (in units of MJ(nel)) plus a constant or variable amount of energy required for maintenance. The variable amount was based on BW, while the constant was the average BW in each parity group (1, 2, 3, 4+). Both eEB and eE(intake) were compared between groups of cows with and without monensin supplementation (n = 600 lactations). The trials started with a presupplement period during lactation wk 2 to 5 followed by a supplementation period during lactation wk 6 to 12. During the presupplement period, both eEB and eE(intake) were similar for all cows. At 2, 3, and 8 wk after starting the monensin supplementation, the eEB of the supplemented cows was significantly higher, while eE(intake) was significantly higher throughout the supplementation period. The results were similar for the 2 methods of calculating energy for maintenance, variable or constant. The feed conversion efficiency, calculated as kg of fat-protein corrected milk per MJ(nel) of eE(intake), was highest in first calving cows compared with cows having more lactations, and correlated with standard milk production at trial group level. It was concluded that eE(intake) was a valid measure of net energy absorption.

  8. Performance traits of dairy cows stabled in tie stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the evaluation of fertility and production traits stabled in tie stalls. 50 pure-bred Holstein cows were monitored and those traits were evaluated: interval of insemination, service period, calving interval, milk yield and content of milk protein and fat. All monitored cows finished standard lactation period (305 days) in year 2012. The evaluation was performed in relation to lactation order. Nearly all of fertility traits were evaluated as bad. The average interval...

  9. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized.

  10. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  11. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  12. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock.

  13. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Schutz, M M; Lossie, A C; Eicher, S D

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, immune status, and expression of genes associated with lameness during the dry and periparturient periods. Cows were assigned to freestall housing with either rubber (RUB; n = 13) or concrete (CON; n = 14) at the feed-bunk and alley immediately after their first calving, and managed on this system during all subsequent lactations. At dry off, cows were moved to a straw bedded-pack dry cow pen, and remained there until about 2 d before subsequent calving. To investigate whether greater exposure to RUB or CON increased the differences between cows on each treatment, cows at the end of either their first (n = 16) or second (n = 11) lactations were included in the experiment. Locomotion scores and blood samples were obtained at -60 (beginning of the dry period), -30, 0 (after calving), +10 and +18 d relative to calving. Leukocyte counts were obtained by using an automated cell counter. Phagocytic activity, and cells positive for CD14 and CD18 expression were measured by flow cytometry using labeled microbeads and antibodies. Expression of tachikinin 1(TAC1), histamine receptor 1 (H1), and metalloproteinase (MMP)13 in blood leukocytes was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment effects were determined using a repeated measures model. Provision of rubber flooring did not improve dairy cow locomotion during the subsequent study period. However, time relative to calving had an effect on locomotion score and speed, which were worst on d 0, probably because of the discomfort associated with calving. An interaction occurred between treatment and time for neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The RUB cows had greater neutrophil and lesser lymphocyte numbers postpartum than CON. These cows also had more cells positive for CD14 postpartum compared with prepartum. Moreover, RUB cows showed upregulation of MMP13 and TAC1 compared with CON. These genes are associated with lameness and pain

  14. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  15. Evaluation of blood and milk oxidative status during early postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A; Ceci, E; Pantaleo, M; Mutinati, M; Spedicato, M; Minoia, G; Sciorsci, R L

    2013-01-01

    In dairy cows, the intensity of metabolic activity, associated with the negative energy balance (NEBAL), is responsible for an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, subsequently, for the development of the condition of oxidative stress, which may overwhelm the antioxidant potential of the bovine maternal organism, making it prone to the development of many puerperal dysfunctions, as well as to an alteration of colostrum and milk quality. Given these premises, the aims of this study are to evaluate serum and milk concentrations of ROS and lipoperoxides, vitamins A and E, on the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th day postpartum of dairy cows, a particularly critical period during which the NEBAL reaches its nadir, and to compare the trends of these parameters in two different bovine breeds. The study was performed in pluriparous Italian Friesian and Brown dairy cows. On the 10th day postpartum, all cows underwent a clinical examination to exclude the presence of alterations; furthermore, on the same day, a milk sample was collected from each cow, in order to perform the somatic cell count (SCC; (CE) N. 853/2004) and to establish which of them had an SCC ≤400,000/ml or >400,000/ml. In this study, among the 110 cows that were initially selected, the evaluation of these parameters allowed the inclusion of 80 animals, which were divided into four groups of 20 subjects each: Group F and F1: Italian Friesian healthy cows, with SCC ≤400,000/ml and >400,000/ml, respectively; Group B and B1: Italian Brown healthy cows, with SCC ≤400,000/ml and >400,000/ml, respectively. On the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th day postpartum, peripheral blood and milk samples were collected. The results obtained show that in group B1 there were higher concentrations of ROS and milk antioxidants compared with Friesian group cows. This datum let us suppose that even in the presence of higher ROS concentrations the antioxidant status found in group B1 seems to be able to counteract the

  16. Effect of frequency of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K D; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feed delivery frequency on the behavioral patterns and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Twelve freestall-housed, lactating Holstein dairy cows, including 6 primiparous (PP) and 6 multiparous (MP), milked 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h), were exposed to each of 3 treatments (over 21-d periods) in a replicated Latin square design. Treatments included feed delivery frequency of (1) 1 ×/d (at 1400 h), (2) 2 ×/d (at 1400 and 2200 h), and (3) 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h). Milk production as well as feeding, lying, and rumination behaviors were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 3d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (DMI) varied with feed delivery frequency, with greatest DMI observed in cows fed 3 ×/d (27.8 kg/d) compared with those fed 2 ×/d (27.0 kg/d) or 1 ×/d (27.4 kg/d). Treatment had no effect on milk yield (41.3 kg/d) or efficiency of production (1.54 kg of milk/kg of DMI). Cows that did not receive delivery of feed following the 2200 h milking (treatment 1) and 0600 h milking (treatments 1 and 2) had lower DMI during the first hour after milking than those that received feed at all milkings (treatment 3). Total feeding time and meal frequency, size, and duration did not vary by treatment, but PP cows consumed smaller meals at a slower rate, resulting in lower DMI compared with MP cows. Primiparous cows consumed 50.1% and 26.1% less dry matter than MP cows during the first meal following the first and second milkings, respectively. Lying time did not vary by treatment, but PP cows spent more time lying (10.3 vs. 8.3h/d) than MP cows. Under 3 ×/d milking schedules, greater feed delivery frequency resulted in greater DMI as a function of increased DMI following the return from milking and the delivery of feed. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  17. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J G C J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M

    2003-06-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and severity of claw disorders during hoof trimming events at the end of the pasture (P-study) and housing period (H-study). The number of cows in each study was 3078 (49 herds) and 3190 (47 herds), respectively. Due to a different hoof trimming strategy, data collected during both observation periods in SY herds (638 cows; 16 herds) were combined. Cows in straw yards (SY) had by far the lowest numbers of claw disorders. Over 80% of cows exposed to concrete flooring had at least one claw disorder at the time of observation, whereas on SY surfaces, this percentage was between 55 and 60. Cows on SL-SCR were less frequently affected by interdigital dermatitis/heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) than cows on SL (reference floor system). Little difference in claw health was found between SF and SL. The ZG cows were at higher risk (OR > 2) for most claw disorders in the P-study, whereas in the H-study, ZG cows showed less IDHE, sole hemorrhage, and sole ulcer. All herds on concrete flooring (SL, SL-SCR, SCF, ZG) were infected by DD, resulting in an average cow level prevalence of 30%. This indicates that the level of DD infection has increased considerably over the last 10 yr in The Netherlands.

  18. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  19. Effect of low dose oxytocin treatment on the pregnancy rate of the dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hamali,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during the natural mating, stimulation of the female genital system by the bull causes oxytocin release from the caudal part of the female pituitary gland and this hormone enhances the sperm transport in the genital tract. During the artificial insemination (A.I, this hormone dose not release perfectly. For determine of the oxytocin effect on the pregnancy rates of the cows, a total 100 cows were chosen in a dairy herd located in a suburb of Tabriz (North-west of Iran. These cows were randomly divided into two groups. In the group A, during the A.I, 30 IU oxytocin (3cc Vetocin was injected to the cows intramuscularly. In the group of B, 3cc saline was injected intramuscularly to the control cows. After 45 days of A.I, all of the cows were examined by rectal palpation for pregnancy detection. The pregnancy rates were 58% and 54% in the groups of oxytocin treated and control respectively. The difference between two groups did not differ significantly. These results indicated that oxytocin administration during the A.I had not significant effect on the cow's pregnancy rates.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was determined in the blood serum. Pure acidobasic forms, pH and density of urine were determined. Proteins, lactose, non-fat-solids, somatic cells count, calcium, urea, titratable acidity, fermentability, rennetability and thermostability were determined in samples of milk. Significant negative dependences were observed in the group of cows with metabolic problems of acidosis between urea in blood and in milk (r = -0.694, P <0.05, between calcium in blood and in milk (r = -0.653, P <0, 05, and between calcium in milk and glucose in blood (r = -0.648, P <0.05. In the group of cows with alkalosis, statistically significant correlation between total lipids in blood and fat in milk was found (r = -0.879, P <0.05.

  1. Possible involvement of oxytocin in modulating the stress response in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi Anne Sutherland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin can attenuate the physiological and behavioral response to stress in animals. In this study we investigated the relationship between plasma oxytocin concentrations and the behavioral and physiological response of dairy cows to a repeated psychological stressor (novel environment. Twenty lactating multi-parous dairy cows were milked in a familiar milking parlor and in a novel environment. Blood samples were collected before and after milking in the familiar parlor (baseline and on the second and fifth day in the novel parlor to measure plasma cortisol and oxytocin concentrations. Heart rate was recorded on all cows during milking in the familiar and novel environment. On all test days, the behavioral response of cows to milk cluster attachment was scored. On day 2 in the novel parlor, the oxytocin response, cortisol concentrations and heart rate were greater, and heart rate variability was lower than baseline values recorded in the familiar parlor. The results from this study suggest that oxytocin release is increased in response to exposure to a psychological stressor (novel environment and that cows adapt to this stressor over time. After initial suppression, oxytocin levels increased over days of milking in a novel environment, whereas indicators of stress simultaneously decreased. Furthermore, the oxytocin increase was associated with habituation of the cortisol response in anticipation of milking in a novel environment, suggesting that oxytocin may be involved in habituation to a novel environment in dairy cows. This mechanism of habituation to novel environments may reflect an association between oxytocin and a familiarization-habituation response to repeated exposure to an initially novel environment that has previously been reported in humans.

  2. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  3. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  4. Short communication: Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3. From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods.

  5. Agreement between rectal and vaginal temperature measured with temperature loggers in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Vishal; Burfeind, Onno; Maeder, Britta; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    The overall objective of this study was to evaluate agreement between rectal (RT) and vaginal temperature (VT) measured with the same temperature loggers in dairy cows. Three experiments were conducted. The study began with a validation in vitro of 24 temperature loggers comparing them to a calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometer as a reference method. The association and agreement between the 24 temperature loggers with the reference method was r=0.996 (Ptemperature loggers were tested in 11 healthy post-partum cows (Experiment 2) and 12 early post-partum cows with greater body temperature (Experiment 3). Temperature loggers were set to record VT and RT at 1-min intervals. To prevent rectal and vaginal straining and potential expulsion of temperature logger an epidural injection of 2.5 ml of 2% Procain was administered. Association between RT and VT was r=0.92 (Ptemperature in Experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Furthermore the intra-class correlation coefficient between RT and VT measured with identical loggers within cows of Experiments 2 and 3 also demonstrated greater agreements (Ptemperature loggers can be used as a measure of body temperature in dairy cows.

  6. Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, M.; Vigo, M.; Quintela, L.A.; Becerra, J.J.; García-Herradón, P.J.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Fernandez-Sanchez, F.I.; Prieto, A.; Cainzos, J.; Peña, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3). From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods. (Author)

  7. Chronic metabolic responses of postpartal dairy cows to subcutaneous glucagon injections, oral glycerol, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M A; Allen, P S; Bobe, G; Coetzee, J F; Abuzaid, A; Koehler, K; Beitz, D C

    2010-08-01

    We examined the long-term effects of daily subcutaneous injections of 15 mg of glucagon during the first 14 d postpartum with or without coadministration of 400 mL of pure glycerol orally on blood metabolites and hormones and liver composition of Holstein dairy cows during early lactation. Fourteen multiparous cows with body condition score of >or=3.5 points (1-5 point scale) were assigned randomly to one of 4 treatment groups-saline, glucagon, glycerol, or glucagon plus glycerol. Fatty liver syndrome was induced by feeding cows a dry-cow ration supplemented with 6 kg of cracked corn daily during the last 6 wk of the dry period. Compared with saline treatment (n=3), coadministration of glucagon and glycerol (n=4) increased plasma glucose and insulin and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in both treatment weeks, whereas glucagon alone (n=3) produced similar changes plus a decrease in plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate in the second week only. No significant changes were observed for the glycerol alone treatment (n=4). We conclude that a single daily dose of glycerol for the first 14 d postpartum may potentiate the action of glucagon in the first treatment days to alleviate some symptoms of fatty liver syndrome, such as the increase in plasma nonesterified fatty acids and the decrease in plasma glucose and insulin, in Holstein dairy cows after parturition.

  8. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  9. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Processed grains as a supplement to lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: heat treatment, maize, barley, starch, protein, in sacco, in vivo, dairy, perennial ryegrass, grazing, supplementation, ruminal fermentation, VFA, rumen, degradability, synchrony.In this thesis the effect of different ways of thermal processing (pelleting, expanding, toasting) of barley an

  11. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  12. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  14. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses,Murilo de Almeida; Silva,Fabiano Ferreira da; Schio, Alex Resende; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antônio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 g crude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feedi...

  15. Optimal replacement policies for dairy cows based on daily yield measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Jørgensen, Erik; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard;

    2010-01-01

    describes the first step of developing an MDP model that can be integrated into a modern herd management system. A hierarchical MDP was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. It can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based...... on daily milk yield measurements that are available in modern milking systems. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based on the prediction. Moreover, parameters in the model were estimated using data records of the specific herd under...

  16. Effect of sand and rubber surface on the lying behavior of lame dairy cows in hospital pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Anne Sandgrav; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2016-01-01

    Housing lame cows in designated hospital pens with a soft surface may lessen the pain the animals feel when lying and changing position. This study investigated the effect of the lying surface on the behavior of lame cows in hospital pens. Thirty-two lame dairy cows were kept in individual hospital...... pens, provided with either 30-cm deep-bedded sand or 24-mm rubber mats during 24 h in a crossover design. On each surface, the lying behavior of each cow was recorded during 18 h. On deep-bedded sand, cows lay down more and changed position more often than when housed on the rubber surface. Furthermore......, a shorter duration of lying down and getting up movements and a shorter duration of lying intention movements were observed. These results suggest that lame dairy cows are more reluctant to change position on rubber compared with sand, and that sand is more comfortable to lie on. Thus, deep bedding...

  17. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation–Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Melendez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration <2.0 mmol/l is a potential problem for the dairy cow; consequently, its prevention is essential for success of fertility and productive performance. Dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K and anions (Cl, S per kilogram of dry matter (DM and has a direct impact on blood acid–base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (−143 mEq/kg DM, expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of −143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2–5.8 was changed to a diet with −53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2–6.8. Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05. Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (−53 mEq/kg DM. Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (−53 mEq/kg DM did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after

  18. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  19. Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a lysostaphin-fusion protein (Lyso-PTD) as a dry-cow therapy for the treatment of experimentally-induced chronic, subclinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. Twenty-two Holstein dairy cows were experimentally infected with Staph. aureus in a single pair of diago...

  20. Bayesian integration of sensor information and a multivariate dynamic linear model for prediction of dairy cow mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Dan B.; Hogeveen, Henk; Vries, de Albert

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for

  1. Adaptive models for online estimation of individual milk yield response to concentrate intake and milking interval length of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automated feeding and milking of dairy cows enables the application of individual cow settings for concentrate supply and milking frequency. Currently, general settings are used, based on knowledge about energy and nutrient requirements in relation to milk production at the group level. Individual s

  2. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  3. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  4. Effect of feeding yeast culture on reproduction and lameness in dairy cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, R G S; Rutigliano, H; Cerri, R L; Robinson, P H; Santos, J E P

    2009-07-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=717) from two dairy farms were blocked at calving by parity and previous lactation milk yield and, within each block, randomly assigned to one of two treatments: a diet containing no yeast culture (Control; n=359) or 30 g/d of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YC; n=358) from 20 to 140 d postpartum. Only cows calving during months of heat stress, May-August were enrolled. Lameness score (1-5 scale) was evaluated at study enrollment and again at 100 d postpartum. The body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) was evaluated at calving, 28, 58 and 140 d postpartum. Cows received two injections of PGF(2alpha) at 37 and 51 d postpartum, and those observed in estrus were inseminated. Cows not in estrus were enrolled in a timed AI protocol at 65 d postpartum and inseminated at 75 d postpartum. Ovaries were examined by ultrasonography at 37 and 51 d postpartum to determine whether estrous cycling had been initiated by the presence of a corpus lutem (CL) in at least one of the two examinations. Pregnancy was diagnosed at 31, 38 and 66 d after the first AI and at 38 and 66 d after the second and third AI. Diet did not affect time of onset of estrous cycles postpartum, and 8.2% of the cows were anovular. Detection of estrus in the 7d after the second injection of PGF(2alpha) was similar for control and YC. For control and YC, conception rates 38 d after AI at first (30.8% and 31.4%), second (39.3% and 35.1%) and third (25.8% and 30.6%) inseminations, and pregnancy losses did not differ, which resulted in similar median days to pregnancy and proportion of pregnant cows at 140 d postpartum. Yeast culture did not affect incidence of lameness, but tended to reduce lameness score. Lame cows and anovular cows had lesser conception rates at first AI, and extended interval from calving to conception. A THI of 71 was identified as the critical point in which fertility was reduced in lactating dairy cows, although the sensitivity and specificity were

  5. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from 1

  6. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  7. Genetics of grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and digestibility in grazing irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Horan, B; O'Donovan, M; Buckley, F; Kennedy, E; McEvoy, M; Dillon, P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for grass dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and cow internal digestibility (IDG) in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Grass DMI was estimated up to 4 times per lactation on 1,588 lactations from 755 cows on 2 research farms in southern Ireland. Simultaneously measured milk production and BW records were used to calculate EB. Cow IDG, measured as the ratio of feed and fecal concentrations of the natural odd carbon-chain n-alkane pentatriacontane, was available on 583 lactations from 238 cows. Random regression and multitrait animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactations. Results were similar for both models. Heritability for DMI, EB, and IDG across lactation varied from 0.10 [8 days in milk (DIM)] to 0.30 (169 DIM), from 0.06 (29 DIM) to 0.29 (305 DIM), and from 0.08 (50 DIM) to 0.45 (305 DIM), respectively, when estimated using the random regression model. Genetic correlations within each trait tended to decrease as the interval between periods compared increased for DMI and EB, whereas the correlations with IDG in early lactation were weakest when measured midlactation. The lowest correlation between any 2 periods was 0.10, -0.36, and -0.04 for DMI, EB, and IDG, respectively, suggesting the effect of different genes at different stages of lactations. Eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed considerable genetic variation among animals in the shape of the lactation profiles for DMI, EB, and IDG. Genetic parameters presented are the first estimates from dairy cows fed predominantly grazed grass and imply that genetic improvement in DMI, EB, and IDG in Holstein-Friesian cows fed predominantly grazed grass is possible.

  8. The effects of building design on hazard of first service in Norwegian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Kielland, C; Nelson, S T; Østerås, O

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive inefficiency is one of the major production and economic constraints on modern dairy farms. The environment affects onset of ovarian activity in a cow postcalving and influences estrus behavior, which in turn affects a stockperson's ability to inseminate her at the correct time. This study used survival analysis to investigate effects of building design and animal factors on the postpartum hazard of first service (HFS) in freestall-housed Norwegian Red cows. The study was performed on 232 Norwegian dairy farms between 2004 and 2007. Data were obtained through on farm measurements and by accessing the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The final data set contained data on 38,436 calvings and 27,127 services. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed that herd size and milk yield were positively associated with HFS. Total free accessible area and free accessible area available per cow year were positively associated with the HFS, as was the number of freestalls available per cow. Cows housed on slatted floors had a lower HFS than those housed on solid floors. Conversely, cows housed on rubber floors had a higher HFS than cows on concrete floors. Dead-ending alleyways reduced the hazard of AI after calving. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, accounting for herd management by including a frailty term for herd, showed relationships between hazard of postpartum service and explanatory variables. Animals in herds with more than 50 cows had a higher HFS [hazard ratio (HR)=3.0] compared with those in smaller herds. The HFS was also higher (HR=4.3) if more than 8.8 m(2) of space was available per cow year compared with herds in which animals had less space. The HFS after calving increased with parity (parity 2 HR=0.5, parity ≥3 HR=1.7), and was reduced if a lactation began with dystocia (HR=0.82) or was a breed other than Norwegian Red (HR=0.2). The frailty term, herd, was large and highly significant indicating a significant

  9. Relationship between somatic cell count status and subsequent clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, B H P; Vernooij, J C M; Lupindu, A M; van Schaik, G; Frankena, K; Lam, T J G M; Nielen, M

    2011-12-15

    High composite somatic cell counts (CSCC) in dairy cows may develop into clinical mastitis (CM), suggesting that prevention or intervention of high CSCC may prevent CM later in lactation. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between high CSCC in dairy cows and the first subsequent case of CM in the same lactation. Farmer-diagnosed cases of CM and test day CSCC measurements during 1 year of 13,917 cows in 196 randomly selected Dutch dairy herds were available for analysis. Cows were followed in 1 lactation from the first test day postpartum until CM, drying off, culling or end of study. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying CSCC levels were used to estimate the effect of high CSCC (≥200,000cells/ml) on the time until the first case of CM. A shared frailty effect was included to adjust for clustering of cows within herds. The proportion of cows developing CM after a CSCC measurement was 11%. Primiparae with a high CSCC had a 4-fold higher hazard for subsequent CM than primiparae with a low CSCC; multiparae with a high CSCC had a 2-fold higher hazard than multiparae with a low CSCC. Additionally, multiparae with a low CSCC had a 2-fold higher hazard for CM occurrence than primiparae with a low CSCC. Increasing the threshold for high CSCC showed that the risk for CM increased. If the last CSCC before CM was low, CSCC information of 2 preceding test days was more predictive than CSCC information from only the last test day. When the last CSCC was high, CSCC information of 2 preceding test days did not have added predictive value. This study identified that approximately 25% of first subsequent CM cases after a CSCC measurement can potentially be prevented when cows are prevented to get high CSCC or when high CSCC cows are removed from the population. This corresponded with a decrease in the proportion of lactating cows with CM after a CSCC measurement from 11% to 7%.

  10. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  11. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  12. Higher non-return rate associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection at early stage in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, C; Beaudeau, F; Bareille, N; Seegers, H; Fourichon, C

    2009-03-15

    The effects of infection by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) on dairy cows are poorly documented and quite controversial. This retrospective study aimed at quantifying the variation in non-return to service of Holstein dairy cows according to their Map-infection status. Three different statuses were defined based on both individual and herd tests results: ELISA positive cow, all tests negative cow in a negative herd and all tests negative cow in a positive herd. Whatever the age at Map testing, the status was attributed to a cow from its first lactation onwards. Non-return to service was determined at 200 days after first and second services. The study was performed from 1999 to 2007 on 185,950 AI from 48,914 cows in early stage of the infection in 1069 herds by logistic regression controlling for known factors influencing non-return rate. Non-return rate was higher for infected cows compared to negative cows from negative herds (RR of 1.10 or +3.9 points of % of non-return rate). The effect was significant for parities 1 and 2 (RR of 1.11 and 1.12, respectively) but not for higher ones. This effect was lower when comparing positive cows to negative cows in the same herds but relative risks were still above 1. The hypothesis that the effect of Map on non-return depends upon the stage of infection is formulated.

  13. Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows.

  14. Analytical methods in dairy cows nutrition and their application in creation of production health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vajda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quantity of nutrients on rumen fermentation and the level of metabolic markers in blood serum were simultaneously analysed in groups of dairy cows 21 days before and 21 days after parturition with aim to diagnose disorders in milk production in the transition period of dairy cows. Results of analysis of health disorders confirmed the following: low energy concentration in the diet insufficiently saturated with fibrous carbohydrates, followed with rapid change to concentrate type of diet after delivery resulted in insufficient adaptation of the rumen metabolism before and after rapid transition to production feeding rations after calving; the level indicative of acidification of the rumen environment. Investigation of intermediary metabolism confirmed pre- and post-partum lipomobilization, with increased values of NEFA in 68 % and 54 % of animals respectively, with liver load manifestation in 37 % and 69 % of animals, respectively.

  15. Application of Protein Feed Processed by Microbial Fermentation to Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhe; Liu Ying; Pan Hong-bao; Gao Xue-jun

    2014-01-01

    Methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) have been reported as the first two limiting amino acids (AA) for maximum milk yield and milk protein production. Supplying these AA may improve microbial protein synthesis and therefore improve milk production without adding excess N to the environment. This observation utilized fermented soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), rapeseed meal (RSM) and corn by Bacillus subtilis 168 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides as core feedstuffs to produce special biological protein feed for dairy cow. The results showed that the milk production, milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage and milk DM percentage of test groups in trial period were significantly more than those of the control group (P<0.01), the results showed that adding fermenting protein feed in dairy cow diets could significantly improve milk yield, milk protein and milk fat content. The economic benefits of actual application were analyzed, the group of 0.5%was the best compared with the other groups.

  16. Productive response of dairy cows to a supplementation with methionine hydroxy analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and lysine have been identified most frequently as first-limiting essential amino acids in the protein nutrition of dairy cattle (NRC, 2001. According to Patton (1996, 50- 75% of the methionine requirement of a high producing dairy cow is covered by the microbial protein synthesized in the rumen, while the remaining amount should arise from the contribution of the ruminally undegraded feed protein. Soybean proteins are not a good source of by-pass methionine in comparison to animal-derived proteins such as meat or fish meal (Cozzi et al., 1995. Therefore, the ban of the use of animal protein sources for ruminant feeding due to the BSE crisis has made more difficult the fulfillment of the methionine requirement in the lactating cow,........

  17. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 1. How to Distinguish between Non-Lame and Lame Cows Based on Differences in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its detrimental effect on cow welfare, health and production, lameness in dairy cows has received quite a lot of attention in the last few decades—not only in terms of prevention and treatment of lameness but also in terms of detection, as early treatment might decrease the number of severely lame cows in the herds as well as decrease the direct and indirect costs associated with lameness cases. Generally, lame cows are detected by the herdsman, hoof trimmer or veterinarian based on abnormal locomotion, abnormal behavior or the presence of hoof lesions during routine trimming. In the scientific literature, several guidelines are proposed to detect lame cows based on visual interpretation of the locomotion of individual cows (i.e., locomotion scoring systems. Researchers and the industry have focused on automating such observations to support the farmer in finding the lame cows in their herds, but until now, such automated systems have rarely been used in commercial herds. This review starts with the description of normal locomotion of cows in order to define ‘abnormal’ locomotion caused by lameness. Cow locomotion (gait and posture and behavioral features that change when a cow becomes lame are described and linked to the existing visual scoring systems. In addition, the lack of information of normal cow gait and a clear description of ‘abnormal’ gait are discussed. Finally, the different set-ups used during locomotion scoring and their influence on the resulting locomotion scores are evaluated.

  18. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone in adult dairy cows and associations with fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, E S; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Morrison, A; Kumar, A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in plasma of dairy cows and to investigate the relationships between plasma AMH and fertility responses during a 100-d breeding season. Lactating cows, 1,237 in 2 seasonally calving herds, had estrous cycles presynchronized and were enrolled in a timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. All cows were inseminated on the first day of breeding season, considered study d 0. Blood was sampled on d -8 and analyzed for concentrations of AMH and progesterone. From d 19 to 35, detection of estrus was performed daily and cows detected in estrus were reinseminated. On d 36, bulls were placed with cows for 65 d of natural service breeding. Factors identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma were breed of the cow and lactation number. Concentrations of AMH were greater for Jerseys, followed by crossbreds, and then Holsteins. Cows on lactations 2 and 3 had greater concentrations of AMH than those on lactations 1 and ≥ 4. Although pregnancy per AI at the timed AI was not associated with concentrations of AMH, cows with low AMH had greater detection of estrus at timed AI, and the latter benefited pregnancy per AI, particularly in cows that had low progesterone at the beginning of the synchronization protocol. Pregnancy loss between gestation d 30 and 65 was greater in cows with low AMH compared with those with intermediate or high AMH. Return to estrus in cows that failed to become pregnant from the timed AI was not associated with AMH, but pregnancy rate in cows bred on estrus (reinsemination + natural service) was associated positively with AMH. In conclusion, breed and lactation number were identified to be associated with concentrations of AMH in plasma. Concentration of AMH was associated positively with maintenance of pregnancy at the first postpartum AI and with pregnancy rate in cows inseminated after detection of spontaneous

  19. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    performance of dairy cows in subsequent lactation.

  20. Effect of multiple intravenous injections of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürll, M; Deniz, A; Westphal, B; Illing, C; Constable, P D

    2010-09-01

    Numerous adjunct therapeutic agents have been investigated for the treatment or control of fat mobilization syndrome in periparturient dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of multiple i.v. injections of 10% butaphosphan and 0.005% cyanocobalamin combination (Catosal, Bayer Animal Health, Leverkusen, Germany) between 1 and 2 wk antepartum (a.p.) on the metabolism and health of dairy cows. Forty-five late-gestation Holstein-Friesian cows (second pregnancy) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 groups with 15 cows/group: group C6 (6 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of body weight (BW) and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last 2 wk of gestation); group C3 (3 daily i.v. injections of butaphosphan at 10 mg/kg of BW and cyanocobalamin at 5 microg/kg of BW in the last week of gestation); and group C0 (equivolume daily i.v. injections of 0.9% NaCl solution). Serum biochemical analysis was performed on jugular venous blood samples that were periodically obtained a.p. and postpartum (p.p.). Health status and milk production were monitored p.p. Serum cyanocobalamin concentration increased in groups C6 and C3 p.p. Multiple daily i.v. injections of Catosal before parturition increased p.p. glucose availability, as evaluated by p.p. serum glucose concentration, and decreased peripheral fat mobilization and ketone body formation, as evaluated by p.p. serum nonesterified fatty acid and beta-OH butyrate concentrations. The number of puerperal infections in the first 5 d after calving was decreased in group C6, relative to group C0. We conclude that multiple injections of Catosal during the close-up period have a beneficial effect on the metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows in early lactation may have a relative or actual deficiency of cyanocobalamin. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2017-01-01

    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status. PMID:28261585

  2. Variation among Dairy Cows in Rumen Liquid Fermentation Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter; Kristensen, Lise

    Volatile fatty acids are the main energy product from rumen fermentation. This study investigated the individuality of VFA concentrations in samples of rumen fluid obtained from 10 Holstein cows using a esophageal probe to take samples repeatedly over a 7 week period. Systematic changes were seen...

  3. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  4. [The behaviour of lactating dairy cows in an outdoor climate stall barn depending on air temperature in the stall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tober, Olaf; Loebsin, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    In this study activity and lying behavior of dairy cows were examined. ALT-pedometers for automatic detection of behavior were used. The results of the investigations show that lactating dairy cows react with altered behavior on different temperatures. Particularly affected was the resting behavior. At high temperatures the total length of lying decreased and the number of lying periods increased. The exact temperature is not known at which a cow has significant stress. So results are insufficient to fully exploit the behavior as an indicator of heat stress.

  5. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  6. Effects of Cow Age and Pregnancy on Bartonella Infection in a Herd of Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, R.; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...

  7. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-04

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment.

  8. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, E D; Fitzpatrick, J L; Swai, E S; Bell, C; Bryant, M J; Ogden, N H; Kambarage, D M; French, N P

    2008-07-05

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 randomly selected farms in each of the Iringa and Tanga regions of Tanzania to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in dairy cows kept by smallholders. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using the California mastitis test (cmt), and by the bacteriological culture of 1500 milk samples collected from 434 clinically normal cows. The percentages of the cows (and quarters) with subclinical mastitis were 75.9 per cent (46.2 per cent) when assessed by the cmt and 43.8 per cent (24.3 per cent) when assessed by culture. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of a cmt-positive quarter were Boran breed (odds radio [or]=3.51), a brought-in cow (rather than homebred) (or=2.39), peak milk yield, and age. The stripping method of hand milking was associated with a significantly lower prevalence of cmt-positive quarters (or=0.51). The cmt-positive cows were more likely to be culture positive (or=4.51), as were brought-in (or=2.10) and older cows.

  9. Proteome dataset of pre-ovulatory follicular fluids from less fertile dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zachut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in Zachut et al. (2016 [1]. Proteomics data from preovulatory follicles in cows was obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry following protein extraction. Differential expression between controls and less fertile cows (LFC was quantified using MS1 intensity based label-free. The only previous proteomic analysis of bovine FF detected merely 40 proteins in follicular cysts obtained from the slaughterhouse (Maniwa et al., 2005 [2], and the abundance of proteins in the bovine preovulatory FF remains unknown. Therefore, the objectives were to establish the first dataset of FF proteome in preovulatory follicles of cows, and to examine differentially expressed proteins in FF obtained in-vivo from preovulatory follicles of less fertile cows (also termed “repeat breeder” and control (CTL cows. The proteome of FF from 10 preovulatory follicles that were aspirated in vivo (estradiol/progesterone>1 was analyzed. This novel dataset contains 219 identified and quantified proteins in FF, consisting mainly of binding proteins, proteases, receptor ligands, enzymes and transporters. In addition, differential abundance of 8 proteins relevant to follicular function was found in LFC compared to CTL; these findings are discussed in our recent research article Zachut et al. (2016 [1]. The present dataset of bovine FF proteome can be used as a reference for any study involving disorders of follicular development in dairy cows or in comparative studies between species.

  10. Area of hock hair loss in dairy cows: risk factors and correlation with a categorical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P Y; Huxley, J N; Green, M J; Othman, A R; Potterton, S L; Brignell, C J; Kaler, J

    2015-02-01

    Data from 3691 dairy cows from 76 farms were used to investigate the risk factors associated with the area of hair loss over the lateral aspect of the hock and the correlation between the area of hair loss (as calculated using a hock map) and hock lesion scores determined using a pre-existing categorical scale. Six factors were associated with a greater area of hair loss, including cows with locomotion score 3, a cleanliness score (10/28 to 18/28), high daily milk yield (25.1-58.1 kg), poor body condition score (1-1.5), duration of winter housing (≥41 days) and some combinations of cubicle base and bedding materials. Compared with cows housed in cubicles with a concrete base and whole straw or rape straw bedding, cows housed in cubicles with concrete bases with sand or chopped straw bedding had smaller areas of hair loss and cows housed on a mattress base with whole straw or rape straw bedding had larger areas of hair loss. Area of hair loss, as measured on hock maps, was not significantly different between cows with score 1 (median 23.6 cm(2)) and score 2 (median 20.3 cm(2)) on the categorical scale for hock lesions. This suggests that the categorical scale was not reflecting the extent of hair loss and that hock maps are a good alternative for studying the dynamics of hock lesions over time.

  11. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows.

  12. The association between lameness, ovarian cysts and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, P; Bartolome, J; Archbald, L F; Donovan, A

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this observational study was to evaluate the association between lameness, ovarian cysts, and fertility in lactating dairy cows. Data analysis of historical records from a 3000 Holstein farm was conducted. Sixty-five cows that became lame within 30 days postpartum were used as cases, and 130 nonlame cows served as controls. The outcome variables were incidence of ovarian cysts (OC, %), conception rate at first service (CRFS, %), overall pregnancy rate (PR, %), and calving to first service interval (CFSI, day), Incidence of OC and CRFS were analyzed by logistic regression, PR by survival analysis and CFSI by ANOVA. Lame cows had a lower CRFS (17.5% versus 42.6%) and higher incidence of OC (25.0% versus 11.1%) than controls (P0.05). There was a multicollinearity relationship between lameness and ovarian cysts. The results show that cows that became lame within the first 30 days postpartum were associated with a higher incidence of ovarian cysts, a lower likelihood of pregnancy, and lower fertility than control cows. Because this is an observational study it is not possible to conclude a cause-effect relationship.

  13. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  14. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  15. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hypothesized that over-conditioned cows with excessive body fat mobilization around calving may have impaired insulin metabolism compared with cows with low fat mobilization. Nineteen dairy cows were grouped according to their average concentration of total liver fat (LFC) after calving in low [LLFC; LFC 24.4% total fat/DM; n=10) fat-mobilizing cows. Blood samples were taken from wk 7 antepartum (ap) to wk 5 postpartum (pp) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin. We applied euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (EGHIC) and hyperglycemic clamps (HGC) in wk 5 ap and wk 3 pp to measure insulin responsiveness in peripheral tissue and pancreatic insulin secretion during the transition period. Before and during the pp EGHIC, [(13)C6] glucose was infused to determine the rate of glucose appearance (GlucRa) and glucose oxidation (GOx). Body condition, back fat thickness, and energy-corrected milk were greater, but energy balance was lower in HLFC than in LLFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin decreased at calving, and this was followed by an immediate increase of glucagon and adiponectin after calving. Insulin concentrations ap were higher in HLFC than in LLFC cows, but the EGHIC indicated no differences in peripheral insulin responsiveness among cows ap and pp. However, GlucRa and GOx:GlucRa during the pp EGHIC were greater in HLFC than in LLFC cows. During HGC, pancreatic insulin secretion was lower, but the glucose infusion rate was higher pp than ap in both groups. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids decreased during HGC and EGHIC, but in both

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in Northern provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Mitchell, Thomas J; Sununta, Chainirun; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2014-06-01

    Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis, recognized as a major cause of bovine abortion around the world. Thailand is a developing agricultural country located in Southeast Asia. Livestock developments particularly in dairy cows of this country have been hampered by low productivity including milk and slow growth rate due to the impact of many pathogens including N. caninum. Currently, there is no effective method for control of neosporosis since there is less information regarding current status of infections. The objective of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of neosporosis in dairy cows of the northern part of Thailand. During 2006-2007, the sera of 642 cows from 42 small farm holders with the top three highest consensus of dairy farms in the northern provinces, such as Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Lumpang were collected and performed tests. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant N. caninum surface antigen 1 (NcSAG1) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall prevalence of N. caninum infection in this study was 46.9% (301/642) by ELISA and 34.3% (220/642) by IFAT.

  17. Design and Experiment on Self-propelled Precise Feeding Equipment for Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewei Meng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Designed a kind of self-propelled precise feeding machine for single dairy cow based on the technology of RFID, to achieve the automation,fine and intelligent of dairy farming.The computer was used as the information management platform, MCU was used as control platform, even using wireless transmission, RFID recognition, infrared detection technology and so on, which achievement the information data of wireless transmission,precise recognition and detection cattle position.It is applied to equal-diameter and variable-pitch screw feeding structure to realize the precise concentrated feed supply, equipment performance test shown that the system speed 60rpm is the most stable when feeding, feeding accuracy not less than 97.5%, to meet the feeding requirements, equipped with the best traveling speed is 0.6m/s, the response time of the system is 0.4s, the recognition rate is 96%; through one-month feeding experiment in the dairy cow farm showed that the milk production was increased, the average daily milk yield of individual cows improve 0.8kg than artificial feeding.

  18. Productive performance of indigenous and HF crossbred dairy cows in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the magnitude of variation in lactation length (LL, lactation milk yield (LMY and peak-yield (PYdue to genetic and non-genetic cases in indigenous and crossbred cattle reared under private dairy unit in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 411 milch animals from 86 dairy farmers comprising of 172 indigenous and 239 Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cows. These cows were maintained under farmer's management system in and around Gondar (Ethiopia and were analyzed by Least squares analysis to study the magnitude of variation in their LL, LMY and PY due to genetic and some non-genetic factors. Result: The overall Least squares means for LL, LMY and PY were estimated to be 275.1165.23 days, 1407.3471.34 litres and 6.880.38 litres respectively. Genetic group and lactation order had significant effect (P0.01 on LL, LMY and PY. Season of calving had significant effect (P0.01 on LMY and PY but its effect on LL was non-significant. Effect of location of herd was significant (P0.05 on LMY and PY while its effect on LL was non-significant. Variations in all the traits due to herd size and farming system were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Productive performance of dairy cows in this study was found to be lesser than the optimum values desirable for profitable milk production.

  19. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.

    2005-12-01

    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  20. Associations between paratuberculosis milk ELISA result, milk production, and breed in Canadian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Godkin, A; Hendrick, S; Wells, S; Kelton, D

    2011-02-01

    The 3 objectives of this study were (1) to quantify milk production differences among cows with different paratuberculosis (ParaTB) milk ELISA results; (2) to determine if production differences existed in lactations preceding the test among cows with different ParaTB milk ELISA results; and (3) to assess whether Channel Island breeds were more likely to test positive with the ParaTB milk ELISA than other dairy breeds. Current and completed lactation records from 35,591 dairy cows in Ontario and western Canada that had been tested with a commercial ParaTB milk ELISA were included in the analysis. The first occurrence of the highest categorical test result was used to classify the cow. Cows were then grouped by the lactation in which the first high-positive (HTP), low-positive, or negative milk ELISA occurred, and comparisons were made within lactation groups. High test-positive cows were defined as those that had an optical density ≥ 1.0 on at least 1 ParaTB milk ELISA. The associations between ParaTB milk ELISA status and milk production, as measured by the 305-d milk yield, were assessed with a series of linear mixed models. The effect of breed on the likelihood of testing positive with the milk ELISA was assessed using a logistic mixed model for the lactation in which the first negative or positive ParaTB milk ELISA occurred. Test-positive cows produced on average 2.9 to 6.8% less milk than negative herdmates in the lactation in which they were tested. The HTP cows produced on average 466, 514, and 598 kg less milk than low-positive herdmates in lactations 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Cows testing low-positive in their second lactation had, on average, a 218-kg higher milk yield in their first lactation than their test-negative herdmates. Otherwise, no association was found between test result and milk production in preceding lactations. Differences in milk production among negative, test-positive, and HTP cows increased with increasing parity. Cows of the

  1. Comparison of two oestrus synchronisation protocols administered to dairy cows during routine reproduction services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viora, L; Denwood, M; Ellis, K

    2015-01-01

    -based oestrus synchronisation protocol for cows presented for examination during routine veterinary service on a commercial dairy farm over 10 months. Overall 139 animals were retained in the study, of which 78 received a standard progesterone-based treatment (STD) and 61 received the same treatment...... but with the addition of GnRH on day 0 (STD+). Cows were submitted for artificial insemination following observation of behavioural oestrus. Cow and service specific data were used to create two mixed effects generalised linear models to analyse the effect of treatment group on submission rate (SR) and conception rate...... (CR). In the final SR model lameness had a significant negative association (p=0.01) and STD+ had a non-significant positive association (p=0.12) with submission. In the final CR model only presence of a new CL at day 7 had a significant positive association (p=0.04) while previous reproductive...

  2. Rumination time and reticuloruminal temperature as possible predictors of dystocia in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Szenci, O

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore changes of rumination time and reticuloruminal pH and temperature of dairy cows and heifers (means ± standard deviation; age = 5.8 ± 1.9; parity = 2.7 ± 1.4; body condition score = 3.2 ± 0.2) with eutocic (EUT, n = 10) and dystocic calving (DYS, n = 8). The recording period lasted from 3 d before calving until 7 d in milk. For the comparison of rumination time and reticuloruminal characteristics between groups, time to return to baseline (the time interval required to return to baseline from the delivery of the calf) and area under the curve (AUC; both for prepartum and postpartum periods) were calculated for each parameter. Rumination time decreased from baseline 28 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows; after 20 h before calving, it decreased to 32.4 ± 2.3 and 13.2 ± 2.0 min/4 h between 8 and 4 h before delivery in EUT and DYS cows, respectively, and then it decreased below 10 and 5 min during the last 4 h before calving. Until 12 h after delivery, rumination time reached 42.6 ± 2.7 and 51.0 ± 3.1 min/4 h in DYS and EUT dams, respectively; however, AUC and time to return to baseline suggested lower rumination activity in DYS cows than in EUT dams for the 168-h postpartum observational period. Reticuloruminal pH decreased from baseline 56 h before calving both for EUT and DYS cows, but did not differ between groups before delivery. Reticuloruminal pH showed a decreasing tendency and clear diurnal variation after calving for both EUT and DYS cows, with slightly higher AUC values in DYS cows. In DYS cows, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from baseline 32 h before calving by 0.23 ± 0.02°C, whereas in EUT cows such a decrease was found only 20 h before delivery (0.48 ± 0.05°C). The AUC of reticuloruminal temperature calculated for the prepartum period was greater in EUT cows than in DYS cows. During the first 4 h after calving, reticuloruminal temperature decreased from 39.68 ± 0.09 to 38.96 ± 0.10

  3. Negative energy balance increases periprandial ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Barry J; Allen, Michael S

    2008-02-01

    The reported effects of feeding on growth hormone (GH) secretion in ruminants have been inconsistent, and are likely influenced by energy status of animals. High-producing dairy cows in early lactation and late lactation were used to assess the effects of energy balance on temporal variation of plasma metabolites and hormones. Cows were fed a single diet once daily, and feed was withdrawn for 90 min prior to feeding. Beginning at the time of feed withdrawal, plasma samples were collected via jugular catheters hourly for 24h. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and GH were measured for all samples, while insulin, glucose, and acylated (active) ghrelin were quantified for four sample times around feeding. As expected, calculated energy balance was significantly lower in early lactation than late lactation cows (-43.5 MJ retained/day versus 7.2 MJ retained/day). Following the primary meal of the day, a GH surge was observed in early lactation but not in late lactation cows. This difference was not explained by temporal patterns in non-esterified fatty acid, insulin, or glucose concentrations. However, a preprandial ghrelin surge was observed in early lactation only, suggesting that ghrelin was responsible for the prandial GH surge in this group. Results of a stepwise regression statistical analysis showed that both preprandial ghrelin concentration and energy balance were significant predictors of prandial GH increase over baseline. Adaptations to negative energy balance in lactating dairy cattle likely include enhanced ghrelin secretion and greater GH response to ghrelin.

  4. Effect of monensin and essential oils on performance and energy metabolism of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drong, C; Meyer, U; von Soosten, D; Frahm, J; Rehage, J; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-06-01

    This work examined preventive effects of a dietary and a medical intervention measure on postpartum (p.p.) ketogenesis in dairy cows overconditioned in late pregnancy. Sixty German Holstein cows were allocated 6 weeks antepartum (a.p.) to three high body condition score (BCS) groups (BCS 3.95 ± 0.08) and one low BCS group (LC, BCS 2.77 ± 0.14). Concentrate proportion in diet a.p. was higher (60% vs. 20%) and increase in proportion p.p. from 30% up to 50% decelerated (3 vs. 2 weeks) in high BCS groups. High BCS cows received a monensin controlled-release capsule (CRC) (HC/MO), a blend of essential oils (HC/EO) or formed a control group (HC). Performance parameters and energy status were evaluated in three periods [day (d) -42 until calving, one until 14 days in milk (DIM), 15 until 56 DIM]. Feed efficiency was 65% and 53% higher in HC/MO than in LC (p energy status and feed efficiency of transition dairy cows while essential oils failed to elicit any effect.

  5. Genetics and physiology of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a more negative energy balance (EB) during early lactation and a decrease in fertility. As the hormone leptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function this hormone is an interesting protein to invest

  6. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, van W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  7. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A

    2008-01-01

    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...

  8. Physiology and genetics of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a decrease in fertility and a more negative energy balance. As the hormone leptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function (Chapter 2) this is an interestin

  9. Physiology and genetics of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a decrease in fertility and a more negative energy balance. As the hormone leptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function (Chapter 2) this is an

  10. Physiology and genetics of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a decrease in fertility and a more negative energy balance. As the hormone leptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function (Chapter 2) this is an interestin

  11. Genetics and physiology of leptin in periparturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefers, S.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Chilliard, Y.; Lende, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    In dairy cattle, the increase in milk yield has been accompanied by a more negative energy balance (EB) during early lactation and a decrease in fertility. As the hormone leptin is involved in regulation of nutritional status and reproductive function this hormone is an interesting protein to

  12. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  13. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  14. Drinking behavior of lactating dairy cows and prediction of their water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardot, V; Le Roux, Y; Jurjanz, S

    2008-06-01

    The water intake of 41 lactating dairy cows managed according to current dairy farm practices was individually and continuously monitored to 1) investigate drinking behavior and 2) determine factors affecting water intake. The cows were housed in a free-stall barn and fed once daily with a corn silage and concentrate-based total mixed ration (48% dry matter content; 20.6 +/- 3.3 kg/d of dry matter intake). Cows were milked twice daily, with a yield of 26.5 +/- 5.9 kg/d. The daily free water intake (FWI) was 83.6 +/- 17.1 L, achieved during 7.3 +/- 2.8 drinking bouts. The drinking bout water intake was 12.9 +/- 5.0 L. Almost three-fourths of the FWI occurred during working hours (0600 to 1900 h). Consumption peaks corresponded to feeding and milking times. More than one quarter of the daily FWI was met during the 2 h after each milking. About 75% of the present cows visited the watering point at least once during the 2 h after the evening milking. It is probable that drinking behavior evolved with lactation, but further studies are required to identify the relationship between lactation stage and drinking behavior. The most relevant factors affecting the daily FWI of lactating cows were best combined according to the following predictive equation: (R(2) = 0.45; n = 41 cows, n = 1,837): FWI, L/d = 1.53 x dry matter intake (kg/d) + 1.33 x milk yield (kg/d) + 0.89 x dry matter content (%) + 0.57 x minimum temperature ( degrees C) - 0.30 x rainfall (mm/d) - 25.65. The results obtained using these equations were in agreement with the equations developed by other researchers.

  15. Feeding behaviors of transition dairy cows fed glycerol as a replacement for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, E R; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; White, H M; Wilcox, C S; Eicher, S D; Donkin, S S

    2012-12-01

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in the nutritive value of a total mixed ration (TMR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high-moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and the feed intake pattern of transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=26) were paired by expected calving date, housed in individual tie stalls, and fed diets containing either glycerol or high-moisture corn once daily from d -28 to +56 relative to calving. Glycerol was included at 11.5 and 10.8% of the ration dry matter for the pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. The feed consumption pattern was determined by measuring TMR disappearance during the intervals from 0 to 4 h, 4 to 8 h, 8 to 12 h, and 12 to 24 h relative to feed delivery. Feed sorting was determined on d -16, -9, 9, 16, and 51 relative to calving at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after feeding. The TMR particle size profile was determined at feed delivery and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 after feed delivery by using the Penn State Particle Separator (Nasco, Fort Atkinson, WI) to yield long (>19 mm), medium (8 mm), short (1.18 mm), and fine (consumption pattern were observed after calving. During the prepartum period, cows fed the control diet sorted against long particles, whereas cows fed glycerol did not sort against long particles (77.2 vs. 101.5±3.50% of expected intake for control vs. glycerol; significant treatment effect). The data indicate that addition of glycerol to the TMR alters the feed consumption pattern to increase feed consumption late in the day at the expense of feed consumed immediately after feeding, and it reduces sorting behavior against long particles. Together, these may reduce diurnal variations in the rumen environment to promote greater rumen health in transition cows.

  16. The effect of the intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin on ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Amelia M; Hatler, Thomas B; Silvia, William J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramammary inflammation during the periovulatory period affects the occurrence of ovulation in lactating dairy cows. Ten lactating, cyclic, Holstein dairy cows received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2alpha at eleven-day intervals, to synchronize luteolysis. The day of the second injection was designated as day 0. Ovulation was anticipated to occur 3-5 days later (on days 3-5). Beginning at the morning milking on day 1, cows received intramammary infusions of either Escherichia coli endotoxin (10 microg; n=5) or infusion vehicle (pyrogen free Hank's balanced salt solution; n=5) into 2 quarters immediately after milking. The same quarters were infused after each milking through day 4. Venous blood samples were collected daily from day -1 through 13 for determination of progesterone to monitor luteolysis and formation of a new corpus luteum. Blood samples were also collected at 4-h intervals (days -1 to 2), then at 2-h intervals (days 2 to 5) to measure concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Ovaries were examined ultrasonographically on days -1 through 5 and on day 12 to monitor follicular growth and formation of the corpus luteum. Collectively, these observations were used to determine if and when ovulation occurred. Intramammary infusion of E. coli endotoxin induced an immediate increase in the concentration of somatic cells in milk from treated quarters. However, this treatment had no effect on the occurrence or timing of ovulation. Based on ultrasonography and concentrations of progesterone, four of five cows in each treatment group appeared to have ovulated. Preovulatory surges of LH were detected within the intensive bleeding periods for three cows in each treatment group. The magnitude of the LH surge was reduced in cows receiving endotoxin.

  17. Cow-specific risk factors for clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A

    2015-10-01

    Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis.

  18. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum disorders.

  19. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Friggens, Nicolas; Andersen, Jens; Larsen,Torben; Aaes, Ole; Dewhurst, Richard

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper reviews important aspects of dry cow feeding with emphasis placed on the preparation of the cow for the subsequent lactation. A number of feeding strategies, which have been proposed in recent years, are examined, alongside considerations of the effects of dry period length, levels of body reserves at calving and parity. A number of studies have reported the effect of varying the length of the dry period (in the range 0 to 70 days) on subsequent production a...

  20. Preferences of dairy cows for three stall surface materials with small amounts of bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norring, M; Manninen, E; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Saloniemi, H

    2010-01-01

    Farmers' concerns about the economy, cost of labor, and hygiene have resulted in reduced use of organic bedding in stalls for dairy cows; however, the reduced use of organic bedding possibly impairs cow comfort. The effects of different stall surface materials were evaluated in an unheated building in which only a small amount of bedding was used. The lying time and preferences of 18 cows using 3 stall surface materials (concrete, soft rubber mat, and sand) were compared. All materials were lightly bedded with a small amount of straw, and the amount of straw added to each stall was measured. The cows only had access to stalls of one surface type while their lying time was observed. Lying times were longest on the rubber mats compared with other surfaces (rubber mat 768; concrete 727; sand 707+/-16 min/d). In a preference test, cows had access to 2 of the 3 types of stalls for 10 d and their stall preference was measured. Cows preferred stalls with rubber mats to stalls with a concrete floor (median 73 vs. 18 from a total of 160 observations per day; interquartile range was 27 and 12, respectively), but showed no preference for sand stalls compared with stalls with a concrete floor or with rubber mats. More straw was needed on sand stalls compared with concrete or mat (638+/-13 g/d on sand, 468+/-10 g/d on concrete, and 464+/-8 g/d on rubber mats). Lying times on bedded mats indicated that mats were comfortable for the cows. If availability or cost of bedding material requires limiting the amount of bedding used, rubber mats may help maintain cow comfort.

  1. Effectiveness of short-term cooling and vitamin E for alleviation of infertility induced by heat stress in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealy, A D; Aréchiga, C F; Bray, D R; Risco, C A; Hansen, P J

    1994-12-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine whether cooling cows during final maturation of oocytes and early embryonic development or injection of vitamin E at AI prevented adverse effects of heat stress on pregnancy rates in lactating Holstein dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were placed in a cooling facility containing sprinklers and forced ventilation or received shade only from 2 to 3 d before until 5 to 6 d after breeding. Although cooling had no effect on detection of estrus, pregnancy rates were increased slightly for cooled cows (8 of 50 cows; 16.0%) compared with those for cows exposed to shade only (2 of 32 cows; 6.2%). In Experiments 2 through 4, cows were administered 3000 IU of vitamin E or placebo i.m. at AI during two consecutive summers and one winter in Florida. Administration of vitamin E had no consistent beneficial effect on pregnancy rates during summer or winter. Short-term cooling improved pregnancy rates slightly in heat-stressed cows, but administration of vitamin E had no beneficial effects on pregnancy rates during heat stress. Further improvements in cooling schemes during early pregnancy and delineation of antioxidant effects are necessary before such systems become practical for improvement of fertility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

  2. Consumers' attitudes about milk quality and fertilization methods in dairy cows in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Doherr, M G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    Major advances in assisted reproductive technologies have improved reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. However, these developments occurred regardless of the perception of consumers, who often distrust biotechnology in food production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate consumers' attitudes toward reproductive management practices in dairy cattle. In November 2012, 1,646 participants were interviewed by a commercial market research institute. Participants were selected from all regions and demographic categories to represent the general public in Germany. Seven questions regarding milk-drinking preferences and reproductive technologies were asked in face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were used. The majority of people drank milk at least weekly (63%) and found the taste of milk important (60%). Most people perceived advanced reproductive technologies negatively [e.g., the use of sexed semen (53%), embryo transfer (58%), cloning (81%), and hormone treatments to increase fertility (65%)]. Many people lacked basic knowledge about milk production (22% did not know that cows only give milk after calving; 51% did not know that milk naturally contains hormones); however, participants with a high school education, older participants, and those who had concerned themselves with dairy farming were more knowledgeable. Education and providing information might help to inform the public about reproductive management practices in dairy cows.

  3. The Role of TCA Cycle Anaplerosis in Ketosis and Fatty Liver in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. White

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition to lactation period in dairy cattle is characterized by metabolic challenges, negative energy balance, and adipose tissue mobilization. Metabolism of mobilized adipose tissue is part of the adaptive response to negative energy balance in dairy cattle; however, the capacity of the liver to completely oxidize nonesterified fatty acids may be limited and is reflective of oxaloacetate pool, the carbon carrier of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Alternative metabolic fates of acetyl-CoA from nonesterified fatty acids include esterification to triacylglycerides and ketogenesis, and when excessive, these pathways lead to fatty liver and ketosis. Examination of the anaplerotic and cataplerotic pull of oxaloacetate by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis may provide insight into the balance of oxidation and esterification of acetyl-CoA within the liver of periparturient dairy cows.

  4. STUDIES REGARDING THE CONCEPTION RATES AT DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. PACALA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conception rate is defined as the aptitude of a female to romaine pregnant after the first A.I. and represents the proportion between the number of pregnant cows at first A.I and the number of cows inseminated in that period. In our experiments of estrus induction and synchronization, in order to increase the pregnancy rates, we used the Ovsynch protocol and other protocols for PgF2α and GnRH. In order to establish the pregnancy rates, the number of females that have not return in heats after A.I. were taken in consideration. The conception rates were 45.5 – 52.6%. The estrus synchronization offers the possibility to increase the pregnancy rates at first service after calving and creates the possibility to inseminate at certain time without heat detection.

  5. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  6. Prediction of the methane conversion factor (Ym) for dairy cows on the basis of national farm data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Brask, Maike

    2016-01-01

    Methane constitutes a significant loss of feed gross energy in ruminants, and there is an ongoing struggle for identifying feed and animal characteristics feasible for documentation of National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The aim of the current study was to develop a model that predicts the methane...... conversion factor (Ym,%of gross energy) for dairy cows on the basis of data obtained from a range of our respiration studies, and, subsequently, to use this model to predict Ym for Holstein and Jersey cows on the basis of compiled average national farm data on dry matter intake, yield of energy...... effect in any model. On the basis of compiled data from practical Danish farms, the predicted Ym for dairy cows was 6.02% and 5.98% of gross energy intake for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, in the model with dry matter intake and 6.13% and 6.00% for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively...

  7. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile of the dairy cows, notably, the concentration of the cis-unsaturated FAs, C18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio decreased in milk fat. Despite variation in nutritive value, maize silage is rich in metabolizable energy and supports higher DMI and milk yield. Harvesting maize silages at a DM content

  8. Effect of subluteal concentrations of progesterone on luteinizing hormone and ovulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, T B; Hayes, S H; Ray, D L; Reames, P S; Silvia, W J

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if administration of progesterone within a low, subluteal range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (experiments 1 and 2) and ovulation (experiment 2) in lactating dairy cows. In experiment 1, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating dairy cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device. CIDRs were pre-incubated in other cows for either 0 (CIDR-0), 14 (CIDR-14) or 28 days (CIDR-28). One group of cows received no CIDRs and served as controls. One day after CIDR insertion, luteolysis was induced by two injections of prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) (25 mg) at 12 h intervals. Two days after the first injection, estradiol cypionate (ECP; 3 mg) was injected to induce a LH surge. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.11, 0.45, 0.78 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14, and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges were detected in 4/4 controls, 4/5 CIDR-28, 2/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows following ECP. In experiment 2, progesterone was administered to cycling, lactating, Holstein cows during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle as in experiment 1. Luteolysis was induced as in experiment 1. The occurrence of an endogenous LH surge and ovulation were monitored for 7 days. Concentrations of progesterone after luteolysis were 0.13, 0.30, 0.70 and 1.20 ng/mL for cows treated with no CIDR, CIDR-28, CIDR-14 and CIDR-0, respectively. LH surges and ovulation were detected in 5/5 controls, 3/7 CIDR-28, 0/5 CIDR-14 and 0/5 CIDR-0 cows. It was concluded that low concentrations of progesterone can reduce the ability of either endogenous or exogenous estradiol to induce a preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation.

  9. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in lame dairy cows undergoing resection of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offinger, J; Herdtweck, S; Rizk, A; Starke, A; Heppelmann, M; Meyer, H; Janssen, S; Beyerbach, M; Rehage, J

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of pre- and postoperative administration of meloxicam on the postsurgical convalescence period of lame dairy cows undergoing resection of the coffin joint. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, explorative clinical trial, 19 lame German Holstein-Friesian cows weighing 536 ± 98 kg (mean ± SD) and aged 5.7 ± 2.8 yr were included. All cows suffered from unilateral lameness due to septic arthritis of the coffin joint. Lame cows were randomly allocated to either the meloxicam group (n=9) or the control group (n=10) and received an intravenous injection of meloxicam (0.5mg/kg of BW) or an equal volume of saline immediately before surgery (d 0) and once daily from d 1 to 4. All cows received a retrograde intravenous local anesthesia (20 mL of procaine 2%) before the surgical intervention. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, plasma concentrations of cortisol, as well as production parameters (milk yield and feed intake) were evaluated from d 0 to 7. The gait of the animals was assessed daily by lameness scores and by monitoring the cows' activity by means of pedometers attached to both hind legs. Possible adverse effects on abomasal mucosal integrity were monitored by fecal occult blood tests and blood cell counts from d 0 to 7 and on d 14. Under meloxicam treatment plasma cortisol levels, lameness scores, and body temperature were significantly reduced compared with controls. While being treated with meloxicam, the time cows were standing per day was significantly longer compared with controls. In the healthy limb significantly more steps were registered in meloxicam-treated cows than in controls. Feed intake and milk yield were not significantly affected by meloxicam. No group differences were found in number of positive tests for fecal occult blood or blood cell counts. In conclusion, repeated meloxicam application demonstrated effective analgesia in the postsurgical period after resection of septically

  10. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  11. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Heat-stress-releasing on antioxidant function in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingru; NI Yaodi; GUO Hongbin; WANG Chunguang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula Heat-stress-releasing on the antioxidant function in dairy cows,ten dairy cows were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group,with five cows in each group.All the cows were fed with a basal diet.The animals in the experimental group were given with 220 g of herbs per day in addition to the basal diet.The trial was conducted for 14 days.Blood samples were taken from the vena cava at day 0,day 7,and day 15,respectively.The antioxidant statuses were examined.The results are as follows.(1) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can significantly increase the milk yield of dairy cows under heat stress.Compared with the control group,the milk yield of the herb-treated group increased by 14.01% (P<0.05),14.32% (P<0.05) and 15.01% (P<0.05) in prophase,metaphase and anaphase of the test,respectively.(2) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can increase significantly the antioxidant status of the heat stressed dairy cows.Compared with the control group,the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased by 45.93% (P<0.01) at day 7 and by 54.40% (P<0.01) at day 15.The Glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity of the test group increased by 17.99% (P<0.05) at day 7 and 25.98% (P<0.01) at day 15.The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the test group increased by 43.64% (P<0.01) at day 7 and 46.35% (P<0.01)at day 15.The malondaldehyd (MDA) content of test group declined by 23.88% (P<0.01) at day 7 and 25.32% (P<0.01)at day 15.

  12. Risk factors associated with detailed reproductive phenotypes in dairy and beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Berry, D P; Fitzgerald, A; McParland, S; Williams, E J; Butler, S T; Cromie, A R; Ryan, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify detailed fertility traits in dairy and beef cattle from transrectal ultrasonography records and quantify the associated risk factors. Data were available on 148 947 ultrasound observations of the reproductive tract from 75 949 cows in 843 Irish dairy and beef herds between March 2008 and October 2012. Traits generated included (1) cycling at time of examination, (2) cystic structures, (3) early ovulation, (4) embryo death and (5) uterine score; the latter was measured on a scale of 1 (good) to 4 (poor) characterising the tone of the uterine wall and fluid present in the uterus. After editing, 72,773 records from 44,415 dairy and beef cows in 643 herds remained. Factors associated with the logit of the probability of a positive outcome for each of the binary fertility traits were determined using generalised estimating equations; linear mixed model analysis was used for the analysis of uterine score. The prevalence of cycling, cystic structures, early ovulation and embryo death was 84.75%, 3.87%, 7.47% and 3.84%, respectively. The occurrence of the uterine heath score of 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 70.63%, 19.75%, 8.36% and 1.26%, respectively. Cows in beef herds had a 0.51 odds (95% CI=0.41 to 0.63, Pbeef herds. The likelihood of cycling at the time of examination increased with parity and stage of lactation, but was reduced in cows that had experienced dystocia in the previous calving. The presence of cystic structures on the ovaries increased with parity and stage of lactation. The likelihood of embryo/foetal death increased with parity and stage of lactation. Dystocia was not associated with the presence of cystic structures or embryo death. Uterine score improved with parity and stage of lactation, while cows that experienced dystocia in the previous calving had an inferior uterine score. Heterosis was the only factor associated with increased likelihood of early ovulation. The fertility traits identified, and the associated

  13. Recent advances in the synchronization of estrus and ovulation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization programs have become standard components in the current breeding management of cows in the dairy herds of most dairy industries. Many are based on protocols that allow timed inseminations (TAI) so as to circumvent the practical difficulties associated with estrus detection. These difficulties are exacerbated in modern herds of high producing cows either because of increasing herd size in which individual animal monitoring is difficult and often subjective, or because small intensively managed herds are milked in robotic systems that minimize animal: staff interactions. Additional reasons arise from high producing cows having less obvious symptoms of estrus, partly because of housing systems combined with intensive feeding and milking, partly because of higher metabolic clearance rates of reproductive hormones like estradiol and partly because of the increasing prevalence of prolonged post-partum anestrus and reproductive tract pathology. The most recently developed programs include protocols for resynchronization following first or subsequent inseminations. These re-synchronization protocols may involve selected forms of hormonal intervention during the diestrous and pro-estrous periods following TAI, or following pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound from 28 days after TAI. The latter form of re-synchronization has become increasingly important with the recognition that late embryonic/early foetal death has become a major factor compromising the reproductive performance of high producing Holstein cows in many dairy industries. Although cows detected in estrus without any hormonal treatment before insemination have higher conception rates than those inseminated following synchronization and TAI, the low detection rates combined with embryonic death means that intervals from calving to conception (days open) are usually less when synchronization programs have been successfully implemented. One of the significant factors affecting a program's success is

  14. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  15. Effect of mastitis on post-partum conception of cross bred dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shohidul Islam Khokon; Azizunnesa; Md. Mazedul Islam; Kulsum Begum Chowdhury; Md. Lutfor Rahman; Md. Zulfekar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of mastitis on post-partum conception in crossed cows (Local x Friesian or Sahiwal x Friesian) in Chittagong area of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 100 lactating cows were randomly selected from thirteen small and medium size commercial dairy farms. The cows were reared under traditional feeding and management systems. Age and number of parity of the cows were 2.5 to 6 years and 1-5, respectively. On-farm Californ...

  16. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, N B

    2010-12-01

    gut peptides did not differ from zero. In conclusion, increased postruminal glucose supply to postpartum transition dairy cows reduced feed intake relative to control cows, but did not affect arterial, portal venous, or hepatic venous plasma concentrations of gut peptide hormones. Instead, gut peptide plasma concentrations increased as lactation progressed. Thus, the lower feed intake of postpartum dairy cows receiving abomasal glucose infusion was not attributable to changes in gut peptide concentrations. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Moorehead, H; Lunn, P; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M

    2004-08-01

    Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with enzymes essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Ceftiofur should be effective against a wide range of contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows, and to determine if extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Holstein and Jersey dairy cows (n = 88) from 3 dairy research herds were used. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >400,000/mL and isolation of the same mastitis pathogen in 2 samples obtained 1 wk apart. Cows with one or more intramammary infections (IMI) were blocked by parity and DIM and allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 49 IMI), 5-d (n = 41 IMI), and 8-d (n = 38 IMI) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. Eighteen cows with 38 IMI were included as an untreated negative control group. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of previously identified bacteria at 14 and 28 d after the last treatment. Efficacy of ceftiofur therapy against all subclinical IMI was 38.8, 53.7, and 65.8% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Four of 38 (10.5%) IMI in control cows were cured spontaneously without treatment. All 3 ceftiofur treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control, and the 8-d extended ceftiofur treatment regimen treatment group was significantly better than the standard 2-d treatment group. Pathogen groups had significantly different cure rates from one another. The cure

  18. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  19. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    immature winter annual pastures. Supplementing additional RUP was without benefit, indicating that in this study energy deprivation may have been the major nutritional constraint for high-producing dairy cows grazing lush pastures.

  20. Brown midrib corn shredlage in diets for high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerff, L M; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-08-01

    A novel method of harvesting whole-plant corn silage, shredlage, may increase kernel processing and physically effective fiber. Improved fiber effectiveness may be especially advantageous when feeding brown midrib (BMR) corn hybrids, which have reduced lignin content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding TMR containing BMR corn shredlage (SHRD) compared with BMR conventionally processed corn silage (KP) or KP plus chopped alfalfa hay (KPH) on intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. The KP was harvested using conventional rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 19mm of theoretical length of cut, whereas SHRD was harvested using novel cross-grooved rolls (2-mm gap) and the self-propelled forage harvester set at 26mm of theoretical length of cut. Holstein cows (n=120; 81±8 d in milk at trial initiation), stratified by parity, days in milk, and milk yield, were randomly assigned to 15 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment diets, SHRD, KP, or KPH, in a completely randomized design using a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. The TMR contained (dry matter basis) KP or SHRD forages (45%), alfalfa silage (10%), and a concentrate mixture (45%). Hay replaced 10% of KP silage in the KPH treatment TMR (dry matter basis). Milk, protein, and lactose yields were 3.4, 0.08, and 0.16kg/d greater, respectively, for cows fed KP and SHRD than KPH. A week by treatment interaction was detected for milk yield, such that cows fed SHRD produced or tended to produce 1.5kg/d per cow more milk, on average, than cows fed KP during 6 of the 14 treatment weeks. Component-corrected milk yields were similar among treatments. Cows fed KPH had greater milk fat concentration than cows fed KP and SHRD (3.67 vs. 3.30% on average). Consumption of dry matter, rumination activity

  1. Effect of feeding duration and rumen fill on behaviour in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström; Redbo

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that oral manipulation of feed is a behavioural need in cattle, irrespective of actual rumen load. Twelve rumen fistulated cows were used and subjected to four different treatments: low rumen content+long duration of eating (A), high rumen content+short duration of eating (B), high rumen content+long duration of eating (=positive control) (C) and low rumen content+short duration of eating (=negative control) (D). To obtain treatment A and B, rumen content was transferred by hand from cow A to B through the rumen fistulaes. Each treatment lasted for 3 days with 2 weeks of recovery between each new treatment. The experiment was repeated twice during two consecutive years. All cows were fed the same mixture of silage, concentrate and hay. The cows were videotaped under normal conditions (24h), and on the third day of the experiment. From these videotapes, the behaviours (frequency and duration per 24h) have been analysed.Time spent eating differed between the four treatments (Ptongue-rolling) was longer (Pcattle irrespective of rumen load. A low duration of feeding behaviours combined with a low rumen load, which is a common practice in certain categories of growing cattle or dry dairy cows, seriously impairs the welfare in cattle.

  2. Management of horn gore injury and urticaria in a dairy cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Nasir Tijjani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports how a 4-year old Friesien-Sahiwal cross cow weighing 380 kg with horn gore injury on the left labia of the vulva was managed at the Large Animal Clinic, University Putra Malaysia. The lacerated wound measuring about 4-cm long was originated as a result of horn goring from another cow two weeks prior presentation of the cow to the clinic. Physical examination of the cow incidentally revealed urticaria on the left ventro-lateral aspect of the neck suspected to be sequel of hypersensitivity. The wound was treated by topical application of a mixture of Iodine, Benacillin LA, Biomectin 1% and Ilium Dermapred made into cream. While the uticaria was treated by intramuscular injection of Chlorpheniramine maleate at 0.5 mg/kg bwt. Animal management, housing design and presence of sharp horns are some of the factors that can lead to physical traumatic injuries in dairy cows. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 366-368

  3. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFIfeed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (Pfeeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  4. Mastitogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows in Kenya and their antimicrobial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Gitau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited epidemiological knowledge on udder health in Kenyan dairy cattle that would aid in a pro-active approach towards mastitis prevention. The study objectives were: (1 to investigate the prevalence and distribution of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Mukurwe-ini and Nakuru Districts, Kenya, and (2 to determine the antibacterial sensitivity of the organisms causing bovine mastitis in these districts. The study involved field-screening of milk samples from 241 dairy cows on 128 farms by use of the California Mastitis Test (CMT and, if CMT-positive, followed by bacteriological culture of the major causative agents and their respective antibiotic sensitivity to eight commonly used antibiotics. All participating farms were visited twice during the study period. The results obtained during the first and second visits showed the prevalence of clinical mastitis to be very low: 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively; 56.0% and 65.0% of cows were CMT-positive on at least one quarter and 49.6% and 58.7% of cows were culture-positive, respectively. There was no significant difference in mastitis prevalence between Nakuru and Mukurwe-ini districts (p > 0.10. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 68.0% and 77.0% of samples during the first and second visits, respectively. Other frequently isolated agents included Streptococcus agalactiae, and other Streptococcus spp., S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimazole and ampicillin. Knowing the prevalence of mastitogenic organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities could improve treatment efficacy and cow longevity.

  5. Mastitogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows in Kenya and their antimicrobial sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2014-02-26

    There is limited epidemiological knowledge on udder health in Kenyan dairy cattle that would aid in a pro-active approach towards mastitis prevention. The study objectives were: (1) to investigate the prevalence and distribution of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Mukurwe-ini and Nakuru Districts, Kenya, and (2) to determine the antibacterial sensitivity of the organisms causing bovine mastitis in these districts. The study involved field-screening of milk samples from 241 dairy cows on 128 farms by use of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and, if CMT-positive, followed by bacteriological culture of the major causative agents and their respective antibiotic sensitivity to eight commonly used antibiotics. All participating farms were visited twice during the study period. The results obtained during the first and second visits showed the prevalence of clinical mastitis to be very low: 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively; 56.0% and 65.0% of cows were CMT-positive on at least one quarter and 49.6% and 58.7% of cows were culture-positive, respectively. There was no significant difference in mastitis prevalence between Nakuru and Mukurwe-ini districts (p > 0.10). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 68.0% and 77.0% of samples during the first and second visits, respectively. Other frequently isolated agents included Streptococcus agalactiae, and other Streptococcus spp., S. aureus and S. agalactiae were most sensitive to gentamycin and norfloxacin, and least sensitive to cotrimazole and ampicillin. Knowing the prevalence of mastitogenic organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities could improve treatment efficacy and cow longevity.

  6. Retained placenta of dairy cows associated with managemental factors in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The incidence of retained placenta of dairy cows in relation to individual animal level and farm management factors such as farm type, farm size, housing system, floor type, feed quality, time of parturition, farming experience of farmer and delivery pattern of cows was determined. Materials and Methods: A total 1205 parturated dairy cows conducted in nine upazilas and four Metro Thana of Rajshahi district during July 2010 to June 2011for attainment of the result. Individual animal and farm management factors associated with retained placenta were recorded in a structured questionnaire through face-to-face farmer's interview and reviewing farm records. The raw data were compiled and statistical SPSS program to analyze to obtained result. Results: The overall incidence of retained placenta was 13.4%. The incidence was significantly higher in Local × Sahiwal genotype (4.6% and late delivery (longer gestation period (80% than their counter groups (p<0.05. The large farm (6.0% had higher incidence and had no significant effect than medium and individual household. Similarly animals housed in Tin shed building with poor ventilation facilities (6.6%, animal housed in unscientific concrete floor (6.8%, animals mostly grassed along with small amount of straw supplied (5.4% and a farmer had less than one year farming experience (5.3% had not significant statistically show higher incidence of retained placenta. Conclusion: The local genotype; mini farm; supplied better feed quality; vast farming experience of farmer and normal delivery with eutocia had less chance of retained placenta of dairy cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 180-184

  7. RESEARCH ON THE MILK PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE CALVING MONTH OF THE DAIRY COWS

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    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to assess the effect of the calving month on milk production and to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor in order to increase the precision in the breeding value estimation and assure a better evaluation of candidate cows as mothers of sires and bulls used in the artificial insemination to improve genetic gain in the dairy herds. A specific mathematical model, xij=m . ai . eij, where xij – the milk record of the daughter „j” in the month „i” (i=1,2,....12, m – a constant factor, ai –multiplicative effect of the month „i”, eij – the residual multiplicative effect, was used to process the data regarding milk yield and fat yield by month of calving collected from 4,100 Friesian dairy cows under milk testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the calvings carried out in the fall-winter months recorded a milk yield by 3.5 % higher in January, by 5.4 % in September, by 6.3 % in December and by 10.5 % in November. The cows with early spring calving have been distadvantaged by 0.4 % in February, by 1.8 % in August up to 7.9 % in May. Therefore, correction factors are imposed to be used in order to increase precision in milk production estimation and finnaly to assure an accurate breeding value for dairy cows and bulls.

  8. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of dairy cows in Bogor

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    Widagdo Sri Nugroho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.

  9. Active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae can alleviate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Walker, N; McBride, B W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of active dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ADSC) supplementation on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, ruminal pH, and microbial community during a dietary regimen that leads to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Sixteen multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments that included ADSC (Biomate; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK; 8 × 10(10) cfu/head per day) or control. During wk 1 to 6, all cows received a high-forage (HF) diet (77:23, forage:concentrate). Cows were then abruptly switched during wk 7 to a high-grain (HG) diet (49:51, forage:concentrate) and remained on the HG until the end of wk 10. Feed intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Ruminal pH was recorded continuously using an indwelling system for 1 to 2 d per week during the pre-experimental phase, and wk 6, 7, and 10. Ruminal digesta samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analyzed for relative change in microbial communities using real-time quantitative PCR. Cows were considered to have SARA if the duration below pH 5.6 was ≥300 min/d. Ruminal pH during wk 6 (HF plateau) was not different across treatments (15 ± 46 min/d at pH inflammation within the rumen. Cows supplemented with ADSC had a 2.3-fold increase in Streptococcus bovis and a 12-fold reduction in Megasphaera elsdenii. The reduction in M. elsdenii may reflect lower concentration of lactic acid within the rumen for ADSC cows. In conclusion, ADSC supplementation to dairy cows was demonstrated to alleviate the condition of SARA caused by abrupt dietary changes from HF to HG, and can potentially improve rumen function, as indicated by greater numbers of cellulolytic microorganisms within the rumen.

  10. Factors affecting the first service conception rate of cows in smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M A R; Das, Z C; Bhattacharjee, J; Rahman, M M; Islam, M M; Haque, M A; Parrish, J J; Shamsuddin, M

    2013-06-01

    The successful outcome of an insemination is a combination of both male and female fertility-linked factors. We investigated the first service conception rate of cows at artificial insemination (AI) in the smallholder dairy farms in Bangladesh. Frozen straws were prepared from ejaculates of Bos indicus (n = 7) and Bos indicus × Bos taurus (n = 7) AI bulls. Fertility was determined from 6101 first services in cows that were performed by 18 technicians in four regions between April 2004 and March 2005. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation between 60 and 90 days post-insemination. The Asian version of Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA ASIA) was used for bulls-, cows- and AI-related data recording, and later retrieved for analysis. The mean ± SD number of inseminations performed from individual bulls and their conception rates were 436.0 ± 21.6 and 50.7 ± 1.9%, respectively. Logistic regression demonstrated body condition scores (BCS), heat detection signs, months of AI and their interactions had greatest effects (odds ratios: 1.24-16.65, p cows. Fertility differed (p heat detection signs of cows. Inseminations based on mounting activity (n = 2352), genital discharge (n = 3263) and restlessness and/or other signs (n = 486) yielded a conception rate of 53.6%, 48.8% and 50.1%, respectively (p cows. Fertility at AI in smallholder farms can be improved by training farmers on nutrition and reproductive management of the cows.

  11. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P < 0.001) in SP (22.5 ± 0.3 L/day) than in SN cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P < 0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P < 0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300 days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

  12. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

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    Fenja Klevenhusen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Left displaced abomasum (LDA is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1 evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2 establish an Animals 2015, 5 1022 association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca, but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA, in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA, regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA.

  13. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.

  14. Effect of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2016-12-01

    Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were used to determine the effects of linseed oil supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Three treatments were as follows: basal diet (56:44 Roughage:concentrate [R:C] ratio, dry matter basis) supplemented with 500 g of palm oil as control (PO), 500 g mixture (1:1, w/w) of palm oil and linseed oil (POLSO) and 500 g of linseed oil (LSO). The LSO supplementation had no effects on total dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition. Compared to control cows, cows supplemented with LSO increased milk concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 FA (P < 0.05), particularly C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3. Feeding LSO reduced concentrations of milk short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) while it increased concentration of milk unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Milk proportions of n-3 FA increased, whereas n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the LSO as compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows' diet based on corn silage with LSO at 500 g/day could improve the nutritional value of milk with potential health-beneficial FA without detrimental effect on milk composition or cow's performance. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Effects of feeding virginiamycin and sodium bicarbonate to grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, E H; Lean, I J; Rowe, J B; Cox, J W

    1999-07-01

    The effects of virginiamycin, an agent active against Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria, and NaHCO3 on ruminal and fecal pH, rumen volatile fatty acid proportions, blood metabolites, and milk production and composition were assessed. This study was conducted over 28 d and involved 71 dairy cows that grazed predominantly ryegrass, oats, and clover, and that were fed 10 kg of concentrate pellets/d per head. The pellets contained (per kilogram) no dietary additive, 30 mg of virginiamycin, 20 g of NaHCO3, or 30 mg of virginiamycin and 20 g of NaHCO3 on a DM basis. Ruminal pH tended to be higher in cows fed pellets containing virginiamycin (7.0 vs. 6.9; SED = 0.16). The results of in vitro incubation of ruminal fluid with glucose found the potential for L-lactic acid accumulation in ruminal fluid to be significantly lower in cows fed virginiamycin (15.5 vs. 35.3 mmol/L; SED = 2.98). Cows fed virginiamycin had significantly higher fecal pH (6.72 vs. 6.57; SED = 0.08) and produced more milk (23.94 vs. 23.32 kg/d) and more lactose than those not fed virginiamycin. No effects of NaHCO3 on fecal pH, in vitro potential for L-lactic acid accumulation in ruminal fluid, or milk production were observed, but ruminal pH tended to be higher and ruminal acetate proportion was greater for cows fed NaHCO3. Milk fat and milk protein percentage did not differ significantly as a result of dietary treatment. These data suggest that the inclusion of virginiamycin in the diet will reduce L-lactic acid accumulation in ruminal fluid and increase fecal pH in grazing dairy cattle fed concentrate supplements.

  16. Using hormones to manage dairy cow fertility: the clinical and ethical beliefs of veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional

  17. Using hormones to manage dairy cow fertility: the clinical and ethical beliefs of veterinary practitioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Higgins

    Full Text Available In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate. Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6% never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80% that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80% that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01, but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01 and overall cow welfare (p<0.01. On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90% that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of

  18. Vaginal Fornix Discharge Cellularity and Its Leukocyte Esterase Activity for Diagnosis of Endometritis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl HAJIBEMANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of some strip test markers (i.e., leukocyte esterase (LE activity, protein, nitrate and pH for diagnosis of endometritis in dairy cows using vaginal fornix discharge. Also, the total white blood cell count (t-WBC/l of this secretion and degenerative changes of neutrophils in cervical cytology were used as alternative methods to predict progression of the endometritis severity. Holstein cows (n=215 between 30-40 days in milk (DIM were included and examined. Giemsa-stained smear was prepared from cervical mucus. Cervical cytology test was considered as reference screening method for the detection of subclinical endometritis. The LE activity and t-WBC in the vaginal fornix discharge of subclinical endometritis cows were significantly higher than those from healthy cows. Sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 73% for LE10 activity (10 minutes after contacting with discharges and 60% and 69% for t-WBC (cut off point=210 cells/l for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis, respectively. There was a good agreement between LE10 activity, t-WBC and cervical cytology test with a Kappa coefficient of 0.4 and 0.42, respectively (P<0.0001. Total WBC count in discharge and degenerative neutrophils (DN percentages increase simultaneously with the degree and severity of endometritis. There was a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between t-WBC and some reagent strip test markers (LE activity, protein and nitrate in clear discharge of studied cows. In conclusion, the present results suggest the LE activity and t-WBC in vaginal fornix discharge could be used as non-invasive reliable and valid methods for screening of subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy herds.

  19. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  20. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    OpenAIRE

    Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...

  1. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Jayaprakash, G; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Prakash, M Arul; Kumar, R Dhinesh

    2016-10-01

    The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry ₹6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow's illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  2. Adaptive Test Schemes for Control of Paratuberculosis in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2016-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection that in dairy cattle causes reduced milk yield, weight loss, and ultimately fatal diarrhea. Subclinical animals can excrete bacteria (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP) in feces and infect other animals. Farmers identify the infectious animals...... through a variety of test-strategies, but are challenged by the lack of perfect tests. Frequent testing increases the sensitivity but the costs of testing are a cause of concern for farmers. Here, we used a herd simulation model using milk ELISA tests to evaluate the epidemiological and economic...

  3. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Straalen, van, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was based on the concepts of modern protein evaluation systems, using data from nylon bag incubations in the rumen and intestine. Protein evaluation systems from different countries were compared and v...

  4. Relationships between methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows and fatty acids, volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastelen, van S.; Antunes-Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between methane (CH4) emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites (V) and non-volatile metabolites (NV) in milk of dairy cows. Data from an experiment with 32 multiparous dairy cows and four diets were used. All diets had a roughage : concentrate ratio of

  5. Effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates on intake, rumen function and performance of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were stall-fed with fresh

  6. Conceptual modeling of postmortem evaluation findings to describe dairy cow deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Hill, A E; Lombard, J E; Gould, D H

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality levels in the United States are excessive and increasing over time. To better define cause and effect and combat rising mortality, clearer definitions of the reasons that cows die need to be acquired through thorough necropsy-based postmortem evaluations. The current study focused on organizing information generated from postmortem evaluations into a monitoring system that is based on the fundamentals of conceptual modeling and that will potentially be translatable into on-farm relational databases. This observational study was conducted on 3 high-producing, commercial dairies in northern Colorado. Throughout the study period a thorough postmortem evaluation was performed by veterinarians on cows that died on each dairy. Postmortem data included necropsy findings, life-history features (e.g., birth date, lactation number, lactational and reproductive status), clinical history and treatments, and pertinent aspects of operational management that were subject to change and considered integral to the poor outcome. During this study, 174 postmortem evaluations were performed. Postmortem evaluation results were conceptually modeled to view each death within the context of the web of factors influencing the dairy and the cow. Categories were formulated describing mortality in terms of functional characteristics potentially amenable to easy performance evaluation, management oversight, and research. In total, 21 death categories with 7 category themes were created. Themes included specific disease processes with variable etiologies, failure of disease recognition or treatment, traumatic events, multifactorial failures linked to transition or negative energy balance issues, problems with feed management, miscellaneous events not amenable to prevention or treatment, and undetermined causes. Although postmortem evaluations provide the relevant information necessary for framing a cow's death, a restructuring of on-farm databases is needed to integrate this

  7. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows

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    Jinshun Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Methods The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con, 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW. Results The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the group receiving 100 mg/kg BW. Milk yields and the fat, protein and lactose of milk were unaffected by AFE, while the total solids content of milk reduced (p = 0.05 linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of the control group. Apparent total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein showed a tendency to increase (0.05

  8. Treatment of clinical endometritis in dairy cows by previously used controlled internal drug release devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohsen; Bolourchi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Hesam A; Asadi, Farzad; Akbari, Rahmat

    2015-08-01

    Postpartum endometritis is considered as one of the diseases that lead to a potential profit reduction in dairy cows. The aims of the present study were to promote follicle growth by a previously used controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device and to evaluate its effect on the likelihood of recovery and the reproductive performance of clinical endometritis (CE) cows. Endometritis was diagnosed using ultrasonographic examination at 31 ± 3 (Day 0 of the experiment) days in milk, and CE cows were included in one of the three experimental groups according to the presence of a CL on their ovaries. Cows without CL on their ovaries received a reused CIDR device, which was previously used for 14 days (CIDR-14, n = 108), or PGF2α (PG-1, n = 112) on Day 0. In the third group, those with CL on their ovaries received PGF2α (PG-2, n = 107) at the same time. Ovarian structures, serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured on Days 0, 7, and 14. Controlled internal drug release devices were removed, and response to treatment was evaluated in all treated cows on Day 14. Diameters of ovarian follicles were 11.61 ± 0.50, 12.46 ± 0.25, and 18.36 ± 0.60 mm on Day 7 and 11.63 ± 0.58, 14.35 ± 0.40, and 21.96 ± 0.77 mm on Day 14 in PG-1, PG-2, and CIDR-14 cows, respectively (P estradiol concentrations were higher in CIDR-14 cows (141.17 ± 1.04 pg/mL) than in PG-1 (116.85 ± 1.05 pg/mL) and PG-2 (119.10 ± 1.05 pg/mL) cows on Day 7 (P 0.05). The cumulative pregnancy risk was lower in PG-1 (77.67%) cows than in CIDR-14 (87.07%) and PG-2 (87.85%) cows (P = 0.02). In conclusion, reused CIDR would be contributed to the treatment of CE by promotion of follicle growth and induction of sustainable sources of endogenic estrogen secreted by the dominant follicle.

  9. Selection of barley grain affects ruminal fermentation, starch digestibility, and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, C; Oba, M; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 lots of barley grain cultivars differing in expected ruminal starch degradation on dry matter (DM) intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal and total tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows when provided at 2 concentrations in the diet. Four primiparous ruminally cannulated (123 +/- 69 d in milk; mean +/- SD) and 4 multiparous ruminally and duodenally cannulated (46 +/- 14 d in milk) cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 16-d periods. Primiparous and multiparous cows were assigned to different squares. Treatments were 2 dietary starch concentrations (30 vs. 23% of dietary DM) and 2 lots of barley grain cultivars (Xena vs. Dillon) differing in expected ruminal starch degradation. Xena had higher starch concentration (58.7 vs. 50.0%) and greater in vitro 6-h starch digestibility (78.0 vs. 73.5%) compared with Dillon. All experimental diets were formulated to supply 18.3% crude protein and 20.0% forage neutral detergent fiber. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Milk fat concentration (3.55 vs. 3.29%) was greater for cows fed Dillon compared with Xena, but was not affected by dietary starch concentration. Ruminal starch digestion was greater for cows fed high-starch diets compared with those fed low-starch diets (4.55 vs. 2.49 kg/d), and tended to be greater for cows fed Xena compared with those fed Dillon (3.85 vs. 3.19 kg/d). Ruminal acetate concentration was lower, and propionate concentration was greater, for cows fed Xena or high-starch diets compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. Furthermore, cows fed Xena or high-starch diets had longer duration that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (6.6 vs. 4.0 and 6.4 vs. 4.2 h/d) and greater total tract starch digestibility (94.3 vs. 93.0 and 94.3 vs. 93.0%) compared with cows fed Dillon or low-starch diets, respectively. These results

  10. The use of pedometry for estrus detection in dairy cows in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Nadav

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to describe the use of pedometry on commercial dairy farms in Israel, to evaluate its efficiency in heat detection and to describe a clinical trial comparing between pedometry and the Ovsynch technique. Pedometry is the major tool of heat detection on most farms in Israel today. On many farms automated electronic pedometry is the sole mean of heat detection. Production and reproduction parameters are monitored by Hachaklait Veterinary Services Ltd. Results are compared with the farm history and with national means and goals. The average herd rate of undetected heat in more than 120 herds recorded between 2004 and 2008 has increased from 30.3 to 38.9% in primiparous cows and from 33.9 to 43.9% in multiparous cows respectively. The average duration of the waiting period has dropped from 106.2 to 93.4 days and from 99.9 to 87.3 days in primiparous and multiparous cows respectively. The average annual rate of cows shown on heat by pedometry and not inseminated by the A.I. technicians in recent years was 13% and remained steady. The mean herd rate of normal length heat cycles (18-24 days) in multiparous cows in recent years has been fairly steady; 57.4 to 58.4% of all cycles detected in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Herd rate of double cycles is also used to estimate the sensitivity of pedometry systems. Average rate of double cycles (37-60 days) per herd per annum in multiparous cows has dropped steadily from 22.6 to 20.1% between 2004 and 2008 respectively. Mean herd rate of short cycles in multiparous cows in 2008 was 7.4% Pregnancy checks are performed by the herds' veterinarians by transrectal palpation from 40 days post A.I. onward. In 2008 the average herd rate of negative pregnancy checks in cows was 27.5% (9.5-53.4%). The wide range indicates a large variability of pedometry system in tracking non-conceived cycling cows. Beside activity and heat detection pedometry systems record other individual cow parameters. A controlled

  11. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  12. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  13. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Poxytocin (88.6±9.2 vs. 62.8±9.2 pg/ml saliva) and cortisol (1.3±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 ng/ml saliva) levels, but lower heart rates (80.0±2.0 vs. 95.8±2.0bpm) than S cows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior.

  14. Polymorphism of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes in Busha and Holstein Friesian dairy cows in Serbia

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    Milan Maletić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of κ-casein (κ-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg genotypes in the autochtonous (Busha and dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF cattle breeds with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism. For the amplification of κ-CN and β-Lg gene fragments specific primers were used. After digestion with specific endonucleases genotypes were determined for both genes in 18 Busha and 19 HF cows. The results showed that κ-CN gene was represented with the AA genotype in 31.58 % HF cows, AB in 52.63 % cows, whilst the genotype BB was found in 15.79 % cows only. Among the examined Busha cattle 44.44 % cows had AA genotype and 55.56 % genotype AB for κ CN. As for β-Lg gene in HF breed, AA genotype was found in 26.31 % cows, AB in 63.16 % and BB in 10.53 % cows. In Busha cows the following genotypes were established for β-Lg gene: AA in 44.44 % cows and AB in 55.56 %, whilst BB genotype was not found. These results indicate that Busha cows had a higher presence of A allelic forms of both genes (k-CN and β-lactoglobulin than HF cows.

  15. IMPACT OF LACTATION STAGE ON MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN GRAZING DAIRY COWS

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    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about correlation of current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows (n=134 at summer pasture period in mountain dairy farms in Slovakia to milk production and quality parameters. The FAs composition of individual milk was determined by GC-MS, where 54 FAs were identified. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA (70.48 ± 4.04% in the milk fat show in the first third of lactation highly significant positive correlation coefficients (r> 0.45, P <0.01 with all indicators of milk production (days, the total amount of milk fat and protein in kg. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (26.26 ± 3.59% have to the total milk production significant indirect relationship. Their content decreases with the rise of the total amount (kg of produced fat (r=-0.426, protein (r=-0.494, milk (r=-0.514, and with the increasing number of days of lactation (r=-0.583, P <0.001. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA (3.26 ± 0.069% show negative correlation coefficients to total amount of produced milk, fat, protein (kg and the number of days in lactation from r=-0.468 to r=-0.485 (P <0.01. Grazing of dairy cows at mountain farms has a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective, but at the account of lower production.

  16. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  17. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

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    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Dairy Cows in Kerman Province, South East Iran

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    Hassan Sanati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan that causes the most common parasitic infection in humans. Since the disease is of economic importance with regard to animal productions, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat producing animals especially cattle which constitutes the main source of meat for local consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in dairy cows of Kerman region (southeastern Iran using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT. The sera of 300 dairy cows have been investigated for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The results indicated two hundred and fourteen samples (71.3% were seropositive and 86 samples (28.7% were seronegative. Out of the 300 cattle (39 male, 261 female screened, 87% of male and 13% of female cattle were contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Since cows are one of the most important meat sources in Iran, there is a high risk of contamination through meat from this host due to their susceptibility to infection. Further studies are required for more data on the prevalence of T. gondii in other meat producing animals to apply effective control strategies against toxoplasmosis.

  19. Negative energy balance affects imprint stability in oocytes recovered from postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Alan M; O'Gorman, Aoife; al Naib, Abdullah; Brennan, Lorraine; Daly, Edward; Duffy, Pat; Fair, Trudee

    2014-09-01

    Ovarian follicle development in post-partum, high-producing dairy cows, occurs in a compromised endogenous metabolic environment (referred to as negative energy balance, NEB). Key events that occur during oocyte/follicle growth, such as the vital process of genomic imprinting, may be detrimentally affected by this altered ovarian environment. Imprinting is crucial for placental function and regulation of fetal growth, therefore failure to establish and maintain imprints during oocyte growth may contribute to early embryonic loss. Using ovum pick-up (OPU), oocytes and follicular fluid samples were recovered from cows between days 20 and 115 post-calving, encompassing the NEB period. In a complimentary study, cumulus oocyte complexes were in vitro matured under high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and in the presence of the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Pyrosequencing revealed the loss of methylation at several imprinted loci in the OPU derived oocytes. The loss of DNA methylation was observed at the PLAGL1 locus in oocytes, following in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of elevated NEFAs and SAM. Finally, metabolomic analysis of postpartum follicular fluid samples revealed significant differences in several branched chain amino acids, with fatty acid profiles bearing similarities to those characteristic of lactating dairy cows. These results provide the first evidence that (1) the postpartum ovarian environment may affect maternal imprint acquisition and (2) elevated NEFAs during IVM can lead to the loss of imprinted gene methylation in bovine oocytes.

  20. Some new aspects of nutrition, health conditions and fertility of intensively reared dairy cows

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    Rosanna Lombardelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Speaking in terms of the general relationship between nutrition and reproduction, many different aspects are more or less involved depending on geographical areas, species, production systems, technological levels etc. There are deficiency conditions: energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals; but also some excesses (namely protein and few minerals or toxic substances such as micotoxins or plant compounds (i.e. phyto-oestrogens. Their relevance is different in the intensive systems for better feeds and relative easiness to create appropriate diets. Nevertheless, intensification does not reduce the nutritional risks for livestock reproduction for several reasons: namely, a suspected higher susceptibility of high genetic merit cows to the usual stresses. There is also a new risk: metabolic stress (e.g. negative energy balance. The latter is particularly relevant when early lactation and new pregnancy are close (as in dairy cows, however, of great importance are also oxidative stress and disease stress (pro-inflammatory cytokines. In dairy cows, inflammatory phenomena around calving - when an immune response occurs in spite of clinical symptoms are missing - are significantly related to a lower pregnancy rate. A possible explanation can be seen in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which modify liver synthesis and seem to impair energy balance thereby reducing feed intake and increasing energy expenditure. This suggests that in order to improve fertility not only better feeding mecahnisms, but any husbandry tool that can reduce diseases and health disorders are needed.